UIT 808E9 : WEB ADVERTISING AND MARKETING UNIT I Introduction: Internet Principles – Basic Web Concepts – Client/Server

model – Retrieving data from Internet – HTML and Scripting Languages – Standard Generalized Mark-up Language –Next Generation Internet – Protocols and applications. Introduction to How Web Advertising Works, Banner Ads – Sidebar Ads – Varied Shapes and Sizes – PopUp and PopUnder – Floating Ads. UNIT II Enterprise Application development environment : Web servers – Server Administration – IDL – Database Connectivity – Web Application architecture – Distributed Web Applications – Remote method Invocation – Web Customization – Mark Up Languages. UNIT III E-Business Applications: E-Business Frame Work – E-Business Cycle – E-Commerce Strategies – E-Business Architectures – Stored Procedures – SQL Procedures – Electronic Payment Services - Shopping Functions. UNIT IV
Business and the Marketing Concept : How to Make a Web Page - Elements of Good Web Site Design - Starting a Business Online - Server Services - Domain Names -Web Oriented Industries. Online Marketing – Email Marketing – Search Engine Marketing – Banner Ad Placement – Link Exchange.

UNIT V Real Time Applications: Role of scripting languages – Shopping Cart – Home Banking Applications – Design and Implementation – Fire Wall – Business models – Tools usage. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Ed Roman, “Mastering EJB and the Java 2 Platform Enterprise edition”, John Wiley and Sons. 2. Stepehen Aubury, Scott R.Weiner, “Developing Java Enterprise Applications”, Wiley Computer publishing, 2001. 3. “Professional Java Server Programming”, Wrox Press Ltd. 4. Daniel J. Berg, J. Steven Fritzinger, “Advanced Java Techniques for Java Developers”, John Wiley and Sons, Revised Edition. 5. Rickard Oberg, “Mastering RMI: Developing Enterprise Applications in Java and EJB”, John Wiley and Sons, Book and CDROM edition 2001. 6. Harold, Elliote Rusty Harold, “XML Bible”, 2nd Edition Hungry Minds, Inc. 7. Paul Wilton, “Beginning Java Script”, Wrox Press, Inc., Revised Edition. 8. Alex Homer, “Professional ASP 3.0”, Wrox Press, Inc. 9. “Professional Java Server Programming”, Wrox Press Ltd.

1

UNIT – I
BASIC INTERNET PRINCIPLES The central concepts of software on the Internet are• TCP/IP • UDP • IP Addresses • Domain Names • The Domain Name System (DNS) • Ports • Sockets • URLs TCP/IP The Internet is the network that connects computers all over the world. It works according to a set of agreed-upon protocols. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP(Internet Protocol) are the most commonly-used protocols for using the Internet. (But there are others at lower levels.) The combination is simply known as TCP/IP. The Internet is a packet switching system. Any message is broken into packets that are transmitted independently across the interment (sometime by different routes). These packets are called datagrams. The route chosen for each datagram depends on the traffic at any point in time. Each datagram has a header of between 20 and 60 bytes, followed by the payload of up to 65,515 bytes of data. The header consists of, amongst other data: 1. The version number of the protocol in use 2. The IP address of the sender (or source, or origin) 3. The IP address of recipient (or destination) TCP breaks down a message into packets. At the destination, it re-assembles packets into messages. It attaches a checksum to each packet. If the checksum doesn't match the computed checksum at the destination, the packet is re-transmitted. Thus TCP ensures reliable transmission of information. In summary, TCP: 1. Provides re-transmission of lost data 2. Ensures delivery of data in the correct order IP IP is concerned with routing. IP attaches the address of the destination of each packet. IP ensures that packets get to the right place. TCP is the higher-level protocol that uses the lower-level IP. When an application is written, the general principle is to use the highest level protocol that you can, provided that it provides the functionality and performance that is required. Many applications can be written using TCP/IP. For example, a Web browser can be written in Java using only URLs, without any explicit mention of sockets. On each machine an application program makes calls on procedures in the transport layer (normally TCP). In turn the transport layer makes calls on the Internet layer (normally IP). In turn the Internet layer makes calls on the physical layer, which is different depending on the technology of the communication link.
2

At the destination machine, information is passed up through the layers to the application program. Each application program acts as if it is communicating directly with the application on another machine. The lower levels of the communication software and hardware are invisible. This four-layer model is sufficient for understanding Internet software. But there are other models that use a different number of layers, like the ISO seven-layer model. The application layer produces some data, adds a header to it and passes the complete package to the transport layer. The transport layer adds another header and passes the package to the internet layer. The internet layer adds another header and passes it to the physical layer. The application data is enclosed by 4 headers used by the different layers. This process can be thought of as repeatedly putting a letter into an envelope and then addressing the envelope. UDP Most applications use TCP. However, an example of a situation in which it is desirable to use a lowerlevel protocol is the case of audio streaming. If you want to download a sound file, it can take some time, even though it may be compressed. You have to wait (perhaps some considerable time, relatively speaking) for the complete file to download, before it can be played. An alternative is to listen to the sound as it is being downloaded - which is called streaming. One of the most popular technologies is called RealAudio. RealAudio does not use TCP because of its overhead. The sound file is sent in IP packets using the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) instead of TCP. UDP is an unreliable protocol, since: • It doesn't guarantee that a packet will arrive. • It doesn't guarantee that packets will be in the right order. UDP doesn't re-send a packet if it is missing or there is some other error, and it doesn't assemble packets into the correct order. But it is faster than TCP. In this application, losing a few bits of data is better than waiting for the re-transmission of some missing data. The application's major mission is to keep playing the sound without interruption. (In contrast, the main goal of a file transfer program is to transmit the data accurately.) The same mechanism is used with video streaming. UDP is a protocol at the same level as TCP, above the level of IP. IP Addresses An IP address is a unique address for every host computer in the world. Consists of 4 bytes or 32 bits. This is represented in quad notation (or dot notation) as four 8-bit numbers, each in the range 0 to 255, e.g. 131.123.2.220. IP addresses are registered so that they stay unique. You can find the IP address of the local machine under Windows NT by typing the following command at the DOS prompt in a console window: ipconfig Under Unix or Linux, this command is: ifconfig The IP address 127.0.0.1 is a special address, called the local loopback address, that denotes the local machine. A message sent to this address will simply return to the sender, without leaving the sender. It is useful for testing purposes. Domain Names

3

Thus the different types of request are distinguished and dispatched to the relevant program. edu. by convention. org. say a Web browser. The parts of a domain name don't correspond to the parts of an IP address. a standard port number. Another reason might be that the server program has not been assigned the necessary privilege to use port 80. e-mail.they can have 2. Servers and Peers A network application usually involves a client and a server. e. played across the internet by two or more players is a peer-to-peer relationship. Clients. the port number is examined and the packet sent to the program responsible for that port. Other examples of peer-to-peer relationships: chat. or access to local Web pages. The following table lists the common services. ca. Some programs are not structured as clients and servers. internet phone. Protocol Name Port Number Nature of Service 4 . Thus a web server program "listens on port 80" for any incoming requests. the first level in the tree is something like com. A port number does not correspond to any physical connection on the machine. Port Numbers To identify a host machine.535. All this information cannot be located in one place. It is also known as a host name. an IP address or a domain name is needed. Each type of service has. different clients are used for different tasks. The domain name system (DNS) provides a mapping between IP addresses and domain names. of which there might be just one. Thus a Web browser is a client. Port numbers can take values from 1 to 65. A client runs on a host. If the default port number is used. When a packet of information is received by a host. All applications that use an address should work whether an IP address or a domain name is used.stmarys. so it is held in a distributed database. It is used because the numbers in an IP address are hard to remember and use. Usually. All these server programs run together in parallel on the host machine. Web browsing and e-mail. so only one can be on port 80.ca Such a name starts with the most local part of the name and is followed by the most general. 5 or whatever. it can be omitted in the URL (see below). In fact. To identify a particular server on a host.A domain name is the user-friendly equivalent of an IP address. Indeed. for a variety of reasons. a port number is used. domain names don't always have 4 parts . e. shared whiteboard. A commonly-used web server program is called Apache. together with their normal port numbers. Thus 80 usually means Web Serving and 21 means File Transfer. Each is a process (an independently running program) running on a (different) computer. For each port supplying a service there is a server program waiting for any requests. Thus a Web server is a server. a domain name is converted to an IP address before it is used. The whole name space is a tree. For example a game. A port is like a logical connection to a machine. A server runs on a host and provides some particular service. but generally needs to connect with a sever on another host to accomplish its task. Example: cs. whose root has no name. These conventional port numbers are sometimes not used.g. One example is when a host provides (say) multiple web servers. The Domain Name System A program. that wants to use a domain address usually needs to convert it into an IP address before making contact with the server.g. etc.

Thus one port may be associated with many sockets. Transferring files.Echo Daytime ftp-data ftp telnet Smtp http nntp 7 13 20 21 23 25 80 119 The server simply echoes the data sent to it. data can flow in both directions at the same time. The new thread creates a (software) socket to use as the connection to the client. (ftp uses two ports) Sending ftp commands like RETR and STOR. Remote login and command line interaction. a serial file. 5 . Likewise. A pair of programs open a socket connection between themselves. An output stream can be sent to a printer. for example.) More than one socket can use any particular port. an input stream can come from a keyboard. This is because different clients may well run at different speeds. A stream is a serial collection of data. a display. a serial file. it often spawns a separate thread to deal with the client.they can converse in both directions for as long as the connection is open. or an Internet connection. E-mail (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Web Usenet (Network News Transfer Protocol) Some of these protocols are described later in these notes. Streams Accessing information across the Internet is accomplished using streams. Provides the ASCII representation of the current date and time on the server. Sockets A socket is the software mechanism for one program to connect to another. (In fact. When a server (on a particular port number) gets an initial request. The network software ensures that data is routed to or from the correct socket. This then acts like a telephone connection . URL A URL (Uniform Resource Locator): • is a unique identifier for any resource on the Internet • can be typed into a Web browser • can be used as a hyperlink within a HTML document • can be quoted as a reference to a source A URL has this structure: protocol://hostname[:port]/[pathname]/filename#section Things in square brackets indicate that the item can be omitted. or from an Internet connection. Thus reading or writing to another program across a network or the Internet is just like reading or writing to a serial file. Having one thread per client means that the different speeds can be accommodated. This is useful for testing purposes.

In this case.html. The file is accessed using the HTTP protocol. the server decides which file to use. This locates a file on the local system. The URL locates a file. • FTP: Allows a user to transfer virtually every kind of file that can be stored on a computer from one Internet-connected computer to another. Some commonly-used protocols are: http ftp telnet mailto news file The service is the Web. The host name is the name of the server that provides the service. easy.html or welcome.html. a directory or an FTP server. This can either be a domain name or an IP address. 6 . The pathname is not the complete directory name. The service is remote login to a host. A pathname (optional) specifies a directory (folder). and inexpensive way to communicate with other Internet users around the world. The service is file transfer protocol. Such a place in a document is specified by an HTML entry like: <a name="thisplace"></a> which would be referred to by thisplace as the section in the URL. You can think about the Internet as a physical collection of routers and circuits as a set of shared resources or even as an attitude about interconnecting and intercommunication. but is relative to some directory (folder) designated by the administrator as the directory in which publiclyaccessible files are held. Some common definitions given in the past include: • A network of networks based on the TCP/IP communications protocol.The first part of a URL is the particular protocol. BASIC WEB CONCEPTS What is Internet? The Internet is essentially a global network of computing resources. The service is e-mail. index. The section part of a URL (optional) specifies a named anchor in an HTML document. 80 is the default port number for HTTP. • Internet Based Services: Some of the basic services available to Internet users are: • Email: A fast. • A community of people who use and develop those networks. For example. The file name can either be a data file name or can specify an executable file that produces a valid HTML document as its output. The port number is only needed when the server does not use the default port number. No file name is needed. It would be unusual for a server to make available its entire file system to clients. The server part of the URL is omitted. • Telnet: Allows a user to log into a remote computer as though it were a local system. Many servers send a default file from the directory specified in the path name . A file name is often omitted. The URL specifies a usenet newsgroup.for example a file called default. • A community of people who use and develop those networks.

the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information. and is used to specify addresses on the World Wide Web. tying them together into a vast collection of interactive multimedia resources.35. When you register a Web address. and sound files).122. The protocol used for web resources is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP).157.178. and then the domain name. two slashes. A standard web address such as http://www. What is Web Server? Every Web site sits on a computer known as a Web server. World Wide Web (WWW): A hypertext interface to Internet information resources. This server is always connected to the internet. This is the protocol being used to transfer hypertext documents thats makes the World World Wide possible. What is Website? Website is a collection of various pages. and Gopher.132 or 68.com you have to specify the IP address of the Web server that will host the site. also known as a domain name. hypertext pages. What is WWW? This stands for World Wide Web.com/ is called a URL and here the prefix http indicates its protocol What is URL? URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. The domain name is the computer on which the resource is located.yahoo.127. For example. The directory names are separated by single forward slashes. A broader definition comes from the organization that Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee helped found..g. telnet. newsgroups. such as smvecit11.• • • Usenetnews: A distributed bulletin board that offers a combination news and discussion service on thousands of topics. Every Web server that is connected to the Internet is given a unique address made up of a series of four numbers between 0 and 256 separated by periods. There are millions of websites available on the web. In simple terms. images. Each page available on the Website is called a web page and first page of any web site is called home page for that site. an embodiment of human knowledge. A URL will have the following format: protocol://hostname/other_information The protocol specifies how information from the link is transferred. A technical definition of the World Wide Web is : all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). 68. Other protocols compatible with most web browsers include FTP. The World Wide Web is a way of exchanging information between computers on the Internet. A URL is the fundamental network identification for any resource connected to the web (e. What is HTTP? This stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. 7 . The protocol is followed by a colon. Links to particular files or subdirectories may be further specified after the domain name.

What is Web Browser? Web Browsers are software installed on your PC.How it works ? On the simplest level. This is a subset of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML) for electronic publishing. Typically. your IP address should be put in a DNS along with your domain name. your browser will ask the Domain Name System to find the IP that hosts your site.This is the PC at which you sit to see the web. What is W3C? This stands for World Wide Web Consortium which is an international consortium of companies involved with the Internet and the Web. and clickable text links. Without doing it your domain name will not be functioning properly. This space will be used to host your Web site. On the Web. icons.A software installed on your PC which helps you to browse the Web. • A Web browser . when you navigate through pages of information this is commonly known as browsing or surfing. The organization's purpose is to develop open standards so that the Web evolves in a single direction rather than being splintered among competing factions.example. The W3C is the chief standards body for HTTP and HTML Web . the specific standard used for the World Wide Web.com. When you register your domain name. What is HTML? This stands for HyperText Markup Language. This is the language in which we write web pages for any Website. Even the page you are reading right now is written in HTML. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee. such as Netscape Navigator. When you send an email to an email address. 8 . Familiar hyperlinks include buttons. the Web physically consists of following components: • Your personal computer . you click the hyperlink to access the linked resource. the original architect of the World Wide Web. www. This server takes care of delivering emails from one server to another server. image maps. What is Hyperlink? A hyperlink or simply a link is a selectable element in an electronic document that serves as an access point to other electronic resources. What is SMTP Server? This stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Server. it is delivered to its recipient by a SMTP Server. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. They are the companies who provide you service in terms of internet connection to connect to the internet. What is DNS ? DNS stands for Domain Name System. When someone types in your domain name. To access the Web you need a web browsers. What is ISP? This stands for Internet Service Provider. You will buy space on a Web Server from any Internet Service Provider.

Currently you must be using any sort of Web browser while you are navigating through my site tutorialspoint. This was introduced in 1995 along with Windows 95 launch and it has passed Netscape popularity in 1998. There are four leading web browsers: Explorer. While developing a site. but also any images. WEB . The domain name servers keep tables of machine names and their IP addresses. Netscape 9 .BROWSER TYPES Web Browsers are software installed on your PC.An internet connection . When you want to view any page on the Web. To access the Web you need a web browsers. This information varies server to server. The browser then sends a request to that server for the page you want. Netscape and IE comprise the major portion of the browser market.They are the combination of software and hardware who take your request and pass to appropriate Web server. it gets translated into a number. Now we will see these browsers in bit more detail. • A Web server . Netscape Netscape is one of the original Web browsers. it looks for the requested document and returns it to the Web browser. • Here's how web works: When you enter something like http://www. Netscape.com. and the date and time it was requested. An average Web page actually requires the Web browser to request more than one file from the Web server and not just the HTML / XHTML page.This is the computer on which a web site is hosted. such as Netscape Navigator. FireFox. which identifies the computers that serve the Google Web site to you.You might be interested in knowing Complete Browser Statistics. When it receives a request. FireFox. On the Web. Specially site should be compatible to major browsers like Explorer. using a standard called Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP. you must initiate the activity by requesting a page using your browser. we should try to make it compatible to as many browsers as possible. the request goes to one of many special computers on the Internet known as Domain Name Servers (DNS).google. All these requests are routed through various routers and switches. This is what Microsoft designed Internet Explorer to compete against. Each of these files including the main page needs a URL to identify each item. style sheets.google. Then each item is sent by the Web server to the Web browser and Web browser collects all this information and displays them in the form of Web page. When a request is made.com. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. ready to serve pages to visitors. The server should constantly be connected to the Internet. • Routers & Switches .com. Your computer is the client and the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers. the server usually logs the client's IP address. so when you type in http://www. Netscape and Safari but there are many others browsers available. Internet Explorer Internet Explorer (IE) is a product from software giant Microsoft. Opera and Safari. the document requested. The Web is known as a client-server system. The browser asks a domain name server to translate the domain name you requested into an IP address. This is the most commonly used browser in the universe.This is provided by an ISP and connects you to the internet to reach to any Web site. when you navigate through pages of information this is commonly known as web browsing or web surfing. and other resources used in the web page.

zoom functions. Mozilla Mozilla is an open-source Web browser. software engineering tools. VMS. It was released in 2004 and has grown to be the second most popular browser on the Internet. with keyboard interface. CLIENT-SERVER MODEL To truly understand how much of the Internet operates. The client/server model is a form of distributed computing where one program (the client) communicates with another program (the server) for the purpose of exchanging information. This works as a file manager as wellIt supports basic file management on local UNIX filesystems.featured. Handle the user interface. CSS 2. user-friendly.1. designed for standards compliance. Browsers based on Mozilla code is the second largest browser family on the Internet today. including the Web. Fast. performance and portability. The development and testing of the browser is coordinated by providing discussion forums. as well as Netscape plugins. from simple cut/copy and paste operations to advanced remote and local network file browsing. supporting Java applets. and included in Mac OS X. 10 .was introduced in 1994. The client's responsibility is usually to: 1. releases and bug tracking. Lynx Lynx is a fully-featured World Wide Web browser for users on Unix. JavaScript. Opera Opera is smaller and faster than most other browsers. Java and non Java-enabled versions available. handicap and as a frontend for CD-Rom and kiosks.01 compliance. it is important to understand the concept of client/server computing. character-cell terminals or emulators. It was first released as a public beta in January 2003. school children. yet it is full. Ideal for newcomers to the Internet. multiple windows. Konqueror Konqueror is an Open Source web browser with HTML 4. CSS 1. and other platforms running cursor-addressable. Firefox Firefox is a new browser derived from Mozilla. Safari has very good support for latest technologies like XHTML. Safari Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. representing about 30% of the Internet community. CSS2 etc. and more.

Process that query. The client sends the query to the server. The user runs client software to create a query. The client connects to the server. 6. At the restaurant. Hopefully. 3. The server sends the results to the client. It is possible to create an interface that is independent of the server hosting the data. After the chef prepares your meal. 5. the user interface of a client/server application can be written on a Macintosh and the server can be written on a mainframe. the waiter takes note of your choices. After making your selections." Flexible user interface development is the most obvious advantage of client/server computing. This allows information to be stored in a central server and disseminated to different types of remote computers. Return the results back to the client. 4. 6. Present the results to the user. you (the user) are presented with a menu of choices by the waiter (the client). the waiter returns with your diner (the results). 2. 4. the waiter returns with the items you selected. Repeat as necessary. Clients could be also written for DOS. Therefore. Wait for the server's response. 3. Translate the user's request into the desired protocol. Listen for a client's query.or UNIX-based computers. A typical client/server interaction goes like this: 1. Send the request to the server. and presents them to the French chef (the server) in the kitchen. 3. The server computes the results of the query.2. 8. The server analyzes the query. Since the user 11 . 5. A typical client/server interaction This client/server interaction is a lot like going to a French restaurant. translates them into French. Translate the response into "human-readable" results. but not always. The server's functions include: 1. The client presents the results to the user. sometimes things get "lost in the translation. 2. 7.

" Navigate to the drive and directory in which you saved your HTML. While you may not notice this much while on campus at NIH. Although its computing and storage capabilities are dwarfed by those of the mainframe." from Netscape's menu bar. we need an ending. the closing tag for center is '</center>'. except after the first '<' there is a '/'.. In other words. and click "Choose File. Using these tools. and the ". or closing tag. SimpleText in Mac OS. Microsoft FrontPage and particularly Microsoft Word will add extra tags that can make an HTML document quite large. These documents are interpreted by web browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. if you wanted to name a file Test page.html. You can also create pages using WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) editors which do most of the work of coding for you. there is no reason why a Macintosh could not be used as a server for less demanding applications." from the menu bar. the center tag is '<center>'.HTML can be created as standard ASCII text with "tags" included to pass on extra information about character formatting and page layout to a web browser." Notepad will save your file as ASCII text. make your changes. What is HTML? Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a syntax used to format a text document on the web. and end with a '>'. An HTML page is essentially a text document. To save a file as HTML.. This fact also makes it easy to edit: almost all computers are equipped with a text editor that can be used to edit HTML. you can type in a page as you would in a word processor. The fact that HTML is. Larger documents take longer to download. and double click on the file. What are Tags? Tags are what we use to structure an HTML page. it tends to use the strengths of divergent computing platforms to create more powerful applications. You can then look into the code for fine-tuning. it is a good idea to use a name without any spaces or uppercase letters..Open Page. This is another major advantage of client/server computing.. With WYSIWYG editors. go back to Notepad.htm" extension will allow your browser to recognize it as an HTML file. choose "File. ASCII text is what makes it so universally compatible. To stop centering something. client/server computing provides a mechanism for disparate computers to cooperate on a single computing task.. For example. open the text you wish to edit or type it into Notepad. In short.. To edit your HTML.txt" to ". some options would be testpage or test_page. So. modem users at home can be inconvenienced by long waits. and click the "Reload" button to bring in your latest changes. Closing tags look exactly like opening tags. and choose "File..html" or ". and choose "File. 12 .Save As. (Hint When naming an HTML file. Tags start with a '<'. then the command.. For instance. There are some WYSIWYG editors that do not create good HTML code. and the software adds formatting tags where necessary.. in essence. Then go back to Netscape. How can I create an HTML page? HTML pages can be created in a number of ways.interface is the responsibility of the client.Save" from the menu bar. You can create one in the simplest of text editors such as Microsoft Notepad in Windows. the server has more computing resources to spend on analyzing queries and disseminating information." Under "Save as type" switch to "All Files" then click "OK. Under "File name" give your file a name and change its extension from ".. such as Macromedia Dreamweaver and Adobe GoLive. you will need to edit the HTML code and insert HTML tags where necessary. or Pico in Unix.) To open your file in Netscape.

. These tags are used in the body of an HTML document only.. <!--. Creates Table. <br> Line break (new line). and "WIDTH" attributes. It will not be visible on the web page. "COLOR" and "FACE" attributes..HTML Structure An HTML document has a definite structure that must be specified to the browser. Unordered list (bulleted). This is a note for you.. <p> .. Can be used with the "ALIGN" attribute. Table row 13 <center> .. </font> <table> .. </strong> <code> .. Can be used with "BGCOLOR". Can be used with "SIZE". </em> <strong> . <ol> . <html> Marks the beginning of your HTML <head> Begins the heading section of an HTML document <title> . italicized or underlined text. </title> Gives an HTML document a title that appears on the browser menu bar. </code> <font> ... </ol> <ul> . no tags </head> Defines the end of the heading <body> Defines the body of an HTML document (text contained within the <BODY> … </BODY> tags appears in the main browser window). "LINK". <hr> Horizontal rule.. Must appear before each item in any of the above lists to set it apart from other items.. Can be used with the "ALIGN" attribute. Can be used with "SIZE". "WIDTH" and "NOSHADE" attributes. and "VLINK" attributes </html> Defines the end of your HTML document Character Formatting and Page Layout The following tags are used for character formatting (bold... </center> <em> . Changes the appearance of the text in your page. <h1> .. Adds a line break after..... </h1> Heading tag. Can be used with "BORDER".... Strong emphasis (usually bold). </p> Sets a paragraph apart from other text.. as well as the document's HEAD (which contains information for the browser that does not appear in the browser's main window) and its BODY (which contains the text that will appear in the browser's main window). <H1> through <H6> are valid.. </tr> . also will appear on search engines or bookmarks referencing your site (must appear between the <HEAD> . Centers any item or group of items Emphasized text (usually italic).. should be straight text. The use and order of tags that define the HTML structure are described below. List Item.. </P> is optional. A sample of code (usually courier font).--> Comment. </HEAD> tags. Can be used with the "CLEAR" attribute.. for instance) and page layout (where and in what context that text appears on the page). </table> <tr> . "TEXT".. "ALIGN". </ul> <li> Defines the beginning and end of an ordered list (numbered). The HTML's beginning and end must be defined.

the machine reading these tags can easily retrieve this data for reuse in several applications.server/Document. This saves time and increases productivity since much more content can be written by the writer. Improved data integrity: A standard guide which is provided by SGML ensures that any information on a document occupies its unique position. no matter how bulky the data contained may be. "SRC" is a required attribute. </th> <td> . Information needs to be created. </A> Creates a link to an anchor in another web page. accessed and utilized for a complete revolution to be made in any sector of the nation. SGML uses a Meta language.. These tags are already made when using SGML software.html"> .. Table data. "ALT". there is no need for translation to other formats which is capable of causing loss of information. content and style. there comes the need to accurately manage information. "ROWSPAN". "COLSPAN". HOW SGML WORKS SGML's interest on any document is to divide it into structure.. "BORDER" and "ALIGN" are optional attributes. Can be used with "ALIGN". </A> Creates an anchor within a document that can be linked to. It is these tags that show the structure. To accurately define the structure of any document using SGML. 14 . Hence. SGML is the standard method used to embed descriptive mark up within a document. Mark up here means text added to the data contained in a document so that a better understanding can be attained.. devices and languages.... WHY IS IT USEFUL? Increased productivity: As a result of the improved structure of a document done by SGML.. "HEIGHT". In general.. and "WIDTH" attributes. It is a standard because it has been declared so by the International Standard. 1. the end and other steps of the document. </A> Creates a hypertext link to another page.html#AnchorName"> . "WIDTH". Reusability: Since tags are used to define the beginning. <IMG SRC="filename. And if this need calls for the use of an automated system. and "WIDTH" attributes. Can be used with "ALIGN". With SGML.<th> . the need for information is strongly felt. 2. SGML : Standard Generalized Markup Language Around the world today. "ROWSPAN". Information longevity: The information used to define any particular document is always available irrespective of any damage done to the system's hardware or software.server/Document. then SGML can be a useful tool. <A HREF="AnchorName"> . which creates and maintains the logical pattern of a document is used.ext"> Inserts a graphic into the web page. It is generalized because it may not need the use of particular systems.web. 3. The standard based time sheets used by SGML are the OS (Output Specification) and the DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language). a file known as DTD (Document Type Definition). the writer becomes less mindful of the appearance of his work and rather faces its content.. This is to save time and cost. <A HREF="http://some. </td> Table header. SGML documents have tags around it. "VALIGN". distributed. "COLSPAN". What is SGML? SGML actually means Standard Generalized Markup Language.web. "VALIGN". Links <A HREF="http://some.

restricted to some people). Uses real SGML: A system using real SGML is in other words a system that uses SGML as its native file format. This feature is outstanding because on the other hand. Introduction to How Web Advertising Works 15 . Supports any DTD: A good SGML system does not restrict its user to any particular kinds of DTD to be used. 3. WHO USES SGML? The importance of SGML has made its use to become more rampant today in Information Management companies and commercial enterprises. 7. Shareability: Documents created by SGML can be shared without duplicating because tags are used to organize information.4. WHAT IS CALS? CALS is an acronym for Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support. This long term project was initiated by the US department of Defense (DOD) when the need to reduce the cost of supporting and constructing equipment used by the military arose. updated or corrected. Supports SGML features: Some attractive features any publisher would desire from an SGML system are: the ability to perform automated publishing and the ability to re-use documents. Since SGML is an international standard and it is not customized to any particular system. 5. Some enterprises that use SGML and the reasons for their use in the areas are listed below. the reason for creating information today may be different from the use of the same information tomorrow or in ten years to come. • American Association of Publishers: For preparing electronic manuscripts. With a real SGML. • Airline Industry: For maintaining documentation and in-flight operating manuals. Provides real-time interactive parsing: This feature allows the SGML to edit the document according to the author's desire. HOW TO DETERMINE A GOOD SGML SYSTEM? Getting a good and reliable SGML system is a prerequisite for obtaining all the unique features it offers. Knowledge of these these tags by two or more people makes it easier for them to share the content of the document. batch parsing makes editing very tedious and slow. A good SGML system actually supports any DTD so that several kinds of documents can be made by the author or publisher. it means that documents obtained by using SGML can stand the test of time and boundaries. the publisher saves time. cost and labor. Portability of Information: Information is said to be portable when it can be accessed by anyone who needs it. Tags can be used as identifiers to locate a sentence. 4. It is also worthy to note that CALS is the main body governing SGML. Better control data: The use of tags in SGML makes it possible to assign attributes to information. Flexibility beyond traditional publishing: SGML makes it possible for information created today to become available tomorrow. • The internet: For the World Wide Web • Oxford English Dictionary: For searching and retrieving database. In other words. 6. The availability of information created by SGML makes it flexible and goes beyond its traditional purpose of publishing. a heading or any other defied part of the document so that the information can either be managed (that is. Here are some points to consider when going for an SGML system: 1. 2.

as well as the economics that are driving them. video. ads that play music and sound tracks. pictures. you will find this article to be a real eye-opener. two different things are happening right now: 1. The sites divided into two broad categories: • E-commerce sites . ads that swim across the screen. Whether you are a casual surfer or someone running your own Web site. Advertising is becoming more and more "in your face. and they are more and more obvious.) for readers to look at. like TV stations.) • Why do Web sites allow these floating ads that cover the content so I cannot read it? • How can I make all these ads go away? In this article. etc.You have probably noticed that across the Web. Content Web sites make their money primarily from advertising. and so on. 16 . just like a brick-and-mortar store does. radio stations and newspapers. There are many new forms of Web advertising. we will look at all the different forms of Web advertising in use today.E-commerce sites sell things. • Content sites . 2. The second trend is true of nearly all commercial Web sites. E-commerce sites make their money from the products they sell." There are now pop-up ads. For example: • Why do Web sites have so many ads now? • Why do Web sites allow pop-up ads that open new windows? (Many people hate closing them all.Content sites create or collect content (words. Many Web users have questions about all of these new ad types. thousands of new sites were born and billions of dollars in venture capital flowed into them. More and more sites are asking you to pay a fee to subscribe to all or part of the Web site. so that you can have a much better understanding of how Web advertising works. BANNER ADS When the Web first started being a "commercial endeavor" around 1997 or so.

Let's say you have come up with a new brand of soda. If a site could generate 100 million page impressions per month. $50.thousands of sites had a million or more page impressions available per month. or you 17 . Banner Ad Prices A company buys advertising for one of two reasons: • Branding • Direct sales Branding refers to the process of impressing a company name or a product name onto society's collective brain. The economic principle of "supply and demand" works the same way on the Web as it does everywhere else. it could make $3 million per month with banner ad rates at $30 per thousand impressions. or you are opening a new restaurant. advertisers came to the conclusion that banner ads were not as effective as full-page magazine ads or 30-second TV commercials. In 1998 or so. there was an incredible glut of advertising space -. Where did numbers like $30 or $50 per thousand impressions come from? That's what magazines typically charge for full-page color ads. At the same time. These advertising rates provided fuel for much of the venture capital boom on the Web.the 728x90-pixel ads you see at the top of almost all Web pages today (including this one). At some point. so the rates paid for banner advertising began to plummet. Let's look more closely at what determines banner ad rates. banner advertising was a lucrative business. even $100 per thousand impressions to run banner ads on their pages. "advertising" on the Internet meant "banner ads" -. and companies like DoubleClick began collecting these sites into massive pools of banner-ad inventory. The Internet took the same payment model and applied it to banner ads. Popular sites like Yahoo could charge $30. The idea was that sites could start up and increase their page impressions to make easy money from banner ads.A typical banner ad at the top of the page In the beginning.

banner ads are small and easily ignored.000 impressions. Let's say that a publisher wants people to buy a book.000 Web pages. The advertiser counts the direct responses to the ad and measures the effectiveness of the ad by those responses..or do some other active thing so that you buy something.000 times.). That is.00 per copy of the book to spend on advertising. if a banner ad appears on 1. that results in 10 purchases. • Let's say the response rate is five clicks per 1. The advertiser wants you to: • Click on the ad • Call an 800 number • Drive immediately to the store . You want to get the product's name (and sometimes the product's features and benefits) firmly planted in people's heads. rather than 30 dollars. On the other hand.000/10) $300 for each book purchased through that ad. • The publisher had to pay ($3. etc. What direct sales advertisers came to feel about banner ads is that the response rate for banner ads is low. AN EXAMPLE Here's an example.000 impressions for banner ads and purchases 100. If the publisher is paying $30 per 1. especially since the budget is $3.000 impressions for $3. This is branding. that is branding.000 impressions. 18 . you can buy banner ads from thousands of Web sites or brokers for 50 cents or so per thousand impressions -.000 total impressions are running. • If two percent of those 500 people actually purchase the book.. Relative to a magazine ad or a TV ad. paying $300 to sell one book is not a good economic model for a publisher.000. or you see a NASCAR car that says "Tide" on the hood. For this type of advertising to work for the publisher. For most banner ads. Today. What branding advertisers came to feel about banner ads is that banner ads are not the most effective vehicle for branding.are selling a new widget. The reason is because those five clicks will not all generate sales. THE RESULT So banner ad rates began to decline. Out of 100 clicks. so 500 people click on the ad during the time the 100. here is what happens: • The banner ad appears 100.000 impressions of the ad. a direct sales ad is an ad that is trying to get you to do something today. Obviously. The advertiser does not necessarily expect you to do anything today -. or you see a feel-good ad on TV about a car company or an oil company but there's no mention of a product. download something.which is pretty much exactly what they are worth to a person who is trying to sell something with banner ads using a direct sales model. Branding happens with both new and existing products. perhaps one person will actually do the desired thing (buy something. The publisher has budgeted $3. if you shop around. download something or sign up for something today. the industry average seems to hover between two and five clicks per 1. between two and five people will click on the ad to learn more.00 per book. the publisher would need to pay 30 cents per 1. When you see a billboard that says nothing but "Coke" on it. as you look at the ad. right now. Those five clicks per thousand impressions don't have much value to most advertisers. and hopes to increase sales of the book through advertising.the advertiser simply wants to impress itself on your consciousness.

A sidebar ad has more impact than a banner ad for at least two reasons: • A tall sidebar ad is two to three times larger than a banner ad. and they charge more for these targeted ads. In order to charge more than 50 cents per thousand impressions.000 impressions. Because it is vertical. or about two to three times that of a banner ad. There is also a process called targeting. but it is vertically oriented rather than horizontally. Because of this increased impact. which will typically increase the click-through and response rate for the ad. you find many different advertising formats and experiments on the Web today. Advertisers pay more for targeted sidebar ads. SIDEBAR ADS A sidebar ad (also known as a skyscraper ad) is similar to a banner ad. just like they do with targeted banner ads. and sidebars are generally 120 pixels wide.50 per 1. if you want to sell a GPS.000 run-of-site impressions for sidebar ad placement. For example. With a sidebar ad. but in the last year or two people have tried all different sizes and placements. But for most other Web sites. For example. A typical sidebar ad has a click-through rate of 1 percent (10 clicks per 1. Yahoo and many search engines target their banner ads to the search words people type in.00 to $1.000 impressions). you can advertise on the HowStuffWorks GPS article and get a targeted audience for your ad. the top 100 or so Web sites can charge a premium because of their size. the ad is with you much longer. the height of a sidebar ad can often reach 600 pixels or more. • You cannot scroll a sidebar ad off the screen like you can a banner ad. sidebar ads have higher branding power and a higher click-through rate. there is very little money to be made from banner ads.It is possible for some Web sites to charge more than 50 cents per 1. Advertisers will typically pay $1. you can scroll just 60 pixels down and the ad is gone. Here are three examples: 19 . With a banner ad. Varied Shapes and Sizes Banner ads and sidebar ads have standard sizes. Web sites have to offer ads that either: • Have a lot more branding power • Get a much higher click-through rate Therefore.

and four smaller ads along the bottom. a standard banner ad. Ads this size or larger can be found within the text of articles in some cases. a square AOL ad mid-page. 20 . They act like magazine ads that break up the text to get more attention. On this page you can see a narrow strip for Netscape at the top.The orange ad in the upper right is 250x250 pixels.

but place themselves under the content you are trying to read and are therefore less intrusive. so you have to close the window or move it out of the way. Pop-under ads are similar. But by putting 10 ads on the page. At the bottom there are tiny ads for four money sites along with small ads for CareerBuilder.com and WSJ. It obscures the Web page that you are trying to read. 21 . Pop-Up and Pop-Under A pop-up ad is an ad that "pops up" in its own window when you go to a page. Ubid and Radio Shack along the side. because generally the click-through rates are low. Sites don't get paid much for these smaller ads.000 page impressions. it can add up to $2 per 1.com (even the advertising is sponsored!).On this page there is a round WSJ button up top along with ads for Casio.

they are much more effective than banner ads. Whereas a banner ad might get two to five clicks 22 . However.A typical pop-up ad A typical site with two pop-up ads that appear on top of the home page Pop-up and pop-under ads annoy many users because they clutter up the desktop and take time to close.

That is why you see so many pop-up ads on the Web today. Many now have sound. Therefore: 23 . These are ads that appear when you first go to a Web page. they "interrupt the program" and force you to watch them. they obscure your view of the page you are trying to read. The ad is about 5 seconds long. Floating ads are appearing more and more frequently for several reasons: • They definitely get the viewer's attention.000 impressions. It floats over the page and then should settle in the upper right hand corner. with four or five moving parts. so there is a way out of this ad. and they often block mouse input as well. Note that it does have a "Close" button. If you have the right browser combination. While they are on the screen. advertisers are willing to pay more for pop-up and pop-under ads. see UnitedVirtualities.com. The ad plays for about 15 seconds. If you would like to see lots of other examples of different floating ad campaigns. then you should have seen the ad when you clicked into this page. a pop-up ad might average 30 clicks. a pop-up ad will pay the Web site four to 10 times more than a banner ad. Therefore. you know what "floating ads" are. This page has been set up so that a floating ad should appear every time you load the page. and they "float" or "fly" over the page for anywhere from five to 30 seconds. Many floating ads do not have this feature. Like TV ads. FLOATING ADS If you have ever been to a Web site that uses them.per 1. A screenshot of a typical floating ad for a Norton product: This ad is completely animated. They can take up the entire screen.com and EyeBlaster. They are animated. Typically.

Because they can pay a lot of money. however. Web sites are willing to run floating ads. The high click-through rate. What is pop up ad and pop under ad? Pop-up ads or pop-ups are a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract web traffic or capture email addresses. they will become more common. people would go NUTS! There would. and disappears or becomes unobtrusive after a specific time period (typically 5-30 seconds). and now pop-up ads can be found on tons of sites. people got used to them and stopped complaining. as well as the greater branding power. They may or may not provide a means of escape.000 impressions of a floating ad). they don't bother us much. 2. they bothered lots of people and you did not see them on very many sites.a branding standpoint. They cannot be ignored. averaging about 3 percent (meaning that 30 people will click through for every 1. Pop-unders do not interrupt the user immediately and are not seen until the covering window is closed. which opens a new browser window hidden under the active window. the ads are a big part of the show! As people get used to floating ads. means that advertisers will pay a lot more for a floating ad -. Some people become infuriated by them. they are much more powerful than something like a banner ad or a sidebar ad. If television programs were ad-free today. during the Super Bowl. either full screen or in a smaller rectangular window. but can be generated by other means as well.anywhere from $3 to $30 per 1. Television provides another useful example. The annoyance problem points out something interesting about advertising. quite possibly. But since we are all familiar with TV ads. The pop-up window containing an advertisement is usually generated by JavaScript. A variation on the pop-up window is the pop-under advertisement. • From TWO MARKS 1. such as a close button. and will send death threats and three-page-long rants via e-mail. making it more difficult to determine which web site opened them. That is why you do not yet see them everywhere. superimposed over a user-requested page. What is a floating ad? A floating ad is a type of rich media Web advertisement that appears uninitiated. • They have a high click-through rate. What is web design? 24 .000 impressions depending on the advertiser and the ad. When pop-up ads first appeared. The most basic floating ads simply appear over the Web page. Pop-ups are generally new web browser windows to display advertisements. After a while. and suddenly a TV station were to start running eight minutes of advertising every half hour right in the middle of programs. In fact. be riots in the streets. The only problem with floating ads is that they annoy people. 3.

9. visual design and networked delivery. including. What are the rules for testing? The various rules are: 1) Sites always have bugs. 4. It is done both client and server side. What are the applications of web? The applications of the web are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Informational Entertainment Community Transactional 5. 2) Testing should address all aspects of a site.Web design is a multidisciplinary pursuit pertaining to the planning and Production of web sites. VB script are used in client side. In server side asp. What are the various web design process? The various web design process models are: 1) 2) 3) water fall model modified waterfall model JAD (Joint Application Development). What is scripting? Scripting is used to validate the data. client side validation reduces the traffic. What are the types of websites? The types of websites are: 1) 2) 3) Public website Intranet website Extranet website 25 . information structure. 7. including content. function and purpose. technical development. 8. What are the types of testing? The various types of testing are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) visual acceptance testing functionality testing content proofing system and browser compatibility testing delivery testing user acceptance testing release and beyond. visuals. JAVA script. tsp is used to validate. In scripting. but not limited to. so test your site well. 6.

The program responds with a list of matches from its database. What is meant by XSL? XSL(Extensible Style Sheet Language). It is used to redefine a grammar of a language and its tags. 13. 20. 17. Gopher. 21. Numerical computer names that uniquely identify each computer on the Internet. What are Web browsers? Browser. Each address consists of four bytes. It is a style sheet technology. Define Intranet web site? An Intranet web site is a site that is private to a particular organization. FTP. e-mail -Messages that are sent electronically over a network. Netscape's navigator and Microsoft’s Internet explorer are two popular browsers. 14. A relevancy score for each match and click able URL are usually returned. 12. Browsers are also called Web Clients. an internet web site. or simply a web site is one that is not explicitly restricted to a particular class of users. an external web site. Define Public website? A public web site. generally run within a private network rather than on the Internet at large. World Wide Web. but is available via the public Internet. Chat 16. List out the services provided by the Internet? Electronic Mail.A system that is used by mailers and Web browsers to identify file contents by file extensions 19. 26 . This address is often represented by four decimal numbers separated by dots. 15. 11. What is Telnet? It is software that allows one computer to connect to another computer and make use of the other information. Telnet. Write note on Internet Addresses.A software Application that provides an interface between users and the Internet. Define Extranet web site? An Extranet site is a web site that is available to a limited class of users. and each byte represents a decimal number from 0 to 255. What is Search Engine? Search Engine-A search tool that allows a user to enter queries. It is majorly used to format the contents of a HTML page. What is meant by CSS? CSS (Cascading style shield).10. It is a style sheet technology. Define the term "electronic-mail". 18. What is MIME? Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) .

A LAN uses cables to connect its users. 32. pictures. 26. 23. 24. Clients are system in the network which requests the service from the server.xxx which has xxx is a number from 0 to 255.xxx. What is Network? Interconnection of two or computers is known as network that enables to share the common resources. Write short notes on HTTP? 27 .xxx. What is Domain Name? Each host computer on the Internet has a unique number called IP address. What is USENET? USENET is a distributed system of messages like a worldwide chat system because so many messages are send every day. And also have a name know as host name. What do you mean by World Wide Web? WWW is a distributed system of inter linked pages that include text. 31. This is used to transfer e-mail in the internet. Servers are powerful computer that offers services to the client computers. With each news groups concentrating on one topic. 25. What is IP address? Each host computer on the Internet has a unique number called IP address. 33. What is DNS server? A DNS server translates the numeric IP addresses to the corresponding Domain name. IP address is in the format xxx. What is Client Server Model? It is a network architecture in which each computer on the network is either a client or a server. 27. 29. Data is send over the Telephone lines as opposed to cables. 30.22. Write short notes on WAN? Wide Area Network-WAN consist of computer systems that are further apart and are connected by telephones lines or radio waves. It enables easy access to the information available on the internet. Write short notes on MAN? Metropolitan Area Network-MAN is networks designed for a town or city. 28. The name of each host computer consists of a series of words separated by dots. Write short notes on LAN? Local Area Network-LAN consists of computers that are geographically close together. they are divided into news groups. sound and other information. Write short notes on SMTP? SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

enables the fetching and storing of files between hosts on the Internet. to provide an easy-to-use interface to some program. sounds.Refers to the techniques involved in using graphics. This is a file format.It is used simultaneously as online advertising. techniques and methods proven to get the results you are looking for. FTP. which is based on TCP/IP. whose e-mail address are kept in an electronic list that can be used to send e-mail to each member on the list. Keep ads as small and discreet as possible relative to your core homepage content. 38. What are the key elements in a protocol. 28 . What is HTML? HyperText Markup Language. label them as advertising so that users don’t confuse them with your site’s content. Three are two types of URL Absolute URL – This include complete path to the file location including all the names of directories and sub directories. ? 1) Syntax . References to other objects are embedded using URLs. 37. What is GUI? Graphical User Interface . 42. video streams. form fields and simple text formatting. HTML is a plain text file with commands <markup tags> to tell the Web browsers how to display the file. for hypertext documents on the Internet. 39. What is Mailing List? A group of users with a shared interest. based on SGML. What is FTP? The basic Internet File Transfer Protocol. 35. 36. If you place ads outside the standard banner area at the top of the page.Http is application protocol with the lightness and speed necessary for the distributed collaborative hypermedia information system. Online advertising is basically the action of actively promoting your new business. Avoid using ad conventions to showcase regular features of the site. Relative URL – These are like shorthand that tells the browser to go backward one or more directories to find the file. List the basic web advertising principles? Keep ads for outside companies on the periphery of the page. Define SCML? The Source Code Markup Language (SCML) is a formatting language that can be used to create templates for source code that needs to be output by Flick.Includes data format and Signal levels 2) Semantics – Includes control information for co-coordinating & Error handling 3) Timing – Includes speed matching and sequencing 40. 34. What is Web Advertising? Web advertising is the action of promoting your website using online advertising tools. along with a keyboard and a mouse. It is very simple and allows for the embedding of images. What is URL? URL stands for Uniform Resource Locater.

What are banner ads? A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. or video to maximize presence. Shockwave or Flash. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. sound. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF.43. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. UNIT – II Evolution of Enterprise Application Frameworks: The main reasons for the evolution of enterprise application frameworks are listed below: 29 . PNG). JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java. JPEG. often employing animation.

serving pages to viewers upon request. Every web server has a unique address so that other computers connected to the internet know where to find it on the vast network. There are also different ways to request content from a web server. The most common request is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). WEB SERVER: • Web servers are computers on the Internet that host websites. • Evolution and popularity of widely accepted concepts like n-tier architectures and component based software development. The Internet Protocol (IP) address looks something like this: 69. Several enterprise application frameworks have emerged based on the above listed needs.146. The most common use of web servers are to host websites but there are other uses like data storage or for running enterprise applications. A web server can be referred to as either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that helps to deliver content that can be accessed through the internet. Some of the best known examples are: • • • Java2 Platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE) from Sun Microsystems. such as http://www.141. This service is referred to as web hosting. Most people think a web server is just the hardware computer. but there are also other requests like the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • • 30 . transaction processing and multi-threading.com. but a web server is also referred to as the software computer application that is installed in the hardware computer.wisegeek. Distributed internet Applications Architecture (DNA) from Microsoft and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) from Object Management Group (OMG). This address maps to a more human friendly address.93.• Need to attune new technologies especially improvements on web technologies • Need to handle complex low level details inherent in enterprise applications like security.

if you intend to use server-side technologies such as PHP or ColdFusion. Do I Need A Web Server? • If you maintain your own web site I recommend you install a web server on your own development machine. For example. You know when you're using HTTP because the website URL begins with "http://" (for example. Web Servers .quackit. you will definitely need a web server. you can configure directory security. In other words. "http://www. • Also.gif"). Here are some advantages of using a web server within your development environment: • • • • Your local website behaves more like the live one. a web server is essential. in a production hosting environment. test your custom error pages etc before commiting them to the production environment. you can use root-relative paths for your image references and hyperlinks (i.• A web server is a piece of software that enables a website to be viewed using HTTP. Knowledge. Allows you to standardize your coding. You can use server-side scripting languages such as PHP and ColdFusion. "/directory/image. • That way you can configure your development environment to be closer to your live environment. rather than the directory structure of your computer.Advantages There are many advantages to using a web server within your development environment. Of course. HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the key protocol for the transfer of data on the web.com"). The knowledge you gain from using your own web server will help you understand how it works in the live environment. This will most certainly help you when you 31 .e. For example. your paths can represent the website structure.

you'll be able to use terminology that makes it easier for them to understand your request/issue. you're not viewing the website using the HTTP protocol (you're using the file protocol instead). then assign that URL to your websites via your web server Web Servers . CSS.  Most web servers have features that allow you to do the following: 32 .0.html These examples are using the file protocol in order to display the files.0. • • Here are some examples of what the URL could look like when viewing a web page via a web server: • • • • http://127.need to communicate with your hosting provider .0. and client-side JavaScript.com When you first set up a web server. But it is a problem if you're trying to use a server-side language such as PHP. you'll need to create your own URLs for them (via a DNS server or Hosts file). the URL begins with "http://". When you view a web page via a web server.0.html file:///C:/Inetpub/wwwroot/index. it could still cause you problems with developing a website that behaves exactly how it should on the web.com http://dev. When you add more websites. Now. even if you're not using a server-side language. Also. Also.Features  There's a common set of features that you'll find on most web servers. the URL will consist of either an IP address or a domain name/host name. this isn't normally a problem if you're only using client side languages such as HTML. their features are typically focussed around setting up and maintaining a website's hosting environment.1 http://localhost http://www.quackit.quackit.1. Viewing HTML Files with a Web Server • • One problem with the above method is that. ColdFusion etc. Viewing HTML Files without a Web Server: Here are some examples of what the URL could look like when viewing a web page without a web server: • • file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Homer%20Simpson/My%20Documents/index. you can usually navigate to your default web site using http://localhost or http://127. Because web servers are built specifically to host websites.

” An interface definition language works by requiring that a program's interfaces be described in a stub or slight extension of the program that is compiled into it. IDLs offer a bridge between the two different systems. which user accounts are/aren't allowed to view the website. enabling communication between software components that do not share a language – for example. Configure website/directory security. IDLs describe an interface in a language-neutral way. Create virtual directories. and map them to physical directories Configure/nominate custom error pages. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is a language for creating visualizations based on scientific or other data. Java IDL allows any Java object to communicate with other objects in any language by means of IDL. For example. • • • • Java IDL: IDL is a standard platform-independent declarative language which is used to define interfaces that object implementations provide and client objects call. An FTP site allows users to transfer files to and from the site. what data to include on the log files etc. DATABASE CONNECTIVITY: 33 . which IP addresses are/aren't allowed to view the website etc. For example.e. between components written in C++ and components written in Java. a "404 error"). is a specification language used to describe a software component's interface. IBM's System Object Model.• • • • • • Create one or more websites. Create an FTP site. Software systems based on IDLs include Sun's ONC RPC. The Open Group's Distributed Computing Environment. Configure log file settings. the Object Management Group's CORBA. or IDL for short. you can specify which page is displayed when a user tries to access a page that doesn't exist (i. The stubs in each program are used by a broker program to allow them to communicate. IDLs are commonly used in remote procedure call software. interface definition language). An interface description language (or alternately. In these cases the machines at either end of the "link" may be using different operating systems and computer languages. This allows you to build and display user friendly error messages on your website. including where the log files are saved. IDL: Interface Definition Language • • “IDL (interface definition language) is a generic term for a language that lets a program or object written in one language communicate with another program written in an unknown language.

The program retrieves and processes the results received from the database in answer to the queries. Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a Java based API that is primarily used in programming of Java applications for interfacing with various SQL supporting databases and other data sources such as spreadsheets or flat files. The JDBC API can also interact with multiple data sources in a distributed.sql and javax. a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems. • • • • Steps to use JDBC in a Java Program 1) The JDBC facilitates the connection to a database through a "Connection object" which is initiated through a "DriverManager object".0) is part of the two Java packages. 4) Using the ResultSet object. and then closes the connection to the database. the Java program connects to the database. 3) The Statement object is used to execute the SQL query to return the results through "ResultSet object". JDBC makes it possible to write a single Java application that will run on multiple platforms and interact with different databases. Using standard library routines.) 34 .  (Note-The JDBC API is included in both Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Java SE (Standard Edition). Using the JDBC API. The JDBC API (current version 4. the results of the query can be displayed by looping through the retrieved record sets. java.Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API: • • JDBC is a set of interfaces which allows Java applications access to any database. heterogeneous environment. namely. JDBC is a call-level interface that allows programmers to write Java applications that execute SQL commands on an external database. JDBC was developed by JavaSoft. applications can execute SQL statements. retrieve results. This API has the same purpose as Microsoft’s ODBC. and propagate changes back to an underlying data source. JDBC Components : JDBC is comprised of the following components:  JDBC API —  provides programmatic access to relational data from the Java programming language. Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is one of the Application Program Interface (API) specifications that allow a user to utilize SQL for connecting Java programs to a database.sql which are available both in Java EE as well as Java SE. and then uses JDBC to send queries and update code to the database. Since Java runs on most platforms. 2) The Connection object is used to create a "Statement object" for SQL query.

log4j. delete */ public class DBConnection { //intialise the Logger for this Class static Logger mLogger = Logger. The ODBC binary code must be loaded onto each client machine that uses this driver.    The JDBC API can be used for both two-tier as well as three-tier processing models for database access.sql. import java.getPackage(). //this method is used to get Create connection from postgre sql driver public static Connection getConnection() { Connection connection = null.sql.Logger. import org. import java.class.sql. /** * This Class is used to create the jdbc connection * and use the query for select.ResultSet. import java. update.db. EXAMPLE CODE : PACKAGE STATEMENTS : package com. 35 .getName()).marks. JDBC DriverManager class — defines objects which can connect Java applications to a JDBC driver. import java.apache.getLogger(DBConnection.sql.DriverManager.SQLException.Connection. JDBC-ODBC Bridge — provides JDBC access via ODBC drivers.sql.Statement. //IMPORT STATEMENTS import java. JDBC Test Suite — used to determine that JDBC drivers will run your program.

out.0.println("Hi Achappan!! your pgsql driver Loaded Successfully"). "postgres". } return connection. } //it is used to close the connection public static void closeConnection(Connection pConnection) { try{ if (pConnection != null){ pConnection. System. // register the driver in Driver Manager and establish the connection from them connection = DriverManager.getMessage()).close().Driver").out.postgresql. } catch(Exception exception) { System.try{ //load the pgsql driver Class. System.out.out.println("Print URL " + url).println("Connection Established"). // create the datasource String url = "jdbc:postgresql://10.forName("org.getConnection(url. } } catch (Exception e){ 36 .println(exception. "postgres"). pConnection = null.2.5:5432/acti". System.

throw new BusinessException("SQLException while trying to closeStatement in DBAccess: " + e. }} /** * This function is used to Close the statement.getStackTrace()).getMessage().close(). pStatement = null.System. * @param pStatement */ public static void closeStatement(Statement pStatement) throws BusinessException { try{ if (pStatement != null) { pStatement.close(). } } /** * This function is used to close the resultset. } } catch (SQLException e) { mLogger.error(new StringBuffer("SQLException while trying to closeStatement in DBAccess: ")).out. } } 37 .getMessage()). * @param pResultSet */ public static void closeResultSet(ResultSet pResultSet) throws BusinessException { try { if (pResultSet != null) { pResultSet. e. pResultSet = null.println("Error occured while closing the exception " + e.

e. e.getConnection(). such as fault-tolerance.getMessage().getStackTrace()). and external systems 38 . throw new BusinessException("SQLException while trying to closeResultSet in DBAccess: " + e. } } WEB APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE: Architecture of web applications: While the Web was originally designed to foster collaboration across distributed networks. }} public static void main(String[] args) { DBConnection. the application sever data.catch (SQLException e) { mLogger.printStackTrace(). and peak performance were added later as a result of leveraging the existing communication mechanisms in the Web to support transaction-based applications. The right-most elements – • • • • the file system.error(new StringBuffer("SQLException while trying to closeResultSet in DBAccess: ")). stronger requirements. scalability.

This notion presents the next architectural challenge. from the browser to the Web server. Most systems today tend to push business logic to the server. each alternative has its own advantages and disadvantages: • • • a thin client offers simplicity of security and distribution but makes the browser look more like a dumb terminal. The left-most elements – • • • the browser. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. such as through servlets. a distributed one) are elements unique to the Web space. the Web server. Here's the first architectural challenge: How do you preserve the user's session state?   There are a number of alternatives. or should it be more stateful. a Web page. and then the delivery of. and a gain the file system (in this case. Should there be stateless communication from the logic to the data via mechanisms such as Java Server Pages (JSP). From the perspective of the user experience. a thick client offers greater locality of reference and better interactivity but at the cost of distribution. there are significant architectural differences owing to the very different mechanisms that tie these elements together. The placement of the application's business logic represents another architectural challenge: should it live in the server (the thin client model). this otherwise physically distributed back-end looks like traditional mainframe computing.are essentially the same as found in traditional client/server systems. should it live in the client (the fat client/thin server model). of which cookies and communication via IIOP (the Internet Inter-Orb Protocol) are the most common. However. NEXT ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: Business logic must touch the state of the business. involving the request for. or should it be spread out overall? In the spectrum of thin to thick client. 39 . For example. communication is generally stateless.

a coupling via JDBC is more direct but requires that the application developer have intimate knowledge of the data's form. how does one give the illusion of objects to the user while data continues to live in relational tables? Second. This view primarily addresses the performance. also involves many architectural challenges.• Scripting is easier to change but comes with computational overhead. MESSAGING ARCHITECTURE: • • • A system's DESIGN VIEW encompasses the classes. a messaging architecture is less direct but is more scalable. Alternatively. • • First. The PROCESS VIEW of a system encompasses the threads and processes that form the system's concurrency and synchronization mechanisms. meaning the services that the system should provide to its end-users. interfaces. and throughput of the system. scalability. how should the connection from the system's business logic to its data be manifest? For example. and servlets are potentially faster but more challenging to develop and deploy. and collaborations that form the vocabulary of the problem and its solution. which may be bound in legacy systems. This view primarily addresses the configuration 40 . This view primarily supports the functional requirements of the system. The IMPLEMENTATION VIEW of a system encompasses the components and files that are used to assemble and release the physical system. Connection to the application's persistence data.

Note: that this is where the UML fits in: the UML is a graphical language for visualizing. in multiple JVM instances. Application logic is divided into components according to function. When a Web application is marked distributable in its deployment descriptor. A distributed Web application runs simultaneously in multiple Web containers. and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. analysts. It can also improve availability by providing transparent failover between servlet instances • Distributed Multitiered Applications The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. because it allows Web request load to be spread across multiple servers. The Java EE application parts shown in Figure 1-1 are presented in Java EE Components. and the database or legacy 41 . and potentially on multiple machines. delivery. the Java EE server machine. Thus. Distributing a servlet improves scalability. The DEPLOYMENT VIEW of a system encompasses the nodes that form the system's hardware topology on which the system executes. Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in Figure 1-1. constructing. and installation of the parts that make up the physical system. This view primarily addresses the distribution. the container may (but is not required to) create multiple instances of the servlet. Enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server. • • • • Client-tier components run on the client machine. it is well suited to express each of these five views DISTRIBUTABLE WEB APPLICATIONS : • • The J2EE platform provides optional support for distributed Web applications. The releases are comprised of somewhat independent components and files that can be assembled in various ways to produce a running system. specifying. Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines. Business-tier components run on the Java EE server. This view exists to specify the forces that shape the system's architecture. Figure 1-1 shows two multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the following list. The USE CASE VIEW of a system encompasses the use cases that describe the behavior of the system as seen by its end-users. and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system.• • management of the system's releases. and testers. Web-tier components run on the Java EE server.

Java EE Components Java EE applications are made up of components. 42 . Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE platform provides standard declarative access control rules that are defined by the developer and interpreted when the application is deployed on the server. the Java EE security environment enables security constraints to be defined at deployment time. Security While other enterprise application models require platform-specific security measures in each application. Java EE also provides standard login mechanisms so application developers do not have to implement these mechanisms in their applications. The same application works in a variety of different security environments without changing the source code.machines at the back end. The Java EE platform makes applications portable to a wide variety of security implementations by shielding application developers from the complexity of implementing security features.

An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. and so on). client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Java EE Clients A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client. which renders the pages received from the server. Applets A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. 43 . Java Servlet. Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. and are deployed to production. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server. where they can leverage the security. speed. When you use a thin client. web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. However. and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies. are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification. which are generated by web components running in the web tier. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application. Thin clients usually do not query databases. JavaServer Faces. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. and (2) a web browser. Web Clients A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML. such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server. services.The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components: • • • Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. where they are run and managed by the Java EE server. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs. Also. XML. and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. or connect to legacy applications. execute complex business rules.

an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. the RMI registry. Applications can use various mechanisms to obtain references to remote objects. However. an application can register its remote objects with RMI's simple naming facility. an application can pass and return remote object references as part of other remote invocations. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 5 servers. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. A typical client program obtains a remote reference to one or more remote objects on a server and then invokes methods on them. RMI provides the mechanism by which the server and the client communicate and pass information back and forth. RMI (Remote Method Invocaton): AN OVERVIEW OF RMI APPLICATIONS: RMI applications often comprise two separate programs. Such an application is sometimes referred to as a distributed object application. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. if application requirements warrant it. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture. Distributed object applications need to do the following: • Locate remote objects. For example. A typical server program creates some remote objects. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. enabling the Java EE 5 platform to interoperate with legacy systems. a server and a client. makes references to these objects accessible.Application Clients An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. 44 . Alternatively. and waits for clients to invoke methods on these objects. and non-Java languages. The JavaBeans Component Architecture The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server. clients. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API. but a command-line interface is certainly possible. or between server components and a database.

The client looks up the remote object by its name in the server's registry and then invokes a method on it. for objects when needed. thus dynamically extending the behavior of an application. a distributed application built by using Java RMI is made up of interfaces and classes. Objects. The compute engine example in this trail uses this capability to introduce new behavior to a distributed program. declare additional methods as well.• • Communicate with remote objects. from server to client and from client to server. The interfaces declare methods. Load class definitions for objects that are passed around. and Methods • Like any other Java application. The illustration also shows that the RMI system uses an existing web server to load class definitions. This capability enables new types and behaviors to be introduced into a remote Java virtual machine. RMI passes objects by their actual classes. Advantages of Dynamic Code Loading: • One of the central and unique features of RMI is its ability to download the definition of an object's class if the class is not defined in the receiver's Java virtual machine. • The classes implement the methods declared in the interfaces and. • • • • All of the types and behavior of an object. The following illustration depicts an RMI distributed application that uses the RMI registry to obtain a reference to a remote object. 45 . so the behavior of the objects is not changed when they are sent to another Java virtual machine. perhaps. To the programmer. remote communication looks similar to regular Java method invocations. The server calls the registry to associate (or bind) a name with a remote object. previously available only in a single Java virtual machine can be transmitted to another. Remote Interfaces. Because RMI enables objects to be passed back and forth. possibly remote. Details of communication between remote objects are handled by RMI. it provides mechanisms for loading an object's class definitions as well as for transmitting an object's data. Java virtual machine.

Compiling sources. to the client. Creating Distributed Applications by Using RMI Using RMI to develop a distributed application involves these general steps: 1. An object becomes remote by implementing a characteristics: • • which has the following A remote interface extends the interface java.  This property enables a stub to be cast to any of the interfaces that the remote object implements. 4.RemoteException in its throws clause.• In a distributed application. Objects with methods that can be invoked across Java virtual machines are called remote objects. some implementations might reside in some Java virtual machines but not others.  The client invokes a method on the local stub. REMOTE INTERFACE . not to the implementation classes of those interfaces. which is responsible for carrying out the method invocation on the remote object. The design of such interfaces includes the determination of the types of objects that will be used as the 46 .  A stub for a remote object implements the same set of remote interfaces that the remote object implements.  Rather than making a copy of the implementation object in the receiving Java virtual machine. Making classes network accessible. Designing and implementing the components of your distributed application. Clients program to remote interfaces. This step includes: • Defining the remote interfaces.  RMI treats a remote object differently from a non-remote object when the object is passed from one Java virtual machine to another Java virtual machine.  However.rmi. or proxy. for the remote object and basically is. RMI passes a remote stub for a remote object. the remote reference.rmi. determine your application architecture.Remote. Starting the application. 3. in addition to any application-specific exceptions. A remote interface specifies the methods that can be invoked remotely by a client. Each method of the interface declares java. only those methods defined in a remote interface are available to be called from the receiving Java virtual machine. including which components are local objects and which components are remotely accessible.  The stub acts as the local representative. 2. Designing and Implementing the Application Components First.

you need to define them as well. including after the remote objects have been deployed. HTML is mostly an instance of SGML 47 . Remote objects must implement one or more remote interfaces. For example. a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type. they must be implemented as well. If any local classes are to be used for parameters or return values of any of these methods. Although the most common and most widely used markup languages are written for computers. one of the document formats of the World Wide Web. MARK UP LANGUAGE: What Is a Markup Language? A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. The remote object class may include implementations of other interfaces and methods that are available only locally. Types: • • • • • • • Markup Language Document Markup Language Css Markup Language Extensible Markup Language Xml Extended Markup Language Hyper Markup Language Markup Language Definition A well-known example of a markup language in widespread use today is HyperText Markup Language (HTML).parameters and return values for these methods. Clients that use remote objects can be implemented at any time after the remote interfaces are defined. • Implementing the remote objects. • Implementing the clients. If any of these interfaces or classes do not yet exist. the concept of a markup language is not limited to computer programming.

and many particular markup languages are derived from it. although it began as simpler than most and a formal DTD was not developed until later. However. By 1991. HTML is quite likely the most used markup language in the world today. as well as one for separately describing what tags were allowed. SGML is properly a meta-language. because of the flexibility and extensibility that it enabled . 48 . it can be described as a 'container' language. XML eliminated many of the more complex and human-oriented features of SGML to simplify implementation environments such as documents and publications . The main purpose of XML was to simplify SGML by focusing on a particular problem — documents on the Internet. XML adoption was helped because every XML document can be written in such a way that it is also an SGML document. SGML specified a syntax for including the markup in documents. and where (DTD) or schema.[9] XML remains a meta-language like SGML.]. the idea that markup should be focused on the structural aspects of a document and leave the visual presentation of that structure to the interpreter led to the creation of SGML. It leads to create HTML. using the abbreviation XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language). it appeared to many that SGML would be limited to commercial and data-based applications . Thus. HTML: • • • • XML: • • • • XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a meta markup language that is now widely used.SGML: • • • • • In the early 1980s. it was generally found to be cumbersome and difficult to learn. allowing users to create any tags needed (hence "extensible") and then describing those tags and their permitted uses. a side effect of attempting to do too much and be too flexible. XML is now widely used for communicating data between applications. HTML's use of descriptive markup was a major factor in the success of the Web. SGML found wide acceptance and use in fields with very large-scale documentation requirements. . However. • • XHTML: • Since January 2000 all W3C Recommendations for HTML have been based on XML rather than SGML. HTML resembles other SGML-based tag languages. and existing SGML users and software could switch to XML fairly easily. Like HTML.

• • The language specification requires that XHTML Web documents must be well-formed XML documents – this allows for more rigorous and robust documents while using tags familiar from HTML. 3) Common features of web server? 1. For a web site to be available to everyone in the world at all times. Two marks 1) What is the web server? A web site is a collection of web pages. all tag and attribute names must be lowercase in order to be valid.have a vital role on the Internet. typically written using HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Such a computer is known as a web Server 2) What is the role of web server on the Internet? Web servers . but frequently used because it enables some pre-XML Web browsers. Bandwidth throttling to limit the speed of responses in order to not saturate the network and to be able to serve more clients. Large file support to be able to serve files whose size is greater than 2 GB on 32 bit OS. Server-side scripting to generate dynamic Web pages. Finally. SOAP and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). DocBook. 4. HTML. it need to be stored or "hosted" on a computer that is connected to the internet 27/7/365.the computer or the program . The Server machine hosts the web site while the server program helps deliver the web pages and their associated files like images and flash movies. Other XML-Based Applications: Many XML-based applications now exist. Virtual hosting to serve many Web sites using one IP address. or replaced by a special form: <br /> (the space before the '/' on the end tag is optional. 49 . For a partial list of these see List of XML markup languages. and SGML parsers. Another is that all attribute values in tags must be quoted. 4) What is IDL? IDL (interface definition language) is a generic term for a language that lets a program or object written in one language communicate with another program written in an unknown language. 3. on the other hand. XForms. but still keeping Web server and Web site implementations separate from each other. was case-insensitive. One of the most noticeable differences between HTML and XHTML is the rule that all tags must be closed: empty HTML tags such as <br> must either be closed with a regular end-tag. And web pages are digital files. 2. including Resource Description Framework (RDF). to accept the tag).

and 1.. Allows you to standardize your coding. Server-side scripting to generate dynamic Web pages. 4.Advantages • • • • Your local website behaves more like the live one. an internal or external program name (for dynamic requests). because it can handle only a limited number of concurrent client connections (usually between 2 and 80. Web 9) Path translation: Web servers are able to map the path component of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into: • • a local file system resource (for static requests). Java IDL allows any Java object to communicate with other objects in any language by means of IDL. 50 . 8) Common features Virtual hosting to serve many Web sites using one IP address. still keeping Web server site implementations separate from each other.  graphics display. the hardware and software limitations of the OS where it is working. 7) Web Servers . you can configure directory security. Load limits A Web server (program) has defined load limits. Knowledge.000) per IP address (and TCP port) and it can serve only a certain maximum number of requests per second depending on: • • • • • its own settings. The knowledge you gain from using your own web server will help you understand how it works in the live environment.5) What Is Java Idl? IDL is a standard platform-independent declarative language which is used to define interfaces that object implementations provide and client objects call. content origin (static or dynamic). bit OS. 6) Features of key features of IDL  interactivity. the HTTP request type. by default between 500 and 1. the fact that the served content is or is not cached. 3. test your custom error pages etc before commiting them to the production environment. 2. You can use server-side scripting languages such as PHP and ColdFusion. For example.000. Large file support to be able to serve files whose size is greater than 2 GB on 32 Bandwidth throttling to limit the speed of responses in order to not saturate the network and to be able to serve more clients. and  Array-oriented operation.

No command can be performed against a database without an "open and available" connection to it. PreparedStatement – the statement is cached and then the execution path is pre determined on the database server allowing it to be executed multiple times in an efficient manner. whether on the same machine or not. Connection pooling is a technique designed to alleviate this problem. stored procedures may be invoked through a JDBC connection. it requests a connection from the pool. It is very inefficient for an application to create and close a database connection whenever it needs to update a database. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the JVM host environment. 13) Java Database Connectivity. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC represents statements using one of the following classes: • • • Statement – the statement is sent to the database server each and every time. A connection is required to send commands and receive answers. These may be update statements such as SQL's CREATE. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. commonly referred to as JDBC. CallableStatement – used for executing stored procedures on the database. java DataBase Connectivity. INSERT. Connections are a key concept in data-centric programming. is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. UPDATE and DELETE return an update count that indicates how many rows were affected in the database. Since some DBMS engines require considerable time to connect connection pooling was invented to improve performance. it returns the connection to the pool. UPDATE and DELETE. or they may be query statements such as SELECT. A pool of database connections can be created and then shared among the applications that need to access the database. 12)what is Pooling: Database connections are finite and expensive and can take a disproportionately long time to create relative to the operations performed on them. When an application needs database access.11) Note on databaes connectivity: A database connection is a facility in computer science that allows client software to communicate with database server software. where it becomes available for use by other applications. 15)JDBC Components The JDBC API JDBC Driver Manager JDBC Test Suite 51 . Update statements such as INSERT. 14) JDBC Functionality JDBC connections support creating and executing statements. Additionally. When it is finished. These statements do not return any other information.

• • • • All of the types and behavior of an object. thus dynamically extending the behavior of an application. The compute engine example in this trail uses this capability to introduce new behavior to a distributed program. a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold 52 . The deployment descriptor for such an application uses the distributable element 17) Distributed Multitiered Applications The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. 20) What Is a Markup Language? A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear.JDBC-ODBC Bridge 16) Distributable Web Applications : A Web application that uses J2EE technology written so that it can be deployed in a Web container distributed across multiple Java virtual machines running on the same host or different hosts. so the behavior of the objects is not changed when they are sent to another Java virtual machine. 19) Advantages of Dynamic Code Loading: • One of the central and unique features of RMI is its ability to download the definition of an object's class if the class is not defined in the receiver's Java virtual machine. multi-tier Java software. 18)Java Platform. For example. Enterprise Edition: Java Platform. Application logic is divided into components according to function. based largely on modular components running on an application server. previously available only in a single Java virtual machine can be transmitted to another. This capability enables new types and behaviors to be introduced into a remote Java virtual machine. possibly remote. The Java platform (Enterprise Edition) differs from the Java Standard Edition Platform (Java SE) in that it adds libraries which provide functionality to deploy fault-tolerant. Enterprise Edition or Java EE is a widely used platform for server programming in the Java programming language. distributed. and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Java virtual machine. RMI passes objects by their actual classes.

type. the concept of a markup language is not limited to computer programming 21) Markup Language Types: • • • • • • • Markup Language Document Markup Language Css Markup Language Extensible Markup Language Xml Extended Markup Language Hyper Markup Language Markup Language Definition 53 . Although the most common and most widely used markup languages are written for computers.

information. e-business can be defined from the following perspectives: Communications: Delivery of goods. and value chain integration. firms. design and development. particularly the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). including research and development. or payments over the computer networks or any other electronic means.  Commercial (trading): Provides capability of buying and selling products. to conduct or support to improve business activities and processes. procurement.  Business process: Doing business electronically by completing business processes over electronic networks. In other words. services. and information or making transactions via computer networks. logistics. A subset of e-business is e-commerce.  Services: A tool that addresses the desire of governments. and information on the Internet and via other online services. which describes the buying and selling of products.UNIT – III What is e-business? Electronic Business or e-business in short refers broadly to the use of technologies. services. including the Internet. The main difference between them is that e-commerce defines interaction between organizations and their customers. clients. or constituents. E-business concepts In details. and management to cut service costs while improving the quality of consumer service and increasing the speed of service delivery. human resources management. manufacturing. services. thereby substituting information for physical business processes. consumers. finance. operation. marketing and sales. On the other hand.  54 . e-business is also encompasses an organization’s internal operations. these two can be used interchangeably.

e-business could be any system that suppliers. B2B e-business focuses more on creating highly efficient and transparent markets that would transform the structure of industry value chains. business making online transactions with other business(s). and the delivery agent.  Business to consumer (B2C): It describes activities of commercial organizations serving the end consumer with products and/or services. products or services between a business and a consumer(s). in partial e-business/e-commerce. distributors. Publish a web site to provide public information about the business. for example:         Communicate with clients or suppliers via email. B2B also is used to identify sales transactions between businesses. Types of e-business The topic of e-business will often includes the transacting business or exchanging business-related information between: Business to Business (B2B): It typically takes the form of automated processes between trading partners and is performed in higher volumes. Research information about customers and competitors using web sites. all other possibilities include a mix of digital and physical dimensions. and other organizations. Particularly in the developing countries. Sell or promote products or services via a web site and/or email. transact. and collaborate.Learning: An enabler of online training and education in schools. all dimensions are physical while all dimensions are digital in pure e-business/ecommerce.  Community: Provides a gathering place for community members to learn. as the basis for conducting their business operation. In other words. The  55 . the business can be pure or partial e-business/e-commerce. or customers use the ICT. including businesses. process.  Collaborative: The framework for inter. universities. Obviously. particularly the Internet. In other words. it is an exchange and transaction of information. Send email to other organizations to order supplies. policies. Provide technical or customer service by email or web site. Dimensions of e-business Based on the above mentioned perspectives and the degree of digitization of product. and Manage and distribute internal organization documents via an intranet. Use the Internet for online banking and paying bills. the partial e-business/e-commerce has been adopted due to inadequate enabling environment (such as a suitable infrastructure.  Simply. In traditional commerce. and not just the final transactions that result from marketing.and intra-organizational collaboration. B2B can also encompass marketing activities between businesses. and financial resources).

B2C e-business can help limit set up costs of merchandising store, save salesperson, as well as develop a more efficient supply chain. Consumer to consumer (C2C): It is an Internet-facilitated form of commerce that has existed for the span of recorded history in the form of barter, flea markets, swap meets, garage/yard sales and the like.Error: Reference source not found In other words, consumers sell directly to other consumers.

Business to government (B2G): Businesses conduct transactions electronically with government regarding various business licensing or reporting requirements or where businesses sell products or services to government. In other words, government buys or provides goods, services, or information to/from businesses or individual citizens.

Business to employee (B2E): Information and services made available to employees online. For example, as in B2E portal, where a company or organization intranet that is customized for each employee. It includes specific information and personalized data such as personal hyperlinks, stock quotes, sports scores and news clips. It could even include a video feed to their children's day care center.

E-business framework
E-business is about using ICT to improve business processes in an organization, profit or nonprofit. This can be drive by either internal or external business pressures. The implementation of ebusiness does not affect an organization’s fundamental goals, including revenue increase, cost reduction of doing business, high ability to access new markets or additional segment of existing markets, provide a world class of customer service to customers against other competitors. Rather, it provides a new ways to achieve them that the application of physical assets on their own do not or even cannot reach. It is essential for the management team to understand a framework of e-business and see the importance of each of its core components. They are as follows: 1. E-business adoption strategy and direction Success of e-business initiatives is directly affected by the organization’s ability to develop a strategic plan and to work on that plan. A successful e-business adoption strategy starts with a top down vision that has the full commitment of the Chief Executive and senior management. This vision must be communicated to all stakeholders and the organization at large through special meetings and training/education programs. Goals and regularly scheduled reviews must be set and progress communicated throughout the organization and partners. Furthermore, the vision and goals should be regularly reviewed, as necessary, against the evolving competitive landscape. The successful ebusiness strategies tend to require the following characteristics:

56

   

It must be inextricably tied to fundamental business aims and needs, and cognizant of the information aspects of your organizations’ products and services. It must be reviewed more regularly than traditional organization strategy, in keeping with the dynamics of your chosen markets. It will require greater alignment and teamwork within your leadership group to ensure sound foundations for implementation. It will probably require a broader “market scan” than in the past.

2. The interaction among stakeholders The interaction of an organization with its key stakeholders is one of e-business concerns. The key stakeholders, as mentioned earlier, are important and have essential roles to play in an ebusiness framework. These relationship and communities among them can characterize e-business as a smaller network, more flexible organizations that have continually shifting priorities and roles. This is in contrast with traditional businesses, which have frequently been characterized by fixed corporate roles, linear supply chains, and physical distribution. 3. Information system and technology infrastructure E-business offers communication mechanism to improve, enrich, change, and deepen relationships with your key stakeholders. This may require the integration of email, web site, Interactive television, mobile devices, or new generations of technology to support the current and future business management and initiatives. 4. Culture Culture is also important concerns that an organization’s leadership team must consider and take the lead. Normally, each organization has evolved its own ways of workings, or so called processes; and has recorded them in form of operating model including activities and manpower they may need to make them function. If organization wants to gain performance improvement from e-business change, it needs to adapt the way it does the work and change processes. Changing these processes however, is extensive enough to impact on the current culture, for example, the rules, belief, norms, and behaviors against what the company and organization used to operate. In particular, the introduction of e-business methods that extend reach, enhance the richness of information while increasing its visibility and speed up your business reactions will dramatically affect your people and these rules.

57

Strategies for E-Commerce
Successful E-Commerce Strategies A successful e-commerce site might open the flood gates of new customer acquisition for you, ramping up revenues at little additional cost. These successful, proven e-commerce strategies will help you achieve retail success on the Web. E-commerce, or the buying and selling of goods and service over the internet, has opened a whole new frontier for small businesses. By harnessing the power of the worldwide web, small businesses are now able to reach beyond local markets to sell their products to customers around the world. But just like your local market, the world of e-commerce is highly competitive. To be successful you're going to need to stay one step ahead of the competition. Here are some strategies that will help you gain and maintain - a competitive advantage over your very real competitors in the virtual world of ecommerce. Develop a Highly Quality Virtual Catalog To truly succeed in e-commerce, you'll need to invest in the development of a first-rate virtual catalog. Similar to a mail catalog, a virtual catalog displays photos and information about your products, and provides a method for customers to place orders. But instead of sending the catalog to the customer, the customer comes to the catalog by visiting your company's website.

58

Having a poorly constructed virtual catalog can sometimes be worse than having no catalog at all. its functions and processes and those of its customer. While it's highly unlikely that you'll convince the competition to participate in this kind of arrangement. Most search engines sell space for ads that will appear alongside or around the list of websites that appear when an internet surfer types in a set of search words. Under the right conditions. it is very possible to negotiate links with companies that sell complementary or noncompeting products. the more likely it is that your site will appear ahead of the competition in keyword search. The more links there are to your website. Google and Yahoo. Advertise on Search Engines Your website and virtual catalog will only be as effective as the amount of traffic (potential customers) that visits the site. E-Business Architectures e-Business is a shorthand way of describing the integration of business strategies. be enterprisewide but are aimed at optimizing external relationships. you'll need to explore the possibility of advertising on search engines. Also. suppliers. The nature of a website makes it easier to display your product in a variety of options and to include additional product information that there may not be room for in a mail catalog. these ads can be a great way to direct people who may already have an interest in your product to your website. Negotiate Links with Other Websites Another way to increase traffic is to negotiate links to your site with other high traffic websites. Since creating quality internet catalogs requires a certain amount of expertise. These applications may not. virtual catalogs can be easily changed to add or remove products and to update product availability information. Another benefit of links: One of the variables most search engines use to rank websites is the number of links that exist to your site from other sites.” e-Business encompasses 59 .g. processes and technologies “e-Business applications are those that enable and manage relationships between an enterprise. To increase traffic. community or industry. unlike a mail catalog. other companies may be willing to include an ad for your business on their website. For either a fee or a reciprocal linking agreement. themselves.Virtual catalogs have a number of distinct advantages over traditional mailed ones. e. value chain. you should probably outsource this task to a dependable web designer.

. Business to Consumer (B2C)  Customer relationship management (CRM)  Supply Chain Management (SCM) Supply Chain Planning (SCP)  Business Intelligence (BI)  Knowledge Management (KM)  Collaboration Technologies (CT)  Available to Promise (ATP)  EDI and E-mail were precursors  more. e-Business =EC+CRM+SCM+BI+KM+CT E-Business Opportunities Business to Employee (B2E)  within the organization 60 .. E-commerce (EC): Business to Business (B2B).

 utilizes an Intranet Business to Business (B2B)  between two organizations  utilizes an Extranet Business to Consumer (B2C)  sales of goods and services via a web site  utilizes the Internet E-Business Categories e-Auctioning: electronic bidding for goods e-Banking: online access to execute financial transactions e-Commerce: online trade of goods and services e-Directories: online repositories for retrieving information e-Engineering: open source development e-Franchising: distribution of goods sold exclusively through franchise partners Basic e-Business Architecture 61 .

StoPro. Stored procedures are similar to user-defined functions (UDFs).Multi-tier e-Business Architecture STORED PROCEDURES A stored procedure is a subroutine available to applications accessing a relational database system. and all applications call the procedures. One can use nested stored procedures. by executing one stored procedure from within another. stored procedures are used to consolidate and centralize logic that was originally implemented in applications. Extensive or complex processing that requires the execution of several SQL statements is moved into stored procedures. StoredProc. or SP) are actually stored in the database data dictionary. The major difference is that UDFs can be used like any other expression within SQL statements. sproc. Stored procedures (sometimes called a proc. whereas stored procedures must be invoked using the CALL statement. Furthermore. Typical uses for stored procedures include data validation (integrated into the database) or access control mechanisms. CALL procedure(…) or EXECUTE procedure(…) 62 .

e. for example SQL. and CASE statements. or C+ +. REPEAT. i. exceeding SQL/PSM. and more. Java. or by applications. Stored procedures can receive variables. stored procedures can be implemented in a variety of programming languages. the results of a SELECT statement. by other stored procedures. Stored procedures written in non-SQL programming languages may or may not execute SQL statements themselves. Most database systems offer proprietary and vendor-specific extensions.NET Framework languages Oracle DB2 Informix PostgreSQL Firebird PL/SQL or Java SQL/PL or Java SPL PL/pgSQL. depending on how and where the variable is declared. Such result sets can be processed using cursors. Depending on the database system. Implementation The exact and correct implementation of stored procedure varies from one database system to another. Stored procedure languages typically include IF. WHILE. Stored procedures may also contain declared variables for processing data and cursors that allow it to loop through multiple rows in a table. That made SQL an imperative programming language. The increasing adoption of stored procedures led to the introduction of procedural elements to the SQL language in theSQL:1999 and SQL:2003 standards in the part SQL/PSM. Most major database vendors support them in some form. return results or modify variables and return them. by associating a result set locator.Stored procedures may return result sets. Database System Implementation Language Microsoft SQL Server Transact-SQL and various . LOOP. C. can also use own function languages such as pl/perl or pl/php PSQL (Fyracle also supports portions of Oracle's PL/SQL) 63 .

Stored procedures can also be invoked from a database trigger or a condition handler. pre-compiled SQL statements add to the complexity of creating an optimal execution plan because not all arguments of the SQL statement are supplied at compile time. 64 . this typically means that the procedures run entirely on a specialized database server. stored procedures run inside a transaction such that transactions are effectively transparent to them.) In addition. which can simplify data management and reduce the need to encode the logic elsewhere in client programs. which has direct access to the data being accessed. a stored procedure may be triggered by an insert on a specific table. while they avoid some overhead. and the code inside the stored procedure would be executed. Encapsulation of business logic: Stored procedures allow for business logic to be embedded as an API in the database. The database system can ensure data integrity and consistency with the help of stored procedures. Writing stored procedures as condition handlers also allows database administrators to track errors in the system with greater detail by using stored procedures to catch the errors and record some audit information in the database or an external resource like a file. closely adhering to SQL:2003 standard. For example. or update of a specific field in a table. Depending on the specific database implementation and configuration. In a production system. Comparison with dynamic SQL Overhead: Because stored procedure statements are stored directly in the database. Other uses In some systems stored procedures can be used to control transaction management. (However. they may remove all or part of the compilation overhead that is typically required in situations where software applications send inline (dynamic) SQL queries to a database. This may result in a lesser likelihood of data becoming corrupted through the use of faulty client programs. Avoidance of network traffic: A major advantage with stored procedures is that they can run directly within the database engine. stored-procedures can be granted access rights to the database which the users who will execute those procedures do not directly have. most database systems implement "statement caches" and other mechanisms to avoid repetitive compilation of dynamic SQL statements. mixed performance results will be seen from stored procedures versus generic queries or user defined functions. Delegation of access-rights: In many systems. in others.MySQL own stored procedures. This becomes particularly important for complex series of SQL statements. The benefit here is that network communication costs can be avoided completely.

65 .  A stored procedure can return multiple values using the OUT parameter or return no value at all. the user is not required to know the physical attributes of the table such as data location and type. Stored procedure parameters will be treated as data even if an attacker inserts SQL commands. Functions could be used in SELECT statements. The purpose is to allow the programmer to focus on what data should be selected and not how to select the data.  A function can have only IN parameters. SQL is nonprocedural.   Stored procedures can use RETURN keyword but without any value being passed. for example.Some protection from SQL injection attacks: Stored procedures can be used to protect against injection attacks. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SQL PROCEDURE The Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standardized language used to retrieve and update data stored in relational tables (or databases). this differs between vendors and languages (for example. Table A table is a two dimensional representation of data consisting of columns and rows. Comparison with functions   A function is a subprogram written to perform certain computations and return a single value. some DBMSs will check the parameter's type. However. When coding in SQL. while stored procedures may have OUT or INOUT parameters. provided they don’t do any data manipulation. but again. SAS data view. Functions must return a value (using the RETURN keyword). Oracle's PL/SQL has more languages features and built-in features (via packages such as DBMS_ and UTL_ and others) than Microsoft's T-SQL. then you have to rewrite your stored procedures. If you want to switch to using another vendor's database. Disadvantages Stored procedure languages are quite often vendor-specific. or table from a RDBMS. both PL/SQL and T-SQL have dedicated IDEs and debuggers). Tool support for writing and debugging stored procedures are often not as good as for other programming languages. In the SQL procedure a table can be a SAS data set. Stored procedure languages from different vendors have different levels of sophistication. but for stored procedures this is not compulsory. The method of retrieval is determined by the SQL optimizer. not by the user. Tables are logically related by values such as a key column. procedures cannot be included in SELECT statements. Also.

Simple Queries 66 . The SQL procedure supports most of the standard SQL. Table 1 Dept MCE MCE INA INA Name SMITH JONES LEE RAY Salary 23000 34000 28000 21000 COLUMN Table 2 Dptcode MCE INA Location WINDSOR HARTFORD Manager HICKS ROYCE ROW Dept is the key column in Table 1 to join to the Dptcode key column in Table 2. All employees will have a value for salary. A table in SQL is simply another term for a SAS data set or data view. An employee may be represented as a row in a table. A row represents a particular entry. It also has many features that go beyond the standard SQL. A column represents the particular values for all rows. Either Location or Manager in Table 2 could also act as a key into a third table. Terminology The terminology used in SQL can be related to standard data processing terminology.There are several implementations (versions) of SQL depending on the RDBMS being used. Data Processing File Record Field SAS SAS dataset Observation Variable SQL equivalent Table Row Column The table is where the data is stored. Salary may be a column on a table. Relational Tables In SQL tables are logically related by a key column or columns.

SELECT LASTNAME. column . The query result is typically a report but can also be another table. PROC SQL. SALARY FROM CLASS. The programmer can focus on what they want and SQL will determine how to get it. department. queries are submitted with PROC SQL Basic Syntax PROC SQL. . The fundamental approach is SELECT … FROM… WHERE… In SAS. . · The data will be displayed in the order you list the columns in the SELECT statement. For instance: I would like to select last name. SELECT column. the entire query is terminated with a semicolon.A query is merely a request for information from a table or tables. . · Statements (clauses) in the SQL procedure are not separated by semicolons. · There is a required order of statements in a query. DEPARTMENT. calculated value or formatted value. RUN statements have no effect. and salary from the employee table where the employee's salary is greater than 35. SELECT · To retrieve and display data a SELECT statement is used. · One SQL procedure can contain many queries and a query can reference the results from previous queries. · Items in an SQL statement are separated by a comma.000. · The SQL procedure can be terminated with a QUIT statement. . FROM tablename|viewname.EMPLOY WHERE SALARY GT 35000 Herein lays the simplicity of SQL. 67 . · A column can be a variable.

FROM · The FROM statement specifies the input table or tables. BONUS FROM CLASS.000. QUIT. SALARY. PROC SQL. salary and bonus (columns) for all employees (rows) from the employee table. PROC SQL. Selecting Rows with a WHERE Clause The WHERE clause specifies rows to be selected for the query. BONUS FROM CLASS. SALARY. salary and bonus (columns) from the employee table where the employee is in department GIO and has a salary less that 35. Examples: I would like to select the social security number. PROC SQL. SELECT SSN. WHERE expression1 [AND/OR] expression2 Example: To select the social security number.EMPLOYEE. WHERE Clause Operators 68 . SELECT * FROM CLASS.· An asterisk (*) can be used to select all columns. LIBNAME CLASS 'C:\CYDATA'.EMPLOYEE WHERE DEPT = 'GIO' AND SALARY LT 35000.EMPLOYEE. SELECT SSN. To select all the information (columns) for all employee's (rows) on the employee table.

SQL stored procedure definitions provide the following information: • The stored procedure name 69 . The part of the CREATE PROCEDURE statement that contains the code is called the stored procedure body. AND IN IS MISSING ( NULL) LIKE CONTAINS =* EXISTS Logical operators AND OR NOT Compound WHERE clause Compound WHERE clause Logical NOT Compare to a range Compare to a series of values Value is missing Compare to wildcards (% or _) Compare to a substring Sounds like Compare to a subquery SQL stored procedures An SQL stored procedure is a stored procedure in which the source code is part of the CREATE PROCEDURE statement. Standard comparison operators EQ or = Equal to NE GT ^= Not Equal To > Greater Than GE >= Greater Than or Equal To LT < Less Than LE <= Less Than or Equal To Special operators BETWEEN .The WHERE clause supports many comparison operators.. It also supports logical NOTs and AND/OR to create compound expressions.

• • • Parameter attributes The language in which the stored procedure is written.Procedure6 -------------------------------------------------------------4 P1: BEGIN -.SQL stored procedure SCHEMA. the list of parameters that are passed to or from the stored procedure. Begins the body of the SQL stored procedure. The second example shows a simple SQL stored procedure for z/OS. an SQL stored procedure has a stored procedure body. LANGUAGE SQL indicates that this is an SQL stored procedure.Procedure6 ( INOUT var0 varchar(9) ) 2 LANGUAGE SQL -------------------------------------------------------------3 -.Declare cursor DECLARE cursor1 CURSOR WITH RETURN FOR SELECT * FROM STAFF. END P1 Line 1 Description The SQL stored procedure name is SCHEMA. This information can include run-time options and whether the stored procedure returns result sets Unlike a CREATE PROCEDURE statement for an external stored procedure. For an SQL stored procedure. Figure 1. and the LANGUAGE parameter are common to all stored procedures. The InOut parameter has data type varchar(9). CREATE PROCEDURE for a simple SQL stored procedure 1 CREATE PROCEDURE SCHEMA. Line numbers are included here for convenience. which contains the source statements for the stored procedure. Instead. 2 3 4 Figure 2. CREATE PROCEDURE for an SQL stored procedure for z/OS 70 . The following figures show example CREATE PROCEDURE statements for simple SQL stored procedures.Procedure6. The stored procedure name. the language is SQL Information about the SQL stored procedure that is used when the stored procedure is called. The LANGUAGE value of SQL is particular to an SQL stored procedure. Shows a comment for the SQL stored procedure. the CREATE PROCEDURE statement for an SQL stored procedure does not specify the EXTERNAL clause. All SQL stored procedure bodies consist of one or more statements nested within a BEGIN and an END keyword.

Declare cursor DECLARE cursor1 CURSOR WITH RETURN FOR SELECT SCHEMA. -.SYSROUTINES. NAME FROM SYSIBM. Begins the body of the SQL stored procedure. Specifies a Workload Manager (WLM) environment.*)' ---------------------------------------------------------6 -. your business can accept electronic payments as follows: 71 .Proc1111. Shows a comment for the SQL stored procedure. Specifies a collection ID of TEST.Proc1111 ( ) RESULT SETS 1 2 LANGUAGE SQL MODIFIES SQL DATA 3 COLLID TEST 4 WLM ENVIRONMENT WLMENV1 5 ASUTIME NO LIMIT RUN OPTIONS 'NOTEST(NONE. Electronic Payment Services Electronic Payments Increase Internet Sales With electronic payment services. END P1 Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description The SQL stored procedure name is SCHEMA.1 CREATE PROCEDURE SCHEMA.SQL Stored Procedure ---------------------------------------------------------7 P1: BEGIN -.Cursor left open for client application OPEN cursor1.*. LANGUAGE SQL indicates that this is an SQL stored procedure.*. Specifies no processor time limit for running the routine. All SQL stored procedure bodies consist of one or more statements nested within a BEGIN and an END keyword.

Fees collected can be fixed or variable. entrepreneurs are not able to accept credit card payments over the Internet due to legal and business concerns. EPS plays an important role in e-commerce because it closes the e-commerce loop. Now a business can convert a paper check to an electronic payment at the point of sale or account receivable checks (checks received through the mail) can also be converted to an electronic payment. and in other developed countries. An electronic payment system (EPS) is a system of financial exchange between buyers and sellers in the online environment that is facilitated by a digital financial instrument (such as encrypted credit card numbers. Your business can automate receivables with electronic payments. Introducing Electronic Payment! Millions of Americans prefer to write checks rather than use a credit card. The primary issue is transaction security. Electronic check conversion. Electronic check payment allows merchants to easily accept electronic checks or convert paper checks to electronic payments. Hence. Secure and User-Friendly Once the information has been input. or by legal tender. The Electronic Payment Advantage The benefits to the online merchant are enormous. The absence or inadequacy of legal infrastructures governing the operation of e-payments is also a concern. a signature) by a card owner before a transaction is considered valid-a requirement that does not exist in the U. In developing countries.• • • • Non recurring (one time) payment acceptance. or digital cash) backed by a bank.S. In these countries. semi-annual. quarterly.. Reduce fees for returned checks. banks with e-banking operations employ service agreements between themselves and their clients. the data is encrypted using SSL encryption technology and transmitted to the electronic check payment secure server for posting. Bad check recovery Improve cash flow. In addition to expanding your market by having another payment option. Collect monthly. Fast. Electronic Internet payments and electronic bill payment software. Most transactions are settled within 48 hours. the underdeveloped electronic payments system is a serious impediment to the growth of e-commerce. There is also the problem of the requirement of “explicit consent” (i. electronic checks. Your business can accept checks over the telephone or at your web site Recurring payment acceptance. an intermediary. Access online real-time reporting on account activity. The relatively undeveloped credit card industry in many developing countries is also a barrier to e-commerce. This reduces costs by eliminating or reducing the handling of paper checks. 72 . or annual fees. Only a small segment of the population can buy goods and services over the Internet due to the small credit card market base. your company can benefit in following ways: • • • • • Save up to 50% in processing fees compared to credit cards.e.

Traditional Payment Methods ● Cash-on-delivery: Many online transactions only involve submitting purchase orders online. Payment is by cash upon the delivery of the physical goods. ● Bank payments: After ordering goods online, payment is made by depositing cash into the bank account of the company from which the goods were ordered. Delivery is likewise done the conventional way. Electronic Payment Methods ● Innovations affecting consumers, include credit and debit cards, automated teller machines (ATMs), stored value cards, and e-banking. ● Innovations enabling online commerce are e-cash, e-checks, smart cards, and encrypted credit cards. These payment methods are not too popular in developing countries. They are employed by a few large companies in specific secured channels on a transaction basis. ● Innovations affecting companies pertain to payment mechanisms that banks provide their clients, including inter-bank transfers through automated clearing houses allowing payment by direct deposit. What is the confidence level of consumers in the use of an EPS? Many developing countries are still cash-based economies. Cash is the preferred mode of payment not only on account of security but also because of anonymity, which is useful for tax evasion purposes or keeping secret what one’s money is being spent on. For other countries, security concerns have a lot to do with a lack of a legal framework for adjudicating fraud and the uncertainty of the legal limit on the liability associated with a lost or stolen credit card. In sum, among the relevant issues that need to be resolved with respect to EPS are: consumer protection from fraud through efficiency in record-keeping; transaction privacy and safety, competitive payment services to ensure equal access to all consumers, and the right to choice of institutions and payment methods. Legal frameworks in developing countries should also begin to recognize electronic transactions and payment schemes.

XML
What is XML?
• • • • • •

XML stands for Extensible Markup Language XML is a markup language much like HTML XML was designed to carry data, not to display data XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags XML is designed to be self-descriptive XML is a W3C Recommendation

The Difference between XML and HTML XML is not a replacement for HTML.
73

XML and HTML were designed with different goals:
• •

XML was designed to transport and store data, with focus on what data is HTML was designed to display data, with focus on how data looks

HTML is about displaying information, while XML is about carrying information.

Key terminology
(Unicode) Character By definition, an XML document is a string of characters. Almost every legal Unicode character may appear in an XML document. Processor and Application The processor analyzes the markup and passes structured information to an application. The specification places requirements on what an XML processor must do and not do, but the application is outside its scope. The processor (as the specification calls it) is often referred to colloquially as an XML parser. Markup and Content The characters which make up an XML document are divided into markup and content. Markup and content may be distinguished by the application of simple syntactic rules. All strings which constitute markup either begin with the character "<" and end with a ">", or begin with the character "&" and end with a ";". Strings of characters which are not markup are content. Tag A markup construct that begins with "<" and ends with ">". Tags come in three flavors: start-tags, for example<section>, end-tags, for example </section>, and empty-element tags, for example <line-break/>. Element A logical component of a document which either begins with a start-tag and ends with a matching end-tag, or consists only of an empty-element tag. The characters between the start- and end-tags, if any, are the element'scontent, and may contain markup, including other elements, which are called child elements. An example of an element is <Greeting>Hello, world.</Greeting> (see hello world). Another is <linebreak/>.

74

Attribute A markup construct consisting of a name/value pair that exists within a start-tag or empty-element tag. In the example (below) the element img has two attributes, src and alt:<img src="madonna.jpg" alt='Foligno Madonna, by Ra phael'/>. Another example would be<step number="3">Connect A to B.</step> where the name of the attribute is "number" and the value is "3". XML Declaration XML documents may begin by declaring some information about themselves, as in the following example. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> Example Here is a small, complete XML document, which uses all of these constructs and concepts. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <painting> <img src="madonna.jpg" alt='Foligno Madonna, by Raphael'/> <caption>This is Raphael's "Foligno" Madonna, painted in <date>1511</date>–<date>1512</date>. </caption> </painting> There are five elements in this example document: painting, img, caption, and two dates. The date elements are children of caption, which is a child of the root element painting. img has two attributes, src and alt. Characters and escaping XML documents consist entirely of characters from the Unicode repertoire. Except for a small number of specifically excluded control characters, any character defined by Unicode may appear within the content of an XML document. The selection of characters which may appear within markup is somewhat more limited but still large. XML includes facilities for identifying the encoding of the Unicode characters which make up the document, and for expressing characters which, for one reason or another, cannot be used directly.

DTD
The oldest schema language for XML is the Document Type Definition (DTD), inherited from SGML. DTDs have the following benefits:
75

thus grouping all constraints for a document in a single collection. DTD designers typically make heavy use of parameter entities (which behave essentially as textual macros). DTDs have the following limitations:   They have no explicit support for newer features of XML. is XML Schema.  DTD support is ubiquitous due to its inclusion in the XML 1.  They use a syntax based on regular expression syntax. DTDs define a document type rather than the types used by a namespace. They use a rich data typing system and allow for more detailed constraints on an XML document's logical structure. DTDs only support rudimentary datatypes. but at the expense of clarity.  Two peculiar features that distinguish DTDs from other schema types are the syntactic support for embedding a DTD within XML documents and for defining entities. XML Schema Main article: XML Schema (W3C) A newer schema language. inherited from SGML. to describe the schema. like character escapes. most importantly namespaces. They lack expressiveness. They lack readability. DTDs are terse compared to element-based schema languages and consequently present more information in a single screen. DTD technology is still used in many applications because of its ubiquity. so it is less accessible to programmers than an element-based syntax may be.0 standard. XSDs are far more powerful than DTDs in describing XML languages.   DTDs allow the declaration of standard public entity sets for publishing characters. XML DTDs are simpler than SGML DTDs and there are certain structures that cannot be expressed with regular grammars. Typical XML APIs such as SAX do not attempt to offer applications a structured representation of the syntax. Object Linking and Embedding 76 . XSDs also use an XML-based format. which are arbitrary fragments of text and/or markup that the XML processor inserts in the DTD itself and in the XML document wherever they are referenced. which makes it possible to use ordinary XML tools to help process them. which make it easier to define complex grammars. described by the W3C as the successor of DTDs. often referred to by the initialism for XML Schema instances. XSD (XML Schema Definition).

Microsoft Office. such as Internet Explorer. For developers. and Windows Media Player — use ActiveX controls to build their feature-set and also encapsulate their own functionality as ActiveX controls which can then be embedded into other applications. and audio files within the hypertext markup language (such as HTML or XHTML) or other structural markup language used (such as XML or SGML) — possibly. For example. although the technology itself is not tied to it. possibly along with a wide range of other interfaces. it brought OLE Control eXtension (OCX). a desktop publishing system might send some text to a word processor or a picture to a bitmap editor using OLE. a way to develop and use custom user interface elements. It was introduced in 1996 by Microsoft as a development of its Component Object Model (COM) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies and is commonly used in its Windows operating system. Microsoft Visual Studio. References to data in this file can be made and the master file can then have changed data which will then take effect in the referenced document. animation (including Flash animations). 77 . The concept of "embedding" is also central to much use of multimedia in Web pages. Software applications can then be composed from one or more of these components in order to provide their functionality. but it is also used for transferring data between different applications using drag and drop and clipboard operations. an OLE object is any object that implements the IOleObjectinterface. Its primary use is for managing compound documents. using a different embedding mechanism than OLE. OLE allows an editor to "farm out" part of a document to another editor and then re-import it. The main benefit of using OLE is to display visualizations of data from other programs that the host program is not normally able to generate itself (e. Internet Explorer also allows embedding ActiveX controls onto web pages.Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology developed by Microsoft that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects. ActiveX ActiveX is a framework for defining reusable software components in a programming language independent way. a pie-chart in a text document). depending on the object's needs. This is called "linking" (instead of "embedding"). Many Microsoft Windows applications — including many of those from Microsoft itself.g. which tend to embed video. On a technical level. as well as to create a master file. but not necessarily.

list boxes.[ambiguous] This approach distinguishes between a document. small program building blocks. and the Internet Explorer browser. edit. The server for an ActiveX document can be an EXE or a DLL server. can be accidentally installed from malicious websites using ActiveX controls (drive-by downloads). They also differ: Java applets can run on nearly any platform. just as Microsoft Word can support any number of document files.ActiveX controls Active X controls. Active X controls are comparable with Java applets: programmers designed both of these mechanisms to allow web browsers to download and execute them. dialog boxes. can serve to create distributed applications working over the Internet through web browsers. ActiveX Document ActiveX Document (also known as DocObject or DocObj) is a computer file in the form of a compound (textbased)document that allows a container application to use the full capabilities of server applications. display. save) to the document. including the following languages/environments:    C++ either directly or with the help of libraries such as ATL or MFC Borland Delphi Visual Basic Common examples of ActiveX controls include command buttons.VBD. viewing certain kinds of files. e. and displaying animation. and the software that can be applied (open. The document generally has the extension .g. though ActiveX documents can be stored within other files as well. ActiveX documents consist of two components: the 'document' itself and the 'ActiveX DLL or EXE server' that supports it. Examples include customized applications for gathering data. Malware. using a mechanism called OLE structured storage. such as a word document or video clip. A single server can support an unlimited number of documents. HTML 78 .  Programmers can write ActiveX controls in any language which supports COM component development. computer viruses and spyware. while ActiveX components officially operate only with Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser and the Microsoft Windows operating system.

The browser does not display the HTML tags. which stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of "tags" surrounded by angle brackets (like <html>) within the web page content. The first tag in a pair is the start tag. marketing and sales. 2 Marks 1.HTML. manufacturing. finance. which stands for HyperText Markup Language. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. procurement. HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. 3. logistics. design and development. encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational markup. to conduct or support to improve business activities and processes. particularly the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). It can embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpages.What is HTML? HTML. is the predominant markup language for web pages. HTML can also be used to include Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. including research and development. paragraphs. lists. HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>. and HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages. The W3C. quotes and other items. operation. It provides a means to create structured documentsby denoting structural semantics for text such as headings. maintainer of both HTML and CSS standards. but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page. and value chain integration. human resources management. HTML allowsimages and objects to be embedded and can be used to createinteractive forms. 2. A markup language is a set of markup tags. is the predominant markup language for web pages. links. What is e-business? Electronic Business or e-business in short refers broadly to the use of technologies. the second tag is the end tag (they are also calledopening tags and closing tags). Various Types of e-business? o o o o Business to Business (B2B): Business to consumer (B2C) Consumer to consumer (C2C) Business to government (B2G) 79 .

What is OLE? Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology developed by Microsoft that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects. You must define your own tags XML is designed to be self-descriptive XML is a W3C Recommendation 5 . 6. e-cash. echecks.o Business to employee (B2E) What is XML? o o o o o o XML stands for Extensible Markup Language XML is a markup language much like HTML XML was designed to carry data. stored value cards. Software applications can then be composed from one or more of these components in order to provide their functionality. automated teller machines (ATMs). not to display data XML tags are not predefined. Markup Language Types: o o o o o o Markup Language Document Markup Language Css Markup Language Extensible Markup Language Xml Extended Markup Language Hyper Markup Language 80 . 8.What is Activex Control? ActiveX is a framework for defining reusable software components in a programming language independent way. What is Activex Document? ActiveX Document (also known as DocObject or DocObj) is a computer file in the form of a compound (text-based)document that allows a container application to use the full capabilities of server applications. 7. Electronic Payment Methods credit and debit cards. smart cards. e-banking. 4.

A Developer who understands HTML can often edit Web pages much more quickly using a text editor than another developer can using WYSIWYG.Designers can create beautiful pages with Notepad as easily as with Dreamweaver. Text editors are usually faster to edit HTML changes. and they don't add in unexpected tags. Why Choose WYSIWYG or Text Editors Most Developers have a decided opinion about whether to use a WYSIWYG editor or a text editor. they don't result in pages that are better looking . Test Your Page 7. I use HomeSite for big jobs and vi for small edits. Other Considerations Other things to think about when you're looking for an HTML editor are: • Does it include a validator? 81 . But while WYSIWYG editors offer more design flexibility. You can write HTML in MS Word or you can use the tools on your hosting provider. WYSIWYG HTML Editors "What You See Is What You Get" HTML editors are very easy to use. The biggest advantage that these editors have is that you don't need to know HTML to put up a Web page. I prefer text editors. There are good editors in every price range. HTML editors come in two flavors: text editors and "what you see is what you get" editors. WYSIWYG editors are usually easier to use and don't require a knowledge of HTML. This doesn't have to be a fancy piece of software that you spent a lot of money on. Text HTML Editors This is the type of editor I use every day. you might think that it really isn't important what editor you use. If you're planning on doing Web Development professionally. Get a Place to Put Your Page 5. Upload Your Page to Your Host 6. Learn Some Basic HTML 3. Get a Web Editor 2.UNIT – IV HOW TO MAKE A WEB PAGE: Building a Web page isn't one of the hardest things you'll ever try to do in your life. I also like text editors because they can easily support new formats like XML. and only use WYSIWYG editors when pressed. Most novices start out with a WYSIWYG editor because you can get a new Web page up quickly. When building a Web page. Start Building More Pages Get a Web Editor In order to build a Web page you first need a Web editor. but it isn't necessarily easy either. Text editors provide a lot of control and speed for Web Developers. Promote Your Web Page 8. HTML editors range in price from free to several hundred dollars. You can use a text editor that comes with your operating system or you can download a free or inexpensive editor off the Internet. The steps are: 1. Write the Web Page and Save It to Your Hard Drive 4. Your choice of editor will be influenced by what you want to do. hiring managers want employees who know HTML.

homepage. for many people this is all the HTML editor they will ever need. While you can use aWYSIWYG editor and never need to know any HTML. What you need in a Web host depends upon what your website needs to attract and keep readers. you need to save the file as . Start writing your HTML Remember that you need to be more careful than in an HTML editor. The following links explain how to decide what you need in a Web host and give suggestions of hosting providers you can use.htm. Save your HTML to a file This is the tricky part. JSP. 3. There are many options for Web hosting from free (with and without advertising) all the way up to several hundred dollars a month. and other languages besides XHTML? Can you extend it with add-ins or extra functionality? Is there a large user-base to get help? Are there support pages or help available from the publisher? Learn Some Basic HTML HTML (also referred to as XHTML) is the building block of Web pages. Open your Web editor and start building your Web page. Change the "Save As Type" drop-down menu to "All Files (*. You won’t have elements like tag completion and validation. One of the first things that you need to do when you want to put up a Web page is find a hosting provider.If you use Windows. With Notepad. There are only a few steps to creating a Web page with Notepad: 1.In fact. you can write complex or simple HTML and once you have learned the language.txt.htm extension e. Click on "File" and then "Save As" 2. you can skip straight to the next part and not worry about the HTML right now.txt Here’s how to avoid that: 1. Write the Web Page and Save It to Your Hard Drive For most people this is the fun part. Name your file. simply save the file to a directory on your hard drive. You have a perfectly functional editor built into your operating system — Notepad. If you don't have a Web host. If it's a text editor you'll need to know some HTML. Example . 82 . Notepad normally saves files as .htm Remember HTML isn’t terribly hard to learn. But since you’re writing HTML. PHP. be sure to include the . and you needn’t buy any additional software or other items in order to put up your Web page. But if you're using a WYSIWYG editor.• • • • Does it support XML.g. Navigate to the folder you want to save in 3. Get a Place to Put Your Page Where you put your Web page so that it shows up on the Web is called web hosting.*)" 4. If you’re not careful. Then when you're done. Open Notepad Notepad is nearly always found in your "Accessories" menu. you’ll end up with a file named something like: filename. 2. you don’t need to buy or download an editor in order to write HTML. Your Web host is where your Web pages will be displayed on the World Wide Web.htm. but if it's WYSIWYG you can build a Web page just like you would a Word document. learning at least a little HTML will help you to build and maintain your pages. then you can't display your Web pages. you can edit pages as quickly as someone with an expensive HTML editor.

Upload Your Page to Your Host Once you have a hosting provider. Support is one of the first things to go in cheaper plans. or chat. or they don't think about the growing needs of their company. support will help you get it back up and running.What Requirements to Think About for Your Web Hosting Needs Cost Cost is often the first thing people think about when looking for a Web host. you can also use FTP to transfer your files. You can find a host that costs anything from free up to hundreds of dollars a month. Things that take up a lot of space include: • images • Flash • PDF documents • databases • programs Programs and Scripts Are you going to need any programs like CGI or PHP on your Web site? What aboutdatabases? Again. Access How do you need to access your site to make changes to it? Some sites allow FTP access from anywhere. while others require that you use only their online tool. the less you'll have to worry about. If you anticipate that your site is going to be really popular. you should choose a hosting provider that allows you access to a CGI-BIN folder so that you can add scripts later. the more money you pay. as with space. then you should watch that hidden bandwidth fees are not part of the service plan. Bandwidth is the amount of traffic your site gets per month. Ease of Use How much time do you have to spend thinking about your Web hosting? Often. A site with a high amount of bandwidth will need to pay for higher transfer limits or risk getting hit with high fees. But if they don't. it is easy to think "I'll never need that" and then be stuck a year later when PHP would have been the best solution to a problem you're having. You should also look for a provider that has pre-built tools like form-to-email. guestbooks. and can make your hosting service very difficult to use. Transfer Limits or Bandwidth Bandwidth charges can cost you much more than the monthly fees you have just for hosting. Many hosting companies provide an online file management tool that you can use to upload your files. If your site has problems. Ease of use can include things like: • site management software • file upload • online HTML editors • templates Space Many beginning Web designers forget about space. 83 . Support Don't forget support. Try to anticipate how much your site will grow. Talk to your hosting provider if you have specific questions about how to get your files to their server. you still need to move your files from your local hard drive to the hosting computer. At minimum. Remember that what seems like an astronomical amount of space today may be hardly enough in a year.

there are many hosting options available. There isn't a good rule of thumb for using full-path or relative-path URLs for scripts and CSS files . Build your Web page and save it to your hard drive. and images) should work exactly as they would on your Web server. Many ISPs offer free web space for their users. then chances are that your images aren't uploaded to the server any more than the HTML is. and that is often the simplest option. Testing your pages ensures that they are at the URL you think they are at as well as that they look okay in common Web browsers. you don't have to post it to a Web server in order to view it. you need to find out the following information: • your username • your password • the "host name" (this is the machine you will be connecting to to upload your files) • your URL or web page address Once you have this information. The first thing you need to do is decide where you are going to put your pages. So testing your Web pages in Web browsersbefore you put it live is a good idea. Test Your Page This is a step that many novice Web developers omit. or they do not offer web page space. • Use page-relative paths for your images. How to Test Your Files on Your Hard Drive 1. but it is very important. Put in the host name of your website 4. Open up an FTP client: Best FTP Clients for Windows and Best FTP Clients for Macintosh 3. you can use it to upload your web pages and images to the website. My web Hosting profiles can help you to choose the provider that is right for you. Browse to the file you saved on your hard drive. Put in your password 6.it 84 . CSS. if the page you're testing is new. 1.Many people don't realize that when you build a Web page on your computer. but the best way to test links before a page is live is to use the full path to the page you're linking to. While you can use the full URL for your images. Put in your username 5. 2. include the domain name in your links. You can use page-relative paths for your links. When you preview a Web page on your hard drive. This is called "uploading" or FTP. all the browser-related functions (like JavaScript. By using paths to images that are relative to the current page. • Check the paths to your CSS and JavaScript external files.Upload Web Pages to a Hosting Provider Once you have created a site on your hard drive you need to get it up on to the web. with lots of different features. Highlight the files you would like on your website and click on the option to transfer them to your website Don't forget to transfer images and other multimedia files that are associated with your website. However. Once you know where you're going to upload your files. they will show up when you test the file on your hard drive. Make sure that your pages are set up correctly for testing: • Use fully-qualified absolute paths for links. Connect to the Internet 2. Problems Testing There are a few things that may go wrong when testing your Web pages on your hard drive rather than the Web server. from free to expensive. if you don't want to use your ISP. 3. Connect to the site 7. Open your Web browser and go to the File menu and choose "Open". In other words.

if you post to a full-path URL for your CSS. Why Validate Your HTML Learning to validate your HTML is an important step for most designers. A good example of this is a trick that some web developers used with an older version of Netscape. you'll need to upload that file to your server when you test. that. By writing valid HTML you ensure that your pages are standards compliant and will run on the most user agents and web browsers. it's because I run their page through an HTML validator. There are several specific reasons for writing valid HTML. This trick no longer works. Why? It's not because I know HTML inside and out. I can usually come back in just a few minutes and tell them what is wrong.depends upon your site and what works best for you. you should verify that whatever file you're pointing to has the most up-to-date information. there is a chance that as browsers evolve. Even if they don't fully support the most recent version of HTML. Or if multiple browsers support it. but it is not yet a recognized standard. solves their problem as well. or you want newer browsers to be able to display it correctly. Opera. If you are writing nonstandard HTML. the browser builders go in and make sure that they are compliant with older versions of the standard. HTML 5 is supported by Safari. they come closer and closer to supporting the standard HTML as written by the W3C. they will no longer support your web pages. Don't assume that just because only one browser supports something it's non-standard. Netscape would load them all in succession creating a fade-in or flicker effect as the page loaded. you can write your web page and have it up and viewable in half an hour or less. This usually points out a problem with the HTML. you can upload the page and test it again from the Web server. and using an HTML validator to insure that what you write is valid: • Compatibility with future versions of HTML and web browsers As browsers evolve. Once it's uploaded. then writing valid HTML is the place to start. Chrome. that it is part of a standard. you are setting your site up to annoy some of your readers if you make it inaccessible to them through invalid or nonstandard HTML. For example. • Reduce Unexplained Errors I am often asked to look at web pages for people to tell them why the code is doing something strange. you don't have to. you can then copy the URL from the Location bar in the browser and paste it into other browsers on the same computer. And with these tools. • Accessible to Your Current Audience Unless you know for a fact that your entire audience is using a specific browser. Browser specific HTML can be part of the standard or not a part of the standard. Many HTML validators will check your HTML for browser specific entities and alert you to their use. as it relied on an incompatibility of the browser. With the software that is available now. 85 . If you included multiple body tags with different colors. For instance. Building web pages isn't hard. and Firefox. Be Sure to Test in Multiple Browsers Once you've browsed to your page in one browser. why would you need to run an HTML validator on your HTML to find errors? Well. but if you want your pages to stay viewable through future versions of HTML. Instead. When I build on my Windows machine. you should connect to the page with other computers and operating systems or use a browser emulator like BrowserCam to do extensive testing. I test my pages in the following browsers before I upload anything: • • • • Internet Explorer Opera Firefox Safari (beta) Once you're sure the page looks right in the browsers you have on your hard drive. when fixed.

Don't forget to link them to one another. I list my favorite HTML validators in this article: Best HTML Validators. start building more pages. Follow the same steps to build and upload your pages. you'll want people to visit it. The simplest way is to send out an email message to your friends and family with the URL. Start Building More Pages Now that you have one page up and live on the Internet. you'll need to promote it in search engines and other locations. Promote Your Web Page Once you have your Web page up on the Web. You can get ones that are run on your computer. or online on your live web pages.HTML Validators There are a lot of validators available. But if you want other people to view it. embedded into your HTML editor. 86 .

STARTING THE BUSINESS ONLINE: Learning how to start an Internet Business doesn't have to be complicated. But like everything else. you'll be up and running in no time. if you make a plan and take it step by step. Starting a new online business or taking an existing business online can seem intimidating or overwhelming. 87 .

home décor. if you feel you need more structure and support. Or you may prefer the ease of having somebody drop ship the products for you. Usually the buyer must click on your affiliate link and make the purchase immediately. With an affiliate program. you can resell other people's products. Start an Online Business by Reselling Products You Buy at Wholesale: If you don't want to develop your own products. Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur 88 . 2. Start an Online Business with Direct Sales: Finally. Start an Online Business with Affiliate Programs: If you don't have your own product or service to sell. if you are an artist or crafter you might make your own products and offer them for sale or you can offer a service such as career counselling or matchmaking. Some affiliate programs will track visitors from your link and pay a commission for within a period of time. you are paid a percentage of sales that are made when you refer someone to a company's website. such as within 3 months of the visit. and dietary supplements. you can market someone else's products through affiliate programs. craft products. 4. There are hundreds of direct sales companies available offering everything from cosmetics and skin care to kitchenware.STEPS TO START THE ONLINE BUSINESS: 1. Start an Online Business from Scratch: For example. This STEP will provide you with important evaluation techniques. Usually independent representatives sign on under another representative or sponsor who will provide information and support to get you started. you can join a Direct Sales Company and market their products. 3. You can buy them at wholesale and ship them out from your home. You could even enter the lucrative market of creating information products. The internet business ideas are endless. There are 16 basic steps to start online business: STEP 1: Evaluating Business Potential STEP 2: The Business Plan STEP 3: Communication Tools STEP 4: Business Organization STEP 5: Licenses & Permits STEP 6: Business Insurance STEP 7: Location and Leasing STEP 8: Accounting and Cash Flow STEP 9: How to Finance Your Business STEP 10: E-Commerce Business STEP 11: Buying a Business or Franchise STEP 12: Opening and Marketing STEP 13: Expanding and Problems STEP 14: International Trade STEP 15: Managing Employees STEP 16: Home Based Business The most common serious mistake made in business is not picking the right one to begin with.

• What is a Business Plan? • Why Prepare a Business Plan? o What to avoid in your business plan • Business Plan Format o Vision statement o The people o Business profile o Economic assessment • Six Steps to a Great Business Plan o Basic business concept o Feasibility and specifics o Focus and refine concept o Outline the specifics of your business o Put your plan into a compelling form o Review sample plans • Business Plan's Necessary Factors o Understanding your market o Healthy. growing and stable industry o Capable management o Able financial control o Consistent business focus o Mindset to anticipate change Communication is key to any business success! Here we will review basic communication and equipment aspects of business • Types of Communication o External o Internal 89 . This STEP will show you how to create your own individualized business plan and provide the tools to make it easy.Step-by-Step Approach Decide if you really want to be in business Decide what business and where Decide whether to start full-time or moonlight Selection Strategy Things to Watch Out For Required Activities Comparative Evaluation How to Evaluate a Specific Business you have in Mind o "For" and "Against" List o Get Completely Qualified • o o o • • • o o This key ingredient for a successful business is too often skipped.

• Should You Have a Partner o Arguments For o Arguments Against • What Type Of Business Organization Is Best For You? o Sole proprietorship o General partnership o Limited partnership o Corporation o "S" Corporation o Limited liability company • Laws That May Affect You o Income tax returns o Franchise tax returns 90 . What professional advisors to select. 3. partnership. What type of business organization to use for the business: proprietorship. 2. Decisions that every entrepreneur must make: 1. corporation or Limited Liability Company. Whether to go into business alone or with a partner.• o o o o o o o • o o o o o o o • o o o o • • • Basic Communication Tools Landline telephones Cell phones Smartphones Video and web conferencing Social networking sites Online chat tools Fax Computers Desktop Laptop Notebooks/Netbooks Tablet Handheld Software Auxiliary Products Internet Browsers Feasibility and specifics Internet service provider E-mail Technology Planning Top Ten Do's and Don'ts Sound Byte Transcriptions This STEP will clearly spell out your options for deciding the form of business that is right for you.

• Insurance Coverage For Small Businesses o Business Property Insurance o Liability Insurance o Worker's Compensation Insurance o Other Insurance Coverage o Excess Liability Coverage o Employment Practices Liability Coverage 91 . • First Things First • Licenses & Permits o Local Licenses and Permits o State Licenses and Permits o Federal Licenses and Permits o Where do I go to get a licenese? o How about if I am working from home? • Business Name or DBA (Doing Business As) o Do I need to have a DBA? o What are the benefits to establishing a DBA? o What is the process of getting a DBA? o Banking Under Your Business Name o Should I Trademark My Business Name? • Seller's Permit o What is a seller's permit? o Where do I get a seller's permit? • Employer Identification Number (EIN) o What is the importance of EIN? o Do I need an EIN? o An EIN is required if: o How do I apply for an EIN? o Useful Links • Business License and Permits Checklist This STEP will explain in simple terms the various forms of insurance you will need and explain the importance of each of them.Employment tax returns The time for payment of withheld and employers share of employment taxes o Unemployment tax returns and payment o Sales tax reports and payments • How Can Your Professionals Help You? o Attorney o Accountant o Payroll service providers o Other Professionals o o Choose a suitable name for your business and find out what licenses and permits you may require. and how to get them.

• Step One: Gain the knowledge • Step Two: Select an accountant o Methods of Accounting  Cash Basis Method  Accrual Method o Tax Liability Issues  Income taxes  Payroll taxes o Financial and Technical Assistance o Internal Controls o Quarterly Returns o Bank Account Reconciliation o Employee Benefits Policy • Step Three: Do your own bookkeeping! o The Three Major Financial Statements  The Balance Sheet  The Income Statement  Cash Flow Control o Accounting and Cash Flow Punch List You will learn how to locate. Location o Zoning Categories o Criteria for Home Based Business o Criteria for a Manufacturing. negotiate and maintain sources of money to get you started and help you expand your business. Location.o Life Insurance A wonderful business can be crippled by a poor location or a poorly negotiated lease. you will need to learn how to keep score (basic accounting) and how to maintain cash in your bank account (cash flow control). Warehousing or Industrial Business o Criteria for a Retail Business • Leasing Do's and Don'ts o Do's and Don'ts o Points to Consider Before Signing a Lease or Purchasing Property o Lease Check-Off List o To Rent or to Buy Considerations Before you start your business. This STEP explains both in simple terms. You will learn how to create your own site model and the important aspects of a lease agreement. • Location. • First Things First • How Much Money Do You Need? o What do you need it for? 92 .

your primary marketing tool o How does your website rank? o What are people searching for? o How to manage search engine placement o Key components to successful search engine marketing for a website o Search Engines and Resources o Targeted E-Mail • eBay o How to get started o Listing basics o Fees o Get the most from your eBay experience o Don'ts of eBay 93 .o o o • • o o • o o o Unsecured Loans Secured Loans Collateral Loans vs. • E-Commerce Overview o What is E-Commerce? o Is an E-Commerce website right for your business? o Money transactions • Setting Up a Website o Registering your domain name o Hosting your website o Building your website o Hiring a professional website developer o Designing your own website • Tips For Developing a Successful Site o Make your site easy to use o Provide useful content o Encourage customer feedback o Develop a mailing list • Online Marketing and Promotion o Search engines . Investment Where to Get the Money Types of Funding Sources Lender Comparison Table The Art of Getting the Money Business Loans Repayment Plan Other Quick Tips E-Commerce is the fastest growing segment of our economy. It allows even the smallest business to reach a global audience with its product or message with minimal cost.

plans to motivate key employees and know-how in handling common business problems. • Rules to Follow Before Expanding 94 .You will learn how to make objective decisions when considering the purchase of a business or a franchise--and how to evaluate how much you should pay. Here's the advice from been-there-done-that experts. • How Should I Go About Buying A Business? o Opportunities o Financial ability o Evaluating a Business o Verify revenue information o Buying an existing or new business • Pro's and Con's of Buying a Franchise o Pro's and con's of buying a franchise o What I should know about a prospective franchiser o Becoming a franchiser • Suggested Activities o Visit different operations o Attend trade shows o Understand your intended business o Analyze any appropriate existing business o Analyze a franchised operation You are furnished with check-off lists to maximize your marketing results and avoid the most common mistakes made in opening a business. • Opening for Business o Before you start checklist • Marketing o Pinpoint your customers o Recruit the "good" employees o Train your employees thoroughly in marketing skills o Check list for hiring and training of your marketing team o What and how to buy o How to buy checklist o Marketing tools o E-commerce o Promotion and advertising o Mailing lists • Most Common Mistakes o Checklist to avoid pitfalls A growing business needs to have appropriate expansion policies in place.

• Step One: Before You Start o Are you hiring an employee or independent contractor? 95 . Since employees play such a large role in achieving success. theft o Basic rules for handling serious business problems • • Finding overseas markets or suppliers and dealing with shipping complexities are only two of the challenges facing small firms seeking to participate in international trade. Entrepreneurs should be cautioned that international trade involves many complexities above and beyond the basic disciplines necessary for operating a domestic business.Starting with a Pilot Operation First Problems in Expanded Business not Present in a Start-up o Delegation of responsibility and authority o Monetary incentive plans • Ways to Motivate Key Employees o Leveraged profit sharing plan o Unleveraged profit sharing plan o Commission plan • Key Elements for Profit Centers o Overall considerations o Long-range financial planning • Common Business Problems o Uncontrolled cash flow o Drop in sales or insufficient sales o Higher costs o New competition o Business recessions o Incompetent managers or employees o Dishonesty. It is far better to avoid mistakes by securing legal advice before labor issues or claims are raised than to deal with expensive consequences later. • Warning Label • What is International Trade? o Exporting o Importing o Hollow corporations • Is International Trade Appropriate for Small Business? • Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade • Online Resources • Common Mistakes Made in International Trade • Importance of a Business Plan It is not possible in this STEP to include all the complexities and legal rules pertaining to employees. we recommend you maintain ongoing access to a labor lawyer to keep you current on labor matters including hiring and firing employees.

But keep in mind that operating at home will still require business skills just like any other business. • What have you got to Lose Gain? • What are the Special Benefits of a Home Based Business? o Minimum investment o Maximize communication technologies o Start small and grow by compounding o A built-in organizational structure: all in the family o Open to all ages and walks of life o A productive activity for the out-of-work • Approaches to a Home Based Business o Moonlight business (part-time) o Full-time home business • Picking the Right Business is Crucial o Specialization works best o One that will not conflict with your employment o Appropriate for "all in the family" participation? • Common Pitfalls o Failure to compartmentalize 96 .Retain a payroll service provider or a professional employer organization o Have job descriptions in place o Have a benefits package in place o Determine overall costs of new employees o Create an employee handbook • Step Two: Hiring Employees o Attracting applicants o Interviewing practices o Drug screening o Americans with Disabilities Act o Understanding workplace harassment o Prevention of workplace violence o Employment eligibility verification o Selecting outstanding employees o Legal considerations • Step Three: Create Training Disciplines o Indoctrination o Growing employee skills • Keeping Good Employees o Importance of retention o How to retain good employees • Discharging an Employee o This STEP will review the do's and don'ts of operating a home based business and will also state the case for not quitting your job at all. And it will be important to gain understanding in all the other STEPs contained in the My Own Business course as well.

" • Human-readable names like "howstuffworks.42. we would all go nuts. including COM.the world's best-known name • www. the URL "http://www.com" are easy for people to remember.co.a name using four parts rather than three • ftp. EDU.mit. Human beings just are not that good at remembering strings of numbers.edu .howstuffworks. are an incredibly important but completely hidden part of the Internet. 97 .yahoo. For example. MIL.a popular EDU name • encarta. the Internet would shut down very quickly.uk . and that is where domain names come in. We are good at remembering words. For example. or DNS. For example.an FTP server rather than a Web server The COM. however.251.a Web server that does not start with www • www.bbc. Within every top-level domain there is a huge list of second-level domains. we'll take a look at the DNS system so you can understand how it works and appreciate its amazing capabilities.msn. Every time you use a domain name. You probably have hundreds of domain names stored in your head.com .com .o o o o o Failure to limit financial risks Disregard for zoning requirements Physical limitations Work at home schemes Disregard for allowable business deductions DOMAIN NAMES If you spend any time on the Internet sending e-mail or browsing the Web..howstuffworks. All of the machines use names called IP addresses to refer to one another. but they don't do machines any good.howstuffworks. and they are fascinating. The DNS system forms one of the largest and most active distributed databases on the planet. ORG and INT. Without DNS. you use the Internet's domain name servers (DNS) to translate the human-readable domain name into the machine-readable IP address. GOV. Domain Names If we had to remember the IP addresses of all of the Web sites we visit every day. When you use the Web or send an e-mail message. the machine that humans refer to as "www. EDU and UK portions of these domain names are called the top-level domain or first-level domain.com. So does the email address "iknow@howstuffworks.. you've got: • howstuffworks • yahoo • msn • microsoft • plus millions of others.microsoft. NET. in the COM first-level domain. you might access the domain name servers hundreds of times! In this article. Domain name servers. as well as unique two-letter combinations for every country. For example: • www. During a day of browsing and emailing. There are several hundred top-level domain names.com.com . then you use domain name servers without even realizing it.com" contains the domain name howstuffworks.42.com . you use a domain name to do it.a typical name • www.com" has the IP address 70.

ORG. For example. At that point. it goes through one of several dozen registrars who work with Network Solutions to add names to the list. Most larger companies have their own domain name servers. For example." create an entry in their name server. verio.it is completely distributed throughout the world on millions of machines administered by millions of people.there just needs to be a name server that can handle the requests for the domain name. This type of machine is called a virtual Web hosting machine and is capable of hosting multiple domains simultaneously. Because all of the names in a given domain need to be unique. This domain lived with a company called www. the DNS system is a distributed database. and there is a person maintaining the records in that DNS.com.org are completely different machines. keeps a central database known as thewhois database that contains information about the owner and name servers for each domain. The history of HowStuffWorks is typical. Twice a day. in turn.com and howstuffworks. although more than four is rare. such as www or encarta. howstuffworks.com. and Microsoft can change the database for its domain whenever it wants to because it owns its domain name servers. Microsoft is completely responsible for dealing with the name server for microsoft. This is one of the most amazing parts of the DNS system -.). there does not need to be a machine in the domain -.com. you would not want to centralize the database of all of the information in the COM domain. it is a third-level domain. They create an "under construction page.uk. We set up a hosting account with Tabnet (now part of Verio. • You can pay an ISP or hosting company to handle it for you. and a company called Network Solutions is in charge of maintaining this list. Inc. yet it behaves like a single. Similarly.com. Microsoft has hundreds of thousands of IP addresses and host names. Great Britain probably wants to administrate the uk top-level domain. For example. and submit the form's data into the whois database. To create a domain. The left-most word.co. • Register the domain name. and Australia probably wants to administrate theau domain. the COM. Network Solutions. If you go to the whois form. and so on. you fill out a form with a company that does domain name registration (examples:register. it began as aparked domain. When howstuffworks.com domain. but there can be duplication across domains. Most smaller companies pay someone. he or she has to do two things: • Find a name server for the domain name to live on. and Tabnet ran the DNS for HowStuffWorks as well as the machine that hosted the HowStuffWorks Web pages.webhosting. In the case of bbc. There are two ways to get a name server for a domain: • You can create and administer it yourself. Microsoft wants to maintain its own domain name server for the microsoft.Every name in the COM top-level domain must be unique. HowStuffWorks then started publishing content under the domain www. name servers get updates with the newest IP address information. For this reason.it maintains the machines that implement its part of the DNS system.com -. 98 . you can find information about any domain currently in existence. While it is important to have a central authority keeping track of the database of names in the COM (and other) toplevel domain. It specifies the name of a specific machine (with a specific IP address) in a domain.com maintained the name server and also maintained a machine that created the single "under construction" page for the domain. Five-hundred or so different domains all shared the same processor. When you register a domain name. Every domain has a domain name server somewhere that handles its requests.com was first created. Up to 127 levels are possible. is the host name. NET. Webhosting. a domain exists and people can go see the "under construction" page.howstuffworks.com). there has to be a single entity that controls the list and makes sure no duplicates arise. integrated database! Creating a New Domain Name When someone wants to create a new domain. A given domain can potentially contain millions of host names as long as they are all unique within that domain. networksolutions. etc. the COM domain cannot contain any duplicate names. Technically.

From the user's point of view. Any changes we make to it propagate automatically to the secondary.com.170. and began administering our own DNS.com.20 Our primary DNS is auth-ns1. and it could point to yahoo.103.150. there could be an entry in this file for it could point to the physical machine called walnut.COM 70.150. BIND knows about all of the machines in our domain through a text file on the main server that looks like this: @ NS auth-ns1. @ NS auth-ns2. When you send e-mail to anyone at howstuffworks.183.HOWSTUFFWORKS.com (no host name). We could also create multiple name servers and segment our domain. you are making requests to multiple name servers scattered all over the globe. From the resolver's point of view. There could be an alias foryahoo. At that point. networks.137.42 vip1 A 216.19 • AUTH-NS2.251.42. the database that makes up the domain space is distributed among various name servers.As HowStuffWorks became more popular. Every time you send an e-mail message or view a URL. internets. it outgrew the virtual hosting machine and needed its own server. To the user.150 www CNAME vip1 Decoding this file from the top. • The next line points to the IP address that will handle a request to howstuffworks. You can see from this file that there are several physical machines at separate IP addresses that make up the HowStuffWorks server infrastructure.COM 70.com. you can see that: • The first two lines point to the primary and secondary name servers. We currently have four servers: • AUTH-NS1.howstuffworks. There can be aliases for anything.20 • AUTH-NS3. • The next line is called the MX record. • The next line points to the machine that will handle a request to mail. There are aliases for hosts like mail and www. and therefore multiple MX records.com. the piece of software sending the e-mail contacts the name server to get the MX record so it knows where the SMTP server for HowStuffWorks is (see How E-mail Works for details).com. For example. Different 99 .com.howstuffworks. • The next line points to the IP address that will handle a request tooak.howstuffworks.COM 70.COM 70. As you can see from this description. @ MX 10 mail mail A 209. IMPLEMENTATION The goal of domain names is to provide a mechanism for naming resources in such a way that the names are usable in different hosts. an appropriate query type is passed to the resolver with the domain name. It handles billions of requests for billions of names every day through a network of millions of name servers administered by millions of people.howstuffworks. called a resolver. Many larger systems have multiple machines handling incoming e-mail. There really is no limit to it. which retrieves information associated with the domain name. All of these machines run name server software called BIND.howstuffworks. protocol families.HOWSTUFFWORKS.42.19 • AUTH-NS4.42. we started maintaining our own machines dedicated to HowStuffWorks. the domain tree is a single information space.HOWSTUFFWORKS.251.42. and administrative organizations. To enable the user to request a particular type of information. Thus a user might ask for the host address or mail information associated with a particular domain name.com. DNS is a rather amazing distributed database. domain names are useful as arguments to a local agent.howstuffworks. which is also maintained by our ISP.HOWSTUFFWORKS.

parts of the domain space are stored in different name servers, although a particular data item will usually be stored redundantly in two or more name servers. The resolver starts with knowledge of at least one name server. When the resolver processes a user query it asks a known name server for the information; in return, the resolver either receives the desired information or a referral to another name server. Using these referrals, resolvers learn the identities and contents of other name servers. Resolvers are responsible for dealing with the distribution of the domain space and dealing with the effects of name server failure by consulting redundant databases in other servers. Name servers manage two kinds of data. The first kind of data held in sets called zones; each zone is the complete database for a particular subtree of the domain space. This data is called authoritative. A name server periodically checks to make sure that its zones are up to date, and if not obtains a new copy of updated zones from master files stored locally or in another name server. The second kind of data is cached data which was acquired by a local resolver. This data may be incomplete but improves the performance of the retrieval process when non-local data is repeatedly accessed. Cached data is eventually discarded by a timeout mechanism. This functional structure isolates the problems of user interface, failure recovery, and distribution in the resolvers and isolates the database update and refresh problems in the name servers. Implementation components A host can participate in the domain name system in a number of ways, depending on whether the host runs programs that retrieve information from the domain system, name servers that answer queries from other hosts, or various combinations of both functions. The simplest, and perhaps most typical, configuration is shown below:
Local Host +---------+ | | | | User | user queries +----------+ | |queries | | | | | +--------+ | | | Name | | | Foreign

|-------------->| |<--------------| | user responses| | cache additions | V A |

|---------|->|Foreign | |<--------|--| Server | |responses| | | | | | | +--------+

| Program |

| Resolver |

+---------+

+----------+

| references |

+----------+ | database | +----------+

User programs interact with the domain name space through resolvers; the format of user queries and user responses is specific to the host and its operating system. User queries will typically be operating system calls, and the resolver and its database will be part of the host operating system. Less capable hosts may choose to implement the resolver as a subroutine to be linked in with every program that needs its services. Resolvers answer user queries with information they acquire via queries to foreign name
100

servers, and may also cache or reference domain information in the local database. Note that the resolver may have to make several queries to several different foreign name servers to answer a particular user query, and hence the resolution of a user query may involve several network accesses and an arbitrary amount of time. The queries to foreign name servers and the corresponding responses have a standard format described in this memo, and may be datagrams. Depending on its capabilities, a name server could be a stand alone program on a dedicated machine or a process or processes on a large timeshared host. A simple configuration might be:
Local Host +---------+ / | | | | | files /| +----------+ | | | | Name Server | | | | | | |/ +---------+ | | | | | | +--------+ | | |responses| | | Foreign

|---------|->|Foreign | |Resolver| | +--------+ |<--------|--| | queries | |

Master |-------------->|

+---------+

+----------+

Here the name server acquires information about one or more zones by reading master files from its local file system, and answers queries about those zones that arrive from foreign resolvers. A more sophisticated name server might acquire zones from foreign name servers as well as local master files. This configuration is shown below: In this configuration, the name server periodically establishes a virtual circuit to a foreign name server to acquire a copy of a zone or to check that an existing copy has not changed. The messages sent for these maintenance activities follow the same form as queries and responses, but the message sequences are somewhat different.

Local Host +---------+ / | | | /| +----------+ | | Name Server | | | | +---------+ |

| | | | |

Foreign

+--------+ | |

|responses| | |

|---------|->|Foreign | |Resolver|

Master |-------------->|

101

| |

files

| | |/

| | A | | |

|<--------|--| | queries | | |maintenance | queries | |

|

+--------+ +--------+ | Name | |Foreign | |

+---------+

+----------+

\------------|->|

\------------------|--| Server | maintenance responses | +--------+

The information flow in a host that supports all aspects of the domain name system is shown below: Local Host +---------+ | | | | User | user queries +----------+ | |queries | | | | | +--------+ | | | Name | | | Foreign

|-------------->| |<--------------| | user responses| | cache additions | V | A | Shared

|---------|->|Foreign | |<--------|--| Server | |responses| | | | | | | | | | | +--------+ | | |responses| Name Server | | | +--------+

| Program |

| Resolver |

+---------+

+----------+

| references |

+----------+ | database | +----------+ A +---------+ / | | | | | files /| | | | | | | |/ | | | | A +---------+ | refreshes | | | V

| references |

+----------+

|---------|->|Foreign | |Resolver| | +--------+ +--------+ |<--------|--| | queries | | |maintenance |

Master |-------------->|

+---------+

+----------+

102

there are loads of companies telling you that you can make a fortune overnight on the Internet and who try to sell you some form of "Internet marketing program". to inform existing and potential customers of the features and 103 . or advertising space over the Internet. The structure of the domain data and the necessity for synchronization between name servers and resolvers imply the general characteristics of this database. RESOLVER ALGORITHMS. which discusses the formats for name servers queries and the corresponding responses. its products. which discusses the use of the domain system to support mail transfer. and needs) of existing and potential customers. consisting of text. and formats for maintaining the data residing in name servers. Internet Marketing Objectives Essentially. The decision to use Internet marketing as part of a company's overall marketing strategy is strictly up to the company of course. preferences. algorithms. which discusses the internal structure of resolvers. partly online. but as a rule. but the actual format is up to the local implementer. This memo suggests a multiple tree format. DOMAIN SUPPORT FOR MAIL. or online marketing. • Sell goods. For some online businesses. Internet marketing is becoming an increasingly important part of nearly every company's marketing mix. Internet Marketing Components Components of Internet marketing (or online marketing) may include: • Setting up a website . services.| | | \------------|->| queries | | | Name | | |Foreign | \------------------|--| Server | maintenance responses | +--------+ The shared database holds domain space data for the local name server and resolver. NAME SERVER MAINTENANCE. or its services online. Internet marketing is using the Internet to do one or more of the following: • Communicate a company's message about itself. These services periodically refresh the local copies of zones that originate in other hosts. or completely offline. This section also discusses data base sharing between a name server and a resolver on the same host. Today. is evolving into a broader mix of components a company can use as a means of increasing sales . The contents of the shared database will typically be a mixture of authoritative data maintained by the periodic refresh operations of the name server and cached data from previous resolver requests. This memo divides the implementation discussion into sections: NAME SERVER TRANSACTIONS. On the other end of the spectrum. the term Internet marketing can mean a variety of things. it is the only form of marketing being practiced. Depending on whom you ask. which discusses strategies. • Conduct research as to the nature (demographics. images and possibly audio and video elements used to convey the company's message online.even if your business is done completely online. Internet marketing consisted mostly of having a website or placing banner ads on other websites. At one time. Internet marketing.

its people. many prospects might easily choose to do business with a company that they can get upto-date information on 24 hours per day. which is a method of distributing information about a product or service or for soliciting feedback from customers about a product or service through Email. which involves writing articles related to your business and having them published online on syndicated article sites. your budget. Online usage has become so pervasive today. Since most home-based businesses don't have a physical location. can certainly provide benefits to a home business operator. and the distribution of syndicated articles can promote your brand to a wide audience. buying pay-per-click (PPC) ads or purchasing pay-for-inclusion (PFI)listings in website directories. which is the placement of ads on a website for a fee. The website may or may not include the ability to capture leads from potential customers or directly sell a product or service online. a website provides an inexpensive means for prospects to get to know what you do or what you sell and can even be a "storefront" for selling goods and services directly. such as the regular distribution of newsletters or mass mailing of offers related to the company's product or services. • Email marketing. which is marketing a website online via search engines. • Search Engine Marketing (SEM). Email marketing is essentially the online equivalent of direct mail marketing. All of these considerations are part of strategic Internet marketing decisions that help developInternet marketing strategies for a business. Finding the Right Internet Marketing Mix How much of your marketing strategy should be handled online. those businesses whose customers are not restricted to a geographical area might have a difficult time finding an alternate method of attracting customers that offers the reasonably low expense and worldwide reach of a Web presence. The Internet has greatly enabled home businesses to prosper because of the reasonably low cost to start and maintain a web presence. expressing opinions or making announcements in a discussion forum and can be accomplished either by hosting your own blog or by posting comments and/or URLs in other blogs related to your product or service online. either by improving the site's natural (organic) ranking through search engine optimization (SEO). and the importance you should give to your website. • Blog marketing. 7 days per week. Article marketing can result in a traffic boost for your website. • Online press releases. which Internet marketing elements you use. not having one could raise a red flag to a prospect. Internet marketing should be part of your business plan and your marketing strategy. Therefore. Internet Marketing and Home Business Of all of the components of Internet marketing. and. • Banner advertising. depends on the nature of your business. its website. and/or its products/services with on online wire service. In fact. which is the act of posting comments. Using Offline Elements with Internet Marketing Strategies 104 . • Article marketing. to some extent. if not an absolute necessity.benefits of the company's products and/or services. which involve placing a newsworthy story about a company. your personal traits. Even a business that only has very local customers. Because of the "virtual" nature of most home businesses. which are similar to offline yellow page listings. And. websites. Websites can be the Internet equivalents of offline brochures or mail order catalogs and they are a great way to establish yourbusiness identity. Various methods are used. Email addresses of customers and prospective customers may be collected or purchased. These articles then have a tendency to spread around the Internet since the article services permit re-publication provided that all of the links in the article are maintained. The offline equivalent of this form of online marketing would be traditional ads in newspapers or magazines. prospective customers and clients expect a business to have a website. such as a single location restaurant or shoe store can benefit from having a website and engaging in online marketing.

Unless you transact business only online. you may not want to include email marketing in your strategic Internet marketing plan. email marketing doesn't have to mean just sending out unsolicited messages to every email address you can gather. or if you exhibit at trade shows. so you'll want to learn about search engine optimization (SEO). On the other side of the coin. that content should be optimized for search engines when it's written. whether you do it yourself of pay someone else to do it for you. While they are online businesses. Both items are deeply discounted. If you include a visitor registration form on your website. your budget will also determine the components you use in any of the Internet marketing strategies you might develop. Plus. in fact I recently saw an offer for domain name registration for only $1. which you'll either need to provide yourself or pay to have a web content professional and/or web designer handle it for you. you are still using email as a tool to promote your business. You can also specify whether you want to include your ad only on search pages or on other websites related to your keywords. you'll want your site to be found. they invest heavily in traditional advertising.com. So even if you don't incorporate email marketing into your Internet marketing strategy. per se. Once your content and design are in place. Pay-per-click advertising (PPC). and in the vast majority of cases. which is an important part of strategic Internet marketing. Or. which may be more cost effective than placing banner ads on other websites. you might just set up a schedule where you periodically send an email to your interested prospects to see how they're doing. like Google AdWords can be easy on your budget because you can specify how much you're willing to pay when someone clicks your ad and how much you're willing to pay per day. to draw traffic to their sites where the actual business is conducted. You might consider creating a newsletter and sending it to these prospects on a regular basis as part of your strategic Internet marketing plan. or if their needs have changed since you last talked. Once your website is up and running. Tracking the Results of Internet Marketing Strategies 105 . but you'll save time in the long run. through programs like Google AdSense. You can also use images and/or videos with PPC advertising. Likewise. you may pay a bit more. you have the vehicles needed to collect email addresses of interested prospects. In both cases. for example if you are an eBay reseller. Travelocity and Monster. for example. SEO should be a significant part of your Internet marketing strategy. You can set geographic and time of the day restrictions on when and where your ads run. if you can be of assistance to them. you will probably want to include some traditional offline marketing elements in your overall marketing strategy in addition to the elements in your Internet strategy in your marketing mix. including radio and TV advertising. if you pay to have web content written for you. which is now also available for less than $10 per month. you'll either need to maintain it yourself or outsource the duties to an independent Webmaster to do it for you.provided you also purchase other services. However. Even those who conduct business only online might consider placing traditional ads in newspapers or magazines to bring prospects to their website to transact business online. they're easy to update and they provide near real time tracking benefits you won't get with most other elements in your Internet marketing strategy. which most of us do. Your Budget and Your Internet Marketing Strategy Of course.99 per year . Once that's done. A website will require you to choose a domain name and register it and to purchase web hosting services for your website. Ideally. Develop Internet Marketing Strategies You Like If you have a personal distaste for "spam". you'll need a design and content for your website. like hosting. Yahoo Publisher or Microsoft AdCenter. PPC ads are fairly easy to activate and suspend whenever you need to do so. you or your web designer should know something about SEO because how your site is designed can enhance or limit your site traffic. Perfect examples of including offline elements as part of Internet marketing strategies are Expedia. you can use pay per click ads to make money with your website.

potential customer or public venue. you can learn from the mistakes you make in your Internet advertising campaign to improve your skills and enhance your success. 1. businesses will establish predetermined intervals (such as a ‘monthly newsletter’. Because you'll have literally millions of competitors who are also engaging in strategic Internet marketing. in most cases. It might be an announcement of a special offer. EMAIL MARKETING Email marketing is. the use of email in marketing communications. you'll need to track how effective they are.1. Just as you might have a list of customer or prospect postal addresses to send your promotions too. More often than not. And. As you do so. Search engines aren't likely to find you overnight and your strategies may not generate revenues right away. and a wellmanaged strategic Internet marketing plan can increase your chances for success. Email marketing is so popular because:  Sending email is much cheaper than most other forms of communication  Email lets you deliver your message to the people (unlike a website. In general.1Direct email Direct email involves sending a promotional message in the form of an email. However. “email marketing” is the process of sending out targeted emails to your contact list with a specific goal or objective. you'll discover which Internet marketing strategies work for your business and which do not. the term covers every email you ever send to a customer. 1. many companies have not taken the leap towards sending out permission-based email marketing campaigns & newsletters because they don’t know where to start. If you're going to be spending money on strategic Internet marketing initiatives. it's used to refer to: Sending direct promotional emails to try and acquire new customers or persuade existing customers to buy again Sending emails designed to encourage customer loyalty and enhance the customer relationship Placing your marketing messages or advertisements in emails sent by other people. patience is a true virtue when it comes to tracking the success of a strategic Internet marketing campaign. where the people have to come to your message)  Email marketing has proven very successful for those who do it right In its broadest sense. though. some knowledge. Knowing what's worth spending money on and what isn't is very helpful in developing Internet marketing strategies as your business matures. it will behoove you to keep on your toes and be ready to make necessary adjustments in your Internet marketing strategies when appropriate. Strategic Internet Marketing Needs to be Flexible Keep in mind. but in its simplest form. There are many different definitions of email marketing. or ‘weekly coupon deals’) when launching campaigns. However. for example. Email marketing is exploding in growth as more companies are integrating it as part of their marketing strategy. as the name suggests. some capable assistance.Let's face it: the average home business operator is not awash in cash.1TYPES: These three main forms of email marketing are Direct mail  Sending people a print newsletter  Placing advertisements in subscription magazines and newspapers Let's briefly review the three types of email marketing: 1. so you can collect a list of customer or prospect email 106    .

Quite apart from these practical considerations. You now have "permission" to send that person product updates by email. it outperforms all the other direct marketing channels examined. getting them to actually read and respond to your message.You can also rent lists of email addresses from service companies. you may even be breaking the law. your website shut off. of course. etc. 39. Indeed. but the views of those receiving your emails and those responsible for administering the infrastructure of the Internet.2 PERMISSION This all sounds great of course. In some parts of the world. there is the issue of permission. A newsletter may carry promotional messages or advertisements. entertains or otherwise benefits the readers.. signup for something.3.08. Here are the numbers. It should contain information which informs. 107 .).  In Datran Media's 2010 Annual Marketing & Media Survey. there is also a strong argument which says that long-term successful email marketing relationships with customers and others can only work anyway if they're permission based.. And works well. You do not want to send spam! If you are accused of sending spam. for example. An example of permission is when your customer buys something from your online store and also ticks a box marked "please send me news about product updates via email".4% of industry executives said the advertising channel that performed strongest for them was email. and your reputation in tatters. unsolicited commercial (bulk) email. Retention email Instead of promotional email designed only to encourage the recipient to take action (buy something. rather than thousands of postal addresses!It's not that simple.3 REAL TIME EXAMPLES: Businesses engage in email marketing because it works. The big question. then you may find your email accounts closed down. such as print catalogs. the interests or geographical location of the owners of the email address. that count. 1.and that is the main subject of debate. They'll let you send your message to their own address lists. which means more than just sales messages. then the recipients of your mail may well regard your message as spam. The expected figure for 2010 is $42. This is a complex issue and the subject of intense debate in the marketing community. provided you also give them the opportunity to rescind that permission at any time.62 for every dollar spent on it in 2009. there are many email newsletters that are created for just this purpose .  According to research conducted by the Direct Marketing Association. As such. unfortunately. you can find newsletters published by others and pay them to put your advertisement in the emails they send their subscribers.to sell advertising space to others. It should provide the readers with value. and measuring and analysing the results.2. Advertising in other people's emails Instead of producing your own newsletter. email marketing generated an ROI of $43. These services can usually let you target your message according to.addresses.Responsible email marketing is based on the idea of permission. 1.Essentially. This was the top result .1. you might send out retention emails. is what constitutes permission.These usually take the form of regular emails known as newsletters. you need an email address owner's permission before you can send them a commercial email. Imagine how much cheaper it is to send a message to thousands of email addresses. 1. or even the views of the majority. It's important to remember that it's not your views. 1..1. If you don't have this permission. Quite apart from the complexities of designing and delivering email messages to the right people. but will aim at developing a long-term impact on the readers..

paid search's CPO of $19. contribute to branding.33 .org revealed that email marketing has the second lowest cost per order (CPO) of any online marketing tactic.And every email campaign you send out generates a heap of actionable data you can use to refine your approach and messages.85 compares favorably with. Estimates become assumptions.But at some point in your work with email. followed by email marketing to house lists in second place .5. loyalty and trust  It supports sales through other channels Modern email marketing services and solutions support database integration.  A summer 2009 survey of Irish marketers found 79% rating email marketing as important or very important to their marketing strategy . registrations. you'll need some benchmarking numbers: industry-wide metrics on various aspects of email marketing performance.  Shop. downloads.1They give you a basic number to work with Your email marketing may not be directly comparable to any "average.All in all.The Ad Effectiveness Survey commissioned by Forbes Media in Feb/March 2009 revealed that email and e-newsletter marketing are considered the second-most effective tool for generating conversions. Informative email newsletters and other emails send people to offline stores and events.org's State of Retailing Online 2009 survey of retailers found that "E-mail is the most mentioned successful tactic overall" ..But industry metrics at least let you see if you're way off with your numbers. strengthen relationships. Assumptions become fact. Benchmark metrics also help with planning. segmentation and various other tricks and techniques for improving the targeting of outgoing messages. Metrics are useful for the following purposes: 1." because each list and each email has its own unique characteristics. Which is why. build awareness. The CPO of $6.  A February/March 2008 retailer survey by shop. you know you have a problem. encourage trust and cement loyalty. then at least you can fall back on industry averages. Random guesses become formal estimates.Email promotions and offers generate immediate action: sales.  1. inquiries.5. Advanced methods generate on-the-fly emails customized down to an individual recipient basis.5 BENCHMARKING METRICS FOR EMAIL MARKETING Numbers have a magic of their own. If you have no other way of coming up with future estimates. for example. just behind SEO . despite their flaws. If you're getting 70%.  A December 2008 survey of hundreds of marketers by MarketingSherpa saw pay-per-click search ads rank top for ROI.. 1. etc. If the average open rate in your sector is 40% and you're getting 10%.4 BENEFITS: Email marketing works for a variety of reasons.2 Information on trends 108 . Print them and they assume an importance often unjustified by their origins. you know you're doing quite well. 1.  It allows targeting  It is data driven  It drives direct sales  It builds relationships. you'll want to compare your results with those of others. a pretty good way of going about your marketing business. prepare the way for catalogs.

But then they should be: the whole point of the newsletter is to point people at useful online resources in an unbiased way. whys and wherefores.Finally. what the source is etc.All of which can help fine tune your approach. you can also find numbers in many published email marketing case studies. the public metrics you see are not calculated from hundreds of marketers putting out the same kind of emails to the same kind of readers as you.That should keep you going for a bit.3 Hidden and not-so-hidden hints Insights on what works and what doesn't are often buried in metrics reports. you can't make like-to-like comparisons here either. too. And if you find other useful metrics sources. Its clickthrough rates are way. take a note and save for later.To cut a long story short.6. where can you actually get hold of some metrics? Getting away from averages. but yours are falling. 1.Having said all that.6 EMAIL MARKETING SERVICE PROVIDERS are the best way to send your important messages to your list of email contacts they rely on being 100% or close to it anyways. but every number helps give you a better understanding of email marketing life. how it's calculated. then through our Education Center learn how to easily over time grow your list of contacts and grow your call-to-action email campaign results. except in the broad ways outlined above. they do identify trends (assuming the methods used for collection and calculation remain constant through time). Whenever you see a metric mentioned. care is needed. keep your eye on the email marketing news. companies like to publish the results of surveys and bag a bit of free PR from sites like mine.Which means it's not fair to compare your results with those metrics. The best feature of these services is the result tracking. 1.If open rates across the industry are rising slightly quarter-on-quarter.5. I find the "above-average" clickthrough rates disappointingly low: I need to do better.1How ESP's work is by being the actual sender of your messages even though your customers or members are going to think the messages are coming from you and they will look colorful andf eye catching with easy to build graphic templates (works like a powerful word document) all through our fully supported Do-It-Yourself campaign building system within your protected and secure email marketing account.Take my newsletter for example. Many of those publishing metrics do not define what each one means. buts. Especially when there's a big online marketing event.In fact. see who opened and how many clicked to your web site. segmentation practices. There's always a degree of interpretation needed.Whatever the rights and wrongs of how published metrics are collected and calculated. drop me an email and I'll add them to the list.6. 1. but you'll get plenty of circumstantial evidence on such issues as the value or importance of list size. then you need to take action. way above published averages. 1. So after all these ifs. personalization etc. Of course.2Examples : The top 10 email service providers are• • • • • • • • • • Elite Email Marketing Constant Contact iContact GetResponse Mail Chimp SilverPop Bronto Stream Send Campaigner My Emma 109 .

The type of client a reputable email marketing service like Viper Mailer is one if will only accept is a list that have customers signing up then checking a box to accept messages from time to time on the topic related to the site they visited and sign up to receive additional on topic information about the clients products or services from time to time. One is in our deliverability because we currently have the highest rating that is determined by the ISP's Internet Service Providers and we have the industries highest ratings because we are very strict about how a client gathers or obtains their list of email contacts.Sending Email Message Frequency Sending a message to your recipients needs to be done with frequency yet at the same time it needs to be with sensitivity because we all receive far too many emails each day even though thee is a difference between sending an email marketing message correctly and SPAM senders.Meeting your Email Message Recipients 110 .• • • Lyris Exact Target Viper mailer 1.6 .Collecting Email Addresses Collecting email addresses is the beginning to any email marketing campaign from these contacts you will be provided all of the other needed tools in your account with an email marketing service provider like Viper Mailer and you will find building a list of contacts can be acquired pretty fast but remember the list you build needs to be on topic and these contacts need to authorize by checking a box or verbally agreeing to receive offers from you on a regular basis.The Email Subject and From Lines Building a well thought out Subject Line is a key important start to getting your email marketing message recognized by your contacts and opened.3Learn how to begin an email marketing campaign today The process actually starts by selecting the best service provider for your needs because price wise they are very much the same we notice that where we at Viper Mailer shine the best in two areas. Good email marketing services will never accept a client that buys a list or gained access to the list from desceiving practices like having signup forms on sites that mislead the person signing up into believing they are going to be added to a prize pool or to receive one type of message on a topic. To learn about special circumstances for sending messages more frequently please read our how often to send a message out here Email Offer Sending Frequency Number 4 . Second is in our tracking statistics and printable reports they are tested against the top 20 top email service providers and we clearly have the easiest and most comprehensive reports in the industry. We strongly recommend not sending a message more then one time a month that is filled with informative on topic and important customer information. Number 2 . Number 3 . Number 1 . Please follow the link below to read some additional does and don'ts as well as making sure the wording you do select is recognized by your recipients and the character limitations that all email Inbox Subject Lines have. We really understand and need to share the importance of not using certain words in the Subject Line so your messages do not get tagged and sent into your recipient's junk mail folder or SPAM.

the higher your ad will appear in the search engine results. Number 4A Online if the message is asking your recipients to take action like clicking on a link to your web site and in particular an internal landing page where your special offer from your message is to be located only you did not test the link or did not coordinate with the web master and the page is no longer located there or you failed to test the link by utilizing an email marketing service like Viper Mailer offers is to send out a test message from 1 to 5 coworkers to proof read and text such functions within your message like landing page links. to which ones id not get through to how many clicked on your site links and a whole lot more then Viper Mailer is the best of the best email marketing result tracking systems that will get you results here Email Message Tracking Search Engine Marketing Search engine marketing is the practice of marketing or advertising your web site through search engines. The more you bid. Organic search results are the rankings of Web pages returned by a search engine when you search for a specific word or phrase . Google AdWords has implemented an additional factor in where your ads rank that is based on the relevancy or importance that Google places on your site.Here is something really important and there are two ways where a great email message sent out to your recipient list goes to total waited time and it is in the being prepared to greet your customers both online as well as those coming into your business. Number 4B Offline you run a business where you send out your email message and offer only no one has shared with your sells help that you have done this so when people call or come into your business asking for this special offer the sells persons have a puzzled look about their faces which is not a good positive introduction and can be uncomfortable to the customer and the building of a businesses team. Search engine marketing (SEM) may consist of one or more of the following components: • Organic Search Engine Optimization (SEO) .Successful offers and Newsletters Get to the point is the best tactic when you are sending a message to your recipients because you are not there in front of them or on the telephone with them. Yahoo or MSN. forwarding them to friends.Ads you place for your website with a search engine. such as Google or Yahoo. It is a true must that you are prepared to greet your customers and here are the two errors some clients have made utilizing our Viper Mailer email marketing service. Number 6 . You bid the amount you are willing to pay per click. 111 . like Google. • Pay Per Click Advertising (PPC) . or natural search results.Search engine optimization is the practice of applying techniques to maximize your ranking in organic. To learn more about landing pages and being prepared to meet your email message recipients please see this link Greeting your email message recipients Learn more about providing landing pages that generate calls to action here Building a web site landing page Number 5 . We are suggesting that you get to the point like mention your business name share your offer keep the overall message short and utilize landing page links to your offer by having the offer on its own special page with the ability to buy it now on your own web site.a "keyword" or "keyword phrase". There are other important parts to your overall message like the 35 preferred to 50 character maximum subject line having a recognizable from address and your company color template with your clickable logo all necessary in getting your message opened and not sent to delete or SPAM folders.What are you Tracking for Results How well your email campaign message sending efforts are truly working and to be able to attend a marketing meeting with easy to read and display campaign result tracking is one of the greatest features offered by email marketing services and to be able to provide the highest breakdown of what your email campaign recipients are doing when they receive your messages from opening them.

which is separate from Yahoo search. you need to track your conversion rates. education. Do you now have twice as many customers as you did before? Probably not. nearly all business are expected to have a website and most do. These directories may be general in nature or related to a specific topic. Organic search rankings are free. Similarly.which is very difficult to manipulate. If you picked up 5 customers your conversion rate would be 2 percent of the new traffic (5 divided by 250) and 1 percent (5 of 500) overall. like Google. 112 . you can make money with Google AdSense and other similar programs. Compared to other means of marketing and advertising. Yahoo and MSN search. DMOZ is staffed by volunteers and. Pay Per Click Advertising can be very inexpensive. so if you can move yourself up in the rankings. it can be several months before you see solid results . For example. Yahoo Directory. search engine marketing efforts may take considerable time to boost your traffic. you could implement some search engine optimization techniques on your own. If you don't have a Web site for your business and don't plan to ever have one.In addition to search engines.allow free listings. Although you can instantly get your PPC ads running. numerous directories also exist on the web. Likewise. some Web directories . you would determine if your SEM efforts were successful by comparing your Web traffic statistics before and after you implemented search engine marketing. Find ways to increase the number of visitors to your website. Be patient though. Likewise. if. entertainment. and others can cost as little as $30 per year. and health. Verizon's SuperPages is an example of a PFI directory. You can also use pay per click advertising to your advantage on your own site. like DMOZ but most directories now charge for a listing. from arts. how many new customers did you acquire from the additional 250 visitors to your site. • Pay For Inclusion (PFI) . and society and culture. which in turn should ideally lead to getting new customers and adding to your home business revenues. in turn. Yahoo. You can get free listings in some online directories. to science. because DMOZ listings can have a positive affect on your organic search rankings. How do I Measure SEM Effectiveness? How you measure the effectiveness of your search engine marketing program depends on what your objectives were when you started. and then find ways to increase the conversion rates of those visitors. Since you can set limits on how much you'll pay per click and how much you'll pay per day. your traffic should increase. For example. which. Another example of a major directory is again. your traffic doubles from 250 to 500 visitors per month. However. and you'll know exactly what it takes to make your search engine marketing program successful. In addition to site traffic. if you are aiming at improving traffic through SEO. in today's business climate. Search engine marketing is used as a way to get traffic to your website. is described in Yahoo's own words as: Subject-based directory listing websites in a wide range of topics.like DMOZ . your listing may not appear for 6 months to a year. search engine marketing can be very cost effective. as a result of your search engine marketing efforts. should increase your home business revenues. you certainly wouldn't need search engine marketing. Why is Search Engine Marketing Important? You may or may not decide to make search engine marketing part of your marketing and advertising strategy. it is arguably the most popular and valuable free Web directory listing to get. it's fairly easy to keep your costs in line. For example. If your intent was merely to increase the number of visitors to your Web site. if you request a directory listing from DMOZ.especially through Google.

Two marks : 1. an email service provider (ESP) offers email marketing or bulk email services. allowing the user to send targeted information to people who they believe will value the correspondence.What is ESP ? Broadly defined as a company providing email services. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Elite Email Marketing Constant Contact iContact GetResponse Mail Chimp SilverPop Bronto Stream Send Campaigner My Emma Lyris Exact Target Viper mailer 1.An ESP may provide tracking information showing the status of email sent to each member of an address list.What are the features of ESP ? An ESP will provide a service which may include the following features: • Ability to create templates for sending to contacts and/or the use of templates pre-made • A subscriber list. List Some ESP . 2. Email marketing takes many forms and has become one of the preferred methods of unscrupulous online marketers resulting in spam. which allows users to distribute their message to the subscribers • Updating of the subscriber list to suppress those requesting to be unsubscribed • Statistical reviews of each email sent to measure the success rate of the campaigns • Testing of templates for compatibility with email applications • Spam testing to gauge the score of the email against known factors that will place the template at risk of being blocked • The ability to send both html and plain text formats to improve delivery success rates (known as Multi-Part MIME) 4. which is uploaded by the user for distributing messages. 3. This may be enhanced with custom fields in order to hold additional information for each subscriber for filtering and targeted messaging purposes • A send engine. List some basic steps to make a web page? 113 . Neither of these terms are intended to be synonymous with spam or the sending of unwanted or unsolicited bulk email of a marketing or otherwise offensive nature. There are laws to protect consumers from spam abuse. ESPs also often provide the ability to segment an address list into interest groups or categories.What is E-mail marketing ? Email marketing is process of promoting a product or service or an idea by sending direct emails to the target audience.

Visual appealing 2. Start Building More Pages 2. Current and relevant information 6. Test Your Page 7. Text 3. o Ease of use o Programs and scripts o Access o Support o Transfer limit or bandwidth. Promote Your Web Page 8. but in its simplest form. Easy to navigate 4. Placing advertisement in subscription magazines and newspapers 114 . Upload Your Page to Your Host 6. Searchable content 4. What is E-mail marketing? Email marketing is.There are several steps we need to follow to make an web page some of the important steps that is required in making an web page are: 1. as the name suggests. what are the elements of a good web site design? 1. Email marketing is exploding in growth as more companies are integrating it as part of their marketing strategy. Write the Web Page and Save It to Your Hard Drive 4. Search engine friendly 7. the use of email in marketing communications. What are the types of E-mail marketing? 1. There are many different definitions of email marketing. 5. databases and programs when needed . What are requirements for a web hosting? o Cost required for hosting a web page is the prior requirement for hosting a web page o Space allocated should facilitate the growing need of company and the user must be able to include images. Search facility 8. Get a Place to Put Your Page 5. 3. flash. Get a Web Editor 2. Learn Some Basic HTML 3. Sending people a news letter 3. “email marketing” is the process of sending out targeted emails to your contact list with a specific goal or objective. Separate layout from content 5. Direct E-mail 2.

What the advantages of e-mail marketing? It allows targeting It is data driven It drives direct sales It builds relationship. What is ESP ? Broadly defined as a company providing email services. trust It supports sales through other channels 7. 10. Neither of these terms are intended to be synonymous with spam or the sending of unwanted or unsolicited bulk email of a marketing or otherwise offensive nature. loyality.6. allowing the user to send targeted information to people who they believe will value the correspondence. an email service provider (ESP) offers email marketing or bulk email services. What are the features of ESP ? • • An ESP will provide a service which may include the following features: Ability to create templates for sending to contacts and/or the use of templates pre-made A subscriber list. This may be enhanced with custom fields in order to hold additional information for each subscriber for filtering and targeted messaging purposes 115 . An ESP may provide tracking information showing the status of email sent to each member of an address list. which is uploaded by the user for distributing messages. ESPs also often provide the ability to segment an address list into interest groups or categories. Mention some metrics for E-mail marketing? Get basic number to work with Information on trends Hidden and not-so-hidden trends 8. Mention some E-mail service providers? • Elite Email Marketing • Constant Contact • iContact • GetResponse • Mail Chimp • SilverPop • Bronto • Stream Send • Campaigner • My Emma • Lyris • Exact Target • Viper mailer 9.

What is online marketing? 116 . Pay Per Click Advertising (PPC) 3. 16. What is search engine marketing? Search engine marketing is the practice of marketing or advertising your web site through search engines. Search engine marketing (SEM) may consist of one or more of the following components: 1. Yahoo or MSN. consisting of text. Organic Search Engine Optimization (SEO) 2. Online press releases 5. like Google. expressing opinions or making announcements in a discussion forum and can be accomplished either by hosting your own blog or by posting comments and/or URLs in other blogs related to your product or service online. In other words.• • • • • • A send engine. What is online business? An online business is one where all marketing and selling of products or services are done through the Internet – including blogs. What is blog marketing? It is the act of posting comments. Blog marketing 13. What are the components of internet marketing? Setting up a website . Electronic business. Email marketing 3. commonly referred to as " E-Business" or "e-business". which allows users to distribute their message to the subscribers Updating of the subscriber list to suppress those requesting to be unsubscribed Statistical reviews of each email sent to measure the success rate of the campaigns Testing of templates for compatibility with email applications Spam testing to gauge the score of the email against known factors that will place the template at risk of being blocked The ability to send both html and plain text formats to improve delivery success rates (known as Multi-Part MIME) 11. What is the basic step of online marketing? Start an Online Business from Scratch Start an Online Business with Affiliate Programs Start an Online Business with Direct Sales an Online Business by Reselling Products You Buy at Wholesale 15. to inform existing and potential customers of the features and benefits of the company's products and/or services 1. and web pages. 14. images and possibly audio and video elements used to convey the company's message online. e-mail. Banner advertising 4. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) 2. Pay For Inclusion (PFI) 12. may be defined as the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business.

CSS and XML documents or RSS feeds though it can be used for any defined format or language. is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. also referred to as i-marketing. 17. and in turn receive from the exchange HTML code which they insert into their web pages 18. What is link exchange? A link exchange is a confederation of websites that operates similarly to a web ring. List some important steps to start an online business? Start an Online Business from Scratch Start an Online Business with Affiliate Programs Start an Online Business with Direct Sales Start an Online Business by Reselling Products You Buy at Wholesale 19. sell or dispense products through the Internet. 117 . that runs the exchange. web-marketing. Webmasters register their web sites with a central organization. Online marketing is done exclusively through E-mail or internet.Internet marketing. online-marketing. it is commonly used in the context of validating HTML. It provides a way to Advertise. What is meant by a validator? A validator is a computer program used to check the validity or syntactical correctness of a fragment of code or document. or eMarketing.

as opposed to “compiled.” which is the process of turning it into machine language before it is run. Windows NT allows scripts to be run automatically each time a user logs in to the network. JavaScript. it is carried out one line at a time.cmd. either by a specific event or scheduled via the Windows Task Scheduler. interpreted program that can carry out a series of tasks and make decisions based on specific conditions it finds.” we mean that when it is run.js. By “interpreted. A number of scripting “languages” are available for you to choose from. In a case like that. . But learning to create useful and effective scripts for networking tasks is not easy and requires a lot of patience and practice.kix. and . The set of rules for writing a script in any given language is called the syntax. Which one you choose will ultimately depend on a combination of the tasks required and your own experience and inclinations.UNIT . but you can also start them automatically. How is scripting used? Scripting lets you automate various network administration tasks. Once you learn the keywords and syntax. You can start scripts manually. Before you begin. have been using shell scripting and its powerful capabilities for decades. such as those that are performed every day or even several times a day. For example.V 1. ROLE OF SCRIPTING LANGUAGES Network administrators have used scripting since long before Windows or even DOS came on the scene. A script is created using ASCII text. Each scripting language has a collection of commands or keywords and a set of rules on how to use them. . login scripts run every time a user logs in to the network and can perform tasks like mapping network drives for the user based on certain conditions. Kixtart. Some of the more common file extensions you will see are . each with its own capabilities and limitations. Another example of script use might be a situation where you want to have each Windows NT server create a new Emergency Restore Disk and then copy the contents of that disk to a network location.bat. . 118 . such as a modification to the registry. so Windows Notepad or a similar text editor is the only tool required. These languages include Windows native shell scripting. for instance. it’s important to have a good understanding of what scripting is and why it is so useful. and Perl. you could create and distribute a single script to run the task on each server. Visual Basic Scripting Edition. you can use a text editor to write the script and then save it with a file extension that is appropriate to the scripting language you are using.vbs. but to a large number of servers that are widely distributed geographically. Other tasks might need to be carried out only once. Scripting can significantly ease the burden of network administration. a script is a small. UNIX administrators. What is scripting? Simply stated. such as group membership.

You must also consider some of the external factors that may have impact on the program. These will be much effective for you when you will expand your site. for instance. so the admin can concentrate on other tasks while the script runs. You must select the language with is most suitable to your needs. AJAX is good for the ASP. The basic features of most of the languages are same while some of the languages are particularly specified for special kind of applications. Some of the languages are more closer to the current technologies. The choice of commercial scripting language like ASP will give you higher cost for your services. • Features The features of any scripting language should always be kept in mind while selecting them for your website. Some of these languages lack the support to the system in which you want to run them. IMPORTANCE OF SCRIPTING LANGUAGES: The basic knowledge of programming is a must if you want your website stand-out with dynamic content. for example. For example MySQL is more supportive to ASP than PHP. There are different scripting languages which have been used in web based applications. NET servers and provides help to the developers to keep their sites up to date. chat rooms. A large number of people use PHP and Perl and they post self help resources on web. Open source scripting language will be very good for you if you are new to the hosting and developing. You could write a script to check whether a file exists and delete it if it does or display an error message if it doesn't. SCRIPTING ADVANTAGES Scripting in network administration offers significant advantages. Rather than statically mapping a workstation to persistent drives. The amount of support that you can get from a certain language is also important. Different languages have different features and you should use the one which you know better. You must choose the language with the interactive phase. Be consistent—A script need be written only once and can then be invoked many times. If your host supports PHP and CGI then there will be no use of doing work in ASP. map specific network drives when a user logs in and then automatically copy that user’s Favorites folder to a network share when he or she logs out so that the data is preserved in a central location. The key element for the web hosting is the programming languages. It is much less error-prone than manually carrying out the task each time. Any scripting language can play a key role for the success of the site. These languages will play key role in 119 . without the intervention of the network administrator. • Different Factors The selection of the language according to your requirements is very important. You may enhance your scripting languages with the help of add-on components. These scripts will help you learn the language very fast. The only real limit to scripting is your imagination. It allows you to: Save time—Scripts can carry out complex tasks and be invoked automatically. network drives can be mapped in a variety of ways based on which user is logging on to the machine.Windows 2000 goes much further and can be configured to automatically run separate scripts upon: • • • • Machine startup Machine shutdown User login User logout You could. Be flexible—Scripts can use decision-making logic to respond to different conditions. message forums etc.

They also increase the level of interactivity for the users of the site. The following simple example uses Microsoft JScript to create a page that will play a file when you click on a button. but still reserve space for it on the page. the default user interface of Windows Media Player will be visible. In this case. If you want to create your own user interface. 2. These scripting languages determine that how your site can be managed for the database. You can also set the Player. Apart form the skills in the dynamic content. you also need to know the knowledge of web based scripts. two buttons. It is because you may get a handsome reward with the help of these scripting languages. If you place it in the BODY. Add a user interface. Add the OBJECT tag. Creating the Web Page The first step is to create a valid HTML Web page. you need to add an OBJECT tag. This identifies the ActiveX control to the browser and sets up any initial definitions. Simple Example of Scripting in a Web Page You can easily embed the Windows Media Player control in an HTML file using any scripting language your browser recognizes. set the height and width attributes to 0 (zero).uiMode property to "invisible" when you want to hide the control. 3. You can embed the Windows Media Player ActiveX control in a Web page using the following four steps: 1. You must place the OBJECT tag in the BODY of the code. and stop playing the file when you click on another button. The following code is recommended when you provide a custom user interface: <OBJECT ID="Player" height="0" width="0" CLASSID="CLSID:6BF52A52-394A-11d3-B153-00C04F79FAA6"> </OBJECT> The following OBJECT tag attributes are required: 120 .the functionality of your site and will prove a very powerful tool. The following code is the minimum needed to create a blank but valid HTML page: <HTML> <HEAD> </HEAD> <BODY> </BODY> </HTML> Adding the OBJECT Tag Once you have created a Web page. Add a few lines of code to respond when the user clicks on one of the buttons you have created. 4. Create the Web page.

wma". and the OnClick attribute identifies which part of your scripting code will be called when the button is clicked. and change run-time properties. Extended scripts are enclosed in a SCRIPT tag set. pressing keys. call methods. HTML extensions. or the scripting language you are using. Clicking one button starts the media stream playing and the other button stops it: <INPUT TYPE="BUTTON" NAME="BtnPlay" VALUE="Play" OnClick="StartMeUp()"> <INPUT TYPE="BUTTON" NAME="BtnStop" VALUE="Stop" OnClick="ShutMeDown()"> The name of the button is used to identify the button to your code.0 had a different CLASSID. Put the SCRIPT tag anywhere within the BODY of your HTML file and embed the comment-surrounded code within the opening and closing SCRIPT tags. Just pick a name that is unique to that Web page. To prevent typographical errors. Adding Scripting Code Scripting code adds interactivity to your page. and other user actions. You can choose any name you want. The following Microsoft JScript code example calls the Windows Media Player control and performs an appropriate action in response to the corresponding button click. The SCRIPT tag tells the browser where your scripting code is and identifies the scripting language. the value is the label that will appear on the button. Adding a few INPUT buttons is the easiest way to provide a quick user interface. 121 . If you do not identify a language. Only one control has this number and it is the Windows Media Player ActiveX control. you can copy and paste this number from the documentation. <SCRIPT> <!-function StartMeUp () { Player. Versions of the Windows Media Player control prior to version 7. allowing the user to interact with your Web page by clicking. The following code creates two buttons that can respond to the user. the default language will be Microsoft JScript. but you could also call it MyPlayer or something else.ID The name that will be used by other parts of the code to identify and use the ActiveX control.URL = "laure. Scripting code can respond to events. as long as it is a name that is not already used by HTML. Adding a User Interface HTML allows a vast wealth of user interface elements. In this example. CLASSID A very large hexadecimal number that is unique to the control. the name Player is used. It is good authoring practice to enclose your script in HTML comment tags so browsers that do not support scripting do not render your code as text.

wma is in the same directory as the HTML file. 122 .} function ShutMeDown () { Player. which has the ID value of "Player".stop(). Note that the Controls object is called through the controls property of the Player object.controls. StartMeUp. The following code shows a complete example. <HTML> <HEAD> </HEAD> <BODY> <OBJECT ID="Player" height="0" width="0" CLASSID="CLSID:6BF52A52-394A-11d3-B153-00C04F79FAA6"> </OBJECT> <INPUT TYPE="BUTTON" NAME="BtnPlay" VALUE="Play" OnClick="StartMeUp()"> <INPUT TYPE="BUTTON" NAME="BtnStop" VALUE="Stop" OnClick="ShutMeDown()"> <SCRIPT> <!-function StartMeUp () { Player. is called when the button marked Play is clicked. In this case the assumption is that the file laure. and the ShutMeDown function is called when the Stop button is clicked. The ShutMeDown code calls the stop method of the Controls object. } function ShutMeDown () { Player. } --> </SCRIPT> </BODY> </HTML> Note that you must provide a valid URL to a valid file name in the URL property.wma".stop().controls.URL = "laure. The media will start playing immediately. } --> </SCRIPT> The example function. The code inside StartMeUp uses the URL property to define a path to the media.

This is most often associated with a one-time fee. he/she feels tricked and immediately hits the exit button. described metaphorically as "placing items in the shopping cart". Predefined templates limit how much users can modify or customize the software with the advantage of having the vendor continuously keep the software up to date for security patches as well as adding new features. From the stage of product selection till the actual check out. Licensed vs. analogous to the American English term 'shopping cart'. as applicable. Hosted Shopping Carts Shopping cart software can be generally categorized into two main categories. Flexibility is important to your shopping cart design so that customers feel in control throughout the transition. including shipping and handling (i. Request to add something to the cart. Upon checkout. SHOPPING CARTS Shopping cart software is software used in e-commerce to assist people making purchases online.The software allows online shopping customers to accumulate a list of items for purchase. postage and packing) charges and the associated taxes. Hosted service: The software is never downloaded. This model often has predefined templates that a user can choose from to customize their look and feel. but rather is provided by a hosted service provider and is generally paid for on a monthly/annual basis. 123 . The main advantages of this option are that the merchant owns a license and therefore can host it on any Web server that meets the server requirements. Ask the customers to proceed with the checkout. almost exclusively shortened on websites to 'basket'. In British English it is generally known as a shopping basket. This smooth transition does not always take place.2. also known as the application service provider (ASP) software model. Some of these services also charge a percentage of sales in addition to the monthly fee. a customer's preference must be appreciated. • • Licensed software: The software is downloaded and then installed on a Web server. A product selection is automatically followed by a page that tries to capture the billing details. When a customer is directed to an unexpected page.e. the software typically calculates a total for the order. and that the source code can often be accessed and edited to customize the application. SHOPPING CART DESIGN A good shopping cart design is meant to accomplish three functions. They are: • • • Persuade a customer to shop from your site. Some worst case scenarios that do happen are: • • • They do not provide enough room for customers to think and evaluate their buying decision. although there are many free products available as well.

For this reason business owners and online merchants must use only VISA Certified Shopping Cart Software providers as listed on Visa's Global List of PCI DSS Validated Service Providers. Your customers can shop with the knowledge that their transactions 124 . International. transmitting. Secure SSL Shopping Cart .[1] Shopping Cart Software providers are responsible for any liability that may occur as a result of noncompliance to VISA regulations. Inc. Our online shopping carts are easy to setup for as many products as your business has now and will have in the future. JCB International.PCI Compliance The PCI security standards are a blanket of regulations set in place to safeguard payment account data security.With DesignCart you are able to place an unlimited number of products on your web site. and handling of sensitive information over the internet.No programming required • Free Support • Customizable • Free Real-Time Shipping • Calculates Sales Tax • Real-Time Credit Card Processing (Integrated with over 20 Payment Gateways!) • eBay Compatible • Custom Languages • PayPal Compatible • Multiple Payment Methods • Works great with Front Page and Dreamweaver • Order Management System • Coupon and Special Offer Discounts • Works with any Hosting Platform • Customer Statistics • Affiliate Program Support • CheckOut Summary Display • Supports Multiple Email Order Notification • Error Checking • Emailed Customer Receipt • Inventory Control • Gift Certificates • Electronic Software Download • Quickbooks Integration • Recurring Billing Unlimited Products and Orders. MasterCard Worldwide and Visa Inc. they define the best practices for storing.DesignCart uses its own secure certificate. With our button builder software you build a new button for every product that you intend to sell online. The council that develops and monitors these regulations is composed of the leading providers in the payment industry: American Express. Essentially. Discover Financial Services. so there is no need to spend additional funds to acquire your own. FEATURES : • Unlimited Products and Orders • Secure SSL Shopping Cart • Setup is easy -.

are being processed with up to 256bitSecure Socket Layer (SSL) data protection (The highest allowed by current web browsers) Setup is easy - No programming required. You simply complete the 8 steps in our Cart Settings and then use our Button Builder section to create the Add to Cart buttons to copy and paste into your existing product pages. DesignCart does all the extensive programming so you do not have to. DesignCart is hosting platform independent, so if you cannot run CGI's on your server you can still use DesignCart. The program does not rely on cookies, Java, Java Scripting, or plug-ins that your customers may or may not have; thus increasing your product compatibility. Use standard "form style" text buttons, your own custom images, or graphics from the extensive DesignCart Image Library. Free Support - DesignCart provides support buttons for each step of the shopping cart setup, as well as extensive FAQ's, email and phone support. Our support system is timely and accurate. You will not have wait days until you get an answer to your questions Customizable - The shopping cart order form/checkout pages are fully customizable with background image/color, logo, buttons and font/text-color input. For more advanced users, there is even the ability to add your own custom header and footer. DesignCart always provides a link back to the last page where your customer was shopping and generates a unique invoice number for each order. Free Real-Time Shipping - Calculates all shipping, handling and sales tax charges. Including real-time shipping queries for FedEx, UPS and the U.S. Postal Service. Calculates Sales Tax - Our shopping cart software supports tax calculations for single or multiple state rates. Through our advanced tax options, DesignCart can support sales tax calculations for city, county and zip code. Our shopping cart software also supports tax-exempt and shipping-exempt items Real-Time Credit Card Processing (Integrated with over 20 Payment Gateways!) - Works with Authorize.Net, LinkPoint, Plug `n Pay, VeriSign, and all other major gateways. Sign up with any of these gateway services to enable the real-time credit card processing; a list can be found here. Integration is easy, simply input your gateway login information into the cart and no additional programming is required. If you don't see the gateway you use, we can add certain gateways on request. Custom Languages - The ability to display your shopping cart in any language that is supported by UTF8 and HTMLelements. The shopping cart will automatically display the best language to your shopper based on their browser language settings. eBay Compatible - The ability to list and complete payment for your eBay auctions. Winning bidders will be presented with an add button via email. Upon successful payment the cart will update the eBay auction status automatically. PayPal Compatible - The ability to offer payment by PayPal can be offered as the sole checkout method, or in addition to credit card and/or electronic check payments. Multiple Payment Methods - The shopping cart payment page will display any payment methods that you offer to your customers. Including all the major credit cards, electronic check, Google Checkout and PayPal.

125

Works great with Front Page and Dreamweaver - DesignCart provides easy instructions for adding the shopping cart to your online store designed with these web editing programs as well as many others. Order Management System - Securely view and update the status of an order. Automated email order confirmations and ability to send emailed status update emails with shipping tracking numbers. Coupon and Special Offer Discounts - DesignCart provides the ability to setup coupons based on dollar or percentage discounts on an individual product or on the item quantity. These coupons can be given out and redeemed by an unlimited number of your customers. There is even the ability to setup item discounts for each individual product, which are automatically applied, based on dollar or percentage discounts and the quantity or dollar value ordered. Works with any Hosting Platform - DesignCart is a web-based product, which makes it hosting platform independent. The cart will work with any hosting provider that enables you to copy and paste simple HTML into the pages of your website. No access is needed to the CGI bin of your hosting company. Customer Statistics - Customer Login Feature for returning customers, cart page view statistics, cart drop-off rate and sales statistics including tax and shipping totals. This will help you determine what products sell best online and to adjust your prices or sales efforts accordingly Affiliate Program Support - DesignCart supports most affiliate programs such as Commission Junction. The cart provides a location to add the HTML that your affiliate program provides to have the cart carry through the affiliate program information. CheckOut Summary Display - Your customers shopping cart contents are displayed whenever an item is added to the cart. A total of each product quantity and prices are shown at all times. Your customers may increase/decrease the quantity of items in their cart, or remove the item altogether from a single button for starting over. Customer orders can be changed at any time prior to the final checkout where your customer can choose their preferred payment and shipping method from the choices that you are able to present them at checkout time. Supports Multiple Email Order Notification - Order notifications are sent securely to the e-mail address or addresses of your choice. Error Checking - Includes comprehensive error checking of customer input. Validates that credit card numbers and e-mail addresses are in the proper format. Emailed Customer receipt - The shopping cart displays a printable receipt automatically when your customer completes a successful order. An emailed copy of the receipt can be automatically sent to them as well. Inventory Control - Inventory control can notify you when you are running low on inventory, or to prevent your customers from buying items that are out of stock. There is even the ability to allow items to be ordered on Back Order. Gift Certificates - Provides the ability to sell an unlimited number of gift certificates that act as prepaid cash. Sell specific gift certificate amounts or allow the value to be created by your customers.
126

Electronic Software Download (ESD) - This feature enables the sell of electronically fulfilled products such as eBooks. Our system creates a unique URL on the customer's receipt to all for the immediate download and fulfillment of the ESD products that they have purchased. QuickBooks Compatible - Provides a download of your order information into QuickBooks IIF file using this utility. This file can be easily imported into QuickBooks to save you time with data entry. Recurring Billing - Recurring billing provides the ability to charge your customer(s) automatically at any given interval. 3.HOME BANKING APPLICATION DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Definition Facility to securely access funds, account information, and other banking services through a PC over a wide area network or internet. Also called electronic banking. Electronic banking It is an umbrella term for the process by which a customer may perform banking transactions electronically without visiting a brick-and-mortar institution. The following terms all refer to one form or another of electronic banking: personal computer (PC) banking, Internet banking, virtual banking, online banking, home banking, remote electronic banking, and phone banking. PC banking and Internet or online banking are the most frequently used designations. It should be noted, however, that the terms used to describe the various types of electronic banking are often used interchangeably. PC banking is a form of online banking that enables customers to execute bank transactions from a PC via a modem. In most PC banking ventures, the bank offers the customer a proprietary financial software program that allows the customer to perform financial transactions from his or her home computer. The customer then dials into the bank with his or her modem, downloads data, and runs the programs that are resident on the customer's computer. Currently, many banks offer PC banking systems that allow customers to obtain account balances and credit card statements, pay bills, and transfer funds between accounts. Internet banking, sometimes called online banking, is an outgrowth of PC banking. Internet banking uses the Internet as the delivery channel by which to conduct banking activity, for example, transferring funds, paying bills, viewing checking and savings account balances, paying mortgages, and purchasing financial instruments and certificates of deposit. An Internet banking customer accesses his or her accounts from a browser- software that runs Internet banking programs resident on the bank's World Wide Web server, not on the user's PC. NetBanker defines a " true Internet bank" as one that provides account balances and some transactional capabilities to retail customers over the World Wide Web. Internet banks are also known as virtual, cyber, net, interactive, or web banks. To date, more banks have established an advertising presence on the Internet- primarily in the form of informational or interactive web sites-than have created transactional web sites. However, a number of Banks that do not yet offer transactional Internet banking services have indicated on their web sites that they will offer such banking activities in the future.

127

Easy access to transaction data.Internet banks generally have lower operational and transactional costs than do traditional brick-andmortar banks. worldwide connectivity. New customers can establish an account either by completing a PC banking application form and mailing it to an institution offering such a service or by accessing a bank's web site and applying online for Internet banking. interactive communication channels. or other form of remittance. To most people. Customers access e-banking services using an intelligent electronic device. Either approach requires minimal paperwork. automated teller machine (ATM). wire transfer. Further. both recent and historical. for example. uses computer and electronic technology as a substitute for checks and other paper transactions. to access accounts. this booklet focuses specifically on Internet-based services due to the Internet's widely accessible public network. also known as electronic fund transfer (EFT). No physical interface between the customer and the institution is required. the customer can fund the new online account with a check. electronic banking means 24-hour access to cash through an automated teller machine (ATM) or paychecks deposited directly into checking or savings accounts." Opening an Account There are several ways to open and fund an electronic banking account in the United States. Telebank (Arlington. personal digital assistant (PDA). Electronic banking. individuals or businesses. Many financial institutions use an automated teller 128 . some Internet banks exist without physical branches. this booklet begins with a discussion of the two primary types of Internet websites: informational and transactional. E-banking includes the systems that enable financial institution customers. web banks are not restricted to conducting transactions within national borders and have the ability to make transactions involving large amounts of assets instantaneously. According to industry analysts. Internet banking is not limited to a physical site. in some cases. or Touch Tone telephone. such as a personal computer (PC). Virginia) and Banknet (UK). EFTs are initiated through devices such as cards or codes that you use to gain access to your account. transact business. Definition of E-Banking E-banking is defined as the automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic. they are often able to offer low-cost checking and high-yield Certificates of deposit. electronic banking provides a variety of attractive possibilities for remote account access. kiosk. Customers who have existing accounts at brick-and-mortar banks and want to begin using electronic banking services may simply ask their institution for the software needed for PC banking or obtain a password for Internet banking. or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network. including the Internet. customers have electronic access to all of their accounts at the bank. including: • • • • Availability of inquiry and transaction services around the clock. In either instance. Once they have joined the system. and "Direct customer control of international movement of funds without intermediation of financial institutions in customer's jurisdiction. While the risks and controls are similar for the various e-banking access channels. Accordingly.

Risk issues examiners should consider when reviewing informational websites include: Potential liability and consumer violations for inaccurate or incomplete information about products. Some ATMs impose a surcharge. to your account on a regular basis. or transfer funds between accounts. This is similar to using a credit card. Pay-by-Phone Systems let you telephone your financial institution with instructions to pay certain bills or to transfer funds between accounts. and utility bills. In some instances. such as paychecks and social security checks. mortgages. Potential access to confidential financial institution or customer information if the 129 . and pricing presented on the website. Point-of-Sale Transfers allow you to pay for retail purchases with an EFT (or "debit") card. Direct Deposit lets you authorize specific deposits. Informational Websites Informational websites provide customers access to general information about the financial institution and its products or services. Personal Computer Banking allows you to conduct many banking transactions electronically via your personal computer. Electronic Fund Transfers EFT offers several services that consumers may find practical: • Automated Teller Machines or 24-hour Tellers are electronic terminals that let you bank almost any time. as well as transactions using them. but with one important exception: the money for the purchase is transferred immediately — or very shortly — from your bank account to the store’s account. make deposits. you may use your computer to view your account balance. For instance. such as insurance premiums. you generally insert an ATM card and enter your personal identification number (PIN). ATMs must disclose the existence of a surcharge on the terminal screen or on a sign next to the screen. may not be covered by the EFT Act. You also may pre-authorize direct withdrawals so that recurring bills. • • • • Some financial institutions and merchants issue cards that contain cash value stored electronically on the card itself. are paid automatically. You must have an agreement in advance with the institution to make such transfers. To withdraw cash. which means you may not be covered for loss or misuse of the stored-value card. The federal Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFT Act) covers some consumer transactions. or usage fee. Check the rules of your institution to find out when or whether a surcharge is imposed. on consumers who are not members of their institution or on transactions at remote locations. this card also may be your ATM card. An increasing number of merchants are accepting this type of payment. and pay bills electronically. services.machine (ATM) card and a personal identification number (PIN) for this purpose. request transfers between accounts. These "stored-value" cards.

or advances Consumer wire transfers Investment/Brokerage Commercial wire transfers services Loan application andBusiness-to-business payments approval Account aggregation Employee benefits/pension administration Since transactional websites typically enable the electronic exchange of confidential customer information and the transfer of funds. like those delivered through other delivery channels. and 130 .website is not properly isolated from the financial institution's internal network. are typically classified based on the type of customer they support. Losses from fraud if the institution fails to verify the identity of individuals or businesses applying for new accounts or credit on-line. Banking transactions can range from something as basic as a retail account balance inquiry to a large business-tobusiness funds transfer. anti-terrorism. Transactional Websites Transactional websites provide customers with the ability to conduct transactions through the financial institution's website by initiating banking transactions or buying products and services. or delivery of required consumer disclosures. Liability for unauthorized transactions. Possible violations of laws or regulations pertaining to consumer privacy. or the content. antimoney laundering. examiners reviewing transactional ebanking services should consider the following issues: Security controls for safeguarding customer information. In addition to the risk issues associated with informational websites. The following table lists some of the common retail and wholesale e-banking services offered by financial institutions. Table 1: Common E-Banking Services Retail Services Wholesale Services Account management Account management Bill payment andCash management presentment New account opening Small business loan applications. and Negative public perception if the institution's on-line services are disrupted or if its website is defaced or otherwise presents inappropriate or offensive material. Potential liability for spreading viruses and other malicious code to computers communicating with the institution's website. approvals. services provided through these websites expose a financial institution to higher risk than basic informational websites. timing. E-banking services. Authentication processes necessary to initially verify the identity of new customers and authenticate existing customers who access e-banking services. Wholesale e-banking systems typically expose financial institutions to the highest risk per transaction. since commercial transactions usually involve larger dollar amounts.

lending. bill payment. Technology expertise. Managed security service provider. and activities..Negative public perception. and 131 . Alternatively. including outsourcing relationships. Intrusion detection system or IDS (network and host-based). financial institutions can outsource any aspect of their e-banking systems to third parties. customer dissatisfaction. based on four factors: Strategic objectives for e-banking Scope. and Security and internal control requirements.g. lack of availability of on-line services. The following entities could provide or host (i. Internet service provider. Internet banking server. Internet banking software vendor or processor. Financial institutions may choose to support their e-banking services internally. systems. Financial institutions should choose their e-banking system configuration. Internal network servers. scale. Network administration. Core banking vendor or processor. Firewall configuration and management. and potential liability resulting from failure to process third-party payments as directed or within specified time frames. The following list includes many of the potential components and processes seen in a typical institution: Website design and hosting. Core processing system. E-commerce applications (e. allow applications to reside on their servers) e-banking-related services for financial institutions: Another financial institution. and complexity of equipment. or unauthorized access to confidential customer information during transmission or storage. and Credit scoring company. E-Banking Components E-banking systems can vary significantly in their configuration depending on a number of factors.e. E-banking systems rely on a number of common components or processes. Credit bureau.. Programming support. Bill payment provider. Security management. brokerage).

Thus. and intrusion detection system. the primary risk posed by weblinking is that viewers can become confused about whose website they are viewing and who is responsible for the information. While weblinks are a convenient and accepted tool in website design. their use can present certain risks. products. Web Linking A large number of financial institutions maintain sites on the World Wide Web. These components work together to deliver e-banking services. A typical configuration for in-house hosted. the institution has day-to-day responsibility for system administration. However. There are a variety of risk management techniques institutions should consider using to mitigate these risks. or image on a webpage that contains coding that will transport the viewer to a different part of the website or a completely different website by just clicking the mouse. financial institutions can provide a variety of services that have been designed or adapted to support e-commerce. payments for ecommerce. may allow the customer to initiate activity on 132 . firewall. its management and board remain responsible for the content. While the institution does not have to manage the daily administration of these component systems. In this case. These risk management techniques are for those institutions that develop and maintain their own websites. Generally. a provider is not between the Internet access and the financial institution's core processing system. E-Banking Support Services In addition to traditional banking products and services. electronic authentication. This section discusses some of the most common support services: web linking. one or more technology service providers can host the e-banking application and numerous network components as illustrated in the following diagram." A weblink is a word. management has many alternatives when determining the overall system configuration for the various components of an e-banking system. Each component represents a control point to consider. this booklet presents only two basic variations. the institution can host all or a large portion of its e-banking systems internally. website hosting. Internet banking server. as well as institutions that use third-party service providers for this function. First. and services available through that website.Automated decision support systems. The agencies have issued guidance on weblinking that provides details on risks and risk management techniques financial institutions should consider. Account Aggregation Account aggregation is a service that gathers information from many websites. and. Virtually every website contains "weblinks. Second. and wireless banking activities. Some websites are strictly informational. presents that information to the customer in a consolidated format. e-banking services is illustrated below. account aggregation. while others also offer customers the ability to perform financial transactions. phrase. Management should understand these services and the risks they pose to the institution. In this configuration. Through a combination of internal and outsourced solutions. and security of the e-banking system. the institution's service provider hosts the institution's website. for the sake of simplicity. performance. in some cases. such as paying bills or transferring funds between accounts.

" The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce (E-Sign) Act establishes some uniform federal rules concerning the legal status of electronic signatures and records in commercial and consumer transactions so as to provide more legal certainty and promote the growth of electronic commerce. 133 . Disclosure of potential customer liability if customers share their authentication information (i.g.. credit card.. The authentication methods listed above vary in the level of security and reliability they provide and in the cost and complexity of their underlying infrastructures. "screen scraping"). IDs and passwords) with third parties. Database comparisons (e. Digital certificates using a public key infrastructure (PKI). Some aggregators use the customerprovided user IDs and passwords to sign in as the customer. Financial institutions are involved in account aggregation both as aggregators and as aggregation targets..g. Generally.. and Biometric identifiers. and banking data). financial institutions have adopted alternative authentication methods. fraud-screening applications). Microchip-based devices such as smart cards or other types of tokens.e. The information gathered or aggregated can range from publicly available information to personal account information (e.both those used to access the institution's aggregation services and those the aggregator uses to retrieve customer information from aggregated third parties . Additional information on customer authentication techniques can be found in this booklet under the heading "Authenticating E-Banking Customers. Other aggregators use direct data-feed arrangements with website operators or other firms to obtain the customer's information. The development of secure digital signatures continues to evolve with some financial institutions either acting as the certification authority for digital signatures or providing repository services for digital certificates.the aggregated accounts. the choice of which technique(s) to use should be commensurate with the risks in the products and services for which they control access.e. Aggregation services can improve customer convenience by avoiding multiple log-ins and providing access to tools that help customers analyze and manage their various account portfolios.to assure the confidentiality of customer information and to prevent unauthorized activity. including: Passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs). including required disclosures Electronic Authentication Verifying the identities of customers and authorizing e-banking activities are integral parts of e-banking financial services. Risk management issues examiners should consider when reviewing aggregation services include: Protection of customer passwords and user IDs . Since traditional paper-based and in-person identity authentication methods reduce the speed and efficiency of electronic transactions. and Assurance of the accuracy and completeness of information retrieved from the aggregated parties' sites. brokerage. As such. the aggregator copies the personal account information from the website for representation on the aggregator's site (i. Once the customer's account is accessed. direct data feeds are thought to provide greater legal protection to the aggregator than does screen scraping.

Most financial institutions permit intrabank transfers between a customer's accounts as part of their basic transactional e-banking services. times when website is not available) or inability to meet service levels specified in the contract. financial institutions are competing with third parties to provide support services for e-commerce payment systems. The technology and software change rapidly. electronic checks. However. Bill Payment and Presentment Bill payment services permit customers to electronically instruct their financial institution to transfer funds to a business's account at some future specified date. the electronic files that make up the website. Unauthorized disclosure of confidential information stemming from security breaches. Customers can make payments on a one-time or recurring basis.. Financial institutions play an important role in electronic payment systems by creating and distributing a variety of electronic payment instruments. Website hosting services require strong skills in networking.or mails a paper check to the 134 . Financial institutions that host a business customer's website usually store. Risk issues examiners should consider when reviewing website hosting services include damage to reputation.with their heightened risk for fraud often require additional security safeguards in the form of additional authentication and payment confirmation. Payments for E-Commerce Many businesses accept various forms of electronic payments for their products and services. and electronic credit card payments. security. and participating in clearing and settlement systems. However. pricing) resulting from actions of the institution's staff or unauthorized changes by third parties (e.. loss of customers. Institutions developing websites should monitor the need to adopt new interoperability standards and protocols such as Extensible Mark-Up Language (XML) to facilitate data exchange among the diverse population of Internet users.g. accepting a similar variety of instruments.g. active content) spread through institution-hosted sites. e-mail money.. Inaccurate website content (e.Website Hosting Some financial institutions host websites for both themselves as well as for other businesses. processing those payments. products. electronic bill payment and presentment. virus. and Damage to computer systems of website visitors due to malicious code (e. or arrange for the storage of. the financial institution (or its bill payment provider) generates an electronic transaction .usually an automated clearinghouse (ACH) credit . Among the electronic payments mechanisms that financial institutions provide for e-commerce are automated clearing house (ACH) debits and credits through the Internet. with fees typically assessed as a "per item" or monthly charge. increasingly. or potential liability resulting from: Downtime (i. In response to the customer's electronic payment instructions.e. third-party transfers . worm. and programming.. hackers).. These files are stored on one or more servers that may be located on the hosting financial institution's premises.g.

* Ensure software is adequately tested prior to installation on the live system. and host their own bill payment system * Consider additional guidance in the IT Handbook's "Development and Acquisition Booklet. Internet-based cash management is the commercial version of retail bill payment. recurring transfers between accounts and on-line account reconciliation." Financial institutions can offer bill payment as a stand-alone service or in combination with bill presentment. Financial institutions that use third-party software to host a bill payment application internally. modify. Cash management services also include minimum balance maintenance." and "Outsourcing Technology Services" booklets." "Retail Payment Systems. e-banking agreements. Business customers use the system to initiate third-party payments or to transfer money between company accounts. * Ensure vendor access for software maintenance is controlled and monitored. * Set dollar and volume thresholds and review bill payment transactions for suspicious activity * Gain independent audit assurance over the bill payment provider's processing controls * Restrict employees' administrative access to ensure that the internal controls limiting their capabilities to originate. 135 . financial institutions typically advise customers to make payments effective 3-7 days before the bill's due date. Financial institutions that do not provide bill payment services. Financial institutions that develop.business on the customer's behalf. Customers can view their bills by clicking on links on their account's e-banking screen or menu. * Determine the extent of any independent assessments or certification of the security of application source code. Bill presentment arrangements permit a business to submit a customer's bill in electronic form to the customer's financial institution. Businesses typically require stronger controls. To allow for the possibility of a paper-based transfer. but may direct customers to select from several unaffiliated bill payment providers. * Caution customers regarding security and privacy issues through the use of online disclosures or. the customer can initiate bill payment instructions or elect to pay the bill through a different payment channel. including the ability to administer security and transaction controls among several users within the business. Financial institutions that rely on a third-party bill payment provider including Internet banking providers that subcontract to third parties. or delete bill payment transactions are at least as strong as those applicable to the underlying retail payment system ultimately transmitting the transaction * Restrict by vendor contract and identify the use of any subcontractors associated with the bill payment application to ensure adequate oversight of underlying bill payment system performance and availability * Evaluate the adequacy of authentication methods given the higher risk associated with funds transfer capabilities rather than with basic account access * Consider the additional guidance contained in the IT Handbook's "Information Security. maintain. After viewing a bill. more conservatively.

Liability for bill payment instructions originating from someone other than the deposit account holder. and Potential liability directing payment availability information to the wrong e-mail or for releasing funds in response to e-mail from someone other than the intended payee. Under this scenario. or retransmitting the funds to someone else. Wireless E-Banking 136 .consistent with any existing ACH or wire transfer agreements exist with commercial customers. but the institution should consider additional controls because of the higher risk associated with commercial transactions. Cash management applications would include the same control considerations described above. Institutions should also establish additional controls to ensure binding agreements . a consumer electronically instructs the person-to-person payment service to transfer funds to another individual. Losses from person-to-person payments funded by transfers from credit cards or deposit accounts over which the payee does not have signature authority. Under such arrangements. Then. some businesses have begun offering electronic bill presentment directly from their own websites rather than through links on the e-banking screens of a financial institution. presentment. customers can log on to the business's website to view their periodic bills. Additionally. and e-mail money services include: Potential liability for late payments due to service disruptions. if so desired. Person-to-person payments are typically funded by credit card charges or by an ACH transfer from the consumer's account at a financial institution. Person-to-Person Payments Electronic person-to-person payments. The adequacy of authentication methods becomes a higher priority and requires greater assurance due to the larger average dollar size of transactions. The payment service then sends an e-mail notifying the individual that the funds are available and informs him or her of the methods available to access the funds including requesting a check. cash management systems should provide adequate security administration capabilities to enable the business owners to restrict access rights and dollar limits associated with multiple-user access to their accounts. they can electronically authorize the business to "take" the payment from their account. permit consumers to send "money" to any person or business with an e-mail address. Institutions should ensure proper approval of businesses allowed to use ACH payment technology to initiate payments from customer accounts.In addition. Losses from employee misappropriation of funds held pending access instructions from the payer. The payment then occurs as an ACH debit originated by the business's financial institution as compared to the ACH credit originated by the customer's financial institution in the bill payment scenario described above. but are frequently offered by other businesses as well. Some of the risk issues examiners should consider when reviewing bill payment. also known as e-mail money. Since neither the payee nor the payer in the transaction has to have an account with the payment service. such services may be offered by an insured financial institution. transferring the funds to an account at an insured financial institution.

maintaining adequate staff expertise. pagers.. and compliance risks Conclusion e-banking creates issues for banks and regulators alike. Increased communication speeds and improvements in devices during the next few years should lead to continued increases in wireless subscriptions. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).Wireless banking is a delivery channel that can extend the reach and enhance the convenience of Internet banking products and services. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Enhanced 911). to identify and remove any unnecessary barriers to e-banking. and increased battery capacity. together with an effective process for measuring performance against it. Manufacturers of wireless devices are working to improve device usability and to take advantage of enhanced "third-generation" (3G) services. reputation. Device limitations include reduced processing speeds. and personal digital assistants (or similar devices) through telecommunication companies' wireless networks. Wireless Markup Language (WML) has emerged as one of a few common language standards for developing wireless device content. smaller screen sizes. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) has emerged as a data transmission standard to deliver WML content.Take into account the effect that e-provision will have upon their business risk exposures and manage these accordingly. and compliance issues. ineffective for delivering content to wireless devices. color displays. Take a strategic and proactive approach to information security. These improvements are geared towards increasing customer acceptance and usage. Wireless banking occurs when customers access a financial institution's network(s) using cellular phones. banks should: Have a clear and widely disseminated strategy that is driven from the top and takes into account the effects of e-banking. Wireless devices have limitations that increase the security risks of wireless-based transactions and that may adversely affect customer acceptance rates. 4. authentication.Ensure they have adequate management information in a clear and comprehensible format. As institutions begin to offer wireless banking services to customers. adopt systems with adequate capacity and scalability. different data entry formats. FIREWALLS 137 . For our part we will continue our work. For their part. Wireless banking services in the United States typically supplement a financial institution's e-banking products and services. and limited capabilities to transfer stored records. they should consider the risks and necessary risk management controls to address security. undertake proportional advertising campaigns and ensure that they have adequate staff coverage and a suitable business continuity plan. voice recognition applications. Device improvements are anticipated to include bigger screens. These limitations combine to make the most recognized Internet language. both national and international.Ensure that crisis management processes are able to cope with Internet related incidents. Make active use of system based security management and monitoring tools.g. Undertake market research. Some of the unique risk factors associated with wireless banking that may increase a financial institution's strategic. transaction. limited battery life. location identification technology (e. building in best practice controls and testing and updating these as the market develops.

if a certain IP address outside the company is reading too many files from a server.137. hackers can get to the machine and exploit the hole. • Stateful inspection .Information from the Internet is retrieved by the firewall and then sent to the requesting system and vice versa.Basically. A company can set up rules like this for FTP servers. A firewall gives a company tremendous control over how people use the network.Packets (small chunks of data) are analyzed against a set of filters. What Firewall Software Does A firewall is simply a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system. For example. Allow FTP connections only to that one computer and prevent them on all others. If an incoming packet of information is flagged by the filters. A company will place a firewall at every connection to the Internet (for example. Firewall Configuration Firewalls are customizable. The company will therefore have hundreds of computers that all have network cards connecting them together. Without a firewall in place. Telnet servers and so on. the information is allowed through. The firewall can implement security rules. If one employee makes a mistake and leaves a security hole. With a firewall in place. then incoming information is compared to these characteristics. Web servers. one of the security rules inside the company might be: Out of the 500 computers inside this company. For example. whether files are allowed to leave the company over the network and so on. all servers on the Internet also have human-readable names. try to make telnet connections to them and so on. This means that you can add or remove filters based on several conditions. it is easier for most of us to 138 . a firewall is a barrier to keep destructive forces away from your property. only one of them is permitted to receive public FTP traffic.Because it is hard to remember the string of numbers that make up an IP address." A typical IP address looks like this: 216.61. Information traveling from inside the firewall to the outside is monitored for specific defining characteristics. at every T1 line coming into the company). • Domain names . it is not allowed through. the firewall can block all traffic to or from that IP address. all of those hundreds of computers are directly accessible to anyone on the Internet. called domain names.Each machine on the Internet is assigned a unique address called an IP address.27. In addition. IP addresses are 32-bit numbers. Let's say that you work at a company with 500 employees. In addition. the company will have one or more connections to the Internet through something like T1 or T3 lines. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to the requesting system and all others are discarded. • Proxy service . normally expressed as four "octets" in a "dotted decimal number. Firewalls use one or more of three methods to control traffic flowing in and out of the network: • Packet filtering . the landscape is much different. If the comparison yields a reasonable match. and because IP addresses sometimes need to change. Its job is similar to a physical firewall that keeps a fire from spreading from one area to the next. For example. the company can control how employees connect to Web sites. that's why its called a firewall. try to make FTP connections to them. In fact. Some of these are: • IP addresses . A person who knows what he or she is doing can probe those computers. Otherwise it is discarded.A newer method that doesn't examine the contents of each packet but instead compares certain key parts of the packet to a database of trusted information.

phrases and variations of them as you need. Hardware firewalls are incredibly secure and not very expensive. For example. For example. A good example is the Linksys Cable/DSL router.used to break apart and rebuild information that travels over the Internet • HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) . This computer is considered a gatewaybecause it provides the only point of access between your home network and the Internet.Any server machine makes its services available to the Internet using numberedports.used by a router to exchange the information with other routers • SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) . but more often it is a computer program like a Web browser.used for information that requires no response.137. such as streaming audio and video • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) . 2 Ports . You configure the router via a Webbased interface that you reach through the browser on your computer. Home versions that include a router. you could instruct the firewall to block any packet with the word "X-rated" in it. Some common protocols that you can set firewall filters for include: • IP (Internet Protocol) . The http in the Web's protocol. Protocols are often text. the Web server would typically be available on port 80. the firewall unit itself is normally the gateway.used to collect system information from a remote computer • Telnet . 3 Specific words and phrases . Computers in your home network connect to the router. or allow access only to specific domain names.The protocol is the pre-defined way that someone who wants to use a service talks with that service.This can be anything.com than it is to remember 216. But you can include as many words.used to download and upload files • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) . and simply describe how the client and server will have their conversation. A company might block all access to certain domain names. You can then set any filters or additional information.used to perform commands on a remote computer A company might set up only one or two machines to handle a specific protocol and ban that protocol on all other machines.27. The firewall will sniff (search through) each packet of information for an exact match of the text listed in the filter. and the FTP server would be available on port 21.remember www.61. The "someone" could be a person. The key here is that it has to be an exact match. firewall and Ethernet hub for broadband connections can be found for well under $100. Otherwise. Why Firewall Security? There are many creative ways that unscrupulous people use to access or abuse unprotected computers: 139 . one for each service that is available on the server (see How Web Servers Work for details). The "X-rated" filter would not catch "X rated" (no hyphen). Some operating systems come with a firewall built in. a software firewall can be installed on the computer in your home that has an Internet connection.the main delivery system for information over the Internet • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .used for Web pages • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) .used to send text-based information (email) • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) . • Protocols .howstuffworks. With a hardware firewall. It has a built-in Ethernet card and hub. if a server machine is running a Web (HTTP) server and an FTP server. A company might block port 21 access on all machines but one inside the company. which in turn is connected to either a cable or DSL modem.

Hackers sometimes take advantage of this to make information appear to come from a trusted source or even from inside the network! Most firewall products disable source routing by default. But the source providing the packet can arbitrarily specify the route that the packet should travel.You have probably heard this phrase used in news reports on the attacks on major Web sites. some spam is going to get through your firewall as long as you accept email. • Macros . • E-mail bombs . Be careful of clicking on these because you may accidentally accept a cookie that provides a backdoor to your computer. Viruses range from harmless messages to erasing all of your data. This type of attack is nearly impossible to counter. This way it can spread quickly from one system to the next.SMTP is the most common method of sending e-mail over the Internet. can destroy your data or crash your computer. This script is known as a macro. to filter using a firewall. The highest level of security would be to simply block everything. • Operating system bugs . By inundating a server with these unanswerable session requests. Obviously that defeats the • 140 . The level of security you establish will determine how many of these threats can be stopped by your firewall. a hacker causes the server to slow to a crawl or eventually crash.Some programs have special features that allow for remote access. spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. Quite often it contains links to Web sites. This can range from being able to view or access your files to actually running programs on your computer.Typically harmless but always annoying. Someone sends you the same e-mail hundreds or thousands of times until your e-mail system cannot accept any more messages. it is worth the investment to install anti-virus software on each computer. • Source routing .In most cases. Spam can be dangerous though. • Redirect bombs . Others provide remote access with insufficient security controls or have bugs that an experienced hacker can take advantage of. • Spam . And. making the actual sender of the spam difficult to trace. the path a packet travels over the Internet (or any other network) is determined by the routers along that path. if not impossible. • SMTP session hijacking .An e-mail bomb is usually a personal attack. By gaining access to a list of e-mail addresses. that provides some level of control of the program.Probably the most well-known threat is computer viruses. some operating systems have backdoors. it cannot find the system that made the request.Remote login . Others contain bugs that provide a backdoor. • Denial of service . • Viruses . or hidden access. When the server responds with an acknowledgement and tries to establish a session.To simplify complicated procedures. a person can send unsolicited junk e-mail (spam) to thousands of users. This is done quite often by redirecting the e-mail through the SMTP server of an unsuspecting host. depending on the application.When someone is able to connect to your computer and control it in some form. Hackers have taken advantage of this to create their own macros that. While some firewalls offer virus protection.Hackers can use ICMP to change (redirect) the path information takes by sending it to a different router. • Application backdoors . Some of the items in the list above are hard. This is one of the ways that a denial of service attack is set up. A virus is a small program that can copy itself to other computers.Like applications. even though it is annoying. many applications allow you to create a script of commands that the application can run. What happens is that the hacker sends a request to the server to connect to it.

content creators. This is a good rule for businesses that have an experienced network administrator that understands what the needs are and knows exactly what traffic to allow through. You can also restrict traffic that travels through the firewall so that only certain types of information. Most of the software firewalls available will allow you to designate a directory on the gateway computer as a DMZ. 5. Think of DMZ as the front yard of your house.that is. The bottom line depends on many competing factors. then begin to select what types of traffic you will allow. It belongs to you and you may put some things there.purpose of having an Internet connection. BUSINESS MODELS Business models are perhaps the most discussed and least understood aspect of the web. In the most basic sense. putting a firewall in place provides some peace of mind. One of the best things about a firewall from a security standpoint is that it stops anyone on the outside from logging onto a computer in your private network. But a common rule of thumb is to block everything. There is so much talk about how the web changes traditional business models. A company produces a good or service and sells it to customers. generate revenue. Although this sounds pretty serious. you may want to create a DMZ (Demilitarized Zone). 141 . Still. advertisers (and their agencies). The business model spells-out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain. Setting up a DMZ is very easy. Proxy Servers and DMZ A function that is often combined with a firewall is a proxy server. Who makes money and how much is not always clear at the outset. Broadcasting is a good example. Radio and later television programming has been broadcasted over the airwaves free to anyone with a receiver for much of the past century. and listeners or viewers. But there is little clear-cut evidence of exactly what this means. Instead it loads instantaneously from the proxy server. The broadcaster is part of a complex network of distributors. If you have multiple computers. the revenues from sales exceed the cost of operation and the company realizes a profit. you can choose to simply place one of the computers between the Internet connection and the firewall. While this is a big deal for businesses. it is retrieved by the proxy server and then sent to the requesting computer. This means that the next time you go back to that page. it really is just an area that is outside the firewall. For most of us. a business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself -. most home networks will probably not be threatened in this manner. If you access a page on a Web site. The net effect of this action is that the remote computer hosting the Web page never comes into direct contact with anything on your home network. but you would put anything valuable inside the house where it can be properly secured.Some models are quite simple. The proxy server is used to accessWeb pages by the other computers. Some examples are: •Web site •Online business •FTP download and upload area In cases like this. When another computer requests a Web page. If all goes well. Other models can be more intricately woven. it normally doesn't have to load again from the Web site. it is probably better to work with the defaults provided by the firewall developer unless there is a specific reason to change it. Proxy servers can also make your Internet access work more efficiently. can get through. There are times that you may want remote users to have access to items on your network. it is cached (stored) on the proxy server. such as e-mail. other than the proxy server.

the patented "name-your-price" model pioneered by Priceline. One of the oldest forms of brokering. Transaction Broker -. Internet business models continue to evolve.com. BROKERAGE MODEL Brokers are market-makers: they bring buyers and sellers together and facilitate transactions. But what is new and novel as a business model is not always clear. "business methods") have fallen increasingly within the realm of patent law. Auctions are a perfect example. Brokers play a frequent role in business-to-business (B2B). This is one attempt to present a comprehensive and cogent taxonomy of business models observable on the web. The formula for fees can vary. Moreover. including terms like price and delivery. and unique items like fine art and antiquities. New and interesting variations can be expected in the future. For example. auctions have been widely used throughout the world to set prices for such items as agricultural commodities. Indeed. Demand Collection System -. and the broker arranges fulfillment. But the web is also likely to reinvent tried-and-true models. The proposed taxonomy is not meant to be exhaustive or definitive. Usually a broker charges a fee or commission for each transaction it enables. business-to-consumer (B2C).Internet commerce will give rise to new kinds of business models. Brokerage models include: Marketplace Exchange -. That much is certain. it is not uncommon for content driven businesses to blend advertising with a subscription model. The Web has popularized the auction model and broadened its applicability to a wide array of goods and services. A number of business method patents relevant to ecommerce have been granted. Broker charges the seller a listing fee and commission scaled with the value of the transaction. Buy/Sell Fulfillment -. financial instruments. Exchanges operate independently or are backed by an industry consortium.takes customer orders to buy or sell a product or service. business models (or more broadly speaking. Prospective buyer makes a final (binding) bid for a specified good or service. as described below with examples. 142 . Business models have taken on greater importance recently as a form of intellectual property that can be protected with a patent.provides a third-party payment mechanism for buyers and sellers to settle a transaction. or consumer-to-consumer (C2C) markets.conducts auctions for sellers (individuals or merchants). Some of the more noteworthy patents may be challenged in the courts. Auctions vary widely in terms of the offering and bidding rules. Auction Broker -.offers a full range of services covering the transaction process. The basic categories of business models discussed in the table below include:  Brokerage  Advertising  Infomediary  Merchant  Manufacturer (Direct)  Affiliate  Community  Subscription  Utility The models are implemented in a variety of ways. Business models have been defined and categorized in many different ways. from market assessment to negotiation and fulfillment. a firm may combine several different models as part of its overall Internet business strategy.

also delivers advertising links or pop-ups as the user surfs the web. Contextual advertisers can sell targeted advertising based on an individual user's surfing activity. User Registration -. for free) and services (like email. but there also may be a membership fee. blogs) mixed with advertising messages in the form of banner ads. a hosting service for online merchants that charges setup. ADVERTISING MODEL The web advertising model is an extension of the traditional media broadcast model.freeware developers who bundle adware with their product. Virtual Marketplace -. Content-Targeted Advertising -. Some firms function as infomediaries (information intermediaries) assisting buyers and/or sellers understand a given market.Distributor -. Broker facilitates business transactions between franchised distributors and their trading partners.. Registration allows inter-session tracking of user surfing habits and thereby generates data of potential value in targeted advertising campaigns.interactive online ads that require the user to respond intermittently in order to wade through the message before reaching the intended content.is a catalog operation that connects a large number of product manufacturers with volume and retail buyers.content-based sites that are free to access but require users to register and provide demographic data. a web site. For example. Classifieds -. The broadcaster may be a content creator or a distributor of content created elsewhere. but not necessarily. The advertising model works best when the volume of viewer traffic is large or highly specialized. IM. A niche portal cultivates a welldefined user demographic. INFOMEDIARY MODEL Data about consumers and their consumption habits are valuable.usually a search engine that may include varied content or services. Independently collected data about producers and their products are useful to consumers when considering a purchase. May also provide automated transaction and relationship marketing services. Google identifies the meaning of a web page and then automatically delivers relevant ads when a user visits that page. or to locate hard to find information. it extends the precision of search advertising to the rest of the web.animated full-screen ads placed at the entry of a site before a user reaches the intended content.or virtual mall. Ultramercials -. The banner ads may be the major or sole source of revenue for the broadcaster.list items for sale or wanted for purchase. Query-based Paid Placement -. Listing fees are common. A high volume of user traffic makes advertising profitable and permits further diversification of site services. especially when that information is carefully analyzed and used to target marketing campaigns. Contextual Advertising / Behavioral Marketing -. sponsored links) or advertising keyed to particular search terms in a user query. and/or transaction fees. Search Agent -. The broadcaster.a software agent or "robot" used to search-out the price and availability for a good or service specified by the buyer. monthly listing.pioneered by Google.e. Intromercials -. Portal -. 143 . in this case. a browser extension that automates authentication and form fill-ins.sells favorable link positioning (i. such as Overture's trademark "pay-for-performance" model. provides content (usually. A personalized portal allows customization of the interface and content to the user.

Catalog Merchant -. Lease -. Incentive Marketing -.the sale of a product in which the right of ownership is transferred to the buyer. Bit Vendor -.Advertising Networks -. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. Ad networks collect data about web users that can be used to analyze marketing effectiveness. thereby enabling advertisers to deploy large marketing campaigns. Combines mail. Sales may be made based on list prices or through auction.traditional brick-and-mortar retail establishment with web storefront. Data collected about users is sold for targeted advertising. The manufacturer model can be based on efficiency.g. a company that creates a product or service) to reach buyers directly and thereby compress the distribution channel. AFFILIATE MODEL In contrast to the generalized portal.. Pay-per-click -.feed banner ads to a network of member sites.e. brand-integrated content is created by the manufacturer itself for the sole basis of product placement. improved customer service.in exchange for a rental fee. conducts both sales and distribution over the web. provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. Banner Exchange -. telephone and online ordering.online audience market research agencies. is a retail merchant that operates solely over the web.facilitates transactions between buyer and sellers by providing comprehensive information and ancillary services.if an affiliate does not generate sales. Click and Mortar -. the affiliate model. without being involved in the actual exchange of goods or services between the parties.mail-order business with a web-based catalog. banner exchange. Variations include. and a better understanding of customer preferences.site that pays affiliates for a user click-through. 144 . Purchase -. MERCHANT MODEL Wholesalers and retailers of goods and services. Virtual Merchant --or e-tailer. and revenue sharing programs. MANUFACTURER (DIRECT) MODEL The manufacturer or "direct model". the buyer receives the right to use the product under a “terms of use” agreement. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. pay-per-click.e. with software licensing). in its purest form. in accordance with a “terms of use” agreement. Ownership rights remain with the manufacturer (e. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site.customer loyalty program that provides incentives to customers such as redeemable points or coupons for making purchases from associated retailers. which explains its popularity. Audience Measurement Services -. it is predicated on the power of the web to allow a manufacturer (i.in contrast to the sponsored-content approach (i. One type of agreement may include a right of purchase upon expiration of the lease..a merchant that deals strictly in digital products and services and.. it represents no cost to the merchant. the advertising model). The affiliate model is inherently well-suited to the web. License -. It is a pay-for-performance model -. The product is returned to the seller upon expiration or default of the lease agreement.the sale of a product that involves only the transfer of usage rights to the buyer. Brand Integrated Content -. Metamediary -.trades banner placement among a network of affiliated sites.

such as individuals searching for former schoolmates. Traditionally. Metered Subscriptions -. TOOLS USAGE: 145 . tutorials and user documentation.measures and bills users based on actual usage of a service. It is not uncommon for sites to combine free content with "premium" (i.S. charging customers for connection minutes.. electricity water.g. Instead of licensing code for a fee. Social Networking Services -. Subscription fees are incurred irrespective of actual usage rates. Open Content -. Users have a high investment in both time and emotion. hobby.Revenue Sharing -. Internet Services Providers -. Internet service providers (ISPs) in some parts of the world operate as utilities. A community of users support the site through voluntary donations. open source relies on revenue generated from related services like systems integration. subscriber. monthly or annual -. audio. 5. COMMUNITY MODEL The viability of the community model is based on user loyalty. Public Broadcasting -.are conduits for the distribution of user-submitted information. long-distance telephone services).g. Person-to-Person Networking Services -. Metered Usage -.offer network connectivity and related services on a monthly subscription.fee to subscribe to a service.daily.or member-only) content. as opposed to the subscriber model common in the U.. romance). Content Services -.provide text.offers a percent-of-sale commission based on a user click-through in which the user subsequently purchases a product. or revenue may be tied to contextual advertising and subscriptions for premium services. metering has been used for essential services (e.sites that provide individuals with the ability to connect to other individuals along a defined common interest (professional.user-supported model used by not-for-profit radio and television broadcasting extended to the web. as seen in rise of social networking. SUBSCRIPTION MODEL Users are charged a periodic -.software developed collaboratively by a global community of programmers who share code openly. and in which members pay a subscription fee. Revenue can be based on the sale of ancillary products and services or voluntary contributions. numbers of pages viewed). Open Source -. Unlike subscriber services. or a "pay as you go" approach. UTILITY MODEL The utility or "on-demand" model is based on metering usage. Subscription and advertising models are frequently combined.e.come in the form of membership associations that abide by an explicit code of conduct. metered services are based on actual usage rates. product support.. The Internet is inherently suited to community business models and today this is one of the more fertile areas of development.openly accessible content developed collaboratively by a global community of contributors who work voluntarily. Social networking services can provide opportunities for contextual advertising and subscriptions for premium services.allows subscribers to purchase access to content in metered portions (e. or video content to users who subscribe for a fee to gain access to the service. Trust Services -.

Of course. there are a number of very good--and reliable--tools and resources available on the net that are free. keep an eye on your competition. This is also listed right on the toolbar itself. make your keywords more effective. The good news is that there are some nifty free tools available on the Google Toolbar that can make this whole process faster and a lot more productive. However. Two or three of the most popular links also appear on the toolbar.) Take a look at some of these options: 146 . Start by looking at your own site with Alexa's toolbar. dependable products and services. The toolbar also contains a Google search option. you should still take care in the "free" world. The Alexa toolbar is one of the most useful tools around for online businesses. This is the exact information you need when you're researching high-traffic sites in your industry and considering link partnerships or joint ventures. Make educated decisions about the worth of a joint venture partner. But the following 12 tools and resources can be effectively used to give your online business that extra edge you need to stay ahead of your competition. 2. Link partner evaluation tool. and Determine the credibility and perceived value of the site. and more. find potential business partners.When you're establishing a web business. And these can be excellent ways to complement your existing tools at no cost. A list of related links. helping you make your site stickier and more user-friendly. 1. so you can jump directly into a search without having to leave the page you're on. now that I've told you the downside. and always be aware of what you may have to give up--like reliability--or give over--like advertising space on your site and potential customers. Use this list to determine other popular sites that your target market visits. When you're building a successful online business. The number of other sites that link to the site The contact information of the site owner All site/user reviews The list of related links--which also has its own button on the toolbar--is an excellent way for you to find other popular or similar sites that might be good linking partners or joint venture partners. Market research tool. You can use this information to: • • • Decide how much you're willing to pay for advertising. And you may be wondering if it's worth your while to give them a try. But if you're like many new online entrepreneurs. and see what related links are suggested. including: • • • • • The traffic ranking of the site. (Be sure to check the "Enable Advanced Features" option when you download it to enable all the options. The most useful feature is a "site info" option. you'll probably need to spend hours at a time researching your competitors and your target market and looking for new product ideas. you have to be sure that your most important e-business tools are high-quality. downloadable toolbar that opens in your web browser whenever you're online. Alexa lays out all the details of the site you're on. Example :Alexa provides a free. When you click on this button. you're probably curious about the various free tools and resources you may have heard about or discovered yourself while surfing the net for information.

lagging image files that take forever to load on your site. as they can save you hours spent on research--leaving you more time to concentrate on developing new products. and includes the following features: 147 . new marketing strategies and other ways to boost your profits. With this tool. prices and links to online stores in the results. NetMechanic is a tool kit resource. Using GIFBot is an excellent way to reduce the file size of your images so your web pages load faster--and you don't lose those impatient surfers. 4. Froogle is a great place to check out your potential competitors. 3. • • • Once you get the hang of them.• "Google Groups" search: This is great for product or market research. and it's so easy to do that nowadays you'll look totally unprofessional with huge. as you can search for your keywords within the thousands of Google Groups online and find forums relevant to your site. It's ideal for finding out how many competitors you may have for a new product and for seeking out potential linking partners. If you have an idea for a new product. you'll get to know what's important to the people in your target market. so you can use it to quickly research how the pricing of your products or services compares with other offerings across the Web. is totally free and is a particularly useful resource. GIFbot. "Search News": This feature lets you find news stories relevant to your website. It's great for sparking content ideas or just keeping up with the latest developments in your market or industry. offering a number of free trials that are great for easily locating potential problems with your site and repairing them quickly. Nvu is a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) HTML editor that's similar to FrontPage or Dreamweaver--but completely free to download. By checking these forums regularly. you can address such problems as: • • • • • HTML code errors Browser display problems Lengthy load times Broken links Site downtime Some of these tools will even give you a free monthly update! However. HTML editor and HTML tutorials. You don't have to spend hundreds of dollars on HTML editors and web design software to create your own site. But NetMechanic's image-reducing tool. It displays pictures. The software allows you to create and manage a professional-looking website without any knowledge of HTML programming. "Web Directory" search: This option lets you search Google's directory for sites that match your search terms. Image-reducing tool and free "tool kit" trials. these powerful tools can become a great asset to your business. "Search Froogle": Froogle lets online shoppers search for products and compare prices. you'll get a limited version of each tool unless you're willing to pay the fee. ezine or blog within news pages indexed by Google. Image files can be reduced by as much as 50 to 85 percent in many cases.

pointing you toward a variety of really useful free tools. 7. and view an example of how your listing will appear in the search engines (what description will be used. The browser compatibility experts at AnyBrowser offer every tool you'll need to make your site viewable. Choosing the right keywords for your site is the first step to effective marketing online. In general an effective keyword will return a 3% to 10% weighting on a web page. you can ensure you meet the needs of every browser. The most useful tool is the "SiteViewer. as the name suggests. This tool analyses your homepage and lets you know what the density of a keyword is on your webpage.1-Click Answers is a downloadable search tool available from the Answers. message boards and more." which allows you to see your web pages as surfers will see them on multiple browsers. AnyBrowser is also a great resource directory. Using Yahoo! Search Marketing's Keyword Selector tool allows you to easily discover which keywords are frequently searched by web surfers. fonts. Type in a term you'd like to target. Once you know what the top keywords for your business are. classifieds. you then need to make sure you have used them effectively on your website. It will also tell you how many times those terms were searched in Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture) in the last month. Java scripts. A tool like this can help you optimize your search engine ranking by targeting keywords and phrases that are frequently searched by the online audience. After you've downloaded the personal (free) version. Basically we are all looking for quality leads on our website. meaning you can see what your web page will look like as you're creating it Integrated file management via FTP. CGI scripts and a ton of free resources such as HTML editors. and the tool will give you a list of searches that include your exact term as well as related searches. For example. Free browser compatibility service.com search engine. With AnyBrowser. what the title will be. When you search on an item. graphics. you'll have a search bar right on your desktop. 6. tables may shift and so on. A keyword is what a customer types into Google to conduct a search for something they are looking for. WordTracker provides you with the amount of times a keyword has been searched on in the last 24 hours. your site may look different in Netscape Navigator than it does in Internet Explorer--images may be broken. Once you know which are the right keywords for your business. It allows you to search multiple information sources and find instant answers containing concise information on the topic you're searching for. in any browser. you'll get results from some or all of the following resources. It's a great place to find online HTML tutorials. You can also make sure your coding checks out and your links aren't broken. depending on your search term: • • • Dictionaries Thesauruses Atlases 148 . banner exchanges. Free keyword selector tool. and so on).• • • • WYSIWYG editing of pages. so you can upload your pages to your web host Easy-to-use interface Free tutorials 5. Free search tool. you can use them on your website to attract the right leads from search engines and for building emarketing campaigns with tools like Google Adwords.

the conversion rate you expect. when posting content on your site. this easy-to-use. Most internet entrepreneurs have very little. to use your discretion and make sure it's worth the risk involved. if any.EZineArticles. the cost of your product or service). and you'll be making a costly mistake.Marketing Today's ROI calculator is an easy-to-use device that allows you to accurately estimate what kind of return on investment you can expect from your upcoming direct mail or e-mail campaigns and promotions. however. 8. One of the hardest tasks for someone with no design experience to do is to choose the color scheme for your site.. The material you provide has to be relevant to your business and your customer base. however. from travel guides to lottery results. more important. 11. The broad variety of topics range from financial advice to hip hop headlines. such as #000000 for black--so you can use them on your site and not have to worry if that pink really does match that orange. SiteLevel can set you up with effective. Hint: If you don't have previous response rates and conversion rates to base your figures on. you should estimate much lower than you think necessary. news briefs. however. free search tools for your website. If you guess too low. which offers free content designed for both websites and e-zines. The most accurate way to operate this tool is to use the response rate you received from your previous mailings to calculate your ROI for future mailings. You can also give away free software applications directly from your site. tickers. 9.. 1-Click Answers consolidates them in one source to save the precious time of the busy netpreneur. to creating a professional-looking web site. That doesn't have to be a barrier. tips of the day and more. the sponsors' links can draw traffic away from your site. you'll just end up with extra cash on hand. the response rate you expect.FreeSticky is a good place to find free (or cheap) content for your site.• • Glossaries Encyclopedias . 10. Watch that you don't just load up your site with a lot of stuff that you think is interesting. Another good source for articles is www. 149 . your total costs.com. headlines. The calculator is a simple tool that acts as an excellent reality check when you're determining your marketing costs. many of which are available for co-branding. guess too high. Free web design tool. all in just one step! No more messing around with multiple search tools. It's always a good idea. Well. Find articles. Free site search tools. web design knowledge. and. Also be aware that the sponsorship information that is usually included can pull your readers' attention away from your purpose. and how much you expect each buyer to spend (that is. If your site is more than a few pages and doesn't have a good internal search tool. so you can keep your site fresh and interesting for your visitors--and keep them coming back for more. All you have to do is enter the numbers: the number of mailings you'll be doing. free tool from ColorMatch 5K allows you to create a complete color scheme at the click of the button. Free e-mail campaign ROI calculator. It also gives you the HTML codes for the colors you choose--every web color has a code. Free content. you're probably losing many a frustrated visitor.

This tool also provides you a running count of pages. Other marketing tools. plus much. especially if you start to invest time and money into building your website visitation and want to gain increased sales. allowing you to index up to 1. free fonts. Using this tool from the beginning can help provide a before and after snap shot of each marketing initiative you try and can give you very quick feedback to let you know what is working and what is not. although you may need the assistance of a website developer to complete this for you. plenty of Java script resources.000 pages and incorporate a variety of search strategies. Here you'll find the "Internet Seer" site monitoring tool that provides downtime alerts so you don't lose valuable customers. And although you should be wary of freebies that ask for advertising space in return. Although not everything on this site is e-business related. free personal management tools. This helps you monitor any Search Engine Optimisation that you may do to your website.While appeasing your visitors. much more. It tracks where you are ranked for a keyword. Doing this can help with your free listings on search engines and is recommended. SiteLevel also lets you customize your own search results page to make it suit the look and feel of your site. Your Rating With Search Engines Advanced Web Ranking is a tool that lets you know how you are performing on a variety of Search Engines for your keywords. banners and polls Guestbooks. a site-level search engine also enables you to find out what your users want and need. and then each time you ask it to trawl through the Search Engines it lets you know whether your ranking has improved or not. Probably the most useful section for e-businesses is the "webmaster" section. Measuring Visitation To Your Website Tracking how your site is performing is all important. icons. graphics. you might want to bookmark this page. SiteLevel's search tools allow you to track what your visitors are searching for and see what they're finding--or not finding--so you can adapt to their agendas and increase visitor satisfaction and the stickiness of your site. This tool trawls through your website and provides an XML sitemap. The basic. Google Analytics is a tool that provides really useful information about visitation to your website. message boards and more Free Site also lists free technical support and online tutorials. you'll find plenty that is. clipart. and buttons. You'll also find: • • • • Tools to help you check your keywords and your link popularity Suggested methods of winning awards for your site Scripts. free version of this tool has more than enough "oomph" for the average small-business website. 150 . provides a text-based URL list and an XML sitemap you can import straight into your site. An XML sitemap is useful for listing on search engines like Google and Yahoo to make sure they have indexed all of your website pages.

email management. i. Additionally these sites generally have an established customer. average order size and conversion rates. Enews Manager is the ideal tool for this allowing you to send out regular email communications to your customers and track the response rates including how many clicked through to the 151 . high quality customers. completes a lead form or clicks on a banner. the trick is to remind them to return and purchase again from you. hence a lower 'pay per click' rate.Advertising Your Site Online Google ADWords is a tool that provides promotional listings on Google. you are charged every time someone clicks on your ADWords link. clixGalore Affiliate Marketing provides comprehensive management and advanced graphic reporting tools. These listings are on a ‘pay per click’ basis. Like ClixGalore and AdWords these sites tend to operate on a ‘pay per performance’ basis. Japan. Live Person offers services that provide customer support online including: live chat. Australia and India. Direct Marketing To Your Customers Once you have attracted customers to your website. The amount charged is based on a bidding system with popular keywords costing more than other keywords. UK. and assists in customer satisfaction. You can set your account to a monthly limit to make sure you do not exceed your budget. This flexibility provides Merchants with a cost effective promotions model to attract targeted. Like Google AdWords it runs 'pay for performance/click' internet advertising solutions for online business Merchants.e. The trick with this tool is to find the right words with Wordtracker (or similar) for your business that not many of your competitors are using. The advantages of these types of sites are that people search them for the ‘best deal’ on a particular product. Live Person’s solutions assist in increasing online sales. For businesses seeking trackable results. Setting Up An Affiliate Network ClixGalore is a large affiliate network comprising over 7500+ Merchants and many ten of thousands of Affiliates across five networks in the USA. so if you can be price competitive you can attract clicks through to your website. coupled with state of the art tracking technology that allows you to take full control of your program whilst it rapidly grows with little or no maintenance. and knowledgebase (self-service) technology. click-to-talk . These are the listings you see on the right hand side of the page when you conduct a search on Google. Generating Leads To Your Website Websites like Door One and Froogle allow you to post your products online with direct links back to your shopping cart. Supporting Your Customers Online Once you have attracted customers to your website it is important to ensure that they are supported through the purchasing process. This means that you only pay clixGalore when a person makes a purchase.

The tools I've recommended are personal favorites. interpreted program that can carry out a series of tasks and make decisions based on specific conditions it finds. By “interpreted. • Be consistent—A script need be written only once and can then be invoked many times. and I know you'll find them incredibly useful. Another example of script use might be a situation where you want to have each Windows NT server create a new Emergency Restore Disk and then copy the contents of that disk to a network location. How is scripting used? Scripting lets you automate various network administration tasks. which links they clicked and how many times. without the intervention of the network administrator. But when you're choosing free services or software.website. but these are nowhere near the rent you'd pay for office space for an offline business. UNIT – V TWO MARKS 1. • Be flexible—Scripts can use decision-making logic to respond to different conditions. network drives can be mapped in a variety of 152 . is that costs are so much lower. as opposed to taking the more traditional brickand-mortar approach.” we mean that when it is run. A script is created using ASCII text. Hosting fees are your main overhead. What are the advantages of scripting ? Scripting in network administration offers significant advantages. a script is a small. Find out whether any advertising will be included and whether you'll be bound by any restrictions or obligations. so Windows Notepad or a similar text editor is the only tool required. for example. And when it comes to creating and building your website--as well as marketing it--you can further reduce your costs by making use of some of the great free tools and resources out there. One of the great advantages of starting an online business. so the admin can concentrate on other tasks while the script runs. each with its own capabilities and limitations. 2. "Free" can sometimes mean only that there's no charge--not no consequences. it is carried out one line at a time. JavaScript. login scripts run every time a user logs in to the network and can perform tasks like mapping network drives for the user based on certain conditions.” which is the process of turning it into machine language before it is run. Kixtart. These languages include Windows native shell scripting. It allows you to: 3. For example. It is much less error-prone than manually carrying out the task each time. • Save time—Scripts can carry out complex tasks and be invoked automatically. as opposed to “compiled. Visual Basic Scripting Edition. What is scripting? Simply stated. always proceed with caution and stay in control with each decision you make. and Perl. Using this tool in conjunction with a shopping cart you can quickly tell which products your customers are interested in. Rather than statically mapping a workstation to persistent drives. A number of scripting “languages” are available for you to choose from. such as group membership. such as those that are performed every day or even several times a day.

Define firewall. Firewalls use one or more of three methods to control traffic flowing in and out of the network: Packet filtering .What is home banking. For many consumers. EFTs are initiated through devices like cards or codes that let you. A firewall is simply a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system. account information. The federal Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFT Act) covers some electronic consumer transactions. 4.List out some of the features of onlinecart . uses computer and electronic technology as a substitute for checks and other paper transactions. and other banking services through a PC over a wide area network or internet. it is not allowed through. • • • • • • • • • • Unlimited Products and Orders Secure SSL Shopping Cart Setup is easy -. Many financial institutions use ATM or debit cards and Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) for this purpose. Also called electronic banking. What are the different methods to control traffic in network through firewall. o What is EFT ? Electronic banking. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to the requesting system and all others are discarded. also known as electronic fund transfer (EFT). Facility to securely access funds. or those you authorize. access your account.. electronic banking means 24-hour access to cash through an automated teller machine (ATM) or Direct Deposit of paychecks into checking or savings accounts. 153 • .Packets (small chunks of data) are analyzed against a set of filters. If an incoming packet of information is flagged by the filters. The only real limit to scripting is your imagination.ways based on which user is logging on to the machine. You could write a script to check whether a file exists and delete it if it does or display an error message if it doesn't. 8. at the most. But electronic banking now involves many different types of transactions. Some use other forms of debit cards such as those that require.No programming required Free Support Customizable Free Real-Time Shipping Calculates Sales Tax Real-Time Credit Card Processing (Integrated with over 20 Payment Gateways!) eBay Compatible Custom Languages 5. your signature or a scan. 7.

used for information that requires no response.the main delivery system for information over the Internet TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .used for Web pages FTP (File Transfer Protocol) .Information from the Internet is retrieved by the firewall and then sent to the requesting system and vice versa.A newer method that doesn't examine the contents of each packet but instead compares certain key parts of the packet to a database of trusted information. 9. State the reasons for the need of firewall.used to send text-based information (e-mail) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) . What are the different types of business models The basic categories of business models discussed in the table below include:          Brokerage Advertising Infomediary Merchant Manufacturer (Direct) Affiliate Community Subscription Utility 154 .used to perform commands on a remote computer 10.used to collect system information from a remote computer Telnet . • Remote login • Application backdoors • SMTP session hijacking • Operating system bugs • Denial of service . Stateful inspection . What are the different protocols that yu can set in firewall filters ? • • • • • • • • • • IP (Internet Protocol) . • E-mail bombs • Macros • Viruses • Spam • Redirect bombs • Source routing 11. such as streaming audio and video ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) .used by a router to exchange the information with other routers SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) .used to download and upload files UDP (User Datagram Protocol) .Proxy service .used to break apart and rebuild information that travels over the Internet HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) .

155 . Usually a broker charges a fee or commission for each transaction it enables. Independently collected data about producers and their products are useful to consumers when considering a purchase. The broadcaster may be a content creator or a distributor of content created elsewhere. Some firms function as infomediaries (information intermediaries) assisting buyers and/or sellers understand a given market. The banner ads may be the major or sole source of revenue for the broadcaster. The advertising model works best when the volume of viewer traffic is large or highly specialized. or consumer-to-consumer (C2C) markets. The broadcaster. Free browser compatibility service Free e-mail campaign ROI calculator 14.What are the different tools used in e. but not necessarily. for free) and services (like email. IM. What Is Advertising Model The web advertising model is an extension of the traditional media broadcast model.marketing? • • • • • • • Link partner evaluation tool. What is INFOMEDIARY MODEL? Data about consumers and their consumption habits are valuable. Brokers play a frequent role in business-to-business (B2B). in this case. a web site. Image-reducing tool and free HTML editor and HTML tutorials. especially when that information is carefully analyzed and used to target marketing campaigns. business-to-consumer (B2C). What is brokerage model ? Brokers are market-makers: they bring buyers and sellers together and facilitate transactions. 15. Free keyword selector tool. Market research tool. provides content (usually. Brokerage models include: o Marketplace Exchange o Buy/Sell Fulfillment o Demand Collection System o Auction Broker o Transaction Broker o Distributor o Search Agent o Virtual Marketplace 13. The formula for fees can vary.12. blogs) mixed with advertising messages in the form of banner ads.