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Direct retainers

Intracoronal retention

Extracoronal retainers

Precision

semi precision

extra coronal attachment E.g. Dalbo attachment.

clasp

CLASPS classification

On basis of DESIGN

On basis of CONSTRUCTION

circumferential clasps Aker Reverse aker Recurved Extended Multiple Embrasure RPA Half and half Ring Back action Reverse back action

bar clasp T shape Half T I shape RPI C shape L shape U shape

cast clasp

wrought clasp

combination clasp

Simple circlet Jackson crip

Aker clasp .01 inch -.02 inch Pic.

Recurved arm form

Half & half clasp .01 inch

Compound clasp .01-.02 inch

Multiple clasp

Extended clasp

Components

-A double arm clasp, one is retentive & the other is reciprocal -have one truss & one occlusal rest

-Has two arms one retentive & the other is reciprocal. -has one truss & one occlusal rest.

-Has two arms one arise from one truss and the other arise from the opposite direction from the other struss, so it has 2 trusses (2minor connectors). Have one occlusal rests or two.

-used on molars & premolars of normal shapes & position when the tooth to be clasped s adjacent to an edentulous space & the undercut is away from the saddle. -it is the most universally used clasp. -Indications: 1-unilateral or bilateral tooth borne partial denture . 2-Short span free end saddle where the undercut is small.

-When the usable undercut is on the buccal surface of the abutment tooth is adjacent to the edentulous space.

-Used with isolated molars & premolars for bounded & free-end dentures.

-It is also called embrasure clasp, butterfly, double aker, double circumfrential, back to back, & interdental clasp. -It consists of two aker clasp arising from a common body situated in the embrasure between the two clasped teeth. -Has two occlusal rests, and has splinting action -Used with class II or class III especially the unmodified type where there are no edentulous spaces on the opposite side of the arch to aid in distribution of force to the other side ( cross arch bracing).

-It is two opposing aker clasps joined at the terminal ends of the two reciprocal arms with 2 occlusal rests & 2 truss.

-It is an aker clasp with extended arms on the adjacent abutment with one struss ,one occlusal rest ,two retentive arms,& two reciprocal arms. -it remains above the survey line of the first tooth, and cross into the undercut of the adjacent tooth. -Used when the tooth near the saddle has poor undercut while the tooth next to it has good ones.

Uses

-Used when additional retention is needed, usually on tooth borne partial dentures.

Advantages & Disadvantages

Advantages: 1-Good support & bracing. 2-Doesnt distort easily. 3-Easy to adjust. 4-Contact minimal area of the tooth when compared with the single-arm clasps.

Disadvantages: It covers considerable tooth surface and may trap food debris.

Properties

Support: excellent. Bracing: excellent. Retention: good Reciprocity: good or excellent. Encirclement: Excellent. Passivity: good.

Support: excellent. Bracing: excellent. Retention: good to excellent. Reciprocity: good to excellent. Encirclement: Excellent. Passivity: good.

Support: excellent. Bracing: excellent. Retention: good to excellent. Reciprocity: good to excellent. Encirclement: Excellent. Passivity: good.

Reversed aker Pic.

Ring clasp

Back action clasp

Reverse back action

RPA

The same components of aker clasp.

.01 -0.02 inch -It is an one arm clasp. -It arises mesially either to engage a mesiobuccal undercut or a mesiolingual undercut. -Reinforcing arm may be added to the clasp for bracing ( rigidity). -It has either one or two occlusal rests.

0.01 or 0.02 inch -A one-arm clasp. -Arise from minor connector situated mesiolingually,the arm extend above the survey line on the palatal surface then engage a mesiobuccal undercut. -It has one occlusal rest located distally or mesially.

-A one-arm clasp. -The same as back action clasp but it arise from mesiobuccal line angle to engage the undercut mesiolingually. -Attached to the denture at the buccal side.

.01 -0.02 inch -Formed of 3 components: 1-mesial occlusal rest with minor connection placed into the mesiolingual embrasure. 2-proximal plate placed on the distal surface of the abutment at the occlusal third. 3-an aker or circumfrential clasp arise from the superior portion of the proximal plate extend around the tooth to engage the mesial undercut.

Uses

Components

Advantages & Disadvantages

-Most often employed on mandibular bicuspid, when the undercut is near the saddle. -Useful when the bar type clasp is contraindicated due to the presence of soft tissue undercut. Advantages: An advantage of this clasp is the fact that the occlusal rest, located in the mesial fossa, exerts a mesially directed on the abutment where it is reciprocated by an adjacent tooth, opposed to distally directed force exerted by aker clasp.

Used on isolated and tilted molar teeth.

It is commonly used with lingually tilted premolar to engage the mesiolingual undercut.

Disadvantages: 1-May distort & difficult to adjust. 2-Contact large area of tooth. 3-Reinforcing arm may cause marginal irritation & act as food trap.

Disadvantages: It is biologically & mechanically unsound for following reasons : 1-Easily distorted. 2-Large tooth area covered. 3-Bracing is not sufficient. 4-Design produce food trap.

Properties

Support: excellent. Bracing: excellent. Retention: good . Reciprocity: good to excellent. Encirclement: Excellent. Passivity: good.

Support: fair to poor. Bracing: poor. Retention: good . Reciprocity: poor. Encirclement: Fair to poor Passivity: fair to poor.

Support: good to excellent. Bracing: excellent. Retention: good . Reciprocity: good to excellent. Encirclement: good to Excellent. Passivity: good.

T-shape clasp Pic.

I-shape clasp

RPI clasp

Components

0.02 inch -Has two arms one retentive (t shape) & the other is reciprocal.

0.01 inch . -R=mesial rest=proximal plate, and I=I bar clasp. -Formed of three components: 1-mesial occlusal rest with minor connection placed into the mesiolingual embrasure. 2-proximal plate placed on the distal surface of the abutment at the occlusal third. 3-I bar retentive arm placed at the center at the buccal & labial surface of the abutment.

Uses

Used when the survey line indicates that no room Employed on premolars & canine when the under exist for the rigid part of the retentive arm of an cut is very small & no other type of clasps can be occlusally approaching clasp .esthetically pleasant. used & when the under cut is with the center of the tooth.

Used for distal extension base partial denture & provide stress release. Advantages: 1-kinder on the abutment. 2-has stress-breaking action. 3-no stress on the tooth. 4-passivity.

Advantages & Disadvantages

Bar clasp: ( .01 -.02 inch)


Support: excellent. Bracing: good. Retention: excellent. Reciprocity: fair to good. Encirclement: good. Passivity: excellent.

Combination clasp:
1. Wrought wire retentive arm and cast circumferential bracing arm. .02 - .03 inch. Support: good to excellent. Bracing: fair to poor. Retention: good . Reciprocity: fair to good. Encirclement: fair. Passivity: fair. 2. combination clasp of bar clasp ( retentive arm) and cast clasp ( reciprocal arm).