to

of

of Sloronto

The Estate of the late Professor C.T. Currelly

HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

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ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENT .

.

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[Frontispiece.ROMAN. . 73 Ancient Panel. Florence.

] .A. NATIONAL GALLERY SIXTH EDITION MICi .ANALYSIS OF ORNAMENT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STYLES AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF ORNAMENTAL ART BY RALPH N. PICCADILLY is reset ved. 1879 [The right of Translation 193. WORNUM KEEPER AND SECRETARY. 3 DAT! DEU 2 1989 LONDON CHAPMAN AND HALL..

CO.NK 1175 LONDOIT: PRINTED BY VJETUK AND CITY BOAD. . UHTTUD..

are to he apprehended only by dint of great labour in the comparison of many costly publications. until lately. These charac- which are the very essence of the Art. and within a moderate time. have been generally inaccessible even to the metropolitan Student.PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. they are generally on special monuments and localities. through the facilities of immediate comparison. without analytical description of the parts. THE following Sketch is prepared chiefly as an introduc- tory guide to aid in the adoption of some ready system in the study of Ornament. But with is access to such works. by illustrations on a large scale. in which. with moderate labour. Though illustrated ornamental works exist in great profusion. the peculiar features of each style can be at once pointed out. doubtless. including occa- sionally the objects themselves. and fixed on the mind. therefore. But this compendious abstract of the course of Lectures on . they fail to impress on the mind of the Student those elements which are the essential characteristics of the works. most readily imparted in a course of lectures. or extending only over very limited periods of time: and being. and distinguish their style. mostly of a purely illustrative character. some systematic enable the general guide absolutely indispensable to Student to acquire a sound apprehension of his subject. teristics. further. which. The knowledge numerous of ornamental style is.

both at Somerset House and in the provincial schools in England. in Board of Trade Department of Science and in the absence of a more complete report. Works. which have been chiefly executed from Department. but he will find the most essential and characteristic elements of the styles. . delivered by me originally at Somerset House and subsequently at Marlborough House. and Ireland.. and enabling the Student to derive directly from the standard authorities in the Library of the Department such information for himself. by pointing out sources. The Student will find the most important works illus- trating the subject enumerated in the text. By Ralph N. The diagrams prepared by me for these lectures now form part of the property of this Library. classified for the use of the Visitors. direction of the Art. The Lectures were originally delivered in the Government Schools of Design. under the . The accompanying Sketch. and 1850. Wornum. W. N. with a Catalogue of the principal $-0.vi PREFACE. 1855.* E. may serve as a substitute for the personal instructions its some measure of a lecture. London. Ornamental Art. 1849. to enable profitable use of the him to make works in the Library. JULY. however. by the female students of the Wood-engraving Class at Marl- casts in the collections of the borough House. perhaps adequately illustrated by the few engraved cuts contained in the work. in the years 1848. Scotland. : is not published as and is simply a concise intended only as an it is introductory aid for the Student. * See the Account of the Library. Librarian. 1855. to which he must refer for its complete illustration. in furtherance of an earnest study of Ornamental Art. a report of the Lectures referred to abstract of their substance.

INTRODUCTION.
ORNAMENT.
CHAPTEE
THE
history of art shows
I.

two great

classes of ornamental
is,

styles

the symbolic and the aesthetic; that

those which

appeal to our understandings, and those which appeal to

symbolic in which the ordinary elements have been chosen for the sake of their significations, as symbols of something not necessarily
our feelings.
implied, and irrespective of their effect as works of art, or

We may term those styles

arrangements of forms and colours. Those that are composed of elements devised solely from principles of sym-

metry of form and harmony of colour, and exclusively for their effect on our perception of the beautiful, without any further extraneous or ulterior aim, may be termed aesthetic.
Style in ornament is analogous to
this is its literal signification.

hand in writing, and
individual has

As every

some peculiarity in his mode of writing, so every age or nation has been distinguished in its ornamental expression

by a

certain individuality of taste, either original or borIt is the

rowed.

comprehension of these individual B

tastes,

2

ORNAMENT.
which must con-

characterizing various times and people,
stitute

the most thorough education of the ornamental These expressions are interesting also to the designer.
general student, as they exhibit an essential quality of the social character of these different people, both in relation
to the arts

and

to general culture

and

religion.

In a review of these ornamental styles we shall find that the elements of form are constant in all cases they are but
;

variously treated.

This, in fact,

must be
;

so, if

a style be

founded upon any principles at

all

and those

styles

which

have carried with them the feelings of ages could not be otherwise than based upon some fixed natural laws.

The elements
absolute,
fanciful.

of styles are

of

two kinds
;

pure and

and conventional and arbitrary

or natural

and

The

investigation of the principles of ornamental art

is
:

an inquiry into the nature and character of these elements how the effects of certain variations of form and colour

happen

to be so universally appreciated that the varieties

of their arrangements have occupied all people from the

remotest times.
Universal efforts show a universal want
effect
;

and beauty of

state

and decoration are no more a luxury in a civilised of society than warmth and clothing are a luxury to
:

any
is

state

the mind, as the body, makes everything necescapable of permanently enjoying.
it gratifies

sary that

it is

Ornament

one of the mind's necessities, which
its

by means

of the eye; and, in

strictest

aesthetic sense, it has a
gratifies the

perfect analogy with music,

which similarly

mind, but by the means of a different organ the ear. So ornament has been discovered to be again an essential

ORNAMENT.

3

element in commercial prosperity. This was not so at first, because, in a less cultivated state, we are quite satisfied with the gratification of our merely physical wants. But
in an advanced state, the

more extensive wants

of the

mind

demand
ment
is

more pressingly to be satisfied. Hence, ornanow as material an interest in a commercial comstill

munity

as even cotton itself, or, indeed,

any raw material

of manufacture whatever.

Such being the
its

case,

it

is

highly important that
its principles,

we

should endeavour to comprehend

in order to

most

effectual application.

"We should,

therefore, in the

study ornament, for its own sake, theoretically and scientifically, and not in that limited narrow sense
first place,

which would

restrict it in

one place as applied to cotton, in

another as to iron, and in a third as to clay, and so on. There is most certainly but one road to efficiency for
the designer
modeller.
for the weaver, for the printer, or for the

Their
art,

common

object is a familiar mastery of

ornamental

in order that they

may

apply

it

to the

utmost advantage to their respective pursuits. In early stages of manufactures, it is mechanical fitness that is the
object of competition.
to

As

society advances,

it is

necessary

combine elegance with fitness ; and those who cannot see this must be content to send their wares to the ruder
markets of the world, and resign the great marts of commerce to men of superior taste and sounder judgment, who
deserve a higher reward.

This

is

no new

idea.

Let us

take a lesson from the experience of past ages.

The

vari-

coloured glass of Egypt, the figured cups of Sidon, the shawls of Miletus, the terra-cottas of Samos, the bronzes
of Corinth, did not

command

the markets of the ancient

4

ORNAMENT.
for their materials

world either
qualities;

or for their mechanical

not because

they were well blown, cleverly

chased, finely woven, ingeniously turned, or perfectly cast,

these qualities they

had only

in

common with

the similar

wares of other nations,

but in the gratification of one of the most refined necessities of the mind in an advanced
social state,

they were pre-eminent
taste.

they were objects of

an elegant, cultivated
substantial

It is

by

this

aesthetic cha-

racter alone, that manufacturers will ever establish that

renown which

will insure a lasting

market in

the civilised world.

When, however, manufactures have

attained a

high

mechanical perfection, or have completely met the necessities of the body, the energy that brought them to that perfection must either stagnate or be continued in a higher
province
that of taste
;

for there is a stage of cultivation
it

when
is

the mind must revolt at a mere crude utility. So a natural propensity to decorate or embellish whatever

is

useful or agreeable to us.

But

just as there are mechanical

laws which regulate
are laws of the
efforts

all

our efforts in pure uses, so there
aesthetical

mind which must regulate those

expressed in the attempt at decoration or orna-

mental design.

The production and
processes,

application of ornament are distinct

design.

though they cannot be separated in applied A proper distinction between a picture or a model
is

and an ornament
designer;
objects,

quite essential in the

mind of the

for

the mere power of imitation of natural

and even their exact imitation, is perfectly comThe patible with the total ignorance of ornamental art. art of the designer is in the selection and arrangegreat

a variety of effect for the pure gratification of the sense of vision. a contrast of light and shade . series of simple curves or clustered curves. the Roman scroll is the Acanthus plant or brank-ursine. There are two provinces of ornament the flat and the relieved. 5 There is a distinct study of ornament wholly independent of the merely preliminary exercises of drawing. In the flat. For example. and colour may be an auxiliary to either flat. right-line or curved-line series. as flowers arranged in the orders of these different series. in the relieved. Much is is common to both . in the second.ORNAMENT. a play of masses. but in the first case. we have a contrast of light and dark . treated in curved series. ment of his materials. or natural objects. colouring. the common scroll is a series of spirals to the right and left alternately. this order of . therefore. Ornament. or modelling. not in their execution. but it acts with far greater power in the is as it is entirely dependent upon light. . series of mere lines. The individual orders as may vary to infinity. though the classes are limited. a play of line the main feature. in both. of study is a system of contrasts : the object the order of contrasts. A designer might even produce a perfect arrangement of forms and colours. and yet show the grossest stupidity in its application.

all pictorial decora- tion. drapery. hardware. certain kinds of furniture. implements. The relieved. general costume. . fabrics. is limited to building purposes. inlaying.CHAPTEK II. the flat and the They have two qualities in common shape and The shape in both is given by the outline the contrast. then. That of painting. Soule-work. But everything that is relieved it one sense. or light and dark. contrast in the flat but that of colour. or the flat. by colour. in the one by light and shade There is . DECORATION or ornamentation. It comprises. we may assume to be divided into two great classes the flat and the round. enamelling. contrast. flat. no other means of . accordingly. is the far more extensive class. then. in the other. in the first place. in can be imitated in the flat this is : however not a legitimate use of the mere counterfeit of the round. may call these two classes. all printed or woven and. or light and dark for when an ornament it in the flat is merely an imitation : of the round. and to jewellery. many classes of furniture. or modelling. inasmuch as is comprised also in the flat. as it is really a We round. or what may be otherwise described as painting and modelling. mosaic. belongs strictly to the round the con- .

the picture really becomes an ornamental the character of nearly all design. of course. and shade. trast in the round all is effected by light flat. Then. at first for it shows. figures. making a good design. our design is a mere crudity in art. its whether of a shadow with ground or of the very is one form with another. or apply our designs how we will. or. variety of those effects an agreeable which delight the is mind by means of the eye. correct. or. The ornamental principle of far is symmetry may be introduced into a picture. con- and it must. if we are desirous of Flat. basis of all ornamental art. that whatever associate other principle we may with the ornamental principle. from being introduced. be the Round. Introduce what symbols we will. This also illustrates the difference between a picture and an ornament. are All light tracery indeed. in the mere of and or dark: of whether the contrast be that colours black and white. in all cases. must be kept secondary to effect. but it is essential to it and when this principle . they must be made subject to the ruling principles of ornament itself. however good the symbolism.ORNAMENT. This is pictures in . which it often is. have but two great principles to study shape and contrast. This more important than would appear . elemental principle of vision trast. if this view be we aesthetically.

be. and any ornamental design in which these two Any picture. can only be true where the original uses of the details chosen have not been feature of this obviously violated. Therefore. becomes an ornament. and one peculiar that it often substitutes the ornament itself for the thing to be ornamented. as illustrated in the accom- panying examples . when you represent a natural form in a natural manner. and. may call it the naturalist by way of distinction. . is a class of ornament which has much increased of late years in England. upon which you found your theory. whichever it may be. a basket on an animal's head to hold a ! a bell made of leaves the elements chosen being so opposed to the proposed uses of the objects ornamented. art. in which the natural objects are : so mismanaged as to be principals flame proceeding from a liquid. no affinity whatever. and yet apply it to uses with which it has. that as nature is beautiful. applied to useful purposes. we The theory appears to school. This. whatever the subject. the earlier epochs of and they were generally parts of ornamental schemes. you frustrate the very principle of nature.8 ORNAMENT. ornamental details derived immediately from beautiful natural objects must insure a beautiful design. in nature. flower. which is composed merely on principles of symmetry and contrast. little Nature in however you may matters. principles have been made subservient to imitation or natural arrangement has departed from the province of ornament into that of the picture or the model. And in nearly all designs of this kind. however. you certainly commit an outrage conform with upon her There in great matters. school is.

as to make the designs simply aesthetic monstrosities. the useful . and not the A Gas Jet. A Cup. A Bell. substitute it of.ORNAMENT. can have no independent existence practically. cannot look upon any mere ornament without instantly c We . ornamental abominations. it is a decoration or adornment . Ornament is essentially the accessory to.

it is purely a work of fine art. Of course. But it is upon this skeleton that the designer must bring all his ornamental knowledge to bear . however poetical the idea may be supposed to be. with and substituting these natural objects for the utensil itself. as a necklace or a bracelet. In the is latter case. article of is for instance. because it is then instead of being accessory. There a utensil is a very great difference between ornamenting natural objects. it associating to with something that it is fit. of all ornament. in fact. you are in both respects true. the indispensable skeleton of his design. If we look upon it as a mere statue or portrait. and he is a poor designer if he can do nothing more than imitate a few sticks and leaves. and has nothing to do with ornament. Even a it not an ornament. an ornament. an absolute condition Hence.io ORNAMENT. a candlestick. every implement or as. unless you associate or other object or support that jit with some shelf fit may be to adorn. however true the details. and also highly suggestive may be and instructive. Every article it of use has a certain size and character it defined for by the very use is destined for. there are many . the design utterly false in the former. not principal. or is destined. or other natural objects . that composed or built up of natural imitations exclusively or as principals. it is. and this may never be disregarded by the designer . is practically bad as a design. . natural objects which at once suggest certain uses and we can never be wrong if we elaborate these into such implements or vessels as their own very forms or natures may have spontaneously presented to the mind. statuette is adorn . practical utility.

rather than imitate their individual appearances. in a tree. The beautiful Italian style. or work upon the principles illustrated by natural objects. wherewith to decorate well as beauty. for instance: the two . will have aesthetically but very little variety of effect upon the mind. this combina- known as the Trecento. as in the animal creation. to the : or mere geometrical design. u it he must give character as make it suggestive of something more than a display of sprigs and flowers gathered from the fields. and it . or this would be mannerism indeed. For this purpose we must bring Art to the aid of Nature.ORNAMENT. seems to be a law of nature. very beautiful kind one kind of ornament. We should add an illustrative elaboration of the abstract mere representation of those natural objects in which they may be most effectively and this is the professed object of all tracery displayed principles of beauty. Natural floral ornament . and a but even an infinite variety of floral is detail. especially in the round. in tion of natural and artificial its its mixture of tracery and conventional flowers and foliage with various geometrical designs. that every individual thing shall be composed of two similar parts in its outward It appearance . is a fine example of forms. object from the And we where of its find this remarkable similarity relaxed only relaxation does not interfere with the beauty as the object. and as the internal arrangement is often dif- ferent. "We find this similarity of parts more or less decided nals according to the individuality of the simplest crystal form to that of man. this similarity of exter- would appear an evidence of the design of beauty.

This distinction between the symmetry of the parts and the symmetry of the group or cluster is very important. or festoons. which has its symmetry. of a tree halves are not exactly symmetrical in their so. : all flowers are symmetrical decided.i 2 ORNAMENT. inversely as the plurality of and symmetry is the more : number to of flowers on one stem members seems do away with the special . limbs. the deviation from individual symmetry symmetry of always in favour of the the collective group or groups. Take man himself: he is a compound form. Whatever part of the group is balanced by a similar member on the other side. the group that this is a is the ornament. therefore. colonnades. provided the cluster. not this plurality to disturb a perfect contrast of the but take the head. or festoon. and we find parts. be itself of symmetrical proportions. I two believe this to . because it is balanced by a similar member on the other side . we are strictly following one of the grand principles of Nature. with flowers . colonnade. the individuals of such designs may be arranged at ran- dom. not and law which must be observed . The arm is not symmetrical. as yet they are generally in There is quite much symmetry It is so also every tree as the eye can apthe calyx and petals of this preciate. is without that symmetry which we are speaking of. and extremities. a group of trunk. so far from being artificial or formal. the individual likewise in art . branches. In endeavouring. as in all clusters. "Where is it is nature groups. symmetry of the individual member and where there are several flowers from one root or on one stem. to be symmetrical in our designs.

when symmetrically contrasted or repeated. be true of of all i 3 natural groups .ORNAMENT. and I believe this law be so important. . that there is no form or combination of forms whatever that. cannot be made subservient to symmetry to beauty.

a sphere is the solid its generated by the revolution of a semicircle around diameter. Mouldings are simple repetitions. a given axis as. details The details of all great styles are largely derived from nature. are nearly identical. generated by the revolution of an outline around . In no popular style of ornament have natural ever yet prevailed. sym- metrically arranged. III. and theory and experience seem to show that this is the true system. . but for the most part con- ventionally treated . or any other regular series. right-lined or curved. as the case be. A ornament consists in contrast. of and series. and often the rudest materials will generate extremely beautiful effects. prises repetition. And with the the elliptical.CHAPTEE THE whole grammar repetition. may is Perhaps the best illustration of the value of series are in circular series the kaleidoscope. will be found nearly equally valuable circular. perfect contrast of form may be denned as the two sides of a solid or section of the solid. Series com- and defines its order. for instance. that instrument All the beautiful figures represented by repetitions .

is only a picture or model. is. In Egyptian. Greek. its when its the natural order of growth or development is disregarded. a general plan. the this class can be But in Ghiberti's case.ORNAMENT. And this utmost extent to which decorations of judiciously applied. or upon a strict geometrical basis. it is the group is the ornament. whatever the treatment of the detail may be. independent of any application. it must be applied as an accessory is decoration to something else. as elsewhere. reptiles. but they are strictly accessory to . in which the most perfect schemes are purely conventional. the exact imitation of the details. and animals occasionally case is introduced in arabesques and scroll-work. 15 A plant Where is is said to be conventionally treated. the same with Byzantine and Saracenic great styles art. Lorenzo Ghiberti has introduced exact natural imitations in his celebrated gates of the Baptistery of San Giovanni at Florence . any mere imitation. and an object so treated. The only examples The I can recall are the birds. and own order of development. It is requisite that we should have a clear understand- . not an ornament : to be an ornament. being neither are They bound in bunches or groups of various shapes and sizes. of which they are ornaments. and symmetrically arranged negligently nor naturally disposed. and Eoman ornament. and not the parts of which composed. perhaps. disposed in harmony with the main compartments of the gates. that it ex: tremely rare to find any natural treatment of the details is. especially all the Trecento and the Cinquecento. are both observed. the treatment natural . and with the of Italy.

but an ornamental treatment does not necessarily exclude imitation in the parts . conventionalities of details as of conventionalities instance. may for have. treated as we or may be : a mere shadow of itself. the scroll form con. arrangement.i6 ORNAMENT. And it may be know it it that is. As in the following arrangement of a leaf. a scroll may be but as no plant would composed of strictly natural parts grow in an exact spiral direction. however. and such representations that we as find almost exclusively in Egyptian and Greek art . to be. stitutes the ornamental or conventional arrangement. for instance. : with this all the local accidents of light and shade and colour strictly natural would be a representation. or the various of the terra-cotta vases of Greece. We well as flower. as represented as a mere diagram. ing of the difference between a natural and a conventional natural treator ornamental treatment of an object. . from an old French example. A leaf or a may be represented as it appears. the Lotus foliage of the Egyptian tombs and temples. without reference to its appearance . as a silhouette the two latter would be conventional treatit is ments . as. A ment implies natural imitation and arrangement.

ORNAMENT. casket. but the rendering the object ornamented as agreeable as possible to it. Every design tions it vase. There can be no question that the motive of ornament is not the presentation of natural images to the mind. may have are the details of the design. In all cases where elaborate works of Fine Art are D . but be kept purely subservient to beauty of effect. but by the adoption of conventional ornament whether flowers. or rather cannot be thoroughly done. and therefore the details of decoration should have no independent character of their own. as medallion pictures or pieces of sculpture so with a candlestick. and yet at the same time may present an exeffect. This can hardly be done. and others. tremely beautiful the whole of that effect is simply auxiliary to the general beauty of the object decorated is : the ornamentation purely accessory. or their : enrichments. foliage. the shape of the vase composed of plan and details as in a is the plan whatever decora. The designer must ever remem- ber that the effect of the whole should never be terfered with in- by any is partial 1 attraction of the details. or other natural forms: because as a conventional or mere geometrical form can really have no individual associations.

have the finest effects. arranged diagonally. but independent works of Fine Art. or as complicated and as rich as the diapers of the Alhambra. horizontal. and the unit of repetition generally cases. far higher ornamental principles than the uniform covering the entire surface. plan. or a picture only in the general form . in one colour. is the most popular class of design for cotton-prints. De- which are spread uniformly over a surface are commonly called diapers an expression supposed to be corations derived from Ypres. or only portions of the covering of only portions of a plan involves. as a spot or star. A . from which the mass of paper diapers are derived. Units of repetition. The ordinary various kinds : details or accessory decorations may be of they may it cover the entire surface of the . of course. as introduced as enrichments of an ornamental scheme sculpture in the pediment of a in the panel of a wall it is Greek temple. or repeats of irregular shapes. and arrangement that they share in the ornamental effect they are no longer ornaments when examined in detail. or a diagonal order. but is small it in these either may be extremely simple. in a vertical. Diapers are suited for or round flat work of every class in manufactures or in inural decoration. They This are composed of a repetition or series of the same ornament.i8 ORNAMENT. the cloths so decorated name of the Flemish town where were first or largely manufactured.

. as is very simple it. The diaper. as it involves no scheming. You have but the rest is repeat or unit of repetition expansion. ig simple figures. for these geometric mosaics are nearly all floors. however. or of colonnades. and they are a good illustration of the carrying out of the principle of fitness in design .ORNAMENT. The majority of ancient mosaics are diapers of this character. Geometric diapers are infinite. your mere mechanical to design . it is and some other textile manu- generally a decorated or foliated serpentine. the group of figures becomes the pattern or unit of repetition. in the paper-stainers expressively term mere filling. diaper. may be an alternation of two or more just as it may be a constant repetition of figure . factures : lace. then. of any character. All such superficial decoration fact. and by a judicious variation of colours may be made extremely beautiful. : it is. and they emphatically express flatness an essential quality a a for a floor. and rarely a scroll always a measured curved succes- sion in vertical series. is uniform decoration of surface : another general analogous to it decoration is a succession of stripes. one compound for as it is in this case the group that is repeated. of repetitions tion : The colonnade consists direc- of continuous curves in the same it is the favourite form of decoration for carpets. curtains. papers.

the designer's duty to suffer no mere ornamental predilections to interfere with the mechanical or practical excellence of his design. and by making some portions more prominent than others. a its and this is the process shows his skill. and thus produce that contrast which we . the surface of a If sphere. by which a designer must primarily it test his Taking for granted that the eye requires variety of surface to gratify that faculty of the to excite those emotions this variety to mind called taste. but the is beginning of a designer's labours his great business to produce pleasing variety of surface. we suppose a cylinder to represent the skeleton of a candlestick. not only in the flat but in the round . how is be effected? By dividing surfaces into compartments. or a cone. give the cylinder a shape destined use . however. They are conditions of use. is of another. To uniformly cover a surface : is. The surface of a wall is of one kind . and it is these conditions designs. These are constant conditions far more important than those depending upon accidents of machinery. in the first place.20 ORNAMENT. which shall correspond with it its we must upon one it so balance the two ends that will stand firmly of them. and call it an ornamental candlestick. give pleasing individuality of character consistent with destination . a cylinder. it will not be sufficient to merely uniformly decorate the surface of this cylinder. by varying the surface or form. not only upon regular but upon irregular surfaces. or which we term (esthetic. and then. We must. wherein the designer The principles applicable to one article may be and it is quite the reverse of those applicable to another.

basement or dado capital. but only as a contribution to the general effect. These may be plain or enriched mouldings distinct. of contrast in itself. and. sake of variety of sities effect. the edge of a salver. the mere division of an object into such parts is done for the objects . the hem of a vest. which shall contain an elemental principle. or the concave series may be filled in with ornamental details. principle As no border is is introduced into a design for its own sake. because special attrac- and varied . frieze. body. as boundaries of compartments. 21 at starting to be the element of all ornamental These compartments are known as panels. in obedience to one of the neces- of the mind. cornice. of elaborate is superior to a prominent succession imitations.ORNAMENT. that sure to be the best which is designed with a view to a : for principle rather than any speciality of detail of its own thus we find that a mere repeat. the principle is them edges or call the same throughout call whether the moulding of a room or piece of cabinet-work. pedestal . it is necessary that they should be particularly and we accordingly find that they are. all names desig- nating the ornamental divisions of the general schemes of though these things may not be ornamented. borders. These various compartments : are separated or made prominent by mouldings mouldings may be either mere suits of concave and convex members. in nearly all cases. . base. the part of a design which has been most elaborated: them borders. as in many Gothic examples. we have everywhere the one and with its own ground. foot. assumed effects. shaft. and so on . . the border of a shawl or handkerchief. neck.

The truth all of this principle ages : we have it not now proved by the practice of to create Ornamental Art. . and not the details of which it is composed. but a capital defect is in a design. is tion to secondary details not a merit.. to the late King of Bavaria. As long ago. from Julius II.22 ORNAMENT. The border or moulding the ornament. but is to learn it. a proof of this I would instance the most popular deco- was established in all essentials rations of the present day: we find that they are identical with the favourites of nearly all ages. Ludwig I. from Pericles to Pope Julius II.

the very details. in the varieties of the guilloche we have lacings. a similar simple series of curved lines or inter- . the the fret. perhaps. I refer to are. the the astragal. will admit of every variation which will not disturb the order or arrangement : on which the ornament depends you may change the details to infinity. order of right-line series .CHAPTER IV. still WE Why is this ? Certainly not from their speciality of detail. the zigzag. indeed. however. scrolls. which would series so well illustrate the great principles of ornament. and. And this alternation imperative if we wish to develop a rich and varied School of Ornamental Art. and contrast or harmony of lines. impossible to select others of a less decided individuality. the ornament will remain the same as long as the arrangement is is not disturbed. use the forms. the anthemions. The ornaments echinus. contrast of masses. The details. varieties. guilloche and the In the zigzag we have the simplest varieties of lines we can well conceive in the frets we have a more complicated . it but rather because would be. and contrast . adopted by the Greeks upwards of two thousand years ago.

conventional adaptation of floral forms. Apollo Epicurius. or what is commonly called the egg and tongue. we have another character. a succession or alternation of an harmonic group of curves. and we have a similar result on a smaller : scale in the astragal both belong essentially to the solid or round. or any materials treated in that order of curve : use among the Eomans has established an extra- ordinary prestige for the acanthus. a bold alternation of light and shade . In the anthemions we have a compound element. Erechtheium. in a Anthemion. fjMlJIljlf Jivf Echinus and Astragal. In the scrolls we have a regular running series of alter- nation of spirals.ORNAMENT. some- . but any other materials would answer the purpose. In Greek examples we have a smaller sometimes reversed. as the name anthe- mion itself implies. and larger cluster alternated. In the echinus.

for example. an harmonic group of This fall only one of the dilemmas that the designer must into by allowing mere specific details to usurp the is place of the principles of ornament: his mind becomes occupied by a few individual forms. 25 times enclosed in a curve. by mere contact. assumed it to be an imitation. and have called it the honeysuckle ornament. therefore. of grasping the source of a thousand ornaments equally beautiful. and generally connected by a band. but to adopt this detail as is a great mistake an essential part of the ornament . the very idea of principles is incomprehensible to him. bringing of Greece into disgrace for there is its monotony and formality. if only treated on the principle equal skill of a succession or alternation of curves. they have acquired but one. no two Greek anthemions are alike. Instead. with perhaps equal effect. but is simple and modern imitators overlooking its principle have comprehended only the detail. and . the lily. and he necessarily remains a mere hack or imitator. and half the classical buildings of modern times are the whole art covered with honeysuckles. while scarcely a weed in England that might not with have been substituted for the honeysuckle. Every example of an ornament must have an it indi- viduality of detail necessarily.ORNAMENT. or by some simple scroll. E The lotus. or where the eyes are auxiliary only to the mind. every natural object may be suggestive of some new essential form or combination of forms. but there are some few which contain a member a good deal resembling the honeysuckle: the ornament beautiful. Where the mind views something more than the surface.

some for another. are differences only of the materials. and certain details is becoming of exactly standards: the peculiarity of the Saracenic the opposite character. or his use of them as is limited indeed to various . the details of the several favourite essential forms. must be something more than flowers to the designer. series It is the same with the whole one of them object. and accordingly the principles of ornament are perhaps more clearly developed in this style than in any other. We do not therefore admire the echinus and the astragal. some for The pecuis owing to their prevailing symbolism. just as harmonies and melodies through another of its senses. it scrupulously rejected everything approaching an individuality of detail. because they are derived from the horse-chestnut or the huckle-bone. which each more or less partially deve- one reason. is of popular it ornaments . not beautiful because it represents any natural but because has been chosen to illustrate certain symmetries or contrasts. each useful suggests purposes. which I shall in the following sketch endeavour to point out. I believe the analogy between music and ornament to be perfect: one delight it is to the eye what the other is to the ear . liarity of Egyptian and Byzantine ornament loped.26 ORNAMENT. and the day . distinct forms applicable All established styles of ornament are founded upon the same principles: their differences. but because they are admirable details for that prominent contrast of light and shade which is so extremely valuable for edges or mouldings. the tulip. because the details are so entirely subordinate. by the very nature of vision delightful to the mind.

combination of every correct ornamental scheme series. this is a The simplest character of series. The principles of harmony. which a measured succession of diatonic sounds. The first principle of ornament seems to be repetition. and perhaps not recognised even as unknown quantities. and that all mechanical ingenuity must be kept strictly subservient to theoretical principles of arrangement. identical principles music and ornament. is measured succession. in : as a moulding. or a combination called also time. of some one detail. for instance this stage of ornament corresponds with melody in music. and indisputable : many men of many generations have devoted their entire lives to the development of these principles. The highest . it is also identical in is ornamental art. are well defined in music. called in the first counterpart. in both cases. the system in both arising from the same source rhythm in music ornament proportion or symmetry proportion. or quantity. and melody.ORNAMENT. though many ancient and middle-age designers have evidently had a true perception of them. in and upon contrast. a or measured succession of forms. is 27 not far distant when this will be practically demon- strated. because as yet no man has ever devoted himself to their elimination. in the other symmetrical Such a close analogy must convince us that ornament artistic elabora- consists in something more than a mere tion of either natural or conventional details. In ornament they are not known. and they are known. The second stage in music is harmony. time or rhythm. in : of simultaneous sounds or melodies .

out of the strict province of so-called engender but mere fanciful vagaries. Greek Terra Cotta. .28 ORNAMENT. mere imitative employed on the most beautiful natural materials. utterly powerless on the eye as ornament. will only arranged in any order or combination of harmonic progression. skill. if fine art. when compared with even the crudest materials of the coarsest execution.

THE CHAEACTEEISTICS OF STYLES. .

.

the styles become comparatively few. there are several varieties. and of the Eenaissance. THE STYLES. . we can itself comprise only the broad distinctions of ornament the kinds or genera. and the Louis Quatorze. many varieties of nearly every great but so long as the chief characteristics remain unis changed. the Cinquecento. the Saracenic. of course. and influence on European civilisation. and Norman varieties. and the Gothic . also. the style therefore. three medieval the Byzantine. are. There style. and the Roman . Lombard.CHAPTEE V. &c. three ancient the Egyptian. From this point of view. IN a review of this kind. Several of these styles have their recognised varieties. there . Of the Greek that is. the Greek. when we speak of the styles. As an epoch. . We speak of the Eenaissance both as an epoch and as a style. it comprises many styles or varieties. the severe and the Of the Byzantine. We shall find that nine will comprise the whole number of the great characteristic developments which have had any namely. the same. three modern the Eenaissance. there are the Doric and the Alexandrian florid. are the Eomanesque. not the mere specific varieties.

will especially in later times.. the natural result of the accumulation of materials. of the features of another style. Every style.. and. with its sub-varieties). the Eenaissance (as a style. the earliest styles are the most simple. from the third to the thirteenth century.. may be considered the medieval period . of which two thousand may be considered the ancient period. not the revival. About one thousand years. the Trecento. the Louis XV. the Eoman from the. the Cinquecento. may be considered the period of the Eenaissance. These various styles extend over a period of upwards of three thousand five hundred years.32 CHARACTERISTICS OF STYLES. as such. of course. upon what is peculiar to never on what it peculiarities are common with other styles. the Elizabethan. perhaps. may invent at pleasure. and the last five centuries. Sometimes a style common. merely a modification. indeed. XIV. of art. discover without aid. or peculiar It is then elaboration. it. or the modern period. as each successive style has been gradually developed out of its predecessor. and the Eococo however. only a variety or a derived style and such varieties are . what we term characteristics the has in is These features by which it is distinguished. from the thirteenth to the nineteenth. when he is once master of the essential charac- teristics of the great historic styles. Greek. from the early historic times to the third century of our era. necessarily also the most original. These varieties the student and. as. depends. As a matter of course. : and they are decidedly the decay. the Louis the two last. Style is only another name for character. the . are mere debased varieties of the Louis XIV.

a specimen of a certain time will only as a general rule illustrate the corresponding style. proceed to examine the nine great which appear to sufficiently illustrate the history of ornament. for it belongs to the period of that its a style is denned not by all time or period. prevailing peculiarities or characteristics of that and it is not at the case that every It work of a period possesses these peculiarities.CHARACTERISTICS OF STYLES. in all cases. but is. Eomanesque from the Eoman. Saracenic. must be borne in mind. notwithstanding a prevailing sentiment. and Eoman the the ancient . but by the period . We will now then historic styles. the Gothic middle age Quatorze and the Eenaissance. therefore. . in its details. however. and less affinity of character. Cinquecento. This is because no style is predetermined. that while a genuine example of a style will always imply a certain time. The Egyptian. incidental. 33 so on. Greek. with more or It does not follow. the Byzantine. that an ornamental work is in a certain style because style. . and Louis the modern.

Paris. ON THE DECORATIVE ART OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. their Columns and Capitals. EGYPT. ou Eecueil des Observations et des Eecherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant 1'Expedition de I'Annee Franchise. et seq. and elephant. * ANCIENT AET. Egyptian style. Description de 1'Egypte. &c. EGYPTIAN OENAMENT. treating of the Antiquities. the Egyptian Temple the Propyla.) 23 vols.C.* CHAPTEK VI. The Pyramids. EIGHT LECTURES. the Telamons. a distance of nearly 1200 miles. Arts. and the views do not always agree they are referred to only as the most comprehensive or useful : illustrated works on the subject. Syllabus. from Meroe to Alexandria. Sakkara. Edfou. sumptuous Decoration of the The Tombs. . Extensive remains still preserved on the banks of the Nile. Egyptian Temples Denderah.THE ANCIENT STYLES. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. (The great work of the French Expedition. and as thus best adapted to aid the student in his labours. Publie par les ordres de sa Majeste 1'Empereur Napoleon le Grand. the Sphinx Andro Crio and Hieraco-Sphinx. the Arch. Obelisks. 1809. folio. LECTURE I. Essaboua. Mosaics. Its stationary and purely ornamental character. Philce. The works mentioned under this head are not cited as the authorities for the opinions given. as many of them were published some years after the preparation of the lectures. 1848-49. Early Establishment of Egyptian Art about 1800 B. Heliopolis. and Modern State of Egypt. Thebes. Ipsambul. atlas folio. Natural History.

Development of Art as evinced in the Homeric Poems Ornamental Armour. The Ionian Greeks. Egyptian and Asiatic Art characterised Egyptian influence in Asia Judsea. 1822. The Terra Cotta Vases. Decorations of the Tombs. Armour. text. J. Assyria. interpretati ed illustrati dal Dottore Ippolito Bosellini. Antiquites de la Nubie. India.C. folio. 35 Travels in Georgia. Development of Painting Skiagram. Tomb of Agamemnon. Painted Ceilings. London. Polychrom. Monogram. Intercourse between Greece and Egypt. Greek Traditions. by the Tuscan Expedition to Egypt. I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia disegnati della spedizione : Toscana in Egitto distribuiti in ordine di materie. Woollen Fabrics of Miletus. The Greek Colonies in Asia Minor and Magna Grsecia. Asiatic. Pisa. contains the Civil Monuments. Corinth. 2 vols. ou GAU. Ancient Babylonia. 1819. PORTER. Monumens inedits des Bords Nil. &c. LECTURE III. or European. Shawl or Pallium of Alcisthenes of Sybaris. Persia. Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus. 1821. Prints. Manufactures Furniture. Wave-scroll. Pelasgic Eemains Mycenae. The Pro- The Heroic Age B. General Similarity of Standard Ornamental Types in Ancient Monuments. With 48 plates. in 169 plates: Tavole M. under the direction of Bosellini. Xerxes. the Monuments of Eeligious Worship. C. Colours. LECTURE IV. Toreutic Work. Asp. Darius. Labyrinth. inclusive. and Cartouche. and 1820. Embroidered Stuffs. during the years 1817. KER. LECTURE II. Monumenti del Culto. BOSELLENI. 1818. Lotus. Linen and Cotton Fabrics. plates..EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. &c. 4to.. Sunk-reliefs. whether Egyptian. (This great work is in three parts. B. Monumenti Storici. 1832-44. Persepolis Cambyses. Large folio. Pottery. 9 vols. Ornamental Types the Zigzag. Study of Ornament. dessines et mesures en 1819. Monumenti Civili. The Funerals. with separate text in octavo. ASIA. atlas folio. GREECE : HEROIC AGE OF GREEK ART. situes entre la premiere et la seconde Cataracte. Ships. in 86 plates. Commission d'Egypte. 8vo. London. Tavole M. P. arranged according to their subjects. Greek Art. and Carthage. in 135 plates Tavole M. The Monuments of Egypt and Nubia. Nimroud Marbles. Winged-globe. and Monochrom cesses. EGYPT : ORNAMENTAL DETAILS. D. Embroidery. &c. C. contains the Historical Monuments of the Kings. Paris.) scientifico-litteraria : 3 vols. 4to. Legend of Origin of Greek Art Dibutades of Corinth. of . Armenia. SIR E. C. 1834. Ouvrage faisant suite au grand ouvrage de la du BAM EAZ. Variegated Glass. from about the 12th to the 8th century.

Egypte. 1846. 12mo. London. or Labyrinth. the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Orientalization of Greek taste Alexander. the Echinus Order . Egyptian Antiquities. LECTURE VI.C. Samos. Eeligion. the Temple of Apollo Ornamental details. or first Historic Age. London. 125 photographs. Sculptures. 409 B. 321 B. Paris. or Palmette.C. "Wave-scroll. Astragal.C. Apelles. Satyr. illustrated in 100 plates. 1847. including their Private Life. from the 8th century to the 5th inclusive. 550 B. Zeuxis. Imp. Nubie. LONG. The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. Moyen Age. The Potteries of Samos. M. Anthemion. Chryselephantine Sculpture the Olympian Jupiter. 1845. Manufactures. and Rhcecus of Samos. Polygnotus. the Poecile at Athens . Phidias. 438 Great. The Monuments of Nineveh. London. G. THE GREEK ORDERS. GREECE PERIOD OF ALEXANDER. Caryatides. G.C. &c.C. et accompagnes d'un texte explicatif. from Cypselus of Corinth. recueillis pendant les annees 1849-50-51. and Etruria. Statue Painting.. the Erechtheium. The Mural Decorations the Lesche at Delphi. Psestum. Canephorse. about Greek and Egyptian Temple compared the Pediment or Eagle. The Doric. painted and cut the Zigzag. Government. Griffin. LAYARD. Laws. Complete Establishment of Greek Art at the time of Alexander the The Three Styles at Athens the Parthenon. The Doric.36 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 433 B. A. his Influence. Paris. H. 1849. still existing. Museum. Histoire de 1'Art Monumental dans 1'Antiquite. GREECE : THE DORIC PERIOD ORNAMENTAL ELEMENTS. The Ionic the Voluted Order. 438 B. 400 B. 336 B. L.C. . with the Accounts of Ancient Authors. 2 vols.C. the Parthenon. Echinus. et Syrie. The British. 335 B. Palestine. 8vo. to Pericles or Phidias. Chimsera. small folio. suivie d'une Traite de la Peinture sur Verre. Folio. . DR. his Funeral. The Doric Temples Temple of Diana at Ephesus. 1852-53. and purely aesthetic the Myths Sphinx. et au BATISSIER. SIR J. Athens. B. WILKINSON. derived from a Comparison of the Paintings.C. prevalence of the Curve the Volute and Guilloche or Speira Chersiphron of Cnossus in Crete. and Early History. Elements of Greek Art conventional. . the Polychromy. Du CAMP. from drawings made on the spot. Fret Epicurius. 5 vols. and Monuments 3rd edition. Callimachus of Corinth. Arts. 8vo. ASIATIC INFLUENCE : THE DECLINE. LECTURE V. Athens. the Frieze or Zophoros Image-bearer.C. Dessins photographiques. Agriculture. JEgina. The Corinthian the Acanthus Order.

The Illustrated 1857. and Bronzes including bas-reliefs from the Palace of Sennacherib. chief characteristics of this period. its decorations. Folio. 1851. Rapid Decline of Roman Art under the Emperors the Triumphal Arches. J. from the ruins of Nimroud. &c. London.) ornament of which we know anything of material importance is the Egyptian. The Roman Triumphs. 0. The Arch. ROME: FLORID DEVELOPMENT OF GREEK ART UNDER THE ROMANS. re-discovery in 1748 A. The Greek Painted Earthenware and the Murrhine of the East. Discrimination of Style Accessory and Principal. Marcellus. Apollodorus of Damascus. ford. Magnificence of the Romans. Collections. Fol.. Bed- London. 214 B. and Acanthus Orders of the Greeks. London. Devices on their Siiields. 1853. 8vo. destruction. . The Acanthus and Scroll. and Roman. The Golden House of Nero. 1856-8. The Roman House of the time of Augustus general Scheme of Decoration. Greek. . Armour. London. 1834. all ages. The Spoliations of Greece. mosaics. London.D.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. Polio. FERGUSSON.D. LAYARD. Funerals. 79 A. Illustrations of the Eock-cut Temples of India. Picturesque Illustrations of Ancient Architecture in Hindo: stan.C. Voluted. The Colossus of Zenodorus. 1852. Handbook of Architecture being a concise and popular account of the different styles of architecture prevailing in With 850 woodcuts. of Ornament. ROMAN DECORATION FINAL DECLINE. 37 A second series of the Monuments of Nineveh. Extravagances of the time of Nero condemned by Pliny as : Censures of Vitruvius on the Taste of his time. oblong folio. The Three Tastes Egyptian. from drawings made on the spot during a Second Expedition to Assyria. The Palaces of Nineveh and Perse polis Restored an Essay on Ancient Assyrian and Persian Architecture. insanities. LECTURE VIII. Pompeii. H. The Grammar Folio. Roman Bronzes. The Composite or Roman an aggregate of the Echinus. London. DR. The Forum of Trajan. Drawn on stone by F. and in all countries. Greek and Roman Orders and Details compared. 71 plates. General florid and debased character of the Ornamental Details of the Public Buildings of Rome. A. its Family Portraits. dating from about earliest style of THE LECTURE VII. . JONES. General Concentration of Ancient Art Treasures in Rome. Gradual Development of Roman Taste. (On the styles generally. Distinctions between Gr eek and Roma Q Acanthus.

The arbitrarily chosen for the sake of beauty of effect. not meaning. if ever. in comparison with style is accordingly. by a mere symmetrical arrangement. 1800 and when details it was already completely established. being the object of the artist. As both are derived from a priestly syma rule. has con- verted even the incomprehensible hieroglyphics into pleasing and tasteful ornaments. B. very simple and limited in its arrangements. the elements of Egyptian ornament .. the pure aesthetic principles of art that is.C. this is literally a hieroglyphic style in its sentiments its and in bolism. Yet we cannot but admire the ingenuity with which the Egyptian decorator. . they are not often. in which mere symbolism was superseded by . have a particular meaning though abounding in materials. A simple symmetrical . Ruins at Thebes.38 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. later styles. effect.

handed down by successive ages to our own the When we Egyptian consider the heirarchical vassalage of artist. for the lotus or water-lily of the Nile. The shapes of the Egyptian ewer and and other vessels for domestic purposes. by symmetry ornamental class So that we have here one great of ornament. independent : skilful application of art to manufactures it is complete adaptation of its own natural productions in the development of a style peculiar to eminent in its itself. in spite of his tastes or capabilities we must admit respects. selected into by symbolism. by the law of birth. In many at was as thoroughly understood thousand years ago as it is Memphis or Thebes three at London or Paris this day. are not mere crude imitations but natural objects. as. is 39 the limit of his artistic scheming. Many time. The painted ceilings of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes diaper. are identical with those of . element of so details many The Egyptian of nature. and the earliest systematic efforts in design in the world's history. of the details of the Egyptians are still popular ornaments. instance. In one of its ornament Egypt is eminent. and that he was by choice. that is. arrangement. whether in a horizontal line or repeated on the principle of the row upon row. the varieties of ornament. basin. and fashioned decorations. in its conventional treatment of local natural types.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. however. afford many good class of examples. and generally in the shape of a simple progression. was forced to pursue the occupation of his father. horizontally or diagonally. the art that he displays peculiar ability. in his profession caste. and not by as every man.

zigzag. The frieze or . . mere symand always of a very simple but precious stones and metals. pictures of objects all Even fairly in the wall-paintings it themselves. carrier. or water-lily of the Xile. and palm. . seem to have been very abundantly are almost exclusively a The arrangements metrical series or progression. and is a species of . spiral. as the lotus. . sizes is what is sometimes called . is another right- line series and important symbol. no object is painted as actually appears the best examples are but intelligible representations mere elevations or dia- grams. and the zigzag. the type of water or the Nile is still This ancient signification of the zigzag preserved in the present zodiac sign of the WaterAquarius. and the richest order materials generally. the type of its inundations. and have been so through all times as the fret or labyrinth. They had many others derived from the vegetable productions of In the first place. broad-band is the commonest form of these decorations and the details are generally some of the more important symbols. is. Egyptian ornament admits of no are treated conventionally. water-lily. from which Egypt derives its fruitfulness. the and almost in of all it occurs Winged-globe all materials. There This beetle. and many Egyptian ornaments are still popular ornaments. one particular ornament which is more common than all others in Egyptian decoration. used. however.40 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. wavethe most favourite patterns of the present time . star. the Scaraba3us or or. . itself. of less frequent occur- rence. or The fret or labyrinth. rather. scroll.

we have the Man-sphinx. and the two asps. on the other hand. natural and conventional. which physical and intellectual power. the Kaindeities. It frequent in costume. as incarnations of such attributes. as the vulture with the tau and ostrich feather. the Crio-sphinx. windows. and sometimes of an We extending thirty feet or more. the wings good providence. enormous is also There are several other winged figures found in Egyptian friezes. or almost invariably find this ornament placed over doors. and the human winged figure. of the Greeks. and in passages. the hawk. the Greeks respectively the Andre-sphinx. this it is distinguished from the Greek creation of is always winged. and always female. order. Xeph or Jupiter. corresponding apparently in the works of the Jews. is always It is supposed to represent the combination of male. implying world. The G principal position of the . Osiris sphinx. the creative. and distributive powers. that name. talisman or is 41 invocation of The globe luck (Agathodaemon). or the hawk. and the Hawk-sphinx. and on the mummy-cases. They are also associated with the special forms and attributes of the great Egyptian and Ammon. dominion or monarchy.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. and Phreh or Helios: that is. the X-CKT/KK. or the lion's body with the head of the man. or the kings. supposed to represent the sun. and the Hieraco-sphinx. the ram. protective. to those described The In sphinx. size. The Egyptian sphinx. does not come under the category of the winged creatures. the winged asp. a remarkable object in Egyptian art. according to the These sphinxes were thus named by deity worshipped. one on each side of the globe.

The swelling asp alone (the Cobra de capello) is also a very characteristic ornament. may represent water in motion. then. detail. the lotus and the papyrus. in their turn. The most essential symbolic characteristics of an Egyptian design. tion is Its name was derived from form. sphinx was on either side of the dromos. enclosing the hieroglyphic name of a king. the twelve signs of the zodiac. and it is very common to find them arranged also in symmetrical opposition. probably. indicating. the zigzag. We find entire friezes and borders composed of a mere succession of these asps. one on each side of the cartouche or shield. with its twelve palaces and three thousand chambers. productions of Egypt. may be enumerated. and with any of the natural conventionally treated. leading to the temple.. These we mixed up with many arbitrary or geometrical forms. the most hieroglyphics. per- common. mere ornamental The fret. The wave-scroll. or the its waves. the asp. &c. as the fret. and in every its simple symmetrical progression. are these the winged globe. star. with a special reference to the king or dynasty expressed by the hiero- glyphic in the cartouche. among the more important symbols. spiral or wave-scroll. Our designa- but a translation of the Greek Cyma or the Eoman . and the three thousand years of transmigrations which the wandering soul is condemned to undergo. having a symbolic meaning beyond service in the design. or path. perhaps. The find lotus is. as the type of the labyrinth of Lake Mceris. and the cartouche containing haps. also. having the same signification of dominion.42 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT.

are found in endless variety in costume these. 43 Minor symbols. or rather oval series. wise characteristic of Egyptian generally limited to red. * It is found painted on a palanquin in a picture in the Tombs of the Kings. Cymatium. yet. with its seven drooping lilies. For as among the hieroglyphics. and it is certainly very rarely that we find anything more. and green. in the cluster of the Lotus.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. we have a very beautiful compound example. decoration. but the colours blue. and is not unlike a series of the hats of the God Nilus. Temple at Denderah. . however. constituting the unit of the ordinary horizontal series. yellow. a symmetrical arrangement of the flower in a circular. so common in architecture and in antici- the terra-cotta vases. The Egyptians.* And this ornament is important. as anticipating the anthemion or most popular floral orna- ment of the Greeks. Gaudy are diapers and general gaiety of colour are liketaste. in the form of its leaf. though the Egyptians were acquainted with nearly all other colours. and in ordinary the student may refer to the works of Eosellini and of Wilkinson. I have mentioned a simple progression or repetition as characteristic of the Egyptian style.

except in the case of the Isis capital. reduced to three essential forms the lotus-bell. and the Isis head. the width only of Ruins at Phite. systematically varied their pillars in the same colonnades. and very essential to the effect of pillar. Every . on all occasions. except as a pair of opposites. details. PhilaB. pated the Greeks in something more than some ordinary Their temples display a great diversity of pillars. . as well shown at Denderah. But although the Egyptians. capital is a variety of one of these essential forms but the lotus or the most com- papyrus-bell of the middle period is much mon. the is and invariably narrower than the capital. their varieties may be the truncated lotus-bud. and Denderah.44 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. two alike with their decorations complete never being placed together. The abacus is. from the mere fluted columns of Beni Hassan to the gorgeous varieties of Thebes. which a valuable feature.

on the Greeks. The general massiveness of Egyptian it architecture. 45 The Egyptian pillars vary in their altitudes about four to nearly seven diameters. The so-called Persepolis. who. from. as still seen at PhilaB and elsewhere breaking with their bold shadows the dazzling undulating mass of light characterising the general landscape. modifying the excessive brilliancy of the surrounding scene. the work of this Egyptian colony. the longer proportions being the most common. appropriate to may appear heavy. stability. are calculated in the highest degree to give delight and repose to the eye in their general features. there is con- . on the Jews. Diodorus Siculus artists informs us. carried away a colony of Egyptian back into Persia : and we still see the remains of whole basin of the Euphrates and on the borders of the Persian Gulf.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. while the gay polychromic decorations of their surfaces constitute a rich centre of attraction. introduced by Cambyses in the latter part of the sixth century before our era but the works were chiefly carried out under the direction of his successors. and Xerxes. from Nineveh to Persetheir influence in the Nineveh sculptures recently deposited in the British Museum are identical in style with those of polis. The Egyptian influence style of decoration was not without its upon all people connected with Egypt. Darius . The various altitudes and horizontal masses of the great divisions of an Egyptian temple. when transported to other climates. is particularly the climate and landscape of Egypt itself. though. according to Diodorus. Independent of this tradition. and more especially on the Persians after the plunder of Thebes by Cambyses.

The Persepolitan. like the Assyrian sculptures. are recorded. haddon) III. as one of his body- . which was. in its turn. apparently much too remote from each The soother ever to have constituted a single city. are inscribed with the arrow-headed characters. at the earliest. II.. is who was murdered by name yet discovered his own son in 711. in the seventh century before our era. called north-west palace. and Nimroud. destroyed Jerusalem in 588. The name of Sennacherib. bull. a son of Isis and Horus. and the same king destroyed by Cyrus in 538 B. Kouyunjik. however. character of the sculpture that the Egyptians The change in the general may be explained by the fact worked in Persia under the influence of the Persian priesthood instead of their own. the oldest sculptures are since his time. belong to the seventh century before our era. is supposed to have been built by Ninus . but the ruins are later works. and the head-dress appears to be that of the Egyptian god Malooli. . that of Nimroud. Darius Hystaspes. Kouyunjik. The winged figure of Cyrus at Mourgab or Pasargadse has a decided Egyptian character. is The subject which figures largely in the Persepolitan sculptures. the oldest in the inscriptions and as his achievements in Judeea. he rebuilt Babylon. and Sardanapalus (Esarearlier Sardanapalus. explained as signifying the overthrow of the Assyrian power by the Persian. less Un- they must.C.C. in 606. had been with that king in Egypt. by an city The entire father of was destroyed by Nabopolassar. or. the Nebuchadnezzar. who succeeded Cambyses in 521 B. in 713. evidence of Egyptian influence in the works siderable themselves. much found in three distinct places Khorsabad.46 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT.

.ASSYRIAN.

.

and he was apparently the real builder of Persepolis and of the palace of Susa. without any necessity for the supposition of a difference of time. have their history these inscriptions. characteristics the sculptures lately brought from the neighbourhood of Ancient are certainly of the if Nineveh (or Calah) same school as those of Persepolis. the for most the Asiatic sovereigns his architectural undertakings. The difference of dialect on the inscriptions would be explained by their being written by different people. later times). but cannot otherwise fix their However. because a when very authentic contradiction but according to our tests of to the opinion ventured. probably. not of the same time. on them. to all an opinion upon the period appearance. at Ecbatana. May he not have extended his love of repairs as far also as The arrow-headed inscriptions are also at Nineveh ? Persepolis (it is a mode of writing persevered in to much and some of the singular figures at Nineveh are found also on Darius' s own tomb at Nakshi Eustam. distinguished of He is. . rebuilt the of Jerusalem in 514. execution of the works of Persepolis. of unknown or forgotten ruins. He carried on extensive works Temple and made himself a summer palace in Egypt. It is hazardous to venture of works inscribed which. perhaps. 49 guard. The subject of a series of sculptures must set a limit to their antiquity. these last cannot have been copied from those of Nineveh.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. in the time of Darius a remote heap. may prove of style. interpreted. as the assumed works of Nineveh perished with the city nearly a century before the time.

also. like the Egyptian. silver. * On the Exiles and Proportions of Hindoo Architecture. And we of find throughout. The only example we is still possess of Jewish ornamental work Arch the bas-relief of the candlestick of seven branches. see Earn Eaz. this is a own sake.5o EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. the prevailing characteristic Asiatic art. in the buildings of Semiramis and of Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon. precious stones. the pomegranate. Jewish ornament. simplicity wants its most striking peculiarities are its fantastic animal devices. and a profusion of minute But I believe most Indian work to be modern foliage. oxen. compared with Egyptian. Extending our view still farther we find the most characteristic feature of Hindoo the fantastic. in the Temple of Solomon. simplicity of parts. we found grandeur of proportion. partly preserved at among the sculptures of the of Titus east. and splendour or costliness of material gold. .* It is not till we come to Greece that we find the habitual introduction of forms for their their aesthetic value or effect. appears to have been purely representative. art seems to be the same jewelled richness as the Egyptian. or for . It is equally displayed in the works of the Tabernacle. Its and grandeur. and colour as the that is great art characteristics. the palmtree. purely as ornaments and very great step in art. and ivory. and in the palaces of the Persian kings. The only elements mentioned in Scripture are the almond. lions. the lily or lotus. and though possessing it Eome. sumptuousness. In Egypt. and the cherubim.

N. Pars. 4to. Le Jupiter Olympien. 1815.) 2 vols. painter. permission of the Society of Dillettanti. during the course of the years 1789-90. 4to. A. Monuments et Ouviuges d'Art Antiques. PAOLI. 10 vols. Paris. Pais. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. 1762-1816. Paris. A Description of the Collection of Ancient Marbles in the British. Jenkins. Grecs et Latins. architect. Eome. Antiquities of Athens London. Chandler. &c. London. (Attempted restorations in coloured of Chryselephantine and other celebrated works of Ancient plates Art. Kinnard. BRITISH MUSEUM. STUART AND EEVETT. with. Donaldand Eailton. principally in Great Britain. 1829. by E. Q. Folio. Folio. Museum. 3 vols. 1784. 1769. chiefly from drawings by H. The folio. illustrated and explained. 1791-95. .. delineated. published. et seq. London. Ancient Unedited Monuments. MILLENGEN. SIR W. large 4to. IONIAN ANTIQUITIES. Hamilton wi h remarks on each Vase by the Collector. P. M. ted Greek Vases. from collections in various countries. Corbould. discovered in Sepulchres in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 1812. DE QUINCY.) Folio. HAMILTON. Collection of Engravings from Ancient Yases. but chiefly in the neighbourhood of Naples. J. GEEEK OENAMENT. with engravings. et resti'ues d'apres les Descriptions des Ecrivains accompagnes de Dissertations Archeologiques. 4to. 1830.A. 4 vols. London. . now in the possession of Sir W. Euins of Psestum. (The mode of constructing the Chryselephantine works considered. 1822.CHAPTER VII. mostly of Pure Greek workmanship. son. andW. di Pesto detta ancora Posidonia. II London. Eovine della Citta Folio. Naples. ou 1' Art de la Sculpture Antique consideree sous un nouveau point de vue. Eevett. measured and Supplement to the above by Cockerell.

Victor. (Ornamental 100 Artists. Potsdam. London. London. Marble. Florence. "W. Asia Minor. folio. 1851. B. or the Painting of Architecture. Die Tektonik der Hellenen. London. 4to. ou 1' Architecture Polychrome chez les Grecs. edition. conducted chiefly with reference to the optical refinements exhibited in the construction of the ancient buildings at Athens. Musee des Antiques. DONALDSON.52 GREEK ORNAMENT. of Italy. et grave par P. HOLZ. or the results of a recent survey. the Architectura Numismatica. Manufacturers. des Remains. HITTORFF. 8vo. Paris. C. atlas folio. BOTTICHER. Peintre. folio. e pubblicati da Giuseppe Micali. in the years 1818-19-20-21. plates.) Folio. 2 vols. 1852-53. d. Text. An Investigation of the Principles of Athenian Architecture. and Italy. L. Oblong Stuttgart. . Beautiful in Ornamenten Zeichnungs-Schule. F. NORMAND. et des Auteurs modernes. 1854. Drawn from the Original of Bronze. Details Greichischer Haiipt-Gesimse zusammengestellt fur die mannigfachsten Anwendungen. 1832. or Architectural Medals Illustrated of Classic Antiquity. avec des Notices explicatives par J. Text. (Published by the Society of Dillettanti. L. Details of the principal Greek Mouldings. The Ancient Marbles in the Louvre. Illustrated by numerous engravings. Bouillon. 4to. Monuments illustrating the History of the Ancient People Monumenti per servire alia Storia degli Antichi Popoli Italiani . in 40 blattern. WEITBRECHT. C. Folio.) folio. 8vo. 1859. or early Greek. Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture. which comprises the Etruscan evidently derived . 1852. Nouveau Parallele des Ordres d' Architecture des Grecs. Berlin. 1851. Paris. . 4 vols. and copious Imp. 4to. and Terra Cotta. n. Drawing-School for 2nd edition. 1828. great historic First style we have to review is the we must speak of the Doric. 1832-44. text. The Art of the Greeks in its relation to the Architecture. Restitution On Greek Polychromy. J. plates. and Workmen. 4to. Small folio. raccolti esposti. de St. Paris. VICTOR. VULLIAMY. PENROSE. atlas of plates. Text. monuments and the and explained by comparison with description of ancient authors. J. KARL VON. and in the Industrial Arts. T. dessine MICALI. 3 vols. 1821-27. G. du Temple d'Empedocle a Selinonte. 2 vols. BOUILLON AND ST. THE next Greek. in 2nd Greece.

identical with the Egyptian. It is this. It is. style. that we have its a new development of taste in the art of the Greeks. rather than to Anteflx of the Parthenon. to the substitution of the aesthetic principle in the place of the symbolic. S3 and we find no less a change in the general first character than in the details in this European Asia. technical processes were perhaps. in the early stages. which constitutes its originality . when compared with the art of Egypt or of becomes now for the first time purely aesthetic. also. Art in fact. With were the great commerce and intimate intercourse which established between Greece and Egypt in the . from it . variety of element.GREEK ORNAMENT.

although. impossible but that the Greeks were sufficiently acquainted with all the arts of the Egyptians. it is seventh century. and perhaps earlier. belongs rather to what may bo termed the heroic age. The Greeks appear to have or been established much islands. as occasionally repeated by Pausanias. was that of the and on these we the find all the charac- ornaments of distinctively Greek style of decoration. . The style of this period immediate successors. as those which distinguished the architectural monuments of the time. in the than in Greece the itself. The Doric age comprises first historic altogether a period first of age of Greek art about four centuries from the historic records. extended from the Western shores of Asia to the extreme limits of Sicily. We find on these vases exactly the same ornaments. the whole arts evidence to the other side of the question. and that very much was learned great by them from the Egyptians. The most important manufacture which remains exist. the black and There are two classes of the painted Greek pottery. those which have . The traditions.54 GREEK ORNAMENT. as shown in the many interesting Doric ruins still preserved. from Khoacus of Samos and Cypselus of Corinth. of the earlier. and espe- cially at Samos. but necessarily modified in their treatment. of the period of terra-cotta vases teristic . cities. their until Phidias and Pericles and The previous period from the traditions of the Trojan war. more extensively. the yellow that is. however. of less important carry localities. in the the traditionary records or later versions of records generally claim the art as indigenous 'and original.

Britiih Museum. . Athcnn. Argoli. BritiHh MUNCUIII.(HiKKK From Treuaury or Tomb at MyoaneB. BB Ercohtheium.

.

.

Apollo Epicurius. .GREEK. Example of Guilloche. Anthemion. m M * * Echinus and Astragal. Erechtheium.

varieties or Of the yellow the vases there are three sub-classes severe. 400. and belong to in all colours. and the anthemion. or Greek fret. are those most characteristic ornaments of the period are the and tongue). and may be considered as belonging to the seventh century before our era. the black or former class there are two the one painted only with animals. in an ornamental view.. B.GREEK ORNAMENT. when the manufacture There are two other kinds of seems to have ceased.C. the ground painted black. and these belong respectively to the general 300. the beautiful. varieties. so called from the various characters of their decorations dates . and the figures of the clay. considered commence and to terminate the series those that are not painted. The first ornaments which attract our notice on these with which we have already become familiar in Egyptian art the zigzag. vases. as represented in the Doric antefixes. of all periods. black figures 59 being left and ornaments. about 200 B. to may be . belong to the date of the second may be generally reckoned earliest The as a century later. . both of which it somewhat echinus.C. the waveBut perhaps the scroll. the latest date. about 600 B. and the labyrinth. but are merely decorated with zigzags and frets in a manner resembling wicker-work. left the colour Of &c. the other with figures. commonly known in its most simple form as the honeysuckle or palmette. and the rich. the first are even older than the most ancient black vases. . the ground of the vase the colour of the clay and those which have . vases which.C. and those which are painted with the complete encaustic picture The last are very rare. and 200. But . or horse-chestnut (egg resembles.

in this period emto . ponderous. and to strengthen. to diminish the apparent weight of the pediment. ornament of the three Greek architecis as they are termed. sloping buildings of the Egyptians are both beautiful and useful in the landscape and climate of Egypt. is more it than the mere honeysuckle with the every There lily or (or palm-branch. so the rainy seasons of Greece rendered the sloping roof necessary. to balance the parts. except a This is the case with example. its upper that of the . in effect. such ornaments style. the gable of which the Greeks eventually developed into their beautiful pediment. ornaments were used which rites. the lower diameter of the echinus being that of the pillar. the capital. The pediment seems to have necessitated . funeral instances are not frequent.6o GREEK ORNAMENT. The Doric capital consists of a round flat cushion. however. The flat. another member in the entablature. no actual imitation whatever in Greek art. the frieze a feature a3sthetically more than mechanically necessary the entablature. and a large square abacus. sacrifices. At and the games but events. The tural distinctive orders. all referred the mysteries. called the echinus. is. also. The only Greek example of a temple without a pediment the Pandroseium at Athens has no frieze in its entablature. still do not belong to prominent characteristics of The architectural features of the Greek are more distinctive than the ornamental in comparison with the Egyptian. even when so applied: is this flower-form alternated analogous form. ornamental blematic Occasionally. very few. it whatever may be). and just as the rainless heat of Egypt developed the massive flat roofs. or the anthemion. flower-ornament. upon the vases.

GREEK ORNAMENT. foliage performs a very secondary part in the ornamentation of this age. . and the echinus accordingly the principal ornament of the period. as producing shadows. yellow. as the favourite colours for male and female costume. to recapitulate. perhaps. but of course the second comprises the Of the early period. is antagonistic to the display of colour. In a general classification we may combine the Doric and Alexandrian as one style. from its being invariably decorated (painted) this with that ornament. . its Even its curves are of a para- bolic character tice of a development. Like the Egyptian. then. the Doric order may be descriptively termed the echinus order . due to the prac- polychromic decoration. teristics first. and high relief. Everything was coloured . flat surfaces. floriage We have conventional and we have comparatively a great variety of geometrical forms and combinations in the more prominent . green. is proper to separate their charac- here . and occasionally the astragal . is distinguished for flat. As is ornament is so constant. the anthemion. the Greek broad. the fret or labyrinth. 61 The cushion is called the echinus. and as they really are distinct. the zigzag. to the exclusion of red. and the terra-cotta vases have given such a prestige to black and tawny yellow that their combination has become a characteristic colouring not. Purple and saffron may likewise be said to be characteristic of this period. however. or white. the charac- teristic features are the echinus. the wave-scroll (sometimes called the Vitruvian scroll). unless we wish to distinguish between early and it late Greek . the Greek. abacus. On the whole. blue.

or volutes.62 GREEK ORNAMENT. From the Temple of Diana at Daphne. It further established the practice of carving the ornaments. more it familiar. the echinus. the ordinary scroll. 409 B. enriched all these forms. in a very simple development. the guilloche. consisting of a succession of spirals reversed alternately. has now supplanted the Doric are added to and the horns. The first of these two at by the Parthenon is also was magnificently displayed Athens. order. but it very completely represented in the Erechtheium. as the astragal or huckle-bone series and . as was the The Ionic capital prevailing custom in the Doric period. diapers and their borders. or speira (plat) the acanthus and. which may be called the Alexandrian. The second was styles best exhibited in the Ionic temples of Asia Minor . found roughly indicated in the dresses on the vases. Athens. spiral . added to them the . Doric capital. although Alexander does not strictly mark for it may be said to begin with the Erechtheium at it The second Greek period. instead of merely painting them. called historically the and in a third . and made some .C. the characteristic ornament of the . 438 B. the acanthus.C.

more common. 63 monument of Lysicrates 335 B. in which the volute is so prominent.C. in Crete comparatively itself.C. we find the curved line. This is another example of that propriety of taste in Greek art which is also illustrated in the common juxtaposition of the astragal with the echinus. where are specimens from these and other Greek monuments." from reputed discovery by Callimachus of Corinth. Corinthian order. it is more . the curved-line ornament being palpably more in harmony with the volute. as the element of the guilloches. Both are well illustrated by the Elgin Museum. who died 546 B. anthemion. about 400 B. in the British Eoom The Ionic.GREEK ORNAMENT. Chersiphron of Cnossus. while with the Romans was the favourite. As regards style.C. as even the Doric in Asia was established Minor as early as the middle of the sixth century before our era. in some degree supplanting the fret. in the sense characteristic which we use the term. but the acanthus order was very it used by the Greeks. and. acanthus are kept subdued in with the echinus. is attributed to . It is the same with the three great classic orders all three Greek little by origin . and others in The ordinary scroll and Greek work in comparison . King of Lydia. it and though occurring order late in Greece. they are much more of Roman than of Greek art. its who lived After the establishment of the Ionic order. in the choragic at Athens. as the great Ionic pillars of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus one of the seven wonders of the world were executed at the expense of Croesus. i therefore. or right-lined plat. The acanthus capital is called " Corinthian. or voluted echinus capital.

and in these examples it has preserved its Greek character.cotta vases but it not uncommon on the ordinary red ware of the Komans. occurrence. Ancient Bronze Lamp. The only Greek scroll worthy of the name the very simple one of of Lysicrates. . There is always a great simplicity both in the details and in the arrangement of the materials of it Greek ornament : is generally the various elements arranged in simple horizontal series.64 GREEK ORNAMENT. even on the painted terra. Eoman than is characteristic of the the Greek. found in the Thames. scroll is the roof of the choragic monument The most simple form of the is of very rare . one row above the other.

containing an Historical View of the Rise and Progress MAZOIS. dessines a Rome 1800.CHAPTEE VIII. ed incise da Vincenzo Feoli. Folio. among the Greeks. London. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. Le texte de la quatrieme partie a ete redige par M. Folio. et de 1' explication de la grande Mosaique deeouverte a Pompei en 1831. Paintings. otherwise Tedmor in the Desert. comprising those Books of the Author which relate to the Public and Private Edifices of the Ancients. Mazois. The most remarkable Buildings of Ancient Rome. F. W. and MOKEAU. folio. H. &c. . The Ruins of Balbec. Illustrated by numerous engravings. dessinees et mesurees par F. Roma. 1810-22. of Architecture Paris. London. 1835-7. illustrate con osservazioni antiquarie da Filippo Aurelio Folio. Gr. 1811. Barre. 1810. Misurate Nuovamente e dichiarate dall' Architetto Giuseppe Valadier. le Chevalier Artaud. 1810. C. AND F. C. 29 vols. Etchings. and 1796. Paris. Ouvrage continue par M. otherwise Heliopolis. edition. other parts of Italy. in Coelosyria. The Ruins of Palmyra. during the years 1794. representing the best Examples of Ancient Ornamental Architecture. 1812. London. London. 1753. fol. 3rd ROME. Greek and Roman Antiquities. PIRANESI. small folio. drawn from the originals in Rome. TATHAM. par M. 1795. With an Introduction. Mazois par M. d' Architecture. 4 vols. 1' Fragmens et Ornemens Folio. Quatremere de Quincy. 1757. pendant les annees 1809. Folio. 1812-38. Les Ruines de Pompei. Paris. d'apres antique. WILKINS. Visconti. The Civil Architecture of Yitruvius. Raccolta delle piu insigniFabbrichedi Roma Antica e sue adjacenze. ROMAN ORNAMENT. precede d'une notice sur F. WOOD AND DAWKINS. Gau.

and Stabise. original only in treatment of the Greek art . and OrnaLondon. with others in Fregi trovati negli scavi del Foro Trajano. Ancient Architecture. Rome. The most beautiful Ornaments and most remarkable . but elaborated the established elements with effect.66 ROMAN ORNAMENT. Pompeiana : ments of Pompeii. L'Architettura antica descritta e demonstrata coi Monumenti. 1834-46. Text. some into comparatively colossal proportions. Berlin. con altri esistenti in Roma ed in diverse altre citta disegnati e misurati sul luogo da Ferdinando Albertolli. W. Gb'ttingen. the enlarge- Eoman. von Wilhelm Zahn. &c. it is Eoman art is accordingly still Greek and more than probable . The Architectural Antiquities of TAYLOR AND CEESY. Plates. und Stabise. 8vo. &c. folio. and with all every possible variety of the exuberance and richness of which they are capable. developing It was. FEED. the Topography. Theatres. folio. 9 vols. 4to. ALBERTOLLI. Herkulanum. 1824-32. WE come now In to the third and last ancient style. of the Greeks and Romans. GELL London. Die schb'nsten Ornamente und merkwiirdigsten Gemalde aus Pompeii. materials. Ornamente in aller Klassischen ihren eigenthiimlichen farben dargestellt. It did not add a single important element to the Greek. ZAHN. 1851. Kunst Epochen nach den originalen Oblong folio. from original drawings made on the spot. imperial 8vo. 1849. Forum of Trajan. and various other cities.. represented from the originals in their proper colours. : CANINA. nach den an Ort und Stelle gemachten Originalzeichnungen. 4 vols. L. 4 vols. Milan. ment this. Folio. 2 vols. et seq. Herculaneum. 1838. Edifices. WIESELER. 1829-54. we have simply an or enrichment of the florid Greek. explained by its Monuments Greek. &c. Theatergebaude und Denkmaler des Biihnenwesens bei den Griechen und Romern. Roman. Berlin. 1821. Folio.. =Ornaments of all Classic Art Epochs. its therefore. AND (TANDY. nebst einigen Grundrissen und Ansichten. Friezes from the Rome. Paintings of Pompeii. F. however. Roma.

.ROMAN.

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Echinus and Astragal. .ROMAN. 70 Jupiter Stator. Jupiter Tonans. Rome. Pantheon. Rome. Rome.

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ROMAN. Florence. Ancient Panel. Rome. Nest of Scroll. . Olive Acanthus. Mars Ultor.

also. too. a Boman feature : where the Greeks were in the habit of using the horizontal entablature. and Spalatro. However. their pure . was the work of a Greek. comprises. the Bomans the Acanthus or soft the brank-ursine of for capitals. or narrow mollis. . under Boman treatment. if not a magnificent. The Greeks used the Acanthus spinosus. Greek form though preserved in nearly have not escaped this enrichdistinct and the composite. is The arch. In fact. the most Greek example. or at Athens (Temple of Jupiter). The Boman acanthus likewise has a character of its own. where the most magni- Forum. though not original. florid The ment architectural orders. the Bomans very often have employed the arch. the voluted. Bornan ornament has its peculiar characteristics. Palmyra. of commonly composed conventional clusters of olive- . Baalbec. and the acanthus It is perhaps incorrect to say that there is no new element in Boman ornament. is our islands. not only in the provinces. Pola.ROMAN ORNAMENT. The most simple Greek ornament becomes. I believe the shell. that of Trajan. which in after times became so very prominent. chief of these is its The uniform magnificence. the echinus. as at Petra. that nearly all the great artists employed 73 by the Eomans were Greeks. all the three Greek orders at once orders. prickly acanthus acanthus. becomes a very simple design in comparison with only an ordinary Boman specimen. but ficent at Borne itself. at least an elaborate decoration. as the choragic monument of Lysicrates for instance. as well as every other style. as its name literally implies. But the Boman acanthus. is first found in the modillion of the arch of Titus at Borne. the only Boman order.

leaves a modification arising out of the necessity for strong effect in the massive lofty temples of the Eomans : but this peculiar conventional leaf does not occur otherwise than on the capitals.74 ROMAN ORNAMENT. their curves are much the Eomans using the used the elliptical. decorascroll tions . is. and it is difference The of the : seldom without the acanthus foliations. are especially bold and magnificent in effect. is so peculiarly Eoman. Of ft fg habitually enriched with an acanthus clothing or foliations. two leaves used. circular. . in anything like an elaborate development it is peculiarly Eoman. however. that its appearance in an ornamental work is good pre- sumptive evidence of its belonging to the Eoman period. Eoman buildings are uniformly more massive than Greek. in every form except in the capitals. in their details : as well as bolder fuller. this dis- between the two that the most rarely used elements among the Greeks are the most characteristic of the Eoman the . The acanthus. There tinction styles. same may be said of the scroll. . every form which will admit Rosette of Scroll. and the acanthus indeed. They are occasionally also remarkable for their deep under-cutting. namely. further. Forum of Trajan. where the Greeks generally of the echinus. or at earliest about a century subsequent to Alexander. Some Eoman examples from this fulness of curve. will The effectually prevent misconception on this point.

KOMAN. .

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ROMAN. .

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ROMAN. .

Chimera. however. Apollodorus of Damascus. . : as and others they occur. the griffin. Roman ornament. the triton. The free introduction of 81 monsters and animals is like- wise a characteristic of Greek and the sphynx. are the work of a Greek.ROMAN ORNAMENT. The most Eoman ornamental specimens are those which They have been dug up among the ruins of the Forum of Trajan. who carried out many great works for the Emperor Trajan. splendid much more abundantly in the Eoman. of the early part of the second century of our era.

with was still a period of decline. And if the prominent and characteristic members of certain established styles are promiscuously thrown together. A few remarks will its suffice to abundance of materials. distinction of style depending not much on the types themselves. . It was the use that was made Style and system may be looked upon as synonymous terms in Besides the ornaments themselves. the principal and the features of one style applied as secondary to subordinate features of another. was applied in most cases without This is illustrated by most of the great works of the period and by none better than the triumphal arches. of these materials. quantity generally supplanted quality and in the second. which are exclusively ornamental works. we ornamental art. must have some system of applying them.CHAPTER IX. this quantity taste or propriety. THE DECLINE OF ANCIENT ART. The same ornamental types may be used in the developits ment so of new styles. general effect has but vagueness to characterise it. "WE have hitherto looked period : at only the bright side of this we must not overlook those features which more it especially constitute a period of decline. the value of all is diminished. as on the mode of using them. show how the Roman. . . In the first place.

at the same time . The Egyptian is symbolic. 83 any particular historic style of ornament. and espe- cially those of Pompeii. were always lovers of splenluxurious Their painted and chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture could hardly be surpassed in magnificence their dour. however. and severe. in the time of Augustus. and in combining styles. and Eoman. we are strictly limited to the elements belong- ing to that style. became veiy celebrated . the Greek is severe rich. and conselost. and beautiful least in its . richness and abundance of Greek taste steadily progressed until about the time of : Alexander ornament gradually supplanted the chaster principles of The conquest of Asia introduced a taste for ornadesign. ending in pure ostentation. rich and beautiful. under the example of the Eoman Emperors. and thus all an utter disregard of these distinctions of style. are very distinct. character . mental display. Egyptian. from this period. : personal costume.THE DECLINE OF ANCIENT But in the development of ART. Marcus Ludius. at good examples. as Sybaris evinces. the various members belonging to the same style should preserve their relative degree of importance. resulted in the utter annihilation of taste. exhibit . The Greeks themselves. was of the richest and the splendour of their temples was only characteristic of their mural decoration generally. and of art itself. This splendour was carried out by the Eomans on a still greater scale. and the Eoman. are The tastes of the three ancient styles. until a boundless luxury established an indiscriminate extravagance of ornamental detail. which. Greek. The general decorations observances of the Eoman period. quent peculiarities of character.

" he complains. illustrated for his landscape decorations. at a earlier time. Even PomThe painted an unimportant provincial town." Pliny also complains of ostentation having completely supplanted good cares taste in the decorations of his time: "A man now nothing for art. notwithstanding the general extravagance of this age. They first imitated coloured marbles these they afterwards divided into panels. with figures actively scenes time. employed in occupations suited to the which kind of painting became universal after his first century of our era was established that extraordinary style which we have still preserved at Pompeii.84 THE DECLINE OF ANCIENT which were ART. used vermilion. All eventually degenerated into the existing Pompeiian extravagances. Yitruvius. and finally were introcomic. and landscapes. to effect for skill. except physic? We now cover our walls with it. figures which we find in the centres of walls or panels. art. were added. provided he has his walls well covered with purple." Vitruvius enumerates the various kinds of wall-painting in use among the . absurdity of the stucco-work of his " ancients. deplores the folly and day. or dragon's blood from India. Expense is now Who. and satyric scenes. for accomplished by What the we attempt substituted by gaudy colouring. peii. but which the Eoman writers themselves were and in the as far from approving as the best still critics of modern " times. Yet. exhibits occasional traces of a magnificent system of decoration. and . . enriched with ornamental frames and cornices tectural decorations then archi- duced tragic. . in former times. ancients. there were doubtless in Eome many examples of beautiful decoration of a very high character.

are sometimes extremely beautiful in their conception. though and some examples of scrolls and of inferior execution arabesques (the most characteristic form of these decora. and chaste in their And the mosaic and tesselated pavements dis- covered in Pompeii. modern palaces can offer a parallel . Ruins at Baalbec. colour.THE DECLINE OF ANCIENT ART. however inappropriate in their application to floors. 85 strongly relieved by their dark or coloured grounds. of a gorgeous character of curves. as. measuring about twenty . tions) likewise upon dark grounds. are examples of an exuberance of ornament to which few. in a few instances. are. for instance. the great mosaic. if any.

one of the most important relics of and shows that though the laws of perspective are generally grossly disregarded in the architectural decorations. in 1831. . in composition. representing the battle feet between Darius and Alexander at Issus. mentioned by Pliny. general attitude of the figures and horses. every way worthy itself of a great master and the picture or to composition evidently belongs a period long anterior to the execution of the mosaic. however careless the mechanical execube. in which we most probably have an example of the higher school of painting of the Greeks. is and the fore- shortening of the figure and the horse expressed. . in . discovered in the so-called It is House del Fauno. it for in was not from the ignorance of their existence this work. ancient art.86 THE DECLINE OF ANCIENT ART. and possibly a coarse copy of the great Alexander over Darius. and for treatment of costume. tion may perspective is appreciated. by ten. even skilfully It is a work. by which Philoxenus of Eretria had renbattle-piece of the victory of dered his name celebrated.

The Image Contro- versy between the Pope and the Emperor of the East. Altona. from the Fourth to the Thirteenth Century. A. Ravenna St. (To serve as Text to the Illustrated Work of Gutensohn and Knapp. clasts. 4to. Religious Cycles. 1849. Sinnbilder und Kunst. Constantinople or Byzantium. Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms nach ihrem zusammenhange mit Idee und Geschichte der Kirchenbaukunst. The IconoSanction of Images by the Council of Nice. 1822.MEDIEVAL STYLES. 1825. MUNTER. Establishment of Christianity. by J. Sophia of Constantinople.* CHAPTER X. Mark's. 4to.D. The so-called Dark Ages. Folio. The Lily. Tribune. Nuremberg. F. General Decay of Ancient Art. 4to. Syllabus. 1848. folio. San Vitale. J. C. LECTURE I. London. 1822-27. &c. 562. C. The Nimbus or Glory. Trefoil Quatrefoil. Venice. in illustration of BTJNSEN. A. HEIDELOFF. vorstellungen der alten Christen. St. 2 vols. Ages in the Byzantine and Gothic Styles. * MEDIEVAL AET. The Destructions. Monasteries of Mount Athos. Symbolism.D. . Munich. Prohibition of Images Vesica Early Symbols the Monogram the Fish (ix^s) Piscis. Images of Christ. the Idea and History of Church Architecture. 787. The Basilicas of Christian Rome. Symbolism pervading all Designs Examples The Byzantine Leaf Runic Tracery Embroidery. Ornamental Types Cross Dome Circle. Modes of Benediction Distinction between Greek and Latin form. . BYZANTINE OENAMENT. Apsis. COTMAN AND TURNER. Ancient Basilicas. S. Early Christian Symbolism. C. The Catacombs.) Collection of Architectural Ornaments of the Middle 4 vols. ON EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART. FOUR LECTURES. Illumination of MSS. Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. Cotman accompanied by historical and descriptive notices by Dawson Turner. Mosaics. Munich.

the Martorana. Grecque et Latine. Greek. Saracenic. KNIGHT.88 BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. LECTUEE II. Eoux. 876 981. MESSINA." London. . Damascus. DIDRON. Eevival of Symbolism Cefalu. le Dr.D. 1842. n. Architectural Tour in Normandy. VON. Byzantin. Oriental Manufactures. Paris. jusqu'au XIV . The Saxon or early Norman Eomanesque the Eound Norman or Zigzag style the Pointed Norman. The Pointed Arch. being a Sequel to "An 8vo. F. The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy. 1841. Old Christian Buildings of Eavenna. General Character of Saracenic Ornament. Folio. to Folio. F. "Wide-spread Influence of Byzantine Ornament. and Latin Elements. Hoof of the Cathedral of Messina. Small Folio. Tributes. the Billet. A. Folio. Morey. Variety of Norman Ornaments the Zigzag. the Tooth. d. Les Monuments de la Lombardie depuis e Darmstadt and Paris..D. or Transition (Plantagenet). Yon Quast. Palermo the Cappella Palatina." par Paris. Egypt Direct Byzantine Influence The Mosques of Cairo of Amrou. The Alhambra decorations tracery diapers inscriptions. A. "Le Introduction et des Notes. ON THE SICULO-NORMAN AND THE EARLY POINTED STYLE. from the Time of Constantine to the fifteenth Century with an Introduction and Text. and Glass Tesselations. deDieu. M. graphic plates. 2 vols. ON EOMANESQTJE AND SAEACENIC ART. Berlin. 1842-44. vom f iinften bis zum neunten Jahrhundert. YIIe Siecle et seq. 1847. Palermo La Ziza." London. folio. GALLY. 1050 Byzantine Mosaics and Sicily Glass Tesselations. Luxury of the Caliphs of Bagdad. 4to. A. Saracenic Ornaments nearly identical with Byzantine. Historisch geordnet und durch Abbildungen erlaiitert von Al. 641 of Touloun. Paris. Spain (the Palace of Abdu-r-rhaman III. 1843. Chromo-lithogravee et lithographiee par H. Guide de la Peinture. Castle). dessinee par M. London. Die Alt-christlichen Bauwerke von Eavenna. A. Saracenic Costume. le Eoyal 8vo. and El Azar (the Brilliant). Tapestries. aine. its Eed LECTURE III. &c. Iconographie Chretienne. QUAST. Handbook of Christian Iconography. Paul Durand. . near Cordova.D. the Zigzag. Monreale. Messina. The Eomanesque. H. Manuel d' Iconographie Chretienne. Polychromic Decorations. illustrate "The Normans in Sicily. F. 1838. Byzantine Mosaics. The Pointed Arch introduced into Sicily by the Saracens in the ninth century into England by the Normans in the twelfth. The Normans in Sicily. Charpente de la Cathedrale de Messine. Hist. Saracenic and Norman Eemains. 1132. OSTEN. 1845. avec une Traduit du MS.

8vo. et Pierres sepulcrales. 1848. 8vo. Figures. Paris. The Vertically of Gothic as contrasted with the horizontal Romanesque. about five centuries the Saxon Pointed (early Norman Romanesque) Round Norman (Zigzag) Norman (Transition) Early English Gothic (introduction of the MulDecorated Perpendicular (Lancastrian) and lion and Tracery) Tudor. and Chamfer Cusping. twelfth and thirteenth centuries.) CATJMONT. 1851-53.) Large folio. The Tudor Flower. Catacombes de Rome . architecture. Characteristics. chiefly from the Manuscripts of a ByzanTan-coloured Flesh Simple and Medaltine or Norman character lion Windows Foliage and Quarry Patterns. hatched and smeared on Pot Metal. under the direction of a Commission of the Institute of France. With an additional plate and explanatory text. and one at Fordoun in the Mearns. (Ornamental styles. Archaeological Abecedaire. Geometrical character of Gothic Art. Instruments. ON GOTHIC ORNAMENT DECORATED POINTED. (Published by the French Government. Symboles des Lampes. CHALMERS op AULDBAR. Average duration of each style about seventy years. 1850. M. Ornaments. The Trefoil Leaf the the Finial the Gargoyle. Specimens of the Geometrical Mosaic of the Middle Ages with a brief Historical Notice of the Art. et seq. 5 vols. LECTURE IY. Vases. Mosaic method described by Theophilus.. from Edward the Conlessor (1066) to Edward VI. Seven Styles of English Ecclesiastical Architecture. London. Edinburgh. &c. Stained Glass Methods of Glass Painting Mosaic Mosaic-stain and the Pure and Mixed Enamel Mosaic Enamel. 89 WYATT. Design. Book. Ouvrage approuve par 1'Institut des Provinces de France. civil ABC INKERSLEY. Archi- tecture. (Privately printed and presented to the Bannatyne Club. 1848. folio. and the Flat. &c. The Five Arches of English Architecture the Round. the Pointed. the Ogee. des Cimetieres des premiers Chretiens. 2 vols. DE. and the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. including those at Meigle in Perthshire. in Enamel Brown the Grozing Iron. founded on Papers . Tracery Crocket tures. L. Small folio. PERRET. The ancient sculptured Monuments of the County of Angus. and military An . Pads. ManufacSoffit . D..) into the Chronological Succession of the Inquiry with Styles of Romanesque and Pointed Architecture in France Notices of some of the principal Buildings on which it is founded. Inscriptions. T. the Four-centred. Anneaux.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. plain and reticulated. London. 1852. Snow Crystals. The Catacombs of Rome. \ Verres graves sur fond d'or. read before the Royal Institute of British Architects. Peintures Murales. ou Rudiment d'Archeologie. the Royal Society of Arts.

jahrhundert. Folio. Ministerium fur Handel Gewerbe und Berlin. Kortum. Ministry for Commerce. 1851. from the sixteenth century Ordinary Enamel Colours on White and Coloured Glass (Pot Metal). dans les anciens eveches de Geneve. Venice. text. arbeiten. QUAST. Von Paris. and Public Works. J. et les Eglises a coupoles de 1'Aquitaine. Trade. Mosaici. . 1854. and Cinquecento Ornament. Herausgegeben von 6'ffentliche dem Konigl. Historic and Heraldic Designs Floral. RUNGE. Worms. Auf befehl genommen und historisch Silentiarius seiner majestat erlautert des Kb'nigs auf- anhange des Salzenberg. and Medallion Windows Canopied Figures White Flesh Yellow Hair. BLAVIGNAC. Geometric. Flower. La Basilica di San Marco. bis XII. from the Fifth to the Twelfth Century. or Pure and Mixed Enamel. Contributions towards the Knowledge of the Brick Archi- VEENEILH. 1851. Metrisch iibersetzt und mit anmerC. Sophia und des Ambon. London. (Published by the Prussian Government. 1853. SALZENBERG. Mosaici Secondarii non compresi negli speccati geometrici. Speier. at historically examinf d. to L' Architecture Byzantine en France. The Secondary Mosaics of the Basilica of St. ET L. in Enamel Brown. Venice. and Worms. 8vo. Renaissance. Enamel and Mosaic Enamel. 1853. Speier. folio. Die Romanischen Dome des Mittelrheins zu Mainz.go BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 1852-53. F. Specimens of Medieval Architecture. e nelle sue Sculture. Venice. ob. Examples of the Architecture of Venice. from sketches made in France and Italy. et Sion. DE.-Front de Perigueux. 1860. selected and drawn measurement from the edifices. Histoire de 1' Architecture sacree du quatrieme au dixieme Siecle. London. Berlin. (St. E. con illustrazione. plates. Sophia. Damask. Lausanne. critically and Middle Rhine.) 4to. G. Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel vom V. 4to. RUSKIN. atlas. durch F. 1852. tecture of Italy. of the 8vo. in Venezia. folio. Im Paulus beschreibung der Heiligen von W. kungen versehen von Dr. W. 4to. Canopied Figures. and White or Grisailles patterns. 1854. 1843. 3 vols. Folio. ma che completano con essi tutto 1'Interno della Basilica di San Marco. tinople. Beitrage zur Kentniss der Backstein Architectur Italiens. 8vo. The Stones of Venice. D. Mark. W. Stained and Coated Glass Abrasion. F. L. W. Paris. esposta ne' suoi KEEUTZ. Folio.) NESFIEIJ). Diaper. Kritisch untersucht und historisch festgestellt. Old Christian Architectural Monuments of ConstanSt. London. Stained Glass Mosaic-stain fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Pot Ornaments Simple Metal. 2 vols. VON. J. Quast. The Romanesque Cathedrals Mayence. Quarry. Berlin.

representing the acrostic symbol. or nimbus. London. monogram the fish . F. With an Essay and Instructions by M. BOCK. Yto? Steers. 8vo. especially the nimbus. R. Tymms. from the common Greek word for fish. the glory of the head. Illustrated by borders. of God the Son. by the no material influence upon society. which is of the entire body. may now termed Christian The peculiar views of the early Christians in matters of art had. though the Pagan idolatries found many bold and vigorous opponents long before the time of Constantine. alphabets. the fish. initial letters. WE turn to the Middle. as the Vesica These are very important elements in Christian decoration. During the first and second centuries. the heathen. 1860. t'x0w. the element of the trefoil and quatrefoil. before the establishment of Christianity State. in contradistinction to the ancient. Paris. Objets d'Art du Moyen Europe and Age. 8vo. until the return to the heathen principle of beauty (to the aesthetic) in the period of the Eenaissance. Jesus Christ. of Christ : the the cross the serpent . Imp. containing : the initials of the following sentence 'I^o-ou? X/atoro? 0eou . but as exhortations to faith and piety.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. which. the same spirit of symbolism prevailing throughout. Christian works of art were limited to symbols. TYMMS AND WYATT. the aureole. And all Christian decoration rests upon this foundation. from the The Art of Uluminating. Digby Wyatt. and were then never applied as decorations.Age styles. early symbols were the . so common in L . the Saviour and the is circle. 1860. or Vesica piscis. selected and chromolithographed by W. The lily . may be art. as practised in earliest times. gi Les Tresors sacres de Cologne.

figures or combinations of three. as the testimony of Christ. are represented within These symbolic images of the Evangelists are frequently . either with the circle or nimbus in the centre. Occasionally the the symbolic images the of Evangelists. have sacred significations. and the eagle. and four other circles or nimbi at the extremities. the ox. and the other four to the Evangelists. these circles. and to the cross of . of the centre circle. the first having reference to the Trinity. Thus.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. the lion. this A character is not uncom- mon. and five circles are common and in meall dieval art. or nimbus. crosses are Many cir- composed nearly or exclusively of the five cles as principals. four. at the extremities which we often find four circles. Old Leather Case. or comcir- posed simply of five cles arranged in the form the cross. besides the circle in the centre. angel. the second to the four Evangelists. which signifies the Lord. are prominently decorated with cross of them. Byzantine and Gothic art. having reference to the Lord.

work of that time. the Byzantine decorations are quite unintelligible. the emblem of the Virgin and of purity. The hand. for their early designers would appear to have avoided rather than sought beauty in is all these peculiar forms : the principle exactly the same as that by which art The Lily. by placing the thumb on the third finger.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 93 applied as the principal decoration of a facade. was regulated. (JesouC XristoC). with his right hand raised in the attitude of benediction. which is found circumscribing the image of Christ. on of the vesica. . the Greek in the name of Jesus Christ. still art. is another element in early Christian and medieval works of art. well illustrated in work of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. and especially in the old iron. and thus symbolising the Trinity. Without some knowledge of these essential points. There is a distinction between the Greek and the Latin form. the Greek symbolising Jesus Christ. and are constantly either side met with under the arches of doorways. characteristic in the attitude of benediction. and slightly curving the second and fourth : the Latin displaying the thumb and the first and second fingers only extended. expressing his Greek monogram. is as common in Egyptian Christian decoration as the lotus It is the is in symbol which was eventually elaborated into the most characteristic foliage of Byzantine and Eomanesque that of Egypt.XC. The Eoman prelate blesses in the name of the Trinity. too (the fleur-de-lis).. IC.

94

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.
Conspicuous in their foliage,
also, is

a peculiarly formal

and sharp version, if I may so call it, of the Greek acanthus-leaf, somewhat resembling the ordinary thistle,
or holly-leaf.

Why
ancients,

the

beautiful

and accomplished
such

styles

of

the

comparatively crude elements of ornament, needs no other explanation

then, were discarded for

than the simple statement that they were Pagan.

Paganism, however, consisted solely in forms, not

in

colours,

and

therefore,

in respect of colour, there

never was any restriction

The Byzantine art. forms of the ancients, too,
in
as

Paganism

itself

gra-

dually

disappeared,

were

slowly admitted among the elements of Christian decoration; and the scroll, un-

der certain symbolic modifications,

the foliations terlilies

minating in
of
Architrave, St. Denis.

or leaves

three,

four,

and

five

blades, the

number

of the

blades being significant,

became eventually a very prominent feature in Byzantine- decoration; and under the
same modifications the anthemion, and every other ancient ornament, was gradually adopted, after a systematic exclusion of about four or five centuries.
characteristic of all the

But the most
ornamental

ordinary Byzantine

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.
details,
is

95

that conventional foliage and scroll

work

just

described.

The very exclusive

prejudices of the early Byzantines

once overcome, a most comprehensive style of decoration

was rapidly developed, notwithstanding they never attained that purity of detail which characterises the works
of the Greeks.
Still,

so great

was

their ingenuity, that

they made, from their crudest symbols even, very beautiful

and

attractive designs.

An

important feature always to be observed in the

works of the Byzantines is, that all their imitations of natural forms were invariably conventional so far they
:

have preserved the ancient custom throughout. It is the same even with animals and with the human figure every saint had his prescribed colours, proportions, and
:

symbols.

This Byzantine system of decoration was fully matured, and is still shown in perfection in the rich mosaics of
St.

Sophia at Constantinople, completed by the Emperor

Justinian 562 A.D.*

The beauty and

effect of

Byzantine designs

is,

however,

as often owing to their materials as to the fashion of the

ornaments themselves; and this
all early

middle-age art;

as it

the case with nearly was with the Egyptians,
is

and must perhaps always be in every
bolism
for

style

which depends

for its individuality of character chiefly
:

upon

its

sym-

symbols are not- chosen for their beauty, but

for their meaning.

* Some beautiful specimens have been lately published in the work on Constantinople, undertaken under the auspices of the Prussian Government.
of Salzenberg,

96

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.

We

shall find that the

most beautiful Byzantine designs
is

are those

in

which the symbolism
:

unobtrusive,
that
is

or

even wholly disguised
rarely, if ever,

not

absent,

for

very

the case.

A

design which contained no

trace of symbolism could hardly be a genuine Byzantine speaking, but especially in eccle-

example.
siastical

Generally

decoration,

whether

metal- work,

stone-work,

wood-carving, glass-staining, or mosaic, the

symbols, in

some form or

other,

are

paramount, being mixed only

with geometrical forms.
zantine capitals
tradict this;

Many Byit

may

appear to con-

but on examination

will

be found that the apparently floral forms are combinations only
of the

conventional types

derived

from the symbols ; as vesicas, circles, The very lilies, and many others.
sometimes composed of serpents; and serpents are not an uncommon ornament for a capital.
tracery
is

The serpent

figures

largely in Byzantine

art,

as the

instrument of the Fall, and one type of the Eedemption. The cross planted on the serpent is found sculptured on

Mount Athos

surrounded by the so-called Eunic knot, is only a Scandinavian version of the original Byzantine image, the crushed snake curling round the
;

and the

cross,

stem of the avenging
at the foot of
it,

cross.

The

cross,

with two
is

scrolls
its

typifying the snake,

another of

modifications,

and a very common Byzantine ornament.
crosses,

The ordinary northern
interlaced ornaments

so conspicuous for

their
to

and grotesque monsters, appear
idea.

be purely modifications of this

Some good examples

BYZANTINE. .

This species of architecture. may be seen in 99 Chalmers' Sculptured Monuments of Angus. and the palace of Diocletian Though not Eoman debased absolutely. which are pointed-arch species. Mark's at Venice is a conspicuous example of this symbolic architecture. it is derived from the Eoman . it is Romanesque : it is a general term which distinguishes the round-arch species from the Saracenic and Gothic. is that time of its when from heathen it became Christian : some classical types are the Pantheon. or the glorification of Christ. its and The dome has own the vault of heaven. and it often illustrates the dome itself in the centre of the cross. The leading forms of Byzantine architecture are like- wise due to the same influence the dome. The pre- Eoman . the Colosseum. Some of the principal Byzantine or Eomanesque the five cross. the circle. pervade everywhere. This is the reason that the cross and the dome are so characteristic of early Christian or Byzantine architecture. as derived immediately from that which prevailed throughout the Eoman Empire at arch. with the dome and round termed Eomanesque. churches are developments of the symbol of circles or glories : they are placed in the form of a and are surmounted by domes corresponding in situation to the circles represented in the St. at Spalatro. tion is known This representain the Greek Church as the holy liturgy. reference to the cross. size and pavement below. whose living glories were generally represented on the spherical roof of the apse at the end of the Greek Basilicas. and indeed of Eoman- * esque architecture generally.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.

that its influence did not entirely cease until the : establishment of the Eenaissance in the fifteenth century both the Saracenic and the Gothic proceeded from the Byzantine. The Greek extreme missionaries carried .ioo BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. soldiers. from Indeed the Byzantine was so widely spread. however. the Eomanesque are Both the Byzantine." . in a technical point of chief varieties The of the view.* Lombard and the Norman may. dome and arch. be considered mere modifications or varieties of . serration of the was probably due rather to the symbolic value of those figures among the Byzantine Greeks than to the mere historic example of the Eomans. the Byzantine few examples of the Eomanesque out of Italy were not derived. of the imperial body- guard. certainly extended to this country as far north as York and Hexham it is still the standard type in Eussia . made the talismans * See these of Christian mythology almost "Buildings of styles beautifully illustrated in Osten's Lombardy. the Lombard. from Benares to Cadiz. and the Norman. as it was previously called. its influence into the north and while the artists of Syria were exclusiveness accommodating of their style to Mohammedan in the south. also. directly or indirectly. from Constantinople. and The style : it is the exclusive model of the whole system of architec- ture of the Mohammedans. or Byzantium. in the colder regions of Europe the mysteries fables of Mount Athos were The Scandinavian freely mixed up with the Scandinavian mythology. and so thoroughly identified with all middle-age Cairo to Damascus. art.

101 Capital. France. . Moissac. Capitol. Germany.BYZANTINE.

.

.

^=.v-:F>r^-- 3 .BYZANTINE ROMANESQUE.

was originally developed in Sicily. Norman. though rudely preserved in many dis- regarded in their spirit." M . that is. the Byzantine. nail-head. but in the : earlier centuries there is strictly an ornamental distinction Latin. though eventually originally a simple Eomanesque century is adopted in the twelfth the pointed arch of the Mohammedans. of course. such as it is best known in this country. and a host of others : and other religious decorations mean exactly what they express. it contains. is perhaps. in mere ornamental such as the zigzag. details. built by King Eoger in 1132. dog's-tooth. as familiar forefathers. combined with the symbolic elements " Saracenic and Gaily Knight. but the symbolic figures chain. the pointed arch and the zigzag are the most prominent for the style. star. many Saracenic features. 105 in their native homes as the gods of their as The same mixture became common even- tually on the portals of There is this difference Lombardy. between the Byzantine and the varieties.* This style well developed in the Cathedral of Cefalu in Sicily. symbolism is and generally. In the all later centuries they may be more considered the same in respects . the Eomanesque. As the peculiarly Norman style. or being a or simple debasement of being * this art Eoman art . that Lombard and Norman the mere matter of habit in the two latter. forms.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. of which . The terms Byzantine and Eomanesque have been used above as almost synonymous. Norman Kemains in Sicily. They are so as regards the Byzantine being only a variety of the Eomanesque. Greek. their architectural features .

io6 BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. new Christian religion. from a Church at Bonn. at Constantinople. Sophia. or later pointed arch varieties of the North. how- ever. in contradistinction to the Gothic. a magnificent type. of which St. it is is with the exclusive title the Byzantine. is the earlier Christian round arch developments. . Byzantine Frieze. If any style can be distinguished of Christian Architecture. Eoman acanthus The wider signification of the Romanesque. comprising a introduced by the peculiar symbolic version also of the old foliage.

J. 1853. 1' n. Folio. DE PRANGEY. SAEACENIC OKNAMENT. and Details of the Alhambra. 1838. Paintings. Pasqual de Gayangos." Folio. offrant dans BISSON. mesures 39. being a sequel to "An Architectural Tour in Normandy. Sculpture. Architecture Arabe.CHAPTER XI. Folio. et KNIGHT. M. 1841. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. leur ensemble une synthese de 1'ornementation Mauresque en Espagne au XIII6 Siecle. Paris. . Jules Goury. London. P. G. by M. Berlin. London. 4to. Paris. to illustrate " The Normans in Sicily." 8vo. Saracenic and Norman Eemains. COSTE. 1816. Paris. 1842. MURPHY. d. Essai sur Architecture des Arabes et des Mores en Espagne. HESSEMER. on the spot. With a complete Translation of the Arabic Inscriptions. 120 chromo2nd edition. C. Large folio. London. 1837 du Kaire. 1853. Choix d'Ornements Arabes de 1' Alhambra. Arabische und Alt-Italienische Bau-verzierungen. and in 1834 and 1837 by Owen Jones. en Sicile. JONES AND GOURY. et en Barbarie. Elevations. Eeproduits en photographe. lithographs. ou Monumens dessines de 1817 a 1826. London. The Normans in Sicily. From Drawings taken on the spot in 1834 by the late M. Saracenic and Old Italian Building Decorations. and Mosaics of the Spanish Arabs. GALLY. from Drawings made . folio. Plans. and an Historical Notice of the Kings of Granada from the Conquest of that city by the Arabs to the Expulsion of the Moors. Sections. H. The Arabian Antiquities of Spain representing in 100 engravings the Principal Eemains of the Architecture. Eoyal 8vo.

D. . and Cordova. vegetable or animal. there was to be no image of a living thing. Cairo. they could not but be struck by the gorgeous display of such cities as Damascus. marquetry. WE will now consider the second medieval : style the Saracenic. Such conditions led to a very individual style of decora- tion: vegetable forms were now excluded for the first . show the admirable ingenuity with which they accommodated themselves to their ditions of the new circumstances. of their own. or in stucco. and ordered to raise rich mosques and palaces. they came from with no more taste or knowledge of such matters than a mere love of finery could give them. which ambitions arose fell into their hands in 634 A. Damascus. Cairo. Its principles are soon stated artists the Arabs had their not art or deserts. and the Byzantine artists were pressed into the service of the Arabian caliphs and generals. The connew Mohammedan law were stringent in : endless designs in mosaic.loS SARACENIC ORNAMENT. new with their new power.

as the exclusion of all natural images is the fundamental of the style in its purity. Mere curves and angles burden of a or interlacings were design. . now to bear the chief but distinguished by a variety of colour. periods. very agreeably diversified by the ornamental introduction of the inscriptions. still no : actual flower ever occurs. the mere coneffect . the ordinary forms borrowed from the metry. for there was no division of the artistic mind now between meaning and although the religious cycles and other symbolic figures which had hitherto engrossed so much of the artist's attention were excluded. into fell into the standard forms and soon and the lines and angles were species developed a very characteristic of tracery or interlaced strap-work. floral curves. when the works of the Saracens commenced. the great mass of the minor details of Saracenic designs are com- posed of flower forms disguised. time. the however. left classic an abundant field and geometrical symbehind. and the exertion of ingenuity which they impelled gave rise to a more beautiful simply ornamental style than perhaps any that had preceded it. the very inscriptions are sometimes thus grouped as flowers this is especially the case in the later works of the Alhambra . 109 However. and ventional ornamental symbolism. the Byzantine Greeks were already sufficiently skilful to make light of such exclusions. It Mohamnow crowns. The omission of the crescent in Saracenic or is medan work generally worth notice. And although flowers were not palpably admitted. by the seventh century.SARACENIC ORNAMENT. which was further enriched by the peculiarly Saracenic custom of elaborating inscriptions into their designs. very naturally shapes.

old Byzantine coins. it is the great mosques of Constantinople. stucco. and the fleur-de-lis. but somewhat more than ordinarily modified. peculiar we have combined several of the most popular ancient ornaments in their Byzantine garb. is very beautifully elaborated in some of the accessory works of this mosque. The ornaments are in most characteristic example of the combination of Byzantine and Saracenic elements. Constantinople was not captured by the Turks until 1453. as the fret. the original foliage elements. anthemion. They became standards diaper-tiles of for the details of the the Alhambra. the horns of plenty. are in many all respects nearly identical with these details of the mosque of Touloun at Cairo. One Cairo. and it appears to be itself simply the trophy of the conquest of the Greek capital of Constantinople. a of the greatest works produced under these cir- cumstances was the magnificent mosque of Touloun at monument of the ninth century (876 A. according been preserved from a night ambuscade by the timely appearance of the new moon it occurs on to an old tradition. of which it was the symbol. that is. the disguised conventional spoken of. In these early Arabian buildings of Cairo first. and altogether offer the With the Saracenic tracery and inscriptions. and other forms. which appears I believe. we have in the the pointed arch.D. and the recorded work of a Greek. to after ages. . the town on one occasion having. but not to be found in any early work.no SARACENIC ORNAMENT. .). executed some five hundred years afterwards. the ancient Byzantium. the guilloche. The more Saracenic characteristic detail.

. Ill Alhambra Diaper.SAKACENIC.

.

which Greek or Saracenic artists were in these places are class engaged and the glass mosaics specimens of their among the finest existing : they exhibit some exquisite examples of tracery or interlacing. Saracenic is. of Saracenic . where the Alhambra. the of : La at Palermo. and all are in relief and enriched Some give with gold and colour. the twelfth Palermo. a work of the seventh century (641 A. the crescent. the idea of being more endurable imitations of the rich woollens of great store Cashmere. The Saracenic was the period of gorgeous their diapers. the only example there are. chiefly blue and red. a work of the fourteenth century. . and Messina. still remains to bear witness to its unparalleled richness of detail. Arras tapestries.SARACENIC ORNAMENT. of some magnificent century at in Siculo- Norman remains Monreale. and especially in Spain. imitations of these The very word "Damask" means . of. great 113 mosque of Amrou. are Saracenic wall diapers. work in Sicily . arch has been made but the simple round Komanesque arch also occurs in the Moorish works of This style became gradually richer as it advanced Spain. architecture generally. all and modern paper-hangings. for habit of decorating the entire surfaces of their apartments was peculiarly favourable to the development of this class of design the Alhambra displays almost : endless specimens. however.) but the ogee.D. are more characteristic. Cefalu. and the scalloped arches. perhaps. which the Arabs always made The Genoa damasks. perhaps. familiar by a later westwards from Egypt to Sicily. There palace is not much pure Ziza. as the pointed style.

called Damesk. in which the initials of the company are worked as an ornamental pattern. The richest stuffs were from the East. and were decorated with Arabic inscriptions the old painters accordingly. Gloucestershire. and a proBerkeley Castle. when from a spirit of veneration they dressed their saints in rich robes. are derived. and upside down. examples of such borders in the National Gallery. The mock inscriptions on the borders of rich robes. are also derived from oriental models. the designs of stripes which are chiefly and The inscriptions. minence which they gave to all the most palpable Christian symbols. Damascus is still famous it for its textile fabrics in a pure Saracenic taste. more especially : * This style has of late years found its way into our railway carriages worsted borders. through the introduction of sacred figures. . are now common. in early Italian pictures. however. right and left. .u4 SARACENIC ORNAMENT. for the reserved mixture of the two hitherto practised had its Christian character restored to it by the .* Siculo-Norman. as much it is a variety of the Saracenic as of the Byzantine : indeed a free combination of the two styles. and the pointed Noris man. Damascus.Normans. and was a place of repute even in the time of Abraham. which necesThere are several sarily implied a robe of a costly oriental fabric. such fabrics before for It was conquest by the Arabs. from which our round zigzag (Ziza). were very particular in the elaboration of their border decorations. and produces a great variety of patterns in silk and in cotton. good wishes or pious sentences. as in the Eastern examples. was famous its Damascus work.

The Alhambra does not exhibit in its details which that Byzantine character we find in Sicily or in the Mosques of Cairo : all the peculiar Arabian features are preserved. N . The beauty in its general richness of effect. though no particular part commands any special admiration. but the and anthemion. and gorgeous surfaces its gold and silver flowers. This renders the Siculo-Norman a very complete style. House at Damascus. which all combine to give the . which are often in very rich development on the monuments of Cairo. which never occurs in genuine Saracenic work. 115 the Cross. and its intricate tracery. "We discover the is some of the interlacings. artists of the The Alhambra were probably exclusively of this palace is Saracenic. arches. in its endless combinations of columns. and it is displayed in great magnificence in the cathedral of Messina. can with scroll difficulty scroll in be traced in the Alhambra. and there a fan-shape which recalls the anthemion. impression of extraordinary splendour as a whole.SARACENIC ORNAMENT.

4to. Paris. 4to. 1836. S. and illustrated with copious notes by Dawson Turner. 1821 50. and the Rev. et consideres sous le 2 vols. Specimens of Gothic Architecture. folio. E. elevations. Plates. of the Ancient Sculpture and Painting now remainSpecimens ing in England. John J. W. 1816 of England. London. London. Hawkins. consisting of plans. 3rd edition. 5 vols. of England. John Fenn. Les Monumens de la France.. 36. sections. new and improved edition. 1841. TH. from the earliest period to the reign of Henry VIII. arranged in topographical order. by John Britton. Willson. POPP. The Ancient Architecture III. J. Folio. text. William Bray. son origine. AND BTTLEATT. et Details de 1'Edifice. Illustrated A edition. Coupes. Richard Gough. servir de texte aux Vues. classes chronologiquement. The Three Ages of Gothic Architecture. Folio. . The literary part by J. Milner. 184243. Paris. Les Trois Ages de 1' Architecture Gothique. 1837. J. Norman Eras . The Cathedral Antiquities &c. PUGIN. 4to. Saxon. A Henry new and improved Indexes. Nouvelle edition refaite et augmentee. and parts at large. Britton. Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. 1838. GOTHIC OENAMENT. demontres et representes par des Exemples choisis a Ratisbonne. 3 vols. BRITTON. London. S. Pour Histoire et Description de la Cathedrale de Cologne. drawn and etched by J. &c. Plans. folio. corrected and revised. sa theorie. including the Orders during the British. J. and the reigns of gravings. selected from various Ancient Edifices in England. and others. A. LE COMTE ALEXANDRE. With Critical and Historical Illustrations by Francis Douce. Carter. Exhibited in 120 plates. Munich. and under by 109 enwith Notes and copious London. historiques et de 1'Etude des Arts.CHAPTER XII. J. Eoman. BOISEREE. and Edward III. DE LABORDE. Rapport des Faits CARTER. Folio.

BLACKBURNE. Drawn from existing authorities. and accompanied with Remarks on the several details of an Ecclesiastical Edifice. tion litteraire de M. publics d'apres les travaux V inedits des principaux Architectes Fran9ais et Etrangers. BECKER AND HEFNER. 5 vols. Jewellery and Metal Work of the Middle Ages. 4to. 1847. Bruges. des Arts. Architectural. J. London. 117 A Tabular History of German Medieval Atlas zur Geschichte der Deutscli-Mittelalterliclien Baukunst. (Designed from old examples. A. 4to. KING.. and Picturesque Studies in Burgos and its Neighbourhood. Orf evrerie et Ouvrages en Metal du Moyen Age. des Sciences. Le Moyen Age Mceurs et et la Renaissance. la Ferronnerie.. F. Frankfurt. Architecture. 4to. 2 vols. K. la Peinture sur Verre. T. Sketches. COLLING. for a History of the Decorative Painting applied to English Architecture during the Middle Ages. Munich. 1852. 4to. 1852. &c. G. WARING. Sciences. STROOBANT. VON. Rivaud. Texte par Felix Stappaerts. J. By C. J. des Litteratures et des Beaux Arts en Europe. WICKES. Paul Lacroix. Dessins fac-similes par M.) Folio. 1847. and the Arts depending on it Sculpture. An Analysis of Gothic Architecture. Histoire et Description des Usages. &c. &c. . in 86 tafeln. Becker and J. DirecDirection artistique de M. von Hefner. 4to. 1852.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. Bruxelles. with fac-simile illustrations. B. L. la Mosa'ique. Ironwork. Kunstwerke und Gerathschaften des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. LACROIX AND SERE. 1851. Gothic Ornaments. Illustrations of the Spires and Towers of the Medieval Preceded by some Observations on the Churches of England. Ferdinand Sere. H. la Peinture murale. Paris. Monumens d' Architecture et de Sculpture en Belgique. et seq. et seq. Works of Art and Utensils of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 1852. and Art. illustrated by a series of upwards of seven hundred examples of Doorways. Mosaic. la Sculpture. Wall-Painting. G. Glass-Painting. Folio. 1847. Sculptural. GAILHABATJD. being a series of examples of enriched Details and Accessories of the Architecture of Great Britain. 2 vols. E. KALLENBACH. et les Arts qui en dependent. Paris. R. Graphic and Descriptive. A. Windows. du Commerce et de 1'Industrie. London. 4to. On Architecture from the fifth to the sixteenth century. 4to. 184851. C. 1850. BRANDON. Folio." Manners and Customs. &c. London. London. L' Architecture du e au XVI e Siecle.. AND J. 2 vols.

extending over a space of about five hundred years only. or . DOLLMAN AND JoBBms. or simple round arch. perhaps. 1853 55. Salisbury Cathedral. 1066. styles are. and least. in it in the fifteenth century became quite . An Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture 4to. the first great work of the kind in this country. and flourished chiefly on the Ehine. but was a genuine Norman its beginning. 2 vols. from the death of Edward the Confessor. in the reign of Elizabeth. 1221. and THE Of third and last great middle-age style was the Gothic. London. The seven 1. when all ecclesiastical architecture ceased and the Tudor was superseded by the Renaissance . it most characteristic is Cologne Cathedral. century. Queen Mary. its Spire Growth. in Great Britain. or transition (Henry II. which .D. extinct. 1860. to fully explain all its subdivisions of style would occupy much It space. Architecture of the Middle Ages. was consecrated in the year 1322 rapidly declined. The round Norman (zigzag style). monument. London. in the north of France. in style it is a work of the French. in this country at the sixteenth a catastrophe doubtless involved by the Reformation. 3. first The Saxon. folio. grew out of the Byzantine. this I can remark only as regards its general principles. 2. 1558. A. Plantagenet style).n8 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. Romanesque.. and in England. The and Gothic was developed in the thirteenth was perfected in the fourteenth. to the death of England has had seven ecclesiastical styles. The pointed Norman.

c. .GOTHIC. 1400. 119 The Lynn Cup.

.

existed. The perpendicular Gothic (Henry YIL. or Tudor).. 121 The early English Gothic style). paramount scheme and system of ornamental skill. of one age were of the sentiment or aim of those of a Few subjects show such perfect want of previous age. In this period of the styles it is remarkable how little the notion of a style and how regardless the builders. as his if the practical education of the handi- accidental source of the whole varieties . or second Plantagenet 5. The decorated Gothic (the Edwards. 4. the third Plan- tagenet style). craftsman. about seventy years (1066 period of the personal influence of an individual by his own direct efforts. and that of his school or followers of architecture combined. The debased Perpendicular. accord as the building of our cathedrals. or masons. those who have carried on the enterprise have done so invariably utterly regardless of the character of the work already executed. but in England development of the ecclesiastical these changes have been singularly rapid and regular. cession The history shows a suc- of changes in most countries. 7. where a great ecclesiastical and renewed after intervals. or about the seven styles. or flat or Lan- castrian). (Henry III. on an average.. (Henry VIII.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 6. the In every case work has been suspended. practice of the day exclusively defined the character of the work. the duration of each of which was. were the each mason working out only such forms as . Thus during the period of the seven Edwards there were 1556).

prominent a feature. All the symbolic elements of the Byzantine are con- . characteristics of the Gothic. and belong the third is to the Byzantine or Eomanesque varieties the simple transition from the round to the pointed styles . form. Gothic is of comparatively very late in this de- velopment. and in its detail is geometrical in its window-tracery. fifth. the fourth. which owe their forms to the early Christian symbolism. character. and endured at most it country for in its about three centuries. and loses its is so importance as a principal elementary feature of style. sixth.izz GOTHIC ORNAMENT. had occupied his time in the years of his apprenticeThere are not many matters on which the English ship. Byzan- As regards Christianity of is literally the most Christian architecture that of the Mohammedan mosques. in its openings. in its clusters of shafts is and bases. or in not in its spirit or motive. tine. to the Eenaissance variein which the arch becomes again round. succession of changes. : Three only of the above styles. are what can be strictly termed Gothic first and the two are round arch. and in its suits of mouldings its but it only geometrical in its construction. people have been more deluded of late years than on the subject of the nationality and the Christianity of Gothic architecture. its is by no means English and so far it from having any determinate unity in as already shown. a continued Its religious elements are style. . displays. and the seventh is the transition back again from those styles in which the arch ties. as developed by the Byzantine Greeks. as an archior are these : It is essentially pointed vertical in its tendency. origin. The general tectural style.

as at Ely. is not peculiar to it. ever. all . and is common form The Gothic of the Siculo-Norman arch. in ecclesiastical architecture. tinned in the Gothic for the round. As I have already explained. and both the in Sicily. in Norman Eomanesque . and . for we find the been. in the development of a that where change of style. with its high-pitched roof. is The union of the belfry with the church not peculiar to the Gothic. and other differences. Eomanesque examples they are and Pisa they are also distinct . and the substitution of the pointed for the round arch. nor are the towers in the place of the domes peculiar to the Gothic. 123 but the pointed arch is is substituted There a close traditional connection in though the virulence of the image controversy. Peterborough.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. by the universal absence of the dome. though in the great distinct. the pointed arch. and in this country. and many other Italian towns. solid and narrow doors and windows. no essential change whatever It is unquestionable. they are common in Germany. as at Venice at Florence. has had a Gothic church frequently looks very like a fortification against the buttresses. it had the already existed five hundred years in Egypt. The spire is the pointed roof of the tower. one of the characteristics of the Gothic. between the Greek and Latin Churches. and elsewhere. is chiefly distinguished from the Byzantine and the Latin Eomanesque varieties. weather. that climate how- something to do also with the peculiar development of the Gothic it has flourished only in cold regions subject to much rain and snow. doubtless had some influence the ordinary details. until Greek Church has prevailed there has very recently.

124

GOTHIC ORNAMENT.
owed
:

doubtless originally

their development as

much

to

and only halfcleared countries, such as England was in the Middle Ages, a tower or spire was a landmark performing other
use as to ornament
in thinly-populated

useful

services

besides that

of

simply indicating

the

locality of the church, or securing the

proper elevation

of its bells.

The

transition

added the

spire

to

the
a

old tower of
feature

the Romanesque and Norman, and
of the Gothic
;

it is

common

while the square abacus and the heavy

cushion capitals of these styles, with their simple incised
ornaments, are converted, in the transition, to the round

abacus and the bell-shaped capital, decorated with raised
foliage,

and eventually elaborated into

infinite variety in

the Gothic styles.

Ornamentally the Gothic is the geometrical and pointed element elaborated to its utmost, its only peculiarities are its combinations of details; at first the conventional

and the

geometrical

prevailing,

and

afterwards

these
its

combined with the elaboration of natural objects in
decoration.

The Byzantines never did
conventional
;

this,

their orna-

ments were purely
Gothic specimens

while

in

the finest

we

find not only the traditional con-

ventional ornaments,
elaborate imitations

but in

the decorated period also

of the plants and flowers of the

growing

in the

a great neighbourhood feature but still the most striking feature of all Gothic work is the wonderful elaboration of its geometric tracery
is
;

work.

This

vesicas, trefoils, quatrefoils, cinquefoils,

and an
is

infinity

of geometric varieties besides.

The

tracery

so para-

mount a

characteristic that the three

English varieties,

GOTHIC.

GOTHIC.

Crocket, Lincoln.

Tooth Ornament, Stone Church, Kent.

128

Crockets, Lincoln.

because has no tracery. 129 the Early English. for the tions . . is The in first Gothic in this country first the Early English. crocketed pinnacles. with the trefoil leaf. but flat or even o . window-tracery several lights . sometimes as formal as a clover leaf. establishes the fact of a style being Gothic or not.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. an extensive application of foliage. are distinguished almost exclusively is by this feature . the Decorated. from the waving lines of its tracery. it the same with the French flamboyant the flame style. The tracery. plicated mouldings. and the capitals generally round . but always with a fulness or roundness of the parts. as contrasted with the somewhat similar. indeed. the columns clustered. mullions instead of piers . which we have the development of geometrical I'roiu the Temple Chinch. at other times very irregularly formed. commonly called the Early-English leaf. as It is the most characteristic ornament. Byzantine contains only the symbolic foliaso the pointed style called "Transition" is not it Gothic. and the Perpendicular. windows of com- flying buttresses.

being separated by a horizontal bar. are the most characteristic details of this period. termed a transom. This divides the lights into vertical panes or panels. There in is also more nature. the panellings. or dog's-tooth. of the ornamental details is And the execution very conventional. but being contracted hollows was developed into its ordinary character. but has its own features the ogee arch. so common Upon the Early English succeeded the Decorated. original to fill This ornament was probably in its form a simple vesica cross. composed of mullion upon mullion. so that the prevalent panelling of the style is also prominent in the window tracery. producing a prominence of diagonal ball-flower. of which it is a The istic so-called tooth. lines. in early Plantagenet. and in the early specimens only. the Perpendicular. The most prominent bar of the tracery is the mullion itself. the most characterstyle. The vine- so-called and the common serpentine scroll.i 3o GOTHIC ORNAMENT. and the pinnacled canopied recesses of the buttresses. in the details than any other of the Gothic varieties. In the third variety. more especially the tracery. Norman foliage. ornamental detail of the previous pointed occurs the Transition. and consider- ably varied in detail. hollow Byzantine or variation. or mullion and supermullion. or Transition work. and the substitution of perpendicular for flowing tracery. and the same panelling (of which fantracery is also an example) is spread over every surface of . chiefly characterised by a more magnificent development it of the leading elements of the Early English. or imitation. the new features are the horizontal line. and other parts. comparatively rarely in the Early English.

131 Pedestal. .'s Chapel. Henry VH.GOTHIC.

.

. the square dripstone. because . and the rectangular a necessary deve- lopment of the square dripstone over the arch. . like the foliage. in buildings 01 this ter. spandril. and conspicuous. is name it of Tudoris flower appropriate only in the sense that almost : the only medieval ornament preserved in that style original type of this ornament is the the old Byzantine alter- . The natural freedom of the details occasionally displayed in the Decorated. characIts a remnant of the old Byzantine. to what it was in the Romanbecomes esque. Fearing. . and the original Byzantine elements from which Gothic forms the Perpendicular . All Saints. almost alone. and again horizontal. The Tudor is scarcely a Gothic the art in it returns . generally were indirectly derived.weed more analogous to than ordinary leaves. very formal. The running ornament known as the Tudor-flower.. sea. exhibiting a square cruciform arrangement in the details of the leaves. in the foliage generally.. . '33 the buildings of this period. commonly known as the Perpendicular : it is the great style of the fifteenth century in this country. . developing that style which I have termed Lancastrian. Essex.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. is now lost in a formal conventionality in which displays an execution of these parts much more analogous to German work. is . and a uniform character. Its great features are the flat arch. The crockets also of perpendicular work are.

with natural flowers only. Throughout we should prefer the wild plants of the north to the more exuberant flowers of the south. or Early of the style. it. and the drop arch. as in architecture. or any other of the more familiar ornaments fleur-de-lis. : pointed itself comprising three varieties the lancet. and in the In ornamental is art generally. its ornaments of a natural class to be characteristic should be from such plants as are native to Gothic latitudes. and that peculiarly ren- Classical ornaments. are of course excluded. the ogee. likewise. should be unconditionally excluded. As. Gothic ornaments independent of the tracery are nearly scroll occurs . in the first the pitch being greater than the span. that are not symbols. in the second equal to last less. of a crown. it geometrical tracery which will stamp a design with a : Gothic character will still decorate it be Gothic. the Gothic is a style which has flourished exclusively in cold countries. then. and the flat the several ecclesiastical styles generally. as the Tudor-flower. even the only in the Gothic as a serpentine. in fact. common as the decoration nation of the lily and the cross.J34 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. however. it would be necessarily made much it more characteristic by the introduction trefoil of some of the historic ornaments of the period. English leaf. All exotics. vine-scroll. the pointed. with is the exception of the tooth. are not admissible in the Gothic. The characteristic Norman ornaments dered. and for edges or borders of many other kinds. There are five orders of arches which distinguish these namely the round. the four-centred. crocket-leaf. tropical plants would be inconsistent. the pointed.

. so totally different in spirit and in detail. shows that it is not from a persevering manual routine that variety and beauty are to be derived. exclusively fruit. flowers. the execution is extremely rude. J 35 and as a geueral rule. Yorkshire. however We have seen are . but from the active intelligence of the controlling mind. intimately connected with those which preceded them an advantage once gained was not allowed to be lost . yet both developed by the same artists. Such is a rough outline of the course of ornamental art among the most prominent people of medieval history. Fountains Abbey. and the remarkable transition from the Byzantine to the Saracenic. or leaves . that all varieties.GOTHIC ORNAMENT. individual in character. for a period of more than a thousand years.

LECTURE I. 6 vols. Paris. d'un texte historique et descriptif. Meubles de toute espece. Fontainebleau. Byzantine. Syllabus.D. Giunta Pisano. Monuments Francais inedits pour servir a 1'Histoire . Filippo Juvarra. JUVARRA. 2 vols. 1803-5. Instruments de Musique. graves. depuis le VIe Siecle jusqu'au commencement du XVII 6 Choix de Costumes civils et militaires. Dessines. or Revival. Armures. Alberti. d'Armes. * ON THE ORNAMENT OF THE RENAISSANCE.* STYLES. D. Collection of Shields. Paris. et colories Classes chronologiquement et accompagnes d'apres les originaux. &c. the great Decorators Maestro Lapo. et graves. . Raccolta di Targhe f atte da' Professori primari in Roma. Niccola Pisano. from the Originals in Borne. The Renaissance (Rinascimento). Griotto. Arnolfo di Lapo. 1722. et de Decorations interieures et exterieures des Maisons. 1806-39. The Trecento (1300) dates from about the Venetian Conquest of Constantinople. small folio. par Andre Pettier. St. 1204 A. F. des Arts. 1849-50. avec des Descriptions historiques par le Citoyen Amaury Duval Louvre. N. Revival of the Round Arch and the Classical Orders. ed intagliate dal Cav. in its original elements a mixture of Venetian and Siculo-Norman Ornament. Orcagna.) 4to. The great Artists.THE MODERN OR RENAISSANCE FOUR LECTURES. INTRODUCTION THE TRECENTO. X. Chateau d'Ecouen. Monumens. dessines. mesures. Brunelleschi. CHAPTER XIII. Paris et ses Rome. CAV. : WILLEMIN. BAI/TABD. Cloud. Definition Varieties. (Eenaissance Sculpture. D. ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE. large folio. disegnate. Interfacings and delicate Scroll-work of Conventional Poliage. .

Text. 1403 engraving. 1852. des Arts. Imperial. Cinquecento. The Charter House of Pavia. Metal-plate Ghiberti. the ultimate goal of the Renaissance. Les Arts au Moyen Age. 4to. Niello-work. . Becker and J. and other Antiquities of the Russian Empire. By C. Milan. The Renaissance as an Epoch and as a Style. Rivaud. Natural Imitations in the Details. Ecclesiastical. J. Paris. von Hefner. LACROIX AND SERE. Iron and Bronze work The Baptistery of San Giovanni at Florence. folio. Architecture and Decoration. or scrolled Shield-work. Du. Paul Lacroix. 1853. A . . 6. Histoire et Description des Moeurs et Usages du Commerce et de 1'Industrie. 1836-46. Sciences and Arts. DURELLI. AND F. &c. The Middle Ages and the Renaissance. . Published by Supreme Command. St. or sensuous development of Ornament. 1848-51. Ecclesiastical Antiquities . Zagoskin. Andrea Pisano. with an especial elaboration of the Arabesques and Scrolls. BERAIN. Pictures. Frankfort. Arms and Armour .) Text. Imperial Insignia. &c. The Cinquecento (1500). . to the exclusion of all alien forms. Tradition superseded by Selection. 6 vols. Dessins fac-similes par M. des Sciences. Manners and Customs. 5 vols. Dresses. La Certosa di Pavia descritta ed illustrata con tavole incise dai 62 plates.THE MODERN OR RENAISSANCE STYLES. Jewellery. and other Decorations. Folio. Division 1. et des Beaux Arts en Europe. fratelli Gaetano e Francesco Durelli. Stroganov. des Litteratures. with occasional Cartouches. LECTURE THE RENAISSANCE THE QUATTROCENTO. Luca della Robbia Grates of the Enamelled Pottery. A. folio. . Costume. and Louis II. 1852. LECTURE III. By S. Direcet la tion litteraire de M.) Produced under the direction of an Imperial Commission. 4to. G. Veltman. of Classical Ornament of the Roman period. Renaissance. &c. 6 vols. RUSSIAN EMPIRE. 1452. Many coloured plates. pieces. Lorenzo 52. ture. with fac-simile illustrations. THE CINQUECENTO. Mural ChimneyCollection of Ornamental Designs. Tommaso Finiguerra. Works of Art and Utensils of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 5 vols. Snegirev. Furni. The Quattrocento (1400). and the symmetrical Arabesques from Ancient Sculpture. Ferdinand Sere. M. Th. and grotesque combinations of Vegetable and Animal Forms : a purely aesthetic. 2 vols. 8vo. Le Moyen Age Renaissance. JEAN. and A. plates. plates. (Collection of the Hotel deClugny. 3. the predominant Italian style of the Sixteenth perfect restoration Century. and Portraits 5. Paris. added to the elements of the previous style. 4to. Direction artistique de M. A. 137 SOMMERARD. (Russian text. 4. 6 vols. Kunstwerke und Gerathschaften des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. Petersburg. BECKER AND HEFNER. 2.

Esq. Small folk. 1838.ware. General Debasement of Ornament. General Debasement of Classical Ornament mere play of Light and Shade . . The Scroll and 1715).) Folio. of Italian Origin. Folio. Shaw. The Rococo. the Coquillage all flat surfaces in ornamental details antagonistic to Shell chief characteristics. c. THE ELIZABETHAN THE Louis QUATORZE. Louvre. Versailles. 137 plates. au Chateau du Louvre. Sir Christopher Wren. V. 1857. London. Paris. 1710. and others. a new Revival Ludwig I. A. Paris. et com- mencement du XVII e siecles. General Education of the Decorator. C. Souvenir d'une Promenade a Versailles. Benvenuto Cellini. Bernard Palissy. et Le Moine. AND LE MOINE. 4to. a partial elaboration of the Tracery or Strap-work.. 16701700. (Fine examples of the Renais- LEPAUTRE. Venice. Raphael. F. Palladio. The Elizabethan. Bramante. Munich. Gaertner and Klenze. Julio Romano. and the Cartouches or scrolled Shield-work of that style. jusqu'a celui de Louis XIV. Inigo Jones. qui sont dans la Galerie d' Apollon. The Louis Quinze (1715 74). Ornemens de Peinture et de Sculpture. Scotin. 1843. CHAUVEAU. Dessinez et gravez par les Sieurs Berain.S. Majolica. Specimens de composition et d'ornementation architectoniques empruntes aux edifices construits depuis le regne de Charles VIII. Decorations in the Flat superseded by Stucco. PFNOR ET RAMEE. Chauveau. PETIT. engraved by Daigremont. Chateaux de la Vallee de la Loire des Folio. Illustrated Books. VERSAILLES. F. Paris. Chateaux de Paris. Decorations of the Apollo Gallery. La Renaissance Monumentale en France. the English version of the Renaissance. Disregard of Symmetry. The Lombard!.A. the Louis Quatorze varieties. the property of John Danby Palmer. &c. Designs. Folio. Paris. e . The Louis Quatorze (1643 . BERTY. Alessandro Vittoria. 1854. Total want of Individuality of Design. Examples from Old English Mansions. Vues Inte- Paris. PALMER. folio. rieures. Folio. and situated in the borough town of Great Yarmouth. et seq. . Oil and Fresco. Paris. sance and the Louis Quatorze. et dans le grand Appartement du Roy au Palais des Tuileries. BERAIN. 1858. Copyright in LECTURE IV. Grinling Gibbons. XV XVI e . Collection des plus belles Compositions de Lepautre.138 THE MODERN OR RENAISSANCE STYLES. in NorThe drawings and engravings by H. la Renaissance. The History and Illustrations of a House in the Elizabethan Style of Architecture. The Vatican. Quatorze. Monographie du Chateau de Heidelberg. and Colour by Gold. Folio. 1857.

The Mansions of England in the Olden Time. : in a general sense implying the revival of and specially is. 1857. chiefly of the 13th and 16th centuries. 139 J. from the 13th to the 15th century. Gold and Silver Plate. London. Studies from Old English Mansions. London. that implying both an epoch and a style. small folio. in the possession of Third Division Renaissance : on Wood. Santa Maria de' Miracoli. B. W. Robinson. London. C. c. folio. The Arts connected with Architecture. signifying a peculiar style of ornament. J. Digby Wyatt. London. Styles. London. engraved by the Female Students of the Wood-Engraving Class. Waring. Folio. J. George Scharf. Venice. WORNUM. N. London. WARING.THE MODERN OR RENAISSANCE STYLES. The original idea of the p . M. from accurate Drawings and Measurements taken from existing Specimens. With descriptive Essays by Owen Jones. . the Department of Science and Art. 1840. Published by Authority. 1857. 1858. THE term Renaissance is used in a double sense art.. &c. Folio. illustrated by examples in Central Italy. Illustrations With 8vo. C. 4to. by Tullio Lombard!. R. 1850. and J. Franks.. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. Folio. 1854. Art-Treasures of the United Kingdom consisting of Examples selected from the Manchester Art-Treasures Exhibition. Marble Panel. jun. 4 vols. 1500. Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I. NASH. A. 1841 48. their Furniture. B. RICHARDSON. 5 vols. J. WAHING AND MACQTJOID. 183949. Catalogue of Ornamental Casts. London.

containing all the Saracenic elements. which was not really accomplished until the six- teenth century. for unless we bear constantly in mind that the original revival was simply that of the classical orders of architecture in the place of the middle-age styles. Two distinct : schools were flourishing there in the twelfth century the pure Byzantine at Venice. The essence of all middle-age art was symbolism. therefore. It was in Italy that these new styles were almost neces- sarily developed. not as an absolute but as style. This is an important consideration. was purely architectural sical ornament did not immediately follow the restoration of the classical orders. which the literal meaning of the restoration of clas- the term. This change was due to the gradually growing influence of the Saracenic. to the unalloyed : and the transition from the symbolism principles of beauty is the great feature of the revival art was wholly separated from religion in the Renaissance. Rmascimento.1 40 THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL. affording . not excluding even the inscriptions. The course same . From these and the introduction of natural forms wholly of symbolism arose irrespective a new style composed almost exclusively of foliage and tracery. the apparent inconsistencies we shall meet with in the ornamental be liable to confuse us. The Renaissance are only those styles of ornament which were associated with the gradual revival of the ancient art of Greece and Rome. though this was the eventual result. and ended in the sensuous. or re-birth. but this transition was only gradually developed. details of the Renaissance will styles. is . in that finished style the Cinquecento. and the Siculo-Norman in the south. of ancient and modern art has been much the both commenced in the symbolic.

in the ordinary details of ornamental art. appears to have taken the lead also in the dawning revival of classical art and the Yenetians seem likewise to have contributed . which were so very prominent for a while as to constitute the chief characteristic of a first new style. which displayed many treasures of ancient art to the Yenetians. added their own beginnings of natural imitations. the classical forms prevailed.THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL. was established. we have done with Christian forms and elements in Italy. whose taste was already sufficiently cultivated to appreciate their value. and more especially to the Latin conquest of Constantinople in life The new the year 1204. From all this time. as its peculiarity consists in its hitherto common ornamental . the fifteenth century. the The Yenetians and the Italians generally. the Trecento which may be considered a negative exclusion of certain elements. controlled most finished development. to Christian or to Pagan elements indiscriminately . and the Quattrocento. known from Trecento. to its by no trammels of tradition. about the year 1300. the step of the transition from middle -age to its modern art . especially its 141 varied and intricate interfacings. The first of these . modern innovations is the transition style. a Christian trophy of this Venetian crusade. more than any others Cinquecento. Mark's. style. mean time. as the and activity displayed by Italy at this period was in some degree owing to the Crusades. new elements of beauty. still adorn the facade of St. and four ancient bronze horses. Venice. the prestige of a thousand years was broken . the first great style of the Eenaissance. already rich in Byzantine works.

and delicate scroll-work of conventional being but a slight remove from a comfoliage. Nicola Pisano. Calendario and Antonio contem- . be instanced as Gate of Baptistery. the symbolism of both being equally excluded. Filippo Eiccio. The great features of this style are its intricate tracery or interlacings. and the Church of San Francesco at Assisi and the Cathedral of Florence are fine examples of it. the style bination of the Byzantine and Saracenic.THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL. next we have a far more positive revival. with the restoration of the round arch. are not ex- clusively conventional. called Briosco. In the Quattrocento. great the masters of style. and were this contemporaries. its great ex- ponent or representative in ornamental art. the style. Giotto. the foliage and floriage. Andrea their Taffi. Florence. Lo- renzo Ghiberti may. perhaps. it and comprises a fair render- ing of the classical orders. however.

whether fruit. The bronze gates San Giovanni. exhibit one feature of this the prominence of simple natural perfection imitations. it in the middle of the fifteenth century. but directly exact models of imitation. all or disposed simply with a view to the picturesque details ornamental. perhaps the work of Briosco. are likewise important names of this period : they were engaged on the is new Ducal Palace at its Venice. was In this style. or animals. One of the oldest examples I can refer to is the shield containing the lion of St. Mark. and the fact . we have the first appearance of cartouches or scrolled shield. birds. or a MS* This kind of decoration certainly seems in some connected with heraldry way many of its forms are palpably mere armorial shields. suggests the idea of the imitation illumination. which became very common in architectural decoration of a later period. also. which most comprehensive in the character of of the Baptistery of ornamental details. which became so very prominent in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. of a sealed parchment. which now nearly entirely supersede the * conventional representations of previous times. The selection of the this might still have some typical signification.THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL. their arrangement which was as purely imitative as ornamental. 143 porary with Ghiberti. but had no influence in the manner of their execution. on the water-gate of the Ducal Palace at Yenice.work. Nature afforded no longer supplied mere suggestions. flowers.of such forms being afterwards used as mere elements . * by style Ghiberti in (1425-52).

the Quattrocento is essentially a religious style. the scroll. previous from the petty serpentine character of the with all the fulness of the style. the tinct from first the Cinquecento of of introduction. the decoration is now of a very complicated though not confused. perform a similar service in the design as the shields in other examples. but the religious sentiment was transferred from a secondary to a primary object in the design sentation instead of the : we have the actual repre- mere symbol. but not yet very prominently intro- Although in the Quattrocento the religious symbolism was excluded generally (not absolutely) from the ornamental details. does not in any of ornament origin. the grotesque arabesque. arabesque. Eome and Pompeii in fact. the religious sentiment was . appears Roman duced. of which the Certosa of is Pavia offers many examples. in is the second pair of Ghiberti gates the history of Moses the principal subject of illustration of these gates the . As. Another feature of is this Quattrocento style Italian is or as what dis- more especially the Renaissance. for instance. ornaments are but the decorations to the several panels so it is in all other great schemes. : the ancient style models of character. way invalidate such an There are none of these forms on the gates of Ghiberti but it abounds with medallions containing portraits.144 THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL. after for the time. for we still have the and Trecento interfacings very largely used as borders. by no means absent from the Quattrocento art itself on the contrary. which . There little decoration .

and the religious element com"We speak of the Eenaissance as an paratively disappears. It was not so in the Cinquecento the figures and subjects themselves are a mere part and often a secondary one of the ornamental scheme. but the only true or literal revival . Epoch and is as a Style. . the Cinquecento the other varieties contain too many his- original and extraneous elements to be considered an torical revival. but what is 145 merely auxiliary to some religious design. .THE RENAISSANCE OR REVIVAL.

as its advocates but in as far as . which jewellers. * ^ From Door of St. by reasserting the aesthetic . 1542. Rouen.CHAPTER XIV. and Benvenuto Cellini.work) and tracery than for the more natural was far classical or the more elements of the style. also was a revival. THE capricious style. especially with the example of such names as Primaticcio. c. the beauties of nature not vie. Maclou. art and manipulation again attained the ascendency over it symbolism principle. Holbein. the go-called Renaissance of the sixteenth century. and the standard ornaments of antiquity could in the general taste. scrolled was in such good repute with the more conspicuous for its cartouches (its shield. THE RENAISSANCE AS A STYLE. with either the attraction of novelty or the charm of indiscriminate variety. Bronze.

Paris . now at the Kcole des Beaux Arts. c. Carved Door Panels. from the Chateau d'Anet'. 1648. 147 .RENAISSANCE.

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Paris. is essentially a style of varieties. It is the style of It is also the Ecole des Beaux Arts. of various elements is one of the essentials . where the time of Francis I. 149 This third modern style or variety. This style is. it is The mixture of this style . Benvenuto (about 1548). the classical ornaments conventional and natural flowers and foliage often of a pure Saracenic character . man and natural and grotesque . now at naissance as a style. : and especially in France. near Dreux. these elements are. the former animals. it was introduced about so great a favourite still with the French. remarkably developed in the remains of the Chateau d'Anet. style. and the Cinrejec. essence of is the its quecento tion of these elements but before proceeding to the consideration of the latter sider we will is con- what specially signified by the EeCarved Door Panel from the Chateau d'Anet. chiefly made up elements of to foreign classical taste. and indeed sometimes designated the Henry II. and it is . and other buildings of that time. to which the name of Eenaissance by habit more particularly belongs. or pierced and scrolled u . especially in jewellery and in works in relief it was very general also out of Italy. cartouches. however. in France Cellini. that French and Eenaissance are nearly identical terms.THE RENAISSANCE.

when The pure Elizabethan styles of the time is much nearer allied to the continental classical ornaments. parallel and The whole history It of art does not afford a mixture of elements. holding a much more prominent place than the pierced and scrolled shields. preponderance of strap-and-shield-work gradual result.1 5o THE RENAISSANCE. A . the pierced shields even outbalanced the strap-work. an early . : was popular in the Low Countries at the same time is the Bourse at Antwerp (1531) one of its earliest examples. a partial elaboration of the same probably introduced into this country from the Low Countries. In Crewe Hall. exhibits a . the time of James. in great tracery. as^at Wallaton and Yarmouth. distinct from its form. the elements of this period is If a design contain only the tracery and foliage of the design containing all properly called Eenaissance. prominence . dent and developed from the scrolls of the cartouches jewel forms. Elizabethan Islington. of Crewe Hall and Canonbury House. the only difference being that the Elizabethan. and arabesque work. of France. For the want of better occasional scroll information these two features are sufficient to date a building the tracery or strap-work. the Cinquecento. will indicate the time of Elizabeth nance of shield-work that of James I. Such are four perfect varieties of the revival. the shield-work is not very prominent. without the shield.. work. and attributed to Inigo Jones. is Our own Elizabethan style. shields. and the tracery or strap-work. but rude in detail.. the predomiwork. indepen. as above. like that of Henry II. and what very striking but this was a we now term the Elizabethan was not thoroughly' developed until the time of James I.

ELIZABETHAN. . 1600. c. 151 From the old Guard Chamber. "Westminster.

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Ceiling. Cheshire. Crewe Hall. Doorway. . Loseley House Surrey.ELIZABETHAN. Carved Stone.

and in the earlier varieties. toons. it is elaborate natural imitations.THE RENAISSANCE. fes- and occasional symmetrical arabesques. the Italian Eenaissance of the . besides these. fifteenth century if it In the " Ancient Parlour. period it '55 would be more properly called Trecento. of strap-work and shield-work it is Elizabethan. In all these styles the evidence of their Byzantine and Saracenic origin is constantly preserved in the tracery. and display a decided prominence of the Quattrocento. if it contain. in the rendering of classical orna- ments ." Holland House. scroll-work. in the scroll-work and foliage. in the shape of the .

156 THE RENAISSANCE. or from any superstitious attachment to them as ancestral looms. as they abound in the manuscripts. It is the first example of selection that we find. therefore. . heir- The decorators of the Eenaissance were. according to their own perception of the beautiful. something more approximate to a combination of previous styles than a revival of any in particular. as varieties of effect or arrangements of beauty. the first artists they suffered no limits or restrictions but those of har- mony or beauty. from a love of the forms and harmonies themselves. panels containing religious illustrations. and it is a style that was developed solely on aesthetic principles. not because they had any particular signification. in ornamental art since the classic periods . in fact. The Eenaissance is. which even to the close of the Quattrocento are of pure Byzantine shapes.

ELIZABETHAN. . North Entrance. "WoUaton.

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large folio. 177276. Le Fabbriche e i Monumenti cospicui di Venezia illustrati da Leopoldo Cicognara. Ob. Suys et L. voutes. Haudebourt. 1827. L. 1839. 4to. with Details. BETTONI. . A DIEDO E ZANOTTO. Maisons. ILLUSTRATED LITER-ATTIRE. P. d. Edifices de Rome Moderne. Altas folio. 182223. N. T. II Loggie di Rafaele nel Vaticano. Novanta Monumenti cospicui di Venezia illustrati dal Cav. LETAROTJILLY. 1831. 8 vols. The most select Ornaments of Bologna. n. ANTONELLI. 4to. 1840. RAPHAEL. Raccolta de' piu scelti Ornati sparsi per la citta di Bologna. folio. Palais Massimi a Rome. Paris. Collection of the best Venetian Ornaments. CICOGNARA. 2 vols. &c. 61 plates. ou Recueil des Palais. d. SITYS ET HATJDEBOTJRT. sparsi nella citta di Venezia. Drawn by Caruporesi. n. Vaticano descritto ed illustrate. The Arabesques of the Vatican. Edifices of Modern Rome. Ob. profils. eleva- tions. MAGAZZARI. Eglises. THE CINQUECENTO. 1829 38. Venice. E. Bologna. Collezione de' Migliori Ornamenti antichi. 32 plates. des deux Palais Massimi. da Antonio Diedo. . The Vatican described and illustrated. G. 4to. Folio. Milan. 2nd edition. Oblong folio. Con notabili aggiunte e note. Roma. Tombs and Monuments of Italy. Plans. Folio. PISTOLESI. Venice. Sepulchral Monuments of Venice. e da Giannantonio Selva. coupes. Borne. Le Tombe ed i Monumenti illustri d'ltalia.CHAPTEE XV. dessines et publies par F. plafonds. P. The most remarkable Buildings and Monuments of Venice. and engraved by Volpato and others. Antonio Diedo e da Francesco Zanotto. Milan. G-. 2 vols.

K. Monuments publics et particuliers les plus vols. Grli Ornati del Coro della Chiesa di S. et seq. of the Fifteenth text. Illustrations of the painted decoration London. Folio. delle Grazie at Milan. with Descripby Lewis Gfruner. Folio. Parallele des Maisons de Paris. Convents. 1859. Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces in during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. 1860. 1840. remarquables de la Ville de Home. V. CONTANT ET FiLippi. Pietro dei Monaci Cassinesi di Perugia. Paris. BERGAMO. . Fol. Paris. Folio. 1850 a 1860. Nouvelle periode de WE may now proceed to the consideration of the Cinqueart development is the most perfect of all the modern styles. 1850. Paris. Altars. Rome. The varieties we have just been examining are but its wanderings by the way. only after a great accumulation of materials that it was . Parallele des principaux Theatres modernes de 1'Europe.A. with descriptive text. largely augmented by numerous plates. which as an real goal of the Eenaissance. avec une notice historique et archeologique. Illustrated with 80 plates. and Sepulchral Monuments and Sixteenth Centuries. Italy. by Bernardino Luini. selected from the best Models of the Classical Epochs. for want of It was sufficiently conspicuous landmarks. 1859. Folio. et autres Paris. Monographie du Louvre des Tuileries reunis. existing at Borne. New edition. but the most prominent style of the sixteenth century and it is the cento. tions : Maria LOUVEE. CALLIAT.160 THE CINQUECENTO. 1856. byEmilBraun. London. ora per la' prima volta tutti . GRUNER. 1843. Lo Scaffale or Presses in the Sacristy of the Church of Sta. folio . L. Folio. to which all the efforts of the fifteenth century tended. 4to. 1845. 1535 said to be from designs by Raphael. intagliati in Legno da Stefano da Bergamo sopra i disegni di Raffaello Santi da Urbino. London. The term Cinquecento does not imply simply sixteenth-century art. raccolti incisi a contorno e pubblicati. Folio. Specimens of Ornamental Art. et seq. By Authority. STEFANO DA. 2 vols. et Le Napoleonium. Wood Carvings from the Choir of the Monastery of San Pietro at Perugia. 3 Tosi AND BECCHIO. Tabernacles. Folio. Lagny. 1854. plain and coloured.

161 From the Martinengo Tomb. I. STAKIira. Brescia. .CINQUECENTO. S* c. DKl. 1530.

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164 From the Facade of Santa Maria de' Miracoli.CINQUECENTO. Brescia. 1530 . c. .

165 possible to appreciate thoroughly the spirit of the ancient arabesques. and all extraneous elements were successively excluded . such as Baccio Pintelli. ment than it and grew even into a more splendid develophad ever known. applied to extricate its Lombardi. The principal monuments of the Cinquecento in paint- ing are the Vatican Loggie. : .THE CINQUECENTO. Francia. masters were at or no or Bramante. may claim. equal rank in their art. no wonder that started suddenly into new life. Julio Eomano. the Villa Madama at Eome. The efforts of these first little improvements upon the works of their immediate predecessors. the great quattrocentisti. and the Lombardi. or Michelangelo. the prince of decorators . and the ducal palaces at Mantua the churches of Venice. These came at last out of the excavations of ancient the close of the monuments fifteenth Rome and elsewhere at century the new revival was at spirit developed chiefly by the sculptors of the North. Julio Eomano. perhaps. it the Bramante. The true of ancient art was only now thoroughly comprehended. Bernardino Luini. and other sculptors of the north of Italy. would be unjust towards the great quattroall cento masters to give style of art to the credit of this accomplished even such names as Eaphael. it from long entombment. in its most gorgeous Eoman period. but with such capacities as those of Eaphael. Pietro Perugino. and Pin- the two last scarcely inferior to Julio Eomano himself. turicchio Agostino Busti. it However. Andrea Sansovino. and the painters of Central Italy. perhaps.

They appear to have given a great impetus to this style of decoration. and Brescia. The Loggie of Eaphael are the arcade of the second story of the Court of San Damaso 1515. grotesques. and . and other arbitrary forms. called. which were derived chiefly from ancient sculpture and from the MSS. afford the best examples of Sculpture. . and. However. we occasionally must be scrupulously excluded. in the exuberance and beauty of the curves and foliations. is the abundance of which a very striking feature in the Vatican arabesques. and are very much more formal in their arrangements and detail. they were executed about Gian Francesco Penni. which find in Eaphael's arabesques. which led to it. though the arabesques themselves are of the cinquecento character. the entire decorations of the pilasters are far from being of pure style. as they were originally from being chiefly discovered in the ancient grottoes. or the Cinquecento becomes merged into the mixed Eenaissance. they differ very widely from the quattrocento arabesques.. and the distinction of style is lost.1 66 THE CINQUECENTO. even in their character. or. made with only a general regard to its most prominent characteristics. there is. Giovanni da TJdine the last painted the birds and animals. Verona. by Julio Eomano. for they are the first of their kind on an extensive scale. These arabesques of Eaphael. In establishing a style from examples. much to reject before we have a characteristic illustration of the style. and the Christian symbols. of course. . are said to have been directly suggested by some ancient remains in the Baths of Titus.

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61 I in . e. . Paris. i'rcin a Marble Fountain in the Louvre.the From Carved Oak Panels Louvre. Paris.CIXQUECENTO. 1520. IOCS. <: 1 j\ T !(-. uwnMKw' c ox. Italian.

. They are the work of Giovanni da Udine and Julio Eomano. the same artists who executed later those of the Vatican Loggie. The Vatican Pinturicchio. like the poet. the effect being analogous to a discord in music. are ludicrous and offensive.THE CINQUECENTO. for nature is not their test . from their mechanical absurdities. There need be no limit to our chimeras. bility. with a greater unity of character in the details. violations of the most palpable laws of Nothing can gravity. The designer. display designs of equal variety of Mantua. classical character. and the Ducal Palaces effect. 169 like the designs of Luini and are of a transition character. The at Villa Madama at Home. We may be extremely grotesque or fanciful without being ridiculous. is where natural imitation . we should proportion them in size to the strength of the . the scrolls are par- Some of the Vatican compositions. while the more are extravagant fanciful .or place animals at least upon the tendrils of plants. the grotesque perhaps the most prominent feature of the cinquecento arabesque. as they are is essentially obnoxious to aesthetic sensibility. cannot be otherwise than offensive. but in these works many of the licences in the Vatican arabesques have been in a great measure avoided. has his licence with regard to possibilities or probabilities. indeed. A mere is natural improbaessential. designs in the later works is the most and. which the truest test of propriety in art. pilasters. but if we combine monsters in our scrolls. the privilege of the fancy bring them within the range of good taste. in no degree but mechanical disproportions and impossibilities. They are of a more unmixed ticularly fine.

it is but there are otherwise good It is necessarily specimens in which not observed. and its lightness will depend upon the relative proportions of the stem. And this law cially in one of the essential admirably observed in nearly all the best examples of the Cinquecento. in many and it is disregarded. It was this same fault of painful disproportion which of as Pliny and Vitruvius found with the anomalies not arabesques so Pompeii. as developed in painting. scroll we do a mere not require this variation of as it is ornamental repetition. . upon which they are placed. Natural foliage teaches us that the greater the burden the thicker the stem of the stem as its . the standard types of the cinquecento arabesques. every portion in itself being complete and as it is indetermi- nate. and with this it combines in art. of the Yatican arabesques. in the later works of Mantua yet these are. its elements every other feature unlimited of classical with the imitations choice of natural and conventional from the entire animal and vegetable kingdoms. the gradual diminishing is is burden decreases. also. both arbitrarily disposed and combined. for in a continuous thickness. it is a determi- nate figure. which display much approached by even the worst specimens of modern times. This is an essential difference. a condition peculiar to arabesque scroll-work. . no portion of the curve has more to do than another. This arabesque scroll-work is the most prominent feature of the Cinquecento . espe- the sculpture. in other respects. tendril This is not observed occasionally . in the arabesque curves the scroll or spiral is always completed elegance or . beauties of foliage.i 7o THE CINQUECENTO.

1520.. St. X 171 From the Monument to Louis XII. .CINOUECENTO. Denis. c. near Paris.

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as the anthemion especially. The and the acanthus favourites. scroll are likewise amples. Chateau c. rle cluded from the style as a presumed ancient revival. in defining the Cinquecento style. such as vases. to be the special province of the curve in infinite all its play of developof arabesque. isos. all the the extensive works Italy. Absolute works of art. such forms are extremely rare and . Gaillon. Another of its '73 features is its beautiful variations of ancient standard ornaments. but in ments it is in the form some natural object or artificial combination.THE CINQUECENTO. but cartouches and strapwork as unauthorised by ancient practice. are prominent elements of the cin- quecento arabesque . in sculpture of the north of from about 1480 until 1550. are necessarily exCarved "Wood. and occur in many varieappears. ties. The cartouches and In strap- work wholly disappear from best examples. the fret. and imple- ments and instruments of all kinds. . in- The Cinquecento its deed. of which there are some admirable Cinquecento exguilloche or plat. France. as a their exclusion becomes an essential condition.

Another chief feature of the Cinquecento able play of colour in its arabesques and it is the admir. green. the acanthus scroll or foliated its spiral. His monumental bas-reliefs have. with beautiful variety of tints. Mantua. of prominently distinguished. and more commonly. perhaps.i 74 THE CINQUECENTO. with ordinary natural foliations. is. combining a strict imitation with a masterly freedom of execution. that the three secondary colours^ orange. Indeed. efforts to nature attract and art vying with each other in their . as considered the cul- minating style in ornamental perfect forms and the most presenting the most pleasing varieties. that we must look for the purest examples of this style. of the standard arabesques. perhaps. never been surpassed whom TulKo for is their exquisite spirit and delicacy of execution: and even in their they are unsurpassed by the best examples of antiquity. and among the cinquecento none paid more attention to ornament than the Lombardi of Venice and Agostino Busti of Milan. Its the coloured great leading is form. all and purple. the Cinquecento colours. And we have constantly may be art. in sculpture. sculptors Venice abounds with the works of the Lombardi. and occasionally of simple curves. at details others. with the interspersing of grotesque figures and animals. as regards the mere elaboration of form . It however. perform the chief parts in decorations. at some of Julio Eomano's decorations where we have but two complements. sometimes a as in complete iris. scrolls and is worthy of note. Sometimes they consist of fine elaborations of the pure classic acanthus scroll .

as already explained. Cinquecento. therefore. and history . were identical. the aesthetic was substituted for the symbolic. The Renaissance. elements strange to the classical period were generally admitted . is is accomplished in the Cinquecento still the term styles. it was a revival of principle though not of element. ill ment. though for a its much shorter period than great beauties and applicability would seem to justify. that the moderns. and it is a remarkable concession to the ancients. not long successfully pursued: it appears to be too exact in its details. in them. though from imper- fect apprehension. It 175 appeals only to the sense of All its efforts are directly made to attain the most attractive effects. and the pottery or majolica wares of the time afford some of the finest examples of the style. without any intent to lead the is mind to an ulterior end. The Cinquecento very generally pervaded manufactures for a time in France as well as Italy. whether from the kingdoms of nature its or the realms of art. as the case with the Byzantine and other symbolic styles. however. and gratify the beauty. every form . to attain this result. for the ordinary grasp of the decorator. It was. is were compelled to recur to their works . The arms and armour. and. eye. that the term Renaissance becomes or rebirth of orna. The principles. and too compre- hensive in range of elements. quite intelligible.THE CINQUECENTO. not altogether appropriated to the earlier really the because these were stepping-stones to the also. The cinquecento forms are supposed to be symbols of beauty alone. and it only now in the contemplation of this consummate style. poetry.

St. however. and for a long period. as well over the animal and vegetable forms generally. Accordingly.176 THE CINQUECENTO. in accordance with his own vague notions of variety. gave greater liberty to the artist. being excluded having neither wit nor beauty to recommend it. near Paris. Nicola dei Conti. or directly from was evidently much spread by the ornamental marginal woodcuts the sixteenth century. of especially in France . either Normandy. to have usurped every other purpose. exacted a considerable as a mastery acquaintance with the figure. it besides a familiarity with the art of classic antiquity. and Benvenuto Cellini. It required too much from the designer's powers. as in the ordinary Eenaissance. all we again find the promiscuous mixture of forms of kinds with a prominence of the cartouche. Alfonso Alberghetti. which. in the church of several examples at Eouen. from its far less definite character. These were. by The ordinary ornament of the Eenaissance was at the same time very common in the North and West. the attainment of which seems now. little works with published for frequently in designers for and expressly manufactures . orna- mental art fell back to what it was before that time. as in the case of the edition of Alciati's . carried out some Italian example. as the monument Louis XII. and and at the Chateau de Gaillon. The Cinquecento in is essentially an Italian style. Denis. for. as illustrated by the works of Alessandro Yittoria. and Italians. though out to some few instances good examples are found Italy. and from the middle of the sixteenth century. already in the sixteenth century.

Chimney-piece. published at Lyons in 1551. . By Germain Pilon. Louvre. 177 Emblems. of which there is a copy in the Library of the Department.THE CINQUECENTO.

essentially an ornamental style. the various nautilus-shells are good examples. itself however. Rome. This . arose in Italy at and we may.CHAPTER XVI. from nearly that preceded its chief . as its the well-known Jesuits' perspective. like whatever. and all differing very materially in principle it. after the decline of the Cinqueeento. rule and measure usurped the place of expression. and Louis Quatorze combined. author of Church. most others of modern times. or Jesus The type or model. The great medium of the Louis Quatorze (1643-1715) . FOR a century there was art. Of the vague character of the intermediate style. principal decorators of this church were Giacomo della Porta. Towards the a close of the seventeenth century. and Father Pozzi. little after the development of the Cinquecento. THE LOUIS QUATOEZE. look upon the Chiesa del Gesu. something of the Renaissance. new style commenced to develop (the Louis Quatorze). individuality in the practice of ornamental Architecture itself was completely domineered by a mere classical pedantry. Pietro da Cortona. perhaps. Eliza- bethan. a brilliant play of light and shade aim being effect by colour or mere beauty it of form in detail having no part in style.

occa- symmetry systematically avoided. Such being the aim of the style. a legacy of the ordinary Renaissance. in the Louis Quatorze varieties. either in the balance of the whole or in the details of the parts. must be considered as s . 179 which. in which symmetry. however. Foreign elements. The fiddle-shape combination of perhaps. feature was gradually more and more elaborated. play of light and shade. sometimes All and sometimes clothed in acanthus foliations. seems to have . They are the constant shell and an- peculiar combination of the shell. the other elements of the style are classical. we. almost wholly superseded decorative painting and of this absence of colour in the principal its decorations the period seems to have led to infinite more striking characteristic. find This till it became led to essential in the Louis Quinze.THE LOUIS QUATORZE. for the sionally first time. seems to have been quite out of place. and ultimately that debased yet popular style. accordingly. but the whole was evidently intended to present a gorgeous classical scheme of decoration. for a while. and foreign treatment. but yet. exact symmetry in the parts was no longer essential. and it is to these foreign features that the decorations owe their individuality. the Eococo. from a treatment. was gilt stucco-work. Versailles is the great repertory of the Louis Quatorze . both found their place. differ The Louis Quinze (1715-74) does not much the Louis Quatorze in certain its from manner of elements. such as find we them treated in the Cinquecento. scroll and the themion treated as a plain and a small scroll. with some slightly modified scrolls is. new varieties. and.

Perhaps the great feature of the later style. all are concave or convex.io THE LOUIS QUATORZE. therefore. merely characteristic elements of the Louis all Quatorze became paramount in the Louis Quinze that the . even the anthemion in perfectly smooth but never flat styles. from the French schemes of the preceding reign the diverging. distinct in a discrimination of styles. as much as any other. In comparing good examples of these two styles. even in the until most central and prominent places a feature which now would have been : considered a capital defect in a design such is the caprice of fashion. details. in in the cartouches. its details. we shall find that the broad acanthus foliations or featherings of the scroll in the Louis Quatorze have become very leaf much elongated. or They thus which flat contrast surfaces . came immediately . The play of light and shade in sudden and varied contrasts is so essential an element of the Louis Quatorze they do not admit flat surfaces in any of their ornamental details. But as a general play of light and shade style. is its rejection of symmetry in its . in the details abound. and that to which it owes its bizarre character. All such members in the Louis . always too indefinite for special attention. that these styles becomes a hollow shell. approaching the flag or fleur-de-lis and the palm-branch in the Louis Quinze. curved planes are flat. very strongly with the Elizabethan. It differs in this. it was the chief aim of the of was little injured by a want symmetry in details. or Eenaissance. from the original types became ever wider. as in its infinite strap-work even the pierced and scrolled shields. instead of coming direct from the Cinquecento.

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and brought manufactures. and for this reason stucco superseded decorations in the in all Louis Quatorze designs. were. and of architecture. by the constant round and hollow. all his bravura of line was alternation tending. the Louis Quatorze flat. Bernini used the designs of Le Pautre for external and internal decoration many parts and Le Pautre of Europe. until the Revolution. Still flat. birds. the . flowers. Meissonier. in fact. The more spirit of these Louis Quatorze styles. Quatorze styles would be channelled or moulded. reduced the Louis Quatorze to colour. each in his way.THE LOUIS QUATORZE. more or less. Watteau. and colour is in these cases indispensable this is exemplified in the metal marquetry of Boule. he was the greatest master of the Louis Quatorze in its adaptation to ornamental sculpture. fruit. or projecting and receding a lively play shapes. and gold colour. perhaps. the forms depending on their contrast with their ground. Even in Italy. not only in France but in Claude Ballin. 183 This constant varying of the surface gives every point of view its high lights and brilliant contrasts . : independent of remarkable. it more generally within the province of He used the elements of the style for pastoral or rural the frames or boundaries of small panels. is it not altogether unfit for is decorations in the but limited to designs on . and foliage. particularly the Louis Quinze. to the one great aim of the style of light and shade. and by the designs of Watteau. scenes. and. pervaded all manu- factures. which he surrounded by fantastical borders. of scrolls. insects. and animals. the most popular designers of their time. a small scale.

of indescribable forms. chief distinction The of between these two : styles is the is want of symmetry its in the Louis Quinze it in many examples a mere and almost random dispersion of the scroll and shell. the coquillage. and in which the thread of the historic styles is at last completely run out. Still with these ele- ments beautiful attention was were produced.1 84 THE LOUIS QUATORZE. the designs became a mere mass of vagaries. and the Eococo was displayed in the perfection of the bizarre in ornament. but when this last was neglected. . when only a slight bestowed upon the arrangement of the effects masses. mixed only with that peculiar crimping or shell-work.

to have explained more than the great leading developments of ancient. I have upon the leading any other course would degree of clearness. with simplicity of arrangement. .CONCLUSION. In the second. or Eoman skill. we found symbolism. in this review of the styles. styles. and modern art. as the prominent period. period. Thus. IN review of the ornamental devices of thirty-five centuries. richness of material. and uniform excellence of detail throughout In everywhere displaying the highest artistic skill. . we have detail equal with a taste for a more gorgeous and more general magnificence. still with an esthetic aim. and an artistic crudity. have been impossible with an ordinary By converting mere varieties into we should so multiply the number of ornamental expressions that the student would probably be so much confused as to be unable to eliminate even the generic varieties of ornamental art. middle. with general beauty of effect. or Greek we have exclusively an aesthetic aim. we have certainly had every variety of exthis pression that the dwelt. human mind is familiar with. with the Egyptians. characteristics. styles only . I do not pretend.age. In the early period. the third. of course.

: The Saracenic is the same in a light something like a formal flower-garden. however. . a comprehensive and beautiful style was ulti- richness of materials. but the details are expressed. effects and shade and on a small scale. at first. the natural vagaries of we have. and inferior. and induces much of that crudity of detail which must be the effects inevitable result of a divided attention. and. purely sesthetic. but as prejudice mately developed in the sixth century. perhaps. the herald of the modern styles. again. we go back to at style of the second period. like the classical styles. is which.1 86 CONCLUSION. In the Eenaissance. however. Then came the and glitter : final decline. gold still. elaborated into a style of a very gorgeous general effect. it prodi- giously clever in the means took to accomplish its effects. eventually settled into a genuine revival of the most finished style of antiquity. wanting the simplicity and grandeur of natural scenery . The general ill are often grand . but nearly always displaying. gorgeous without any remarkable merit of detail it general effect. an almost exclusive symbolism. is made up of an infinite number of minute contrasts of principle. display. an unaccustomed freedom which. the first first In the Byzantine. In the Gothic. combining the gesthetic with the symbolic to partly owing was gradually overcome. but it is capable of very beautiful general colour. the last of the middle-age styles. more skill in its general effects than in its details. symbolism more than divides the field with art. . mere love of such is the Louis Quatorze. in the course of a century or two. the Cinquecento.

the very natural result we have designs made up of general neglect. and with study : of this details and in the absurd Eococo. is the ostensible effort of every designer. the last of the nine lives of ornamental art expires. in its aim than any indilittle it all whatever : thus provided they generated sufficient contrasts of light and shade. consequently. result of historical knowledge. but the acquisition of a power which not only supersedes all copying. as to defy description. This vast store of materials. of representation. and the Eococo. . we can come no nearer to them . the simplest theory must make manifest. taken in the mass. with which fusion. but which alone will insure the production of that variety of ornamental design which. then. is a mere chaos unless . will. therefore. classified schools engender only a mere uniform repetition of conthe view. were of no vidual consequence. so without meaning and individuality. This of art. is Accordingly we find. as the prevailing English In fault of histastes of the Great Exhibition of 1851. is we study the history to discriminate and individualise the styles of the various epochs . variety. after a time. is The real not the mere copying of what has been done before. the first term of existence. without selection or order. and with this Eococo. little Had the knowledge of styles been a more dis- seminated in the present day 3 we should not have found the Louis XV. that all detail absolutely neglected. They are Eococo .CONCLUSION. and our powers. and by thus developing distinct characters. multiply to an equal extent our means of viewing nature. and so into far from or creating styles.. The Louis Quatorze style is 187 more general its details.

duality : they are too general. and its consequently enlarged views of art. ages. may be beautifully varied by altering this basis and again. in wood-carving. by new judicious combinations of colour. The cheap manufactures of antiquity. also.. and the same .1 88 CONCLUSION. which alone will secure a perma- nent gratification or success. in carpets. but every flower. and. and in many other branches. The great success of the Greeks strict was not more than commensurate with the adherence to principles of beauty upon which even their slightest efforts depended. independent of their individualities of development. however simple. We want both systems of detail and systems of arrangement. even in lace. as the ordinary Greek terra-cottas. the designer has been reduced to merely copying his neighbour hence the still paramount importance in torical : this country of the last great historic style of France. that the standard types of all even system will effect that variety and indi- viduality of expression. The great lesson we may learn from a study of the characteristics of styles is. too much alike : we require something more than mere sprigs and colonnades. applied to the same geometric scheme. that our designs want individamasks. knowledge. The value of such a system in ornamental but it is only by a knowledge of design is incalculable : the characteristics of styles. We natural should work on the principles of construction of objects. the Louis XT. every leaf. were cheap by reason of the nature of . in silver. indeed. is capable of being converted into an ornament by the mere aid of repetition on a geometrical forms basis . A picture is not an ornament . or conventional scrolls.

the famous brated art-repository Her(sum. paralleled fortune of a Samian merchant. their material. was perhaps the most celeof antiquity. and thus was enabled to compete in splendour and luxury with the greatest states of the Herodotus (iv. political It was this distinction. fruit of its industrial ingenuity. to every port. 189 not from any neglect of care in is their manufacture. extraordinary grandeur. 152) speaks of the unancient world. . The ancient prosperity of the Samians a remarkable instance of the great national benefit to be derived from the judicious application of art to manufactures. carried on an important trade with all the great cities of the Greek and Eoman empires. and this small island-state was conspicuous among the richest nations of the world. its they trod upon more This earthenware of Samos carried soil commerce over every sea. It was the Its first Greek state that attained celebrity in the arts. and is worthy the emulation of their modern British competitors. though it was constructed entirely of marble. by its potteries alone. and was itself a work of The same Greek historian (iii.CONCLUSION. until its merchants became princes. The small island of Samos. its more powerful neighbours and commerce and its prosperity declined together. temple of Juno. its matchless potteries. 60) he ever saw. this its pre-eminence. which : excited the jealousy of with its freedom. All this magnificence was but the skilful ship-building. its its enterprising commerce. The skill of its potters made the very precious than gold. The workers in metal and the painters were equal in renown to the sculptors and speaks of it as the largest temple architects of Samos.

. such is it now that all cultivation It was but the judicious application of this small art to industry that made Levantine island once the illustrious rival of great empires. LIMITED. and abounds in the valuable clay of which its ancient potteries were manufactured.. THE END. CITY ROAD. : its potters have departed fashion it is the genial clay without the skilful hand to of little avail.of energies to the art has ceased. but its population has declined into a mere scattered and rude peasantry . it Such was Samos when arts .1 9o CONCLUSION. LONDON. still The sun it still shines on the fruitful valleys of Samos. PRINTED BY VIRTUE AND CO. directed its .

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Ralph Nicholson Analysis of ornament 6th ed. PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .NK 1175 ' W6 1879 Wornura.

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