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”#Global#Physics#

Department#6/13/12.##Rachel#Pepper#(rachel.pepper@berkeley.edu).#

Resources(from(Upper-division(Course(

Transformations(at(University(of(Colorado(

((

1.#Clicker#questions#for#lower#and#upper6division#physics#courses:#

# http://www.colorado.edu/physics/EducationIssues/cts/index.htm#

# Upper6division#courses#include:#modern#physics,#mechanics#&#math#methods,#

quantum#mechanics,#E&M,#and#statistical#mechanics#&#thermodynamics##

#

2.#Professional6quality#videos#(5610#min#each)#on#clicker6use#in#upper#division:#

# http://STEMvideos.colorado.edu##

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3.#Course#Materials#for#sophomore6level#Classical#Mechanics/Math#Methods:#

# http://www.colorado.edu/sei/departments/physics_2210.htm

# includes#learning#goals,#student#difficulties,#clicker#questions,#in6class#activities,#

tutorials,#lecture#notes,#exams,#and#homeworks.##

#

4.#Course#Materials#for#junior6level#E&M:#

# http://www.colorado.edu/sei/departments/physics_3310.htm#

# includes#learning#goals,#student#difficulties,#clicker#questions,#in6class#activities,#

tutorials,#lecture#notes,#exams,#and#homeworks.##

#

5.#Course#Materials#for#junior6level#Quantum:#

# http://www.colorado.edu/sei/departments/physics_3220.htm#

# includes#learning#goals,#student#difficulties,#clicker#questions,#in6class#activities,#

tutorials,#lecture#notes,#exams,#and#homeworks.#

#

#

In(this(packet,#examples#including:#

• Learning#Goals#

• Example#Clicker#Questions#

• Example#Homework#–#with#modifications#highlighted#

• Example#Tutorial#Excerpt#

#

#

#

Funding#for#this#work#provided#by#University#of#Colorado’s#

Science#Education#Initiative#and#NSF#CCLI#Grant#No.#0737118.

Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do

not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

expansion is appropriate to approximate a solution, and complete a Taylor Series to

two terms.

…5c. Symmetries: Students should be able to recognize symmetries and be able to

take advantage of them in order to choose the appropriate method for solving a

problem (eg., when to use Gauss’ Law, when to use separation of variables in a

particular coordinate system).

…5d. Integration: Given a physical situation, students should be able to write

down the required partial differential equation, or line, surface or volume integral,

and correctly calculate the answer.

…5e. Superposition: Students should recognize that – in a linear system – the

solutions may be formed by superposition of components.

6. Problem-solving strategy: Students should be able to draw upon an organized set of

content knowledge (LG#3), and apply problem-solving techniques (LG#4) to that

knowledge in order to organize and carry out long analyses of physical problems. They

should be able to connect the pieces of a problem to reach the final solution. They should

recognize that wrong turns are valuable in learning the material, be able to recover from

their mistakes, and persist in working to the solution even though they don’t necessarily

see the path to the solution when they begin the problem. Students should be able to

articulate what it is that needs to be solved in a particular problem and know when they

have solved it.

7. Expecting and checking solution: When appropriate for a given problem, students

should be able to articulate their expectations for the solution to a problem, such as

direction of the field, dependence on coordinate variables, and behavior at large

distances. For all problems, students should be able to justify the reasonableness of a

solution they have reached, by methods such as checking the symmetry of the solution,

looking at limiting or special cases, relating to cases with known solutions, checking

units, dimensional analysis, and/or checking the scale/order of magnitude of the answer.

8. Intellectual maturity: Students should accept responsibility for their own learning.

They should be aware of what they do and don’t understand about physical phenomena

and classes of problem. This is evidenced by asking sophisticated, specific questions;

being able to articulate where in a problem they experienced difficulty; and take action to

move beyond that difficulty.

9. Maxwell’s Equations. Students should see the various laws in the course as part of the

coherent field theory of electromagnetism; ie., Maxwell’s equations.

10. Build on Earlier Material. Students should deepen their understanding of Phys 1120

material. I.e., the course should build on earlier material.

OVERALL COURSE OBJECTIVES:

CALCULATION AND COMPUTATION

Students will be able to:

- Compute gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian

- Evaluate line, surface, and volume integrals

- Apply the fundamental theorem for divergences (Gauss’ Theorem) in specific situations

- Apply the fundamental theorem for curls (Stoke’s Theorem) in specific situations

- Apply Coulomb’s Law and superposition principle to calculate electric field due to a

continuous charge distribution (uniformly charged line segment, circular or square loop,

sphere, etc.)

- Apply Gauss’ Law to compute electric field due to symmetric charge distribution

- Calculate electric field from electric potential and vice versa

- Compute the potential of a localized charge distribution

- Determine the surface charge distribution on a conductor in equilibrium

- Use method of images to determine the potential in a region

- Solve Laplace’s equation to determine the potential in a region given the potential or

charge distribution at the boundary (Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical coordinates)

- Use multipole expansion to determine the leading contribution to the potential at large

distances from a charge distribution

- Calculate the field of a polarized object

- Find the location and amount of all bound charges in a dielectric material

- Apply Biot-Savart Law and Ampere’s Law to compute magnetic field due to a current

distribution

- Compute vector potential of a localized current distribution using multipole expansion

- Calculate magnetic field from the vector potential

- Calculate the field of a magnetized object

- Compute the bound surface and volume currents in a magnetized object

- Compute magnetization, H field, susceptibility and permeability

D) None of these!!

To find E at P from a sphere (radius R,

uniform volume charge density µ) using

what is (given the small

volume element shown)?

E =

1

4tc

0

1

9

2

}

ˆ

9 µ dt'

P=(X,Y,Z)

x

y

z

(x,y,z)

R

A

B

C

9

2.14

1

Griffiths p. 63 finds E a distance z from a

line segment with charge density ì:

What is the approx. form for E, if z<<L?

A) 0 B) 1 C) 1/z D) 1/z^2

E) None of these is remotely correct.

x

(0,0,z)

E =

1

4tc

0

2ìL

z z

2

+ L

2

ˆ

k

-L +L

E =

2ì

4tc

0

· (...)

2.16

2

A point charge (q) is located at position R,

as shown. What is µ(r), the charge

density in all space?

q

origin

R

A) µ(

r ) = qo

3

(

R )

C) µ(

r ) = qo

3

(

r ÷

R )

B) µ(

r ) = qo

3

(

r )

D) µ(

r ) = qo

3

(

R ÷

r )

E) None of these/more than one/???

2.24

3

Which of the following could be a static

physical E-field in a small region?

I

II

A) Both B) Only I

C) Only II D) Neither

E) ??

2.43b/1.7b

4

3.9 Two grounded conducting slabs meet

at right angles. How many image

charges are needed to solve for V(r)?

+Q

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) more than three

E) Method of images

won't work here

r

5

How does V(x,y) compare, 4 m above the middle

of the base in the two troughs?

A) Same in each

B) 4x bigger in #1 C) 4x bigger in #2

D) much bigger in #1 E) much bigger in #2

3.14

1 m

#1

#2

V

0

V

0

4 m

x

y

V(x, y) =

4V

0

t

1

n

n=1,3,5...

·

¿

sin(ntx / a)e

÷nt y / a

6

Which charge distributions below produce

a potential which looks like C/r

2

when you

are far away?

+2q

-q

A)

+2q

-2q

B)

-q

+q

C)

q

-q

-q

+2q

-q

D)

E) None of these, or more than one of these!

(Note: for any which you did not select, how

DO they behave at large r?)

3.26

7

An ideal (large) capacitor has charge Q.

A neutral linear dielectric is inserted into

the gap (with given dielectric constant)

4.6

g

+Q

-Q

Where is D discontinuous?

i) near the free charges

on the plates

ii) near the bound charges

on the dielectric surface

A) i only B) ii only

C) both i and ii (but nowhere else)

D) both i and ii but also other places

E) none of these/other/???

8

An infinitely long, solid non-conducting

dielectric rod has been injected ("doped")

with a fixed, known charge distribution µ(s).

(The material responds, polarizing internally)

A) "free charge"

B) "bound charge"

C) Neither of these - a given µ(s) is

already some combination...

D) ???

4.8

µ(s)

When computing D in the rod, do you

treat this µ(s) as the "free charges" or

"bound charges" or neither?

9

A wire loop in a B field has a current I.

The mass is "levitated" by the magnetic force

F(mag)=ILb. If you increase the current , does

the magnetic force do positive work on the

mass?

A) Yes

B) No

B (into page, uniform)

I

m

5.4

L

10

A "ribbon" (width a) of surface current

flows (with surface current density K)

Right next to it is a second identical

ribbon of current.

Viewed collectively, what is the new

total surface current density?

A) K

B) 2K

C) K/2

D) Something else

a

5.8

11

The leading term in the vector potential

multipole expansion involves

What is the magnitude of this integral?

d

l '

}

A) R

B) 2 t R

C) 0

D) Something entirely different/it depends!

5.30

12

Excerpts from E&M I, HW #4.

Highlights indicate contrasts with typical "textbook problems".

Q1. NONUNIFORM SURFACE CHARGE

We typically consider cases in class where charge is distributed completely uniformly, but

it's not always that way - let's consider an insulating sphere (radius R) with surface charge

density o=o

0

sin

2

(u) cos

2

(|).

- Find the total charge, and describe (words and pictures!) what this distribution "looks like".

- Then, briefly but clearly, describe a procedure to find E(x,0,0) (for x>R).

Note: no need for a final closed-form answer! We just want a discussion, with formulas, of

how to proceed. Get as far as you reasonably can, stop when it gets nasty, and discuss what

you would do next if you really needed to know this E field in a lab/experimental situation.

Q2. DIVERGENCE AND CURL

Consider a field E =

c

r

r

2

(which is NOT the field from a point charge at the origin, right?!)

a) Sketch it. Calculate the divergence and the curl of this E field. Test your answers by using

the divergence theorem and Stoke's theorem. Is there a delta function at the origin like there

was for a point charge field, or not?

b) What are the units of c? What charge distribution would you need to produce an E field

like this? Describe it in words as well as formulas. (Is it physically realizable?)

Q3. ALLOWED E FIELDS

Which of the following two static E-fields is physically impossible. Why?

i) E = c(2x

ˆ

i ÷ x

ˆ

j + y

ˆ

k ) ii) E = c(2x

ˆ

i + z

ˆ

j + y

ˆ

k ) where c is a constant (with

appropriate units) For the one which IS possible, find the potential V(r), using the origin as

your reference point (i.e. setting V(0)=0) Check by explicitly computing the gradient of V.

Q4. FINDING VOLTAGE FROM CHARGE DISTRIBUTION

a) Find a formula for the potential V(z) everywhere along the symmetry-axis of a charged

ring (radius a, centered on the z-axis, with uniform linear charge density ì around the ring)

Please use the method of direct integration to do this, and set your reference point to be

V()=0. Sketch V(z). How does V(z) behave as z÷ ? (Don't just say it goes to 0. HOW

does it go to zero? Does your answer make physical sense to you? Briefly, explain.)

b) Use your result from part a for V(0,0,z) to find the z-component of the E field anywhere

along the z-axis. What is the Voltage at the origin? What is the E field right at the origin?

Do both of these results (for V, and E, at the origin) make physical sense to you, and are they

consistent with each other? Explain briefly!

Q5. CALCULATING VOLTAGE FROM E FIELD

Last week, we investigated the electric field outside an infinite line that runs along the z-axis,

E =

2ì

4tc

0

s

s

2

. a) This field may look similar to Q2 above, but it is not the same - how is it

different? Find the potential V(s) for points a distance "s" away from the z-axis.

(Note: you will have to have to be careful to compute a difference of potentials between two

points to avoid integrals which are infinite! You'll discuss this in part b)

- Check your answer by explicitly taking the gradient of V to make sure it gives you E.

b) Discuss the question of "reference point": where did you set V=0? Can you use s=, or

s=0, as the reference point, V(s)=0, here? How would your answer change if I told you that I

wanted you to set V=0 at a distance s=3 meters away from the z-axis? Why is there trouble

setting V()=0? (our usual choice), or V(0)=0 (often our second choice)?

Excerpts from E&M I, HW #4.

Highlights indicate contrasts with typical "textbook problems".

c) A typical Colorado lightning bolt might transfer a few Coulombs of charge in a stroke.

Although lightning is clearly not remotely "electrostatic", let's pretend it is - consider a brief

period during the stroke, and assume all the charges are fairly uniformly distributed in a long

thin line. If you see the lightning stroke, and then a few seconds later hear the thunder, make

a very rough estimate of the resulting voltage difference across a distance the size of your

heart. Why is this not worrisome? What's the model? I am thinking of a lightning strike as

looking rather like a long uniform line of charge... You've done the "physics" of this in the

previous parts! (But e.g., you need a numerical estimate for ì. How long might that

lightning bolt be? For estimation problems, don't worry about the small details, you can be

off by 3, or even 10, I just don't want you off by factors of 1000's!)

Q6. SCREENED POTENTIAL

Consider the “screened Coulomb potential” of a point charge of charge q that arises, e.g. in

plasma physics: V(r) =

q

4tc

0

e

÷r / ì

r

, where is a constant (called the screening length).

a) Determine the E-field E(r) associated with this potential.

b) Find the charge distribution (r) that produces this potential. (Think carefully about what

happens at the origin!) Sketch this function (r) in a manner the clearly describes its

characteristics (i.e. what’s the best way of representing this three-dimensional charge

distribution? Use it, and explain what you’re plotting).

c) Show by explicit calculation over (r) that the net charge represented by this distribution

is zero (!) (If you don't get zero, think again about what happens at r=0)

- Verify this result using the integral form of Gauss’ law (i.e. integrate your electric flux over

a very large spherical surface. By Gauss, that should tell you Q(enclosed) )

Extra credit (worth half of any of the above, but won't count off if you don't do it)

It is possible to separate normal seeds from discolored ones (or foreign objects) by means of

a device that operates as follows. The seeds drop one by one between a pair of photocells. If

the color is wrong, a needle deposits a small charge on the seed. The seeds then fall between

a pair of electrically charged plates that deflect the undesired ones into a separate bin. (One

such machine can sort about 2 metric tons per 24 hour day!) If 100 seeds fall per sec, over

what distance must they fall if they are to be spaced vertically by 20 mm when they pass

between the photocells? Then: Assume the seeds acquire a charge of 1nC, the deflecting

plates are parallel and a few cm apart, the potential difference between them is 10 kVolts,

and the charging needle and the top of the deflecting plates are close to the photocell.

How far should the plates extend below the charging needle? Why? (what assumptions are

you making?)

TUTORIAL: FOURIER SERIES

Page 1 of 4

© University of Colorado - Boulder Contact: Steven.Pollock@Colorado.EDU

Fourier Series

A common way to write a function as a Fourier series is:

€

f (t) = a

n

cos(nωt)

n=0

∞

∑

+ b

n

sin(nωt)

n=1

∞

∑

(1)

Part 1

Sketch f(t) for the following cases:

(Please label the axis and include labeled tick marks)

a) a

0

= 2, all the other a

n

’s and b

n

’s = 0.

b) a

0

= 1, b

1

= 2, all the other a

n

’s and b

n

’s = 0. Assume

€

ω =1 in Equation (1).

TUTORIAL: FOURIER SERIES

Page 2 of 4

© University of Colorado - Boulder Contact: Steven.Pollock@Colorado.EDU

c) a

2

= 3, all the other a

n

’s and b

n

’s = 0. Assume

€

ω =1 in Equation (1).

Part 2

€

f (t) = a

n

cos(nωt)

n=0

∞

∑

+ b

n

sin(nωt)

n=1

∞

∑ (1)

Given f(t), as written or drawn below, tell us, without calculations, anything you

know about the a

n

’s and b

n

’s. You can just answer qualitatively – are some

definitely zero, positive, negative? Assume

€

ω =1 in Equation (1).

a)

€

f (t) = 3cos(17t)

What do you know about the a

n

’s and b

n

’s?

b)

What do you know about the a

n

’s and b

n

’s?

TUTORIAL: FOURIER SERIES

Page 3 of 4

© University of Colorado - Boulder Contact: Steven.Pollock@Colorado.EDU

c)

€

f (t) =

1, ( t <

π

2

)

−1, (π > t >

π

2

)

$

%

&

'

&

(

)

&

&

*

&

&

, outside this region it repeats, so

€

f (t +2π) = f (t).

What do you know about the a

n

’s and b

n

’s? (Hint: it might help to draw this

function over a couple of periods in both positive and negative t.)

Part 3

Given the function above for f(t), what would you choose for

€

ω

in the general

form for the Fourier series:

€

f (t) = a

n

cos(nωt)

n=0

∞

∑

+ b

n

sin(nωt)

n=1

∞

∑

?

Please explain your answer:

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