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VIBRATION OF BEAMS WITH GENERAL BOUNDARY

CONDITIONS DUE TO A MOVING HARMONIC LOAD

M. ABU-HILAL

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Applied Sciences ;niversity, Amman 11931,

Jordan

AND

M. MOHSEN

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hashemite ;niversity, Zarqa 13115, Jordan

(Received 21 June 1999, and in ,nal form 14 October 1999)

Vibrational behavior of elastic homogeneous isotropic beams with general boundary

conditions due to a moving harmonic force is analyzed. The analysis duly considers beams

with four di!erent boundary conditions; these include pinned}pinned, "xed}"xed,

pinned}"xed, and "xed}free. The response of beams are obtained in closed forms and

compared for three types of the force motion: accelerated, decelerated, and uniform motion.

The e!ects of the moving speed and the frequency of the moving force on the dynamic

behavior of beams are studied in detail.

2000 Academic Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Transverse vibration of beams subjected to moving load has been an interesting research

topic. Vibrations of this kind occur in many branches of engineering, for example in bridges

and railways, beams subjected to pressure waves, and piping systems subjected to two-

phase #ow. The dynamic characteristic of bridges has been the subject of studies for many

years. FryH ba [1, 2] studied the dynamic response of a simply supported beam subjected to

a moving single and continuous random load, which moves with constant velocity. Also he

treated brie#y the e!ect of moving harmonic force with constant velocity on the dynamic

response of a simply supported beam [1]. Zibdeh and Rackwitz [3, 4] studied the response

of beams simply supported and with general boundary conditions subjected to a stream of

random moving loading systems of Poissonian pulse type, i.e., with mutually independent,

identically distributed force amplitudes arriving at the beam at independent random times.

Kurihara and Shimogo [5] treated the vibration problem of a simply supported beam

subjected to randomly spaced moving loads with a constant velocity. Assuming the load

sequence is a Poisson process and the inertial e!ect of moving loads can be neglected, they

examined the time history, the power spectral density, and the various moments of the

response. Iwankiewicz and Sniady [6] treated the dynamic response of a beam to the

passage of a train of concentrated force with random amplitudes. Sieniawska and Sniady

[7] studied the dynamic response of a "nite beam of the passage of a train of concentrated

random forces moving with the same constant velocity. They [8] estimated the life of the

structure by "nding the joint probability density function of the displacement, velocity, and

acceleration of the oscillating beam. Tung [9}11] studied the response of highway bridges

0022-460X/00/190703#15 $35.00/0 2000 Academic Press

to randomloads. Assuming that vehicles travel at the same velocity, are of equal weight, and

that the bridge response is a Poisson process, he obtained, based on numerical procedures,

the density function of the response and its excursion rate, and he estimated the fatigue

life of highway bridges. Bryja and Sniady [12] studied the dynamic response of a beam to

the passage of a train of concentrated forces with random amplitudes. Based on the

introduction of two in#uence functions, one of which satis"es a non-homogeneous, the

other a homogeneous di!erential equation for beam response, they obtained, explicit

expressions for the expected value and variance of the beamde#ection. Chatterjee et al. [13]

presented a linear dynamic analysis for determining the coupled #exural and torsional

vibration of multispan suspension bridges. The analysis duly considers the non-linear

bridges}vehicle interactive force, eccentricity of vehicle path, surface irregularity of the

bridge pavement, cable-tower connection and end conditions for the sti!ening grider. The

dynamic analysis duly considers the non-linear bridge}vehicle interactive force, eccentricity

of vehicle path, surface irregularity of the bridge pavement, cable-tower connection and end

conditions for the sti!ening girder. The random vibration of a simply supported elastic

beam subjected to random loads moving with constant and time-varying velocity and axial

forces was considered by Zibdeh [14]. Accelerating, decelerating and constant velocity

motions were assumed for the stream of loading. In a recent paper, Abu-Hilal and Zibdeh

[15] considered the transverse vibrations of homogeneous isotropic beams with general

boundary conditions subjected to a constant force travelling with accelerating, decelerating

and constant velocity motion.

In this paper, the dynamic response of elastic homogeneous isotropic beams with

di!erent boundary conditions subjected to a harmonic force travelling with accelerating,

decelerating, and constant velocity types of motion is treated. The four classical boundary

conditions considered are pinned}pinned, "xed}"xed, pinned}"xed, and "xed}free. Closed-

form solutions of the dynamic response of the studied beams are obtained. Also these

solutions are presented graphically for di!erent values of speed and frequency of the moving

harmonic force and discussed.

2. ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

The transverse vibration of a uniform elastic Bernoulli beam is described by the equation

EIv''''#jvK #r

?

vR#r

G

vR''''"p(x, t), (1)

where EI, j, r

?

, and r

G

are the #exural rigidity of the beam, the mass per unit length of the

beam, the coe$cient of external damping of the beam, and the coe$cient of internal

damping of the beam respectively. The external and internal damping of the beam are

assumed to be proportional to the mass and sti!ness of the beam respectively, i.e., r

?

"

j,

r

G

"

`

EI, where

and

`

are proportionality constants.

In modal form, the beam de#ection v(x, t) at point x and time t is written as:

v(x, t)"

`

I

X

I

(x) y

I

(t), (2)

where y

I

(t) is the kth generalized de#ection of the beam and X

I

(x) is the kth normal mode of

the beam and is given as

X

I

(x)"sin

I

x#A

I

cos

I

x#B

I

sinh

I

x#C

I

cosh

I

x, (3)

704 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

where

I

, A

I

, B

I

, C

I

are unknown constants and can be determined from the boundary

conditions of the beam. Substituting equation (2) into equation (1) and then multiplying by

X

H

(x), and integrating with respect to x between 0 and L yields

`

I

y

I

*

"

EIX''''

I

X

H

dx#

`

I

yK

I

*

"

jX

I

X

H

dx#

I

yR

I

*

"

jX

I

X

H

dx#

`

`

I

yR

I

*

"

EIX''''

I

X

H

d

x

"

*

"

X

H

p(x, t) dx (4)

Considering the orthogonality conditions

*

"

X

I

X

H

dx"0, kOj, (5)

and the relations

k

I

"

*

"

EIX''''

I

X

I

dx and m

I

"

*

"

jX

`

I

(x) dx

yields the di!erential equation of the kth mode of the generalized de#ection:

yK

I

(t)#2c

I

I

yR

I

(t)#c`

I

y

I

(t)"Q

I

(t), (6)

where

c

I

"(k

I

/m

I

"

`

I

(EI/j, (7)

I

"

(

#

`

c`

I

)

c

I

, (8)

Q

I

(t)"

1

m

I

*

"

X

I

(x) p(x, t) dx, (9)

k

I

"

*

"

EIX''''

I

X

I

dx (10)

and

m

I

"

*

"

jX

`

I

(x) dx

"

j

2z

I

[z

I

(1#A

`

I

!B

`

I

#C

`

I

)#2C

I

!2A

I

B

I

!B

I

C

I

!

`

(1!A

`

I

) sin 2z

I

#2A

I

sin` z

I

#(B`

I

#C`

I

) sinh z

I

cosh z

I

#2(B

I

#A

I

C

I

) cosh z

I

sin z

I

#2(A

I

C

I

!B

I

) sinh z

I

cos z

I

#2(C

I

#A

I

B

I

) sinh z

I

sin z

I

#2(A

I

B

I

!C

I

) cosh z

I

cos z

I

#B

I

C

I

cosh 2z

I

] (11)

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 705

are respectively, the natural circular frequency of the kth mode, the damping ratio of the kth

mode, the generalized force associated with the kth mode, the generalized sti!ness of the kth

mode, and the generalized mass of the beam associated with the kth mode. The constant z

I

in equation (11) is de"ned as

z

I

"

I

. (12)

The load p(x, t), which moves on the beam from left to the right is written as

p(x, t)"o[x!f (t)]P(t), (13)

where

P(t)"P

"

sin t (14)

is the moving harmonic force with the constant amplitude P

"

and the circular frequency ,

and

f (t)"x

"

#ct#

`

at` (15)

is a function describing the motion of the force at time t, where x

"

, c, a are the initial

position of application of force P at instant t"0, the initial speed, and the constant

acceleration of motion respectively.

Substituting equations (13) and (14) into equation (9) yields

Q

I

(t)"

P

"

m

I

X

I

[ f (t)] sin t. (16)

Assuming the beam is originally at rest (i.e., v(x, 0)"0, cv(x, 0)/ct"0), the solution of

equation (6) is then written as

y

I

(t)"

R

"

h

I

(t!t)Q

I

(t) dt, (17)

where h

I

(t) is the impulse response function de"ned as

y

I

(t)"

1

c

BI

eDISIR sin c

BI

t,

0

t*0,

t'0,

(18)

where

c

BI

"c

I

(1!`

I

(19)

is the damped circular frequency of the kth mode of the beam. Substituting equations (17)

and (18) into equation (17) yields

y

I

(t)"

P

"

eDISIR

m

I

c

BI

R

"

eDISIO sin c

BI

tX

I

[ f (t)] sin t dt. (20)

706 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

Substituting equations (3) and (15) into equation (20), carrying out the integration and

substituting the result into equation (2) yields the de#ection v(x, t) of the beam by the

accelerated (a'0) and decelerated (a(0) motion of the force:

v(x, t)"

`

I

X

I

(x) y

I

(t),

where

y

I

(t)"F

Re!r

'

r

`

eX>X` [erf (r

`

t#r

`

z

'

)!erf(r

`

z

'

)]

#r

'

r

`

eX>X` [erf(r

`

t#r

`

z

`

)!erf(r

`

z

`

)]

!r

'

r

`

eX>X

" [erf(r

`

t#r

`

z

`

)!erf(r

`

z

`

)]

#r

'

r

`

eX>X

` [erf(r

`

t#r

`

z

"

)!erf(r

`

z

"

)]

!i(2r

r

'

eX">X">X [erf(!ir

"

t#r

`

z

`

)!erf(r

`

z

`

)]

#i(2r

r

'

eX">X">X` [erf(!ir

"

t#r

`

z

'

)!erf(r

`

z

'

)]

#(2r

`

r

'

eX"X

">X

` [erf(r

"

t#r

`

zN

`

)!erf(r

`

zN

`

)]

!(2r

`

r

'

eX"X

">X

" [erf(r

"

t#r

`

zN

`

)!erf(r

`

zN

`

)] (21)

with F

, r

to r

"

, and z

to z

"

given in the Appendix A.

The de#ection v(x, t) due to a moving load with constant velocity, does not follow

automatically from equation (21) because of the nature of the error function. Also setting

a"0 in equation (21) to obtain the dynamic response for the case of constant velocity

(a"0) leads to in"nite values of y

I

because of the de"nition of r

`

, r

`

, r

'

, r

"

, and r

"

. In the

case of constant velocity, equation (15) becomes

f (t)"ct. (22)

Substituting this equation into equation (20) and carrying out the integration yields

v(x, t) due to a moving load with constant velocity:

v(x, t)"

`

I

X

I

(x)y

I

(t),

where

y

I

(t)"F

`

q

`

#A

I

I

c

I

q

'

#

q

!A

I

I

c

I

q

`

cos(

I

c#) t

#

q

`

#A

I

I

c

I

q

`

#

q

"

!A

I

I

c

I

q

'

cos(

I

c!) t

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 707

TABLE 1

Maximum static de-ection and its location of the studied beams

Pinned}pinned Fixed}"xed Pinned}"xed Fixed}pinned Fixed}free Free}"xed

v

"

P

"

`

48El

P

"

`

192El

P

"

`

48(5El

P

"

`

48(5El

P

"

`

3El

P

"

`

3El

x

K?V

(5

1!

1

(5

0

!

I

c

I

!A

I

q

`

q

'

!

I

c

I

#A

I

q

q

`

sin(

I

c#) t

#

I

c

I

!A

I

q

`

q

`

!

I

c

I

#A

I

q

"

q

"

sin(

I

c!) t

!

q

`

q

`

!

q

q

`

q

'

eGAR cos(t)#

q

`

q

"

q

`

!

q

`

q

"

q

`

eGAR cos(t)

#

q

`

q

`

q

`

#

q

`

q

"

q

'

eGAR sin(t)!

q

"

q

`

q

`

#

q

"

q

"

q

`

eGAR sin(t)

#

q

`

#A

I

I

c

I

q

'

!

q

`

#A

I

I

c

I

q

`

!

q

"

!A

I

I

c

I

q

"

#

q

!A

I

I

c

I

q

`

#

q

q

`

q

`

!

q

q

`

q

'

!

q

`

q

"

q

`

#

q

`

q

"

q

`

eDISIR cos c

BI

t

#

I

c

I

!A

I

q

`

q

'

!

I

c

I

!A

I

q

`

q

`

!

I

c

I

#A

I

q

"

q

"

#

I

c

I

#A

I

q

q

`

!

q

`

q

`

q

`

#

q

`

q

"

q

'

#

q

"

q

`

q

`

!

q

"

q

"

q

`

eDISIR sin c

BI

t

(23)

with F

`

, and q

to q

`

given in Appendix.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

To clarify the analysis, the dimensionless de#ection

vN"

v(x

K?V

, t)

v

"

(24)

versus the dimensionless time s is given for beams with di!erent boundary conditions, where

v

"

and x

K?V

are the maximum static de#ection and the position at which v

"

occur

respectively. x

K?V

and v

"

are given in Table 1 for the considered beams which are

pinned}pinned, "xed}"xed, pinned}"xed, "xed}pinned, "xed}free, and free}"xed. The

708 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

Figure 1. Dynamic response of a pinned}pinned beam, varying the excitation frequency : :"0)25, "0)05.

de#ection v(x

K?V

, t) is obtained either from equation (21) or equation (23), where only the

"rst term of the summation is considered (i.e., k"1).

The studied beams are homogeneous, isotropic and originally at rest. They are subjected

to concentrated harmonic forces with constant amplitudes. The forces enter the beams from

the left-hand side at position x

"

"0 and move to the right with the following three types of

motion.

Accelerated motion: Force P starts to act on a beam at rest at position x

"

"0. Its motion

is uniformly accelerated so that it reaches the velocity c at position x". The time t

needed to cross the beam and the corresponding acceleration are given as [1]

t

"

2

c

, a"

c`

2

. (25)

Decelerated motion. A force P moving with constant velocity enters a beam at rest from

the left at position x

"

"0. Its motion along the beam is uniformly decelerated so that it

stops at the end of the beam, i.e., x". The time t

`

needed to cross the beam and the

corresponding deceleration are given as

t

`

"

2

c

, a"

!c`

2

. (26)

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 709

Figure 2. Dynamic response of a pinned}pinned beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

;niform motion: A force P moving with constant velocity enters a beam at rest from left

at position x

"

"0. During its travel along the beam its velocity remains constant. The time

t

`

needed to cross the beam is given as

t

`

"

c

. (27)

The dimensionless time s is de"ned by the accelerated/decelerated motion as

s"

t

t

G

"

ct

2

, i"1, 2 (28)

and by the uniform motion as

s"

t

t

`

"

ct

. (29)

Thus when s"0 (t"0) the force is at the left-hand side of the beam, i.e., x"0, and when

s"1 (t"t

G

, i"1, 2, 3) the force is at the right-hand side of the beam, i.e., x".

710 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

Figure 3. Dynamic response of a "xed}"xed beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

In Figures 1}7, the e!ect of speed c and excitation frequency are presented. The e!ect of

speed is represented by the dimensionless speed parameter :, where

:"

c

c

AP

, (30)

with c

AP

the critical speed, de"ned as [1]

c

AP

"

c

. (31)

The e!ect of excitation frequency is represented by the frequency ratio [ where

["

. (32)

The damping ratio is assumed to be "0)05.

Figure 1 shows the e!ect of the excitation frequency represented by the frequency ratio

[ for a simply supported beam, where the speed parameter : is held constant (:"0)25).

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 711

Figure 4. Dynamic response of a pinned}"xed beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

From the "gure it is clear that by all three types of motion, the maximum response

v

K?V

"

Maxv(x

K?V

, t)

v

"

(33)

is increased by increasing the values of [, reaches a maximum value at ["1, and

then decreases. The other beams considered behave similarly by varying the excitation

frequency .

Figure 2 shows the dynamic response of a simply supported beam for di!erent values of

: and motions at resonance, i.e., ["1. It is noticed that in the accelerated and decelerated

motions the beam has a much higher maximum dynamic response v

K?V

than in the uniform

motion. The maximum response v

K?V

is reached in the accelerated and uniform motions at

a later time than in the decelerated motion. The di!erences in the dynamic response to the

di!erent types of motion are due to the kinematics involved. Independent of the type of

motion, the maximum response v

K?V

becomes smaller by increasing the values of : since the

acting time t

G

of the load on the beam becomes shorter.

Figure 3 shows the dynamic response of a "xed}"xed beam for di!erent values of : and

motions at resonance (["1). This beam behaves similarly to a simply supported beam;

however, v

K?V

of the "xed}"xed beam is relatively smaller than v

K?V

of the simply supported

712 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

Figure 5. Dynamic response of a "xed}pinned beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

beam. On the other hand, the absolute dynamic response v

?@Q

"v

"

v

K?V

of the "xed}"xed

beamis essentially smaller than v

?@Q

of the simply supported beam, since the maximum static

de#ection v

"

of the "xed}"xed beam (v

" DD

) is much smaller than v

"

of the simply supported

beam (v

" QQ

) as shown in Table 1 (v

" DD

(/2)"0)25v

" QQ

(/2)).

Figure 4 shows the dynamic response of a pinned}"xed beam for di!erent values of : and

motions at resonance. Independent of the type of motion, the maximum response v

K?V

is

decreased by increasing the values of :, since the acting time of the load on the beam

becomes shorter. The "gure shows that in the accelerated and decelerated motions the beam

has a higher maximum response v

K?V

than in the uniform motion. The maximum response

v

K?V

is reached in the decelerated motion at an earlier time than in the accelerated and

uniform motions.

Figure 5 shows the dynamic response of a "xed}pinned beam for di!erent values of : and

motions at resonance. This beam behaves, in general, similarly to a pinned}"xed beam;

however, due to the direction of the motion, there are di!erences between the behaviour of

these two beams. The dynamic response of the pinned}"xed beam becomes higher at earlier

time than the dynamic response of the "xed}pinned beam, since the pin support at the

left-hand side of the pinned}"xed beam permits rotational motion. Also the pinned}"xed

beam shows a higher maximum dynamic response v

K?V

in the accelerated motion but

a lower maximum response in the decelerated motion than the "xed}pinned beam.

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 713

Figure 6. Dynamic response of a "xed}free beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

Figure 6 shows the dynamic response of a "xed}free beam for di!erent values of : and

motions at resonance. It is noticed that the beam needs some time to show a noticeable

response since the "xed support on the left-hand side prevents rotational motion.

Independent on the type of motion, the maximum response v

K?V

occurs at the end of the

beam. A higher maximum response occurs in the case of decelerated motion than in the

other two types of motion.

Figure 7 shows the dynamic response of a free}"xed beam for di!erent values of : and

motions at resonance. Independent of the type of motion, v

K?V

occurs by smaller values of

: before the load reaches the midspan of the beam; by increasing the values of :, v

K?V

occurs

at a later time. The maximum response v

K?V

is higher in the accelerated motion than in the

other two types of motion. The di!erences in the behaviour of the free}"xed and "xed}free

beams are due to the direction of the load motion.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The dynamic response for homogeneous isotropic elastic beams with general boundary

conditions due to a moving harmonic force was discussed in detail for di!erent cases. The

e!ect of support type, variation of speed, direction of load motion, and type of load motion

714 M. ABU-HILAL AND M. MOHSEN

Figure 7. Dynamic response of a free}"xed beam, varying the speed c. ["1, "0)05.

were studied. Also the dynamic response for the simply supported beam was calculated

at di!erent values of the frequency ratio [; the highest response was obtained for the

resonance case ["1. Due to the kinematics of accelerated and decelerated motion, it

was found that their e!ect on beams is greater than the case when motion is uniform.

The direction of motion a!ects the beam response and the location of the maximum

dynamic response.

REFERENCES

1. L. FRYD BA 1972 <ibration of Solids and Structures under Moving oads. Groningen: Noordho!

International.

2. L. FRYD BA 1976 Journal of Sound and <ibration 46, 323}338. Non stationary response of a beam to

a moving random force.

3. H. S. ZIBDEH and R. RACKWITZ 1995 Journal of Sound and <ibration 188, 479}495. Response

moments of an elastic beam subjected to Poissonian moving loads.

4. H. S. ZIBDEH and R. RACKWITZ 1996 Journal of Sound and <ibration 195, 85}102. Moving loads

on beams with general boundary conditions.

5. M. KURIHARA and T. SHIMOGO 1978 ransactions of the American Society of Mechanical

Engineers, Journal of Mechanical Design 100, 514}519. Vibration of an elastic beam subjected to

discrete moving loads.

VIBRATION OF BEAMS 715

6. R. IWANKIEWICZ and P. SNIADY 1984 Journal of Structural Mechanics 12, 13}26. Vibration of

a beam under a random stream of moving forces.

7. R. SIENIAWSKA and P. SNIADY 1990 Journal of Sound and <ibration 136, 177}185. First passage

problem of the beam under a random stream of moving forces.

8. R. SIENIAWSKA and P. SNIADY 1990 Journal of Sound and <ibration 140, 31}38. Life expectancy of

highway bridges due to tra$c load.

9. C. C. TUNG 1967 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Engineering

Mechanics Division 93, 73}94. Random response of highway bridges to vehicle loads.

10. C. C. TUNG 1969 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Engineering

Mechanics Division 95, 41}57. Response of highway bridges to renewal tra$c loads.

11. C. C. TUNG 1969 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Engineering

Mechanics Division 95, 1417}1428. Life expectancy of highway bridges to vehicle loads.

12. D. BRYJA and P. SNIADY 1988 Journal of Sound and <ibration 125, 379}387. Random vibration of

a suspension bridge due to highway tra$c.

13. P. K. CHATTERJEE, T. K. DATTA and C. S. SURANA 1994 Journal of Structural Engineering 120,

681}703. Vibration of suspension bridges under vehicular movement.

14. H. S. ZIBDEH1995 Engineering Structures 17, 530}535. Stochastic vibration of an elastic beam due

to random moving loads and deterministic axial forces.

15. M. ABU-HILAL and H. S. ZIBDEH 1999 Journal of Sound and <ibration, Vibration analysis of

beams with general boundary conditions traversed by a moving force accepted.

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