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Department of Textile Engineering

Industrial Attachment
PARTEX DENIM LTD.
Banglabazar, Gazipur, Bangladesh

PARTEX DENIM LTD.


Banglabazar, Gazipur

Internship: May 20, 2011 to August 20, 2011

Prepared by:

Mohammad Israfil Alam


Shift Engineer (Weaving) PARTEX DENIM LIMITED E-mail: israfil_tex@yahoo.com Cell: 01717123339

Supervising Faculty:

Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan Chairman Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Banani, Dhaka Cell No.: 01711-698261

Industrial Supervisor:

Mr. Zainul Abedin Bhuyan Joy A.G.M (Weaving) Partex Denim Ltd. Banglabazar, Joydevpur, Gazipur

PARTEX DENIM Table of Contents


Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Company Profile .......................................................................................................................................................... 12 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 PARTEX HOLDINGS: .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Enterprises of Partex Holdings: ....................................................................................................................... 14 PARTEX DENIM LTD: ......................................................................................................................................... 15 Work-Time Schedule of the Factory: .............................................................................................................. 15 Satellite View: ................................................................................................................................................... 17 Factory Layout: ................................................................................................................................................. 18 Company Organogram: .................................................................................................................................... 21 Process Flow Chart ........................................................................................................................................... 23 Types of yarn used: .......................................................................................................................................... 25 Yarn count used:............................................................................................................................................... 25 Supplier of the Yarn:......................................................................................................................................... 25 Yarn Store Layout: ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Definition: ......................................................................................................................................................... 28 Objects of Warping:.......................................................................................................................................... 28 Importance of Warping:................................................................................................................................... 28 Types of Warping:............................................................................................................................................. 28 Direct Warping: ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Indirect or Sectional Warping:................................................................................................................ 29 Ball Warping: ........................................................................................................................................... 30 Draw Warping:......................................................................................................................................... 30 Difference between High speed warping and Sectional warping:................................................................ 30 Warping in Partex Denim:................................................................................................................................ 31 Machine Specifications: .......................................................................................................................... 31 Warping Section Layout: ......................................................................................................................... 32 Machine Main Parts: ............................................................................................................................... 33 Functions of Different Parts: .................................................................................................................. 33 Briefly Description of Different Parts:............................................................................................................. 34 Creel: ........................................................................................................................................................ 34 Comparison between H creel & V creel:................................................................................................ 34 Rods:......................................................................................................................................................... 35

Process Flow.................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Yarn Store ...................................................................................................................................................................... 24

Warping ........................................................................................................................................................................... 27

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PARTEX DENIM
4.7.4 4.7.5 4.7.6 4.7.7 4.7.8 4.7.9 4.7.10 4.8 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.7 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.8.5 5.8.6 5.8.7 5.9 5.10 Chain system:........................................................................................................................................... 35 Control Devices: ...................................................................................................................................... 35 Headstock: ............................................................................................................................................... 35 Dust and Fly Accumulation Unit:............................................................................................................ 37 Warping Plan: .......................................................................................................................................... 37 Warping Procedure: ................................................................................................................................ 37 Count wise Drum Pressure: .................................................................................................................... 38 Calculations:...................................................................................................................................................... 38 Definition: ......................................................................................................................................................... 42 Objects of Dyeing: ............................................................................................................................................ 42 Theory of Dyeing: ............................................................................................................................................. 42 Denim Dyeing: .................................................................................................................................................. 42 Dyes use for Denim: ......................................................................................................................................... 43 Vat Dyes: .................................................................................................................................................. 43 Sulphur Dyes:........................................................................................................................................... 45 Denim Dyeing Process:..................................................................................................................................... 47 Rope Dyeing:............................................................................................................................................ 47 Slasher Dyeing: ........................................................................................................................................ 49 Loop Dyeing: ............................................................................................................................................ 50 Difference between Slasher and Rope Dyeing:.............................................................................................. 50 Sizing:................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Definition: ................................................................................................................................................ 51 Objects of Sizing: ..................................................................................................................................... 51 Changes in Yarn due to Sizing: ............................................................................................................... 52 Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving? ................................................................................................. 52 Techniques of Sizing:............................................................................................................................... 52 Types of sizing according to application:............................................................................................... 53 Size Ingredients and their function: ....................................................................................................... 53 Dyeing & Sizing in Partex Denim: .................................................................................................................... 56 Machine Specification: ..................................................................................................................................... 57 Creel section: ........................................................................................................................................... 59 Benlink: .................................................................................................................................................... 60 Accumulator: ........................................................................................................................................... 60 Pre treatment: ......................................................................................................................................... 61 Pre-Washing (1-3 box): ........................................................................................................................... 62 Dyeing: ..................................................................................................................................................... 63

Dyeing & Sizing ............................................................................................................................................................ 41

5.10.1 5.10.2 5.10.3 5.10.4 5.10.5 5.10.6

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PARTEX DENIM
5.10.7 5.10.8 5.10.9 5.10.10 5.10.11 5.10.12 5.10.13 5.10.14 5.10.15 5.10.16 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.9 6.9.1 6.9.2 Drying Zone:............................................................................................................................................. 69 Accumulator: ........................................................................................................................................... 69 Sizing: ....................................................................................................................................................... 69 Size Cooking Process: ......................................................................................................................... 70 Drying Zone: ........................................................................................................................................ 72 Accumulator:....................................................................................................................................... 72 Leasing Zone: ...................................................................................................................................... 72 Expansion Comb: ................................................................................................................................ 72 Beaming:.............................................................................................................................................. 72 Transportation of Beams: .................................................................................................................. 72

Functions of chemicals used in Yarn dyeing:.................................................................................................. 73 Equipments used in dyeing lab:....................................................................................................................... 74 Chemicals used for dyeing and sizing: ............................................................................................................ 75 Calculation: ....................................................................................................................................................... 76 Definition: ......................................................................................................................................................... 78 Basic Weave Designs: ....................................................................................................................................... 78 Plain Weave: ............................................................................................................................................ 78 Twill Weave: ............................................................................................................................................ 79 Classification of Modern Weaving Machines: ................................................................................................ 79 Air-Jet Weaving: ...................................................................................................................................... 80 Rapier Weaving: ...................................................................................................................................... 80 Projectile Weaving: ................................................................................................................................. 81 Water-Jet Weaving:................................................................................................................................. 81 Weaving in Partex Denim: ............................................................................................................................... 81 Specification of Airjet:............................................................................................................................. 82 Specification of Rapier: ........................................................................................................................... 82 Looming:............................................................................................................................................................ 83 Drawing-In:........................................................................................................................................................ 83 Tying-In:............................................................................................................................................................. 83 Basic Motion: .................................................................................................................................................... 83 Primary Motions:..................................................................................................................................... 84 Secondary Mechanisms: ......................................................................................................................... 92 Tertiary Mechanisms: ............................................................................................................................. 93 Special Features of PICANOL: .......................................................................................................................... 94 Unique Sumo main motor: ..................................................................................................................... 94 Picanol PC Suite: ...................................................................................................................................... 94

Weaving ........................................................................................................................................................................... 77

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PARTEX DENIM
6.9.3 6.9.4 6.9.5 6.9.6 6.9.7 6.9.8 6.9.9 6.9.10 6.9.11 6.9.12 6.9.13 6.9.14 6.9.15 6.9.16 6.9.17 6.9.18 6.9.19 6.10 6.11 6.12 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 7.5.5 7.5.6 7.5.7 7.5.8 7.5.9 Automatic full pick finding:..................................................................................................................... 95 Exchangeable shed formation:............................................................................................................... 95 Electronic Let-Off and Take-Up: ............................................................................................................. 95 Easy fitting and removal of warp beam and cloth roll: ........................................................................ 95 Perfect lubrication:.................................................................................................................................. 95 Double pressure roller: ........................................................................................................................... 95 Optimized sley drive: .............................................................................................................................. 96 Electronic Selvedge System and Electronic Rotary Leno:..................................................................... 96 Quick Step filling presenter (Rapier): ..................................................................................................... 96 CANplus prewinders (Airjet): .................................................................................................................. 96 Programmable Filling Tensioner (Airjet):............................................................................................... 96 Clamp on the movable main nozzle (Airjet): ......................................................................................... 96 Argus filling detector (Airjet): ................................................................................................................. 97 Fixed and movable main nozzles (Airjet):.............................................................................................. 97 New relay nozzles and valves (Airjet): ................................................................................................... 97 Adaptive Relay Valve Drive (Airjet): ....................................................................................................... 97 Stretch nozzle (Airjet): ............................................................................................................................ 98

Different Parts Manufacturers Name: ............................................................................................................ 98 Selvedge: ........................................................................................................................................................... 99 Calculation: ..................................................................................................................................................... 100 Definition: ....................................................................................................................................................... 103 Objects of Finishing: ....................................................................................................................................... 103 Types of finishing:........................................................................................................................................... 103 Physical/Mechanical Finishing: ............................................................................................................ 103 Chemical Finishing:................................................................................................................................ 103 Finishing In Partex Denim: ............................................................................................................................. 104 Process Sequence of Denim Finish Line:....................................................................................................... 106 Brushing: ................................................................................................................................................ 106 J-Box: ...................................................................................................................................................... 106 Singeing:................................................................................................................................................. 106 Softening: ............................................................................................................................................... 109 Skewness Control: ................................................................................................................................. 109 Dryer:...................................................................................................................................................... 112 Stenter: .................................................................................................................................................. 112 Sanforizing: ............................................................................................................................................ 112 Calendaring:........................................................................................................................................... 114

Finishing........................................................................................................................................................................ 102

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PARTEX DENIM
7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.7 7.8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2 9.3 10.1 10.2 Mercerization: ................................................................................................................................................ 115 Physio-chemical changes during mercerization:................................................................................. 116 Advantages of mercerization: .............................................................................................................. 116 Effect of mercerizing condition: ........................................................................................................... 116 Desizing: .......................................................................................................................................................... 117 Resin Finishing: ............................................................................................................................................... 118 Inspection in Partex Denim:........................................................................................................................... 120 Inspection Process:......................................................................................................................................... 120 Four (4) Point System: .................................................................................................................................... 120 Machinery Description:.................................................................................................................................. 121 Major Fabric Faults:........................................................................................................................................ 123 Quality Assurance Procedure: ....................................................................................................................... 126 R & D Department in Partex Denim: ............................................................................................................. 128 Developed Samples: ....................................................................................................................................... 129 Name of some Buyers: ................................................................................................................................... 131 Denim Washing: ............................................................................................................................................. 133 Types of Denim Wash: ................................................................................................................................... 134 Desizing: ................................................................................................................................................. 136 Bleaching:............................................................................................................................................... 137 Stone wash: ........................................................................................................................................... 138 Enzyme wash: ........................................................................................................................................ 140 Sand Blasting: ........................................................................................................................................ 141 Acid wash: .............................................................................................................................................. 141

Inspection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 119

Research & Development ...................................................................................................................................... 127

Denim Wash ................................................................................................................................................................. 132

10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 11.1

Denim Washing in Partex Denim:.................................................................................................................. 143 Chemical Used for Washing:.......................................................................................................................... 144 Machine used in washing unit:...................................................................................................................... 145 Most Common Denim Washes:..................................................................................................................... 147 Definition: ....................................................................................................................................................... 154 Water Supply: ........................................................................................................................................ 154 Boiler: ..................................................................................................................................................... 155 Generator: ............................................................................................................................................. 156 Air Compressor:..................................................................................................................................... 157 Chiller: .................................................................................................................................................... 160

Utilities .......................................................................................................................................................................... 153 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 11.1.5

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PARTEX DENIM
11.1.6 Humidification Plant: ............................................................................................................................ 162

Effluent Treatment Plant ................................................................................................................................. 163 Process Flow Chart: ................................................................................................................................................. 166 11.2 11.3 11.4 12.1 12.2 Pre-Treatment ................................................................................................................................................ 167 Primary-Treatment ......................................................................................................................................... 167 Secondary-Treatment .................................................................................................................................... 168 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................... 172 Types of Maintenance:................................................................................................................................... 172 Reactive/Break-down Maintenance: ................................................................................................... 172 Preventive/Schedule Maintenance:..................................................................................................... 173 Predictive/Planned Maintenance: ....................................................................................................... 173 Capital Replacement: ............................................................................................................................ 174

Maintenance ................................................................................................................................................................. 171

12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 12.3 12.4

Functions/Elements of Maintenance Department: ..................................................................................... 175 Requirements for Good Maintenance: ......................................................................................................... 176

Store & Inventory Control ................................................................................................................................... 177 Marketing Activities................................................................................................................................................ 180 Security ......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 Quality Assurance..................................................................................................................................................... 186 Discussion ..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................................... 193 References: ................................................................................................................................................................... 194

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PARTEX DENIM

Acknowledgement
Firstly I would like to thank the Almighty Allah for giving me patience to conclude my internship program & finally this industrial attachment. Preparing the internship report based on Fabric Manufacturing Technology (Denim), I have understood that it is very difficult to find out the basic and fundamental aspects of fabric manufacturing are largely distant from the theoretical bookish knowledge. I express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. M. S. Hasan, General Manager, Partex DenimLtd. for giving me permission for industrial training in his mill. I am also thankful to Mr. ZainulAbedinBhuyan, A. G. M. (Weaving), for his cordial support during the period of internship. After him I would like to thank Mr. Rafat Bin Hasan for his guideline and endless help. My gathered knowledge about denim washing will not successful without his help. From Preparatory Section I would like to thank Mr. Alamgir (Warping), Mr. Akash (Warping), Mr. Aziz (Dyeing) for their guideline about Warping, Dyeing & Sizing process. From Weaving Section I would like to thank Mr. Radhakanta Paul (Manager) & Mr. Sukanta Kumar (Asst. manager) for their support. They helped me a lot about learning weaving process both airjet and rapier loom. I would like to thank Mr. MahfuzurRahman (Manager) from finishing section, Mr. Masud& Mr. Kaium from R&D department. I have learned so many things form R&D department. Without their help it will difficult for me to understanding the whole process. Special Thanks to Mr. Mogh (A.G.M) from utility section. I have learned so many things in this section specially ETP. I am very grateful and deeply indebted to our respected teacher Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan, Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University for his continuous support, encouragement, suggestion, guidance and constructive criticism to get through the industrial training. I thank to the management of Partex Denim Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to undergo Industrial Training there. Thus all in all it can be said that without their help it would not be possible for me to prepare this internship report. So I would like to convey thanks notation to all who directly or indirectly contributed and inspired me to time to time in preparing the report.
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My gratitude also goes to all the employees of Partex Denim Ltd. for their sincere co-operation, support and valuable advice which they have provided me during the training period.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

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Cell: 01717123339

PARTEX DENIM

Introduction
If the theoretical knowledge is a glass of water then the practical knowledge would be drinking of water. It is always very easy to make a man understand about a firebox by showing and lighting practically rather than describing theoretically who has not ever seen a firebox. So, for any technical education the practical experience is the most important as well as the theoretical knowledge. As we are studying in a technical line, it is always important for us to gather the practical knowledge. Through our study life the only biggest chance for us to combine the theoretical knowledge with the practical knowledge is the Industrial Attachment Period that comes only once in the education life when completing under graduate education. So we can easily realize the importance of Industrial Attachment. And in addition the knowledge we gathered from the industrial training reflects in the report of industrial attachment note book. So industrial attachment is the process where a trainee can blend his theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge which increased the ability of work, skills, performance and attitude and so on. It also provides sufficient knowledge about production management, productivity evaluation, work study & efficiency, industrial management, production planning and control, production cost analysis, inventory management, utility, maintenance and so on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and also improve courage and inspiration to take selfresponsibility. I have tried to my best to prepare this note book applying our best efforts. I have tried to gather all the necessary information to make it a valuable for me as well as for everyone. I think it will help me a lot in future practical life.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter One

Company Profile

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1.1 PARTEX HOLDINGS:


Partex Holdings is a conglomerate comprising 20 companies across diverse industries. Adjusting to the ever changing global environment, it is an exodus from patrimonial management system to professional management system, using the Partex name as a springboard that has been respected in Bangladesh for 50 years for its adherence to strong values and business ethics. Founded by Mr. M.A. Hashem in 1959, the mother ship PARTEXS early years were inspired by the spirit of nationalism. Initially a major importer of consumer products and materials, fast transition to import substitution made it possible to become pioneer in several industries of national importance in newly independent Bangladesh. In more recent times, its pioneering spirit has been showcased by PARTEX HOLDINGS, with direction from the competent next family generation comprising Mr. Aziz Al-Kaiser, Mr. Aziz Al-Mahmood, Mr. Aziz Al-Masud, Mr. Showkat Aziz Russell & Mr. Rubel Aziz. PARTEX HOLDINGS companies now operate in business sectors like communications and information technology, energy, materials, services and consumer products. The major Partex Holdings companies are Partex Plastics, Partex Denim, Partex Beverage, Amber Pulp, Amber Cotton, Partex Foundry Ltd., Partex Rotor Spinning Mills, Partex Spinning Mills, Dhakacom Limited, Partex Sugar Mills Ltd., Partex Paper Mills Ltd. We are, by and large, based in Bangladesh and have significant international clients. In tandem with the increasing international footprint of PARTEX HOLDINGS companies, the Partex flagship is also gaining international recognition. In a short span of time, PARTEX HOLDINGS concerns have shown incomparable success. Partex Beverage Ltd. has positioned at the 2nd position in the local beverage market being the sole official bottler of Royal Crown Cola Co. To cater international demand, Partex Denim has been supplying 3 million yards per month with minimum lead time, superior quality at the best price, color consistency and meticulous packaging. Our IT services are to cover all 64 districts by end of 2010 through Dhaka com, which is also connected to all major Telecom Carriers in the country. Going forward, Partex Holdings is focusing on new technologies and innovation to drive its business in Bangladesh and internationally. Anchored in Bangladesh and wedded to traditional values and strong ethics, Partex Holdings companies are building multinational businesses that will achieve growth through excellence and innovation, while balancing the interests of shareholders, employees and civil society.
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PARTEX DENIM

1.2 Enterprises of Partex Holdings:


Textiles
Partex Rotor Spinning Mills Limited Partex Spinning Mills Limited Partex Rotor Mills Limited Amber Cotton Mills Limited Partex Denim Limited

Food & Beverages


Partex Sugar Mills Limited Partex Beverages

Plastics
uPVC Pipes & Fittings PP-R Pipes & Fittings Plastic Furniture Superware Accessories

Paper
Amber Paper & Pulp Mills Limited

Real Estate
Partex Real Estate Limited

ICT
DhakaCom Limited BEPS Radio Dhaka

Trading
Partex Trading & Shipping Limited

Agro Business
Fisheries Agriculture Partex Foundry Limited

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PARTEX DENIM

1.3 PARTEX DENIM LIMITED:

Company Profile
Company Name Company Status Owner Year of Establishment Factory Location Corporate Office
: PARTEX DENIM LTD. : Private : Mr. M.A.Hashem : 2005 : Banglabazar, Joydevpur, Gazipur. : House # 37, Road # 01, Block # 1, Banani Dhaka-1213,Bangladesh Web: www.Partexholding.com : Fabric Manufacturing : Denim Fabric : 22 million yards : 30 million US dollar : 30 acres : Steel structure surrounded by brick wall : 1200(250 executive & officers)

Type of Factory Product Annual Production Project Cost Total Area Structure Total Employee

1.4 Work-Time Schedule of the Factory:


The Factory Runs 24 Hour A Day. It Maintains A Tight Work Schedule. That Is Shown In The Chart.

Section
Warping Dyeing Weaving Finishing Utility Security Stuff & Commercial Top Management

Number of Shift
2 3 3 2 3 3 General Shift General Shift

Duration
12 hours each 8 hours each 8 hours each 12 hours each 8 hours each 8 hours each 9 a.m. 5 p.m. 9 a.m. 5 p.m.

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PARTEX DENIM

Factory Location Map


Mirzapur Bazar

Bangla Bazar

IM EN EX D RT PA

. LTD

gh s in en ym y -M h wa ka ha Hig D

Rajendrapur Chourasta

Chandra
Ka pa s ia

Gazipur Chourasta

National Park

Joydebpur Railway Station

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gi on a-T d ak a Dh R o

PARTEX DENIM

1.5 Satellite View:

WTP

Humidification Plant

ETP

Weaving Utility

Finishing Dyeing & Sizing Fabric Store

Warping Entrance Gate

Yarn Store

Garden

Play ground

Admin Office

Main Gate

Buyer rest house

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PARTEX DENIM

1.6 Factory Layout:


Total Space: 212500 square feet

A= Front Gate B=Mosque C=Sewing section D=Doctor E=Electrical office F=Finishing office S=Spare parts K=Washing unit W=Weaving office

M=Mechanical office T=Toilet R=Coating chemical store G=Gate H=Warping & Sizing office = Gate

Rapier loom

Airjet loom

625 feet

Desizing

Resin Finishing

Mercerizing
340 feet

Inspection& Packing Denim Finish Line 2

Denim Finish Line 1 R&D

Creeling
Warping

Dyeing & Sizing

Dyeing Lab

Creeling

Dyeing & Sizing

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PARTEX DENIM
Partex Denim is a Premium Denim producer. It commenced its production in 2005 with the best and latest machinery available in the world. The current capacity is two Million yards of Fabric per month.

Figure: Front View of Partex Denim Ltd. On the fabric side, our product range includes weights from 4.5 ozs up to 14.5 ozs using multi-count/ multi twist ring/open-end yarn using CAIPO technology. We have two worlds best BenningerSlasher Indigo dye range from Switzerland and Germany, which are capable of doing colored bottoming/topping reactive colored denim/Sandwich/plus very deep indigo shades. Weaving is done on machines from Picanol Belgium.

Figure: Weaving Section

Figure: Dyeing Section

Most modern Weaving machines both in rapier and airjet version to get good productivity and to make trouble free fabric even if it is made with coarser slub or spandex. Picanol Omniplus 800 and GamMax rapier from Belgium where used some special device as per our requirement which can help to produce better fabric than others mill though they used also same machine. The loom shed is totally humidified and temperature controlled with enough air circulation and sufficient pressure to help machine and yarn to make better fabric and always make the shed clean. On the finishing side, we have Cibitex which is the most modern finishing range introduced in Bangladesh for the first time by Partex. It has mini Stenter to keep fabric width same without any variation. Sufficient brushing, singeing in both side, high quality skew device, bigger padder, sanforizer and compacting device to make the fabric more clean and maintain shrinkage properly. Partex was the pioneer of starting Flat finish fabric commercially in Bangladesh and is capable of doing a variation in the

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PARTEX DENIM
flat quality as per the buyers requirement. They can make Soft Finish, Flat Finish and Super Flat as well. This machine was specially designed as per Partexs requirement. Partex gives importance to inspection machines also. To control proper tension and easy handling. Partex uses most modern machines with conveyer belt with auto wrapping and packing. On the quality side, Partex uses most modern and efficient lab instruments from Atlas UK which is operated by trained technicians. The variable light box, Spectrophotometer, Rubbing tester, Washing Fastness, Tensile strength tester etc. gives accurate results and helps to keep quality good and more consistent. On the development side, the R&D department is independent and equipped to promptly invent new designs for new fashion and develop buyers requirements timely. This department keeps all documents from dyeing recipe to fabric construction and keeps master roll to keep shade in same consistent even over a longer discontinuity. Partex always researches to develop new fashion as per the world requirement as well as to maintain comfort & durability. Partex is manufacturing all kinds of denim fabrics in rigid and stretch in the following versions: Non flat, Flat Super flat, Resin coated, Pigment coated, Over Dyed, PU coated, ECRU denim, RFD denim, Ash colored denim, Reactive colored denim, Color denim. Partex is manufacturing bi-stretch commercially for the first time in Bangladesh and coming soon with Organic denim fabric. There is no end in fashion. They are also in the process of making Linen denim, viscose denim and so on. On the environment side, Partex maintains a state of the art Water and Effluent Treatment Plant meeting toughest international standards and always looks to make the working environment greener. It has plenty of lush trees surrounding the plant premises. Partex maintains labor laws, gives all facilities like medical, housing, leave, festival bonus etc to their employees. Pacific Jeans, IDS Group, Kenpark Bangladesh Ltd., Liberty Fashion, Standard Group, M&J Group, Tusuka Trousers, Shanta Denims, ABA Fashions Ltd., Regency Bangladesh Ltd., Jeacon Garments Ltd., Tanaj Fashion, Windy Apparels Ltd., Swan Garments Ltd., Birds Garments, EPIC Designers, BrandixSrilanka and many more.

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PARTEX DENIM

1.7 Company Organogram:

Chairman
Managing Director
General Manager

AGM Preparatory & Dyeing

AGM HR & Administration Manager Civil

AGM Utility & Maintenance Manager Marketing


Coordinator Production & Marketing Maintenance

Manager Finance & Accounts Manager Commercial

AGM Weaving

Manager Preparatory
Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer Asst. Production Officer Trainee Officer
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Manager Dyeing
Asst. Manager Senior Chemist Chemist Asst. Chemist Trainee Chemist

Manager Finishing
Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer Asst. Production Officer Trainee Officer

Manager Weaving
Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer
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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Two

Process Flow

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PARTEX DENIM

2.1 Process Flow Chart


For Warp Yarn For Weft Yarn

Yarn in Cone

Yarn in Cone

Warping

Pre-treatment Indigo Dyeing Drying Sizing Drying

Preparatory

Beaming

Weaving

Singeing Softening Skewness Sanforizing Calendaring

Finishing

Mercerizing Stentering

Desizing

Resin Finishing
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Inspection

Packing

Delivery

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Chapter Three

Yarn Store

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PARTEX DENIM

3.1 Types of yarn used:


Rotor yarn Ring yarn Slub yarn Polyester Lycra yarn

3.2 Yarn count used:


For warp For weft Polyester Lycra : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 30 (Slub + Normal) : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 30 (Slub + Normal) : 300D, 600D : 10L40D, 16L40D, 200L40D, 300DL40D

3.3 Supplier of the Yarn:


Partex Rotor Mills Ltd. Partex Rotor Spinning Mills Ltd. Amber Cotton Mills Ltd. Mahamud Denim Ltd. Sapphire Textile Mills Ltd. Indorma ShaoxingXingji Import & Export Co. Ltd. Nishat Mills Ltd. Ashik Composite Textile Ltd. Salek Textile Purbani Rotor Mills Square Textile Ltd. Kader Synthetic

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PARTEX DENIM

3.4 Yarn Store Layout:


Total Space: 19950 square feet
175 ft

Gate

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114 ft
Gate

PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Four

Warping

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PARTEX DENIM

4.1 Definition:
In general terms, warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam. The warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is called the weavers beam. A weavers beam can contain several thousand ends and for different reasons it is rarely produced in one operation.

4.2 Objects of Warping:


Construction of warp yarn beam. Construction of a parallel of yarn shift. Modifying the faults of yarn like thick and thin places, large knots etc. Winding the pre-determined length of yarn. Combination of small packages. Finding long length of warp yarn. Accelerating the next process.

4.3 Importance of Warping:


The tension of wounds ends must be uniform and possibly constant during all the time of with drawl from supply package. Warping should not impair the physical and mechanical properties of yarn. Pre determined length of warping should be high. The surface of warping package must be cylindrical.

4.4 Types of Warping:


There are four types of warping, which are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Direct Warping Indirect or Sectional Warping Ball Warping Draw Warping

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PARTEX DENIM 4.4.1 Direct Warping:


In direct warping, the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the creel and directly wound on a beam. Direct warping can be used to directly produce the weavers beam in a single operation. This is suitable for strong yarns that do not require sizing and when the number of warps on the warp beam is relatively small. This is also called direct beaming. It can also be used to make smaller, intermediate beams called warpers beams. These smaller beams are combined later at the slashing stage to produce the weavers beam. This process is called beaming.

Figure: High speed/Direct warping

4.4.2 Indirect or Sectional Warping:


In Indirect warping, a section beam is produce first. It is also called band warping or drum warping. The section beam is tapered at one end. Warp yarn is wound on the beam in sections, starting with the tapered end of the beam. Each section has multiple ends that are traversed together slowly during winding along the length of the section to form the angle. Due to the geometry of the yarn sections, the last section on the beam will have a tapered end that will make the whole yarn on the beam stable. It is important that each layer on the beam contain the same number of yarns. The same length of yarn is wound on each section. After all the sections on the beam are wound completely, then the yarn on the beam is wound on to a regular beam with flanges, before slashing. This process is called re-beaming.

Figure: Sectional warping

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PARTEX DENIM 4.4.3 Ball Warping:


Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. After the dyeing process, the tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming.
Figure: Ball warping

4.4.4 Draw Warping:


Draw Warping is combining the drawing of filament yarns with heat setting and warping processes to achieve uniform stretching and heating for improved dye uniformity, end to end. It is used for weaving of thermoplastic yarns.

Figure: Draw warping

4.5 Difference between High speed warping and Sectional warping:


High speed warping
To produce common fabric High production Large no of yarn are required Weavers beam is produced after sizing Creel capacity is greater than 1200 Cone, cheese winding are used Single yarn is used Cheap process Uniform tension Used very much

Sectional warping
To produce fancy fabric Low production Small amount of yarn are required Weavers beam is produced before sizing Creel capacity is greater than 300 to 400 Flanged bobbin is used Twist yarn is used Costly process
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Not uniform tension Not used

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PARTEX DENIM

4.6 Warping in Partex Denim:


The warping section of the Partex Denim Ltd. is working under the A.G.M. of Preparatory Section. AGCH9240, UZWIL BENNINGER 2005 warping machine with v-creel is used here. The department is connected with dyeing section directly and working 24 hrs. R&D department inspects the cones which is converted in beams of required length and forwarded to dyeing section.

4.6.1 Machine Specifications:

NAME
Total Machine Model Origin Year of Installation Creel capacity Winding Speed Maximum Beam Diameter Air Pressure Required Air Consumption Power Pressure of Drum

: BEN DIRECT WARPING MACHINE


: 02 : AG, CH-9240 UZWIL BENINGER 2005 : Germany : 2005 : Max.: 520, Min.: 372 : Maximum 1200 m/min : 1250 mm : 5-8 bar : 2.5 3 m3/hour : 21-23 KW : 600 daN

Maximum Length of Yarn Can Wind : Around 30000 m Yarn Count : Both Ring & Open End yarn

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PARTEX DENIM 4.6.2 Warping Section Layout:

Head Stock

Head Stock

Dust Chamber
Winding m/c

V-Creel

V-Creel

Gate

Gate

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PARTEX DENIM 4.6.3 Machine Main Parts:


Bobbin Stand/ Package Stand Holder Balloon Breaker Yarn Tensioner Stop Motion Yarn Guide Cutter Motor Control Board Beam clamping & De-clamping Zone Pressure Roller Accumulating zone Comb Cleanvac Section

Creel Section

Machine Section

4.6.4 Functions of Different Parts:


Winding on
Winding Speed: 350 - 1200 m/ min Encoder: Measure the surface speed of pressure drum Motor speed gradually reduced with the increase of beam diameter Inverter controls the motor speed Each yarn is separated by comb

Yarn Parallelization Each dent contains only one yarn


Combs are traversed by motor

Cleaning
Beam Clamping & De -clamping

Combs are cleaned by compressed air automatically at a preset interval

By motor

Cleanvac Accumulator

Collects the dusts flying in the winding zone Collects dusts by creating vacuums by suction fan Accumulator is used for storage of yarn when need to unwinding the beam for knot of yarn due to yarn breakage.

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PARTEX DENIM

4.7 Briefly Description of Different Parts:


4.7.1 Creel:

Figure: Creel Section

At the creel, the yarn packages are placed. The machine has travelling package V-creels. The max creel capacity is 520 cones on one end and 560 cones on the other. When one end is on working then the cones for next lot are installed on inner ends. After the one ends stock ends then the creel is moved to other side. Capstan tensioners are installed at the creel. Guide rods are installed at the creel.

4.7.2 Comparison between H creel & V creel:


H creel
Parallel warping is used for sectional warping as well as for direct warping. Suitable for comparatively low speed warping. Needs proper yarn guides. Provide low tension on whole beam. No free yarn from creel to the warping machine because proper yarn guides are required. More time consumable because of low speed. More space is consumed. In indirect warping, a constant speed drive is generally required to provide approximately uniform yarn speed on the surface of the beam. H-creel has a wide range of package change system. Example: with reversible package, with unrolling draw off, with fixed package frames, with package trucks, with swiveling package frames.

V creel
V-creel is used for only in direct warping. Suitable for high speed yarn warping. No need of yarn guide Provide uniform yarn tension across the whole beam. Free yarn run from creel to the warping machine. Less time consumable. Less space is consumed. Surface friction drive and variable speed drive is commonly used to attain the uniform yarn speed. V-creel has a low range of package change. Example: reversible frames, reversible frames with automatic knotter, and with travelling package.

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PARTEX DENIM 4.7.3 Rods:

Steel rods in creel frame for yarn support and guidance also important for yarn tension. Due to their structure, rotor yarns have special balloon dynamics. Ballooning is three times greater with rotor yarns than with ring spun yarns and has its maximum elongation in the spaces between package and tensioner. Two round metal rods with a smooth and friction-resistant surface achieve effective balloon reduction.

4.7.4 Chain system:


Chain system is connected with motor. Use to rotate the creel frame in cone changing process. There are two sides of frame one is in working and second side is stationary till the filling of new cones. Proper oil lubrication is maintained in the system.

4.7.5 Control Devices:

Figure: Control Device

Warp yarns are threaded through capstan tensioners and stop motions at the creel. These tensioners are provided in order to provide necessary tension. When the machine starts running it remain closed for a little time in order to straightening of yarns. After the machine comes in running they open automatically to provide tension.

4.7.6 Headstock:
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PARTEX DENIM

Figure: Headstock

At the headstock, the warpers beam is installed for winding. The beam width is 1800mm. A guide roller guides the yarns to the warpers beam. A pressing roller presses the warp sheet on the warpers beam for winding with proper tension. The yarn build-up is determined by the tension of the warp threads and the press roller force. Uniform thread tension from the middle of the beam to the outside, i.e. from the front to the rear ends in the creel, must be assured. The press roller must ensure compact winding and absolute cylindricity.

The first requirement for non-crossed ends is precision thread guidance with minimal free thread lengths from zigzag comb to beam. It must be possible to match the width of the thread sheet exactly to the beam width to avoid errors at the flanges.

Figure: Drum pressure on yarn

The presser roll is of hard paper and has strong end rings to prevent damage. The increasing yarn diameter on the beam forces the press roller back against the resistance of the pre-set pressing force. Thanks to this indirect pressing action the winding is always perfectly cylindrical. Upon braking, the press roller is immediately swung away hydraulically. All friction between roll and yarn is avoided.

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PARTEX DENIM

Figure: Break System

The standard equipment is intended for back beams with 40 toothed internal taper. The teeth ensure exact centering as well as non-slip drive and braking. The machine can also be configured to accommodate journal beams. To avoid rolled-in threads, in the event of a thread break the direct warper must be able to be stopped in a short distance, even at the highest speeds and with a fully wound beam. This is performed by hydraulically operated disc brakes mounted to the both sides.

Figure: V-reed

From the creel, the yarns are passed through the expandable zigzag comb. The required warpers beam width required can be set with the help of this comb. Simple insertion of the threads into the comb. The stepped comb is moved apart to simplify laying in the ends. The lateral alignment of the comb on the beam and the setting to the exact warp width are motor-driven. The horizontal comb movement guarantees uniform yarn build-up on the beam. The traverse can be set steplessly. Due to the vertical movement, the life of the comb is increased.

4.7.7 Dust and Fly Accumulation Unit:


On Ben Direct, a dust and fly accumulation unit is installed at the headstock, which sucks dust, fluff and fly and prevent the warpers beam from them.

4.7.8 Warping Plan:


The warper gets the required no of ends and the number of beams from the R&D department and then he made the warping plan that how to complete that task whether on one creel or on more no. of creels.

4.7.9 Warping Procedure:


The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand. The yarn from the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound, holed by a catcher guided to the tensioning zone
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PARTEX DENIM
when cone rotates anticlockwise. There are three types of tension in warping i.e. catcher tension, rod tension, and sacker tension. Magnetic tensioner is used for yarn tension. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Combs straighten the yarns towards pressure drum, which supports beam, and yarns in an alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately. Static charges due to friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges, which are removed through an anti static device. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. Similarly if cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn. Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done.

4.7.10 Count wise Drum Pressure: Count


6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20

Drum Pressure (daN)


500 500 500 400 400 400 400 400 350

4.8 Calculations:
Some examples are given below to show the concept of warping plans.

Problem: 01 If Weight of Bag: 50 Kg Total Number of Cone: 18 Count: 7 OE


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Cell:

Then find out the length of yarn in one cone.

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Solution: Length of yarn in one cone
=

Bag wt. 2.2046 .9144 Count 840 Total number of cone

50 2.2046 .9144 7 840 18

= 32926 m

Answer: Length of 8 OE = 32926 m

Problem: 02 If Set length: 21000 m Count: 7 9 12 Ratio: 4:4:4 Find out average count. Solution: Average Yarn Count =

( 4 9 12) + ( 4 7 12) + ( 4 7 9 )

12 7 9 12

= 8.89 Answer: Average Count = 8.89 Problem: 03 If, Set length: 21000 m Total ends: 4464 Ends/beam: 446 Total beam: 10 Count: 7 OE Find out the weight of yarn required. Solution: Weight of yarn in one beam =
Set Length Total Ends 1.0936 840 2.2046 count 21000 446 1.0936 840 2.2046 7
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=
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PARTEX DENIM
= 790 Kg Answer: Total Yarn Required = 790 x 10 = 7900 Kg

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Five

Dyeing & Sizing

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PARTEX DENIM

5.1 Definition:
The process by which a textile material is to be changed physically or chemically, so that it looks mono uniform colored is called dyeing. All commercial textile dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to the textile material followed by some type of fixation process. The dye solution or dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium. A major objective of the fixation step is normally to ensure that the coloured textile exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors. Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric, structure of fabric and the properties of dyes.

5.2 Objects of Dyeing:


The textile goods are dyed uniformly with single color. To increase the attractiveness of the textile goods. To make the fabric suitable for various usage. To make the textile goods suitable for decorative purposes.

5.3 Theory of Dyeing:


The procedure by which dye stuff enters into the textile goods is called theory of dyeing. It is essential to have certain degree of fastness properties when a dye particle is applied on textile goods. The whole process of dyeing is completed by four steps as follows: 1. Dye molecules come to the fabric surface from the dye bath. 2. Fibre absorbs the dye molecule from the outer surface of the fibre to the internal surface of the cellulose. 3. Migrates the dye molecules everywhere of the fibre molecules. 4. Anchoring or fixing the dye molecules to the fibre molecules by hydrogen or covalent bond.

5.4 Denim Dyeing:


The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The special character of this fabric only the warp thread is dyed makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. The development of OE yarns by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality, a high fiber for strength, regularity as well as a small part of short-stapled cotton fibres belongs to the basic features of the denim yarn. For regular jeans qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex, for the weft yarn the fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex. If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex.

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PARTEX DENIM
Indigo, sulphur and indanthrene are mainly used in the dyeing process. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. While processing the basic colored denim, reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution. The dyeing process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics, dyeing temperature and necessary chemicals used in the process. Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo, it leaves a ring-dyeing effect, because of which the outer layer of warp yarn is coated with indigo, and the core of the yarn remains undyed. This gives the denim garment a unique faded look and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash. Originally, the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a sheet of yarn, which passed continuously through several dye baths, squeeze rollers or airing sequences. Specially two types of dyes are commonly used in factory. Vat dye and sulphur dye. These two types of dyes are described below.

5.5 Dyes use for Denim:


Vat Dyes Sulphur Dyes

5.5.1 Vat Dyes:


The name vat was derived from the large wooden vessel from which vat dyes were first applied. Vat dyes provide textile materials with the best colour fastness of all the dyes in common use. The fibres most readily coloured with vat dyes are the natural and man-made cellulosic fibres. Vat dyes are more expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs, sulphurs, and reactive. Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class. Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. Vat dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group. Vat dyes in keto form are water insoluble pigments.

Dyeing with vat dyes:


The application of vat dyes to cellulosic materials occurs in five stages.

Aqueous Dispersion:
The insoluble vat dye is dispersed in water.
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PARTEX DENIM Vatting:


This step involves the chemical reduction of the vat dye to produce the soluble, reduced or leuco form of the dye. This is achieved by Sodium Hydrosulphite, Sodium Hydroxide and water. The sodium hydrosulphite chemically reduces the vat dye in the alkaline conditions created by the presence of sodium hydroxide.

Absorption of dye molecules by the fibre:


The vatted dye molecules are substantive to the cellulosic material when this is introduced into the dye liquor. To achieve adequate exhaustion, an electrolyte is added to the dye liquor and the temperature may be increased depending on the specific vat dye. The application of the dye molecule to the fibre occurs at temperatures specific to a particular vat dye and occurs in a range from 200 C to 600 C. The addition of the electrolyte alters the equilibrium of the dye liquor so as to increase the substantivity of the dye molecules for the fibre. During this stage of dye application the textile material must be kept immersed in the dye liquor to prevent premature oxidation of the leuco compound.

Figure: Water soluble leuco form of indigo

Re-oxidation of dye molecules within the fibre:


Once within the polymer system of the fibre the leuco form of the vat dye has to be oxidized and converted to its original colour and the insoluble form of the dye. Oxidation of the leuco compound can be achieved by atmospheric oxygen although this is somewhat slow. In practice, a mild oxidizing reagent such as sodium perborate is used to convert the soluble leuco compound into the original insoluble vat dye.
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PARTEX DENIM Soaping-off vat dyes:


During the previous stage some insoluble vat dye may be deposited on the surface of the textile material. This has to be removed to prevent poor rub-fastness as well as a possible change of shade due to the subsequent removal of this surface deposit. Soaping-off, which is the boiling of the dyed material in a liquor containing some suitable detergent, removes this surface dye. The term soaping-off was derived from the fact that before the development of detergents, soap was used to remove the surface dye.

5.5.2 Sulphur Dyes:


These dyes are so called because they contain sulphur atoms in their molecules. The fibres most readily coloured with sulphur dyes are the natural and man-made cellulosic fibres.

Dyeing with sulphur dyes:


Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades. Light fastness of pale shades is poor. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the molecular structures are complex. As a class, the sulphur dyes are not resistant to chlorine containing bleaches.

Characteristics of Sulphur and LucoSulphur Dyes on Cotton:


Sulphur dyes have the dullest range of colours of all dye classes but are relatively inexpensive. They are used to dye medium to deep, dull shades on cellulosic materials. There are several excellent blacks giving dyeings with good wet fastness properties. In fact, when black, and deep brown, blue and dull olive green shades are needed, with good washing and satisfactory light fastness at reasonable cost, sulphur dyes are irreplaceable. There are few green sulphur dyes and no true reds. There are, however, an abundance of blacks, blues, yellows and browns. On a world basis, sulphur dyes constitute one of the major dye classes. Sulphur dyes are used in cotton dyeing for woven goods using jig dyeing machines and also in continuous dyeing. They are commonly used for the continuous dyeing of corduroy. They are now being used more widely in jet machines. Sulphur dyes are also used for dyeing denim olive, brown and maroon, rather than the traditional Indigo blue, as well as to bottom or top Indigo dyed cotton warps. To bottom or top means that a sulphur dye is applied either before or after the Indigo. The fastness to wet processes and to crocking can be varied almost as required to satisfy the demand for the faded look so popular for denim. This is achieved by allowing premature oxidation of the leuco dye during dyeing, by using short dyeing times so that there is inadequate time for dye penetration into the fibres, and by poor rinsing and soaping after dyeing. The dyeing can then be subsequently treated to

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PARTEX DENIM
produce the faded worn look by removing the surface colour. Although cellulosic goods dyed with sulphur dyes usually have good washing fastness, it can be further improved by resin finishing. The light fastness varies from moderate to good in heavy shades. A major characteristic of sulphur dyes is the poor fastness to chlorine, which distinguishes them from most quinone vat dyes. Dyeings with sulphur dyes cannot be bleached with hypochlorite. In fact, these dyes are readily distinguished from other cotton dyes by their dark, dull colours and the bleaching that occurs when a dyeing is spotted with hypochlorite and allowed to dry. Cotton dyed with some sulphur blacks becomes tendered on storing under warm humid conditions. This is a consequence of the formation of sulphuric acid from oxidation of the sulphur dye in the fibres. It can be minimized by thorough washing after dyeing before the oxidation of the leuco dye, by a final alkaline rinsing with soda ash solution, and by resin finishing. Such tendering is avoided by dichromate oxidation of the leuco dye.

Dyeing with Sulphur Dyes:


Initially the goods are wet out in the bath. Since the dyeing liquor contains appreciable amounts of sulphide, copper fittings must be avoided. If wetting or penetrating agents are used these should be of the anionic type since non-ionic surfactants form stable, non-substantive complexes with the leucothiols. An anionic product such as phosphated 2-ethylhexanol is suitable. The bath may then be set at 40C with some sodium polysulphide. Polysulphides in the leucodyebath prevent premature oxidation of the dye and reduce the tendency to bronziness of deep dyeing of blues, navies and blacks. An addition of a sequestrant such as EDTA avoids precipitation of the leucothiolate by calcium and magnesium ions. The leuco dye is then added slowly and, since the leuco dyes only have low to moderate substantivity for cellulose, some salt may be added initially, or in portions during dyeing, to promote exhaustion. After dyeing the goods are rinsed, the leuco dye oxidised and the dyeing is soaped as for a conventional vat dye. Sulphur dyes usually have acceptable substantivity, particularly in the presence of salts, so that stripping in a fresh reducing bath is not easy. Dyeing is often conducted at the boil but this decreases the degree of exhaustion. Sulphur dyes require less salt than reactive dyes and usually have reasonable exhaustion. Low sulphideleuco dyes require more salt and no polysulphide. They do not give good exhaustion in heavy shades and the use of a low liquor ratio is recommended. For popular shades such as black, it has long been common practice to use a standing bath. This is a dye bath that is re-used for subsequent dyeings after addition of more reduced dye. Any free sulphur that tends to accumulate is dissolved by addition of sodium sulphite to give thiosulphate. This prevents it sticking to the goods. The actual dyeing temperature can vary. At higher temperatures around the boil, the bath exhaustion is less but penetration of the leuco dye into the fibres is better than at lower temperatures.

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PARTEX DENIM

5.6 Denim Dyeing Process:


There are three processes in the practice for continuous denim dyeing: 1. Rope Dyeing 2. Slasher or Sheet Dyeing 3. Loop Dyeing

5.6.1 Rope Dyeing:


The indigo Rope dyeing technology for denim production is considered a superior dyeing technology, where better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing.

Figure: Rope Dyeing Range

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Indigo rope dyeing was started in USA. Today rope dyeing accounts for a large percentage of warp yarn dyed for denim production. The system offers highest production, due to continuous process, as there is no stoppage for set changes. In this dyeing method, maximum continuity of shades and minimum danger of center to selvedge shade variation can be achieved. Flow diagram of rope dyeing is shown in figure. During

PARTEX DENIM
dyeing process, it forms a coating in the outer layers of the cotton yarn and fiber. This produces a ring of color around the cotton yarn, with the core remains white core. This dyeing effect is known as ring dyeing.

Figure: Rope dyeing and subsequent sizing, Step 1: Ball Warper, Step 2: Rope Dyeing, Step 3: Long Chain Beamer, Step 4: Sizing

Indigo Rope Dyeing when dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing method. 350 - 400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of 10000 - 15000 m length. On the continuous dyeing installation, 12 to 36 cables are led side by side, wetted, dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into cans. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer. The warps are added to the sizing machine, sized and then led together to warp depending on the total numbers of threads. In practice, this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo dyeing. However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid warp stripes. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do occur more often.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.6.2 Slasher Dyeing:


In continuous slasher/sheet dyeing and sizing machine, direct warping beams are used, instead of ball warping logs in case of Indigo rope dyeing system. The Slasher Dyeing machine is capable of handling Ne count form 9/s to 30/s (OE and Slub both). Typical schematic sheet dyeing range is shown in Figure. At the back end of the slasher/sheet dyeing range, the direct warping beams are creeled. The yarns sheet from each beam is pulled over and combined with the yarns from the other beams so that multiple sheets of yarns can be made. When dyeing according to the sheet dyeing method, instead of cables the warp threads are fed to the machine parallel next to each other. These are much smaller compared to the rope dyeing machines. Another advantage is that the cables dont need to be open after dyeing.

Figure: Sheet Dyeing Range

Moreover, each yarn wets much faster and in this way reduces the dipping and wetting times during dyeing. All in all, each thread has a larger surface compared to a dyeing cable and this requires somewhat more hydrosulphite to prevent a premature oxidation of the indigo.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.6.3 Loop Dyeing:


In the loop dyeing process, the yarn is dyed in a single bath instead of several. The desired depth of color is attained by passing the yarn through the vat several times. Subsequently, as a part of the same process, the yarn is sized. The advantages and disadvantages of loop dyeing are the same as with sheet dyeing.

5.7 Difference between Slasher and Rope Dyeing:


Comparison On
Required Space Mercerizing Manpower Dye bath Broken end repairing Flexibility

Slasher Dyeing
Less Easy Less Less capacity Not Possible Flexibility to produce denim in different colors and small quantities Machines should start and stop at the time of set change. Hence shade matching is not easier until hundreds of meters of yarn run. Extra ends Required. Not possible

Rope Dyeing
More Difficult More More In rope dyeing there is a possibility to repair broken end in LCB (Long Chain Beamer) Less flexible. Difficult to change colors. No need to start and stop the machine at the time of set change. Hence shade matching is easier. No extra ends. Possible to mix ends of different colours. One can get stripe design at re-beaming. Large numbers of yarns are difficult to open at re-beaming. Hence it is not suitable for fine yarn. Can use Ne1-16 without major change. In latest machines even higher yarn count can be dyed. High thin / thick & knot points < = 21s ( standard 15 21s regulated by speed) 12 ropes = 9 to 11.5 mill. Mt., 24 ropes = 18 to 23 mill. Mt., 36 ropes = 27 to 34.5 mill. Mt. Cost of production is more compared to sheet Dyeing

Set change Extra ends Different colour mixing

Count range

Advantages for lighter yarn. Can use Ne 1-30 without major change.

Rear view characteristics of fabric Dye dipping time for effective dye result Production capacity Cost

Less thin / thick & knot points < = 14s ( standard 10 14s regulated by speed) Approx. 9 to 11 million Metrs in case of normal capacity. Approx. 10 to 22 mill. Mt. in case of double capacity. Cost of production is lesser compared to Rope Dyeing

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PARTEX DENIM Relative merits and demerits:


Generally rope dyeing denim range produces better quality of denim than slasher dyeing. Rope dyeing means for higher production and long runs. Ropes dyeing can more lots without any stoppages at set change. In case of sheet dyeing, the machine remains stop at set change. In rope dyeing better dry and wet fastness properties in denim fabric can be achieved, than sheet dyeing. In sheet dyeing good quality yarn is required, as mending of broken ends is very difficult in sheet dyeing. This problem is less in rope dyeing. Sheet dyeing produces more waste than rope dyeing. Lot to lot, set to set shade consistency is better in rope dyeing, In sheet dyeing, there is a problem of center to selvedge shade variation. This can be caused due to uneven nip pressure, non-uniform chemical and colour content in dye boxes. This problem can also occur in rope dyeing as well. But proper rotation of the dried yarn cans at spreading and winding and even distribution of warp yarns over the full width of the fabric minimize the problem. The wetting and immersion time, oxidation time of dyed yarn are less in sheet dyeing due to parallel warp threads.

5.8 Sizing:
5.8.1 Definition:
The process of applying a protective adhesive coating upon the yarn surface is called sizing. This is the most important operation to attain maximum weaving efficiency specially for blended and filament yarns.

5.8.2 Objects of Sizing:


To improve the weave ability of warp yarn. To increase the tensile or breaking strength for cellulose yarn. To maintain good quality fabric. To reduce hairiness, weakness of textile materials. To remove electrolytic formation for synthetic or blended yarn. To increase elasticity.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.8.3 Changes in Yarn due to Sizing:


Breaking strength: Increase Abrasion Resistance: Increase Stiffness: Increase Elasticity: Increase Frictional Resistance: Increase Yarn Diameter: Increase Extension: Decrease Electrostatic Charger: Decrease Hairiness: Decrease

5.8.4 Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving?


Higher Strength Higher Elasticity Higher Smoothness Higher yarn diameter Higher weight of yarn Lower static electricity Lower weakness Lower absorbency Lower flexibility Lower hairiness Higher frictional resistance

5.8.5 Techniques of Sizing:


There are several techniques to impart size materials into the yarn. These are: Hot melt sizing Foam sizing High pressure sizing Electrostatic sizing Emulsion sizing Combined sizing Slasher sizing

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PARTEX DENIM 5.8.6 Types of sizing according to application:


Pure sizing: When sizing is done in yarn which produces unbleached fabric is called pure sizing. So, ingredients are on the weight of yarn 7 to 10%. Light sizing: This is used for dyeing and printing. 11 to 15% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn. Medium sizing: For increase of strength and weight of the yarn 16 to 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn. Heavy sizing: It is used to increase the weight of yarn. Above 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.

5.8.7 Size Ingredients and their function:


5.8.7.1 Starch or Adhesive:
The carbohydrate component extracted from certain plates is called starch. Example: Starch not maize, corn, potato etc.

Function:
To improve the strength To increase smoothness To increase elasticity To increase stiffness To impart adhesion

5.8.7.2 Softening Agents:


The agent which is used to give fabrics a soft handle and frequently smooth appearance is called softening or lubricating agent. Example: Japan wax, tallow, lin seed oil, coconut oil, animal fats, mineral oil, T.R.O., soap etc.

Function:
To make the yarn soft and slippery To smoothen the yarn To reduce the stiffness To reduce flexibility and friction

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PARTEX DENIM
5.8.7.3 Antiseptic or Anti mildew Agent:
The substances which prevent the mildew formation is called anti-mildew agent. Example: Carboxylic acid, salicylic acid, Zinc chloride, phenol etc.

Function:
To prevent mildew formation To prevent size material for a long time To help to store the size yarn To protect yarn from bacteria or fungi.

5.8.7.4 Hygroscopic Agents:


The agents which are used to moisture yarn and to prevent excessive drying of yarn is called hygroscopic agent. Example: MgCl2, CaCl2, Glycerin etc.

Function:
To moisture the yarn To prevent excessive prevent of yarn

5.8.7.5 Weighting Agents:


The agent which is used to increase weight of yarn and to impart the fullness and feel to the fabric is called weighting agents. Example: China clay, Sodium Sulphate, French chalk etc.

Functions:
To increase the weight of yarn during finishing To impart fullness and to fell the fabric To prevent opening of the cloth.

5.8.7.6 Tinting Agents:


The agent which is used for the temporary coloration of textile materials is called tinting agents. Example: Blue, Tinapol, Optical brightener etc.

Function:
To increase the brightness and to remove the yellowish color of yarn To prevent dusting off To form a particular shade

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PARTEX DENIM
5.8.7.7 Wetting Agents:
The agents which are used for uniform distribution of the sizing solution is called wetting agent. Example: Sulphanol, soap, MgCl2 etc.

Function:
To increase size exhaust To obtain a distribution of the sizing solution

5.8.7.8 Antifoaming Agents:


The substrates which prevent the foam formation is called antifoaming agent. Example: Pyridine, Benzene etc.

Function:
To prevent foam formation To give uniform size pickup

5.8.7.9 Neutralizing Agents:


This type of agent is used to neutralize the sizing solution.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.9 Dyeing & Sizing in Partex Denim:


In Partex Denim, dyeing of warp beam is carried out by Slasher dyeing process. World class Benninger Slasher dyeing machines are using here. There are two slasher in this section. Normally it is said that in Slasher dyeing shade variation is a normal practice but one who achieve the minimum variation is market leader. Because it is very much economical than rope dyeing. So in less investment there is margin of great profit. Slasher is normally operated at a speed of 30 m/min. There are two working shifts in the department each of 12 hours a day. Input of dyeing department is beams from warping department. Output of dyeing department is dyed warp sheet beams which are forwarded to weaving department. It has well equipped dyeing lab. All controls of dying process is monitored from here by computer.

Different portion and their model: Machine Portion


Creeling and linking Dyeing Sizing Dye kitchen Total machine Ben link Ben indigo Ben size tech Ben dye mix BenningerZeel

Model Name

The salient features of the machine:


Optimum dye fastness and uniform dyeing. High dye batch stability ensured by cross flow circulation and Continuous metering. Reproducible computerized process management. Multi color capability achieved by flexible process engineering. Environmentally compatible, due to low consumption of dyes and chemicals. User friendly design with low maintenance requirement. Optimum sizing and residual stretch. High output. Synchronized motors capable of running the machine at a constant speed. Easy drainage of liquor. Automatic dosing system. Re-storage of used dye liquor. Drying option after pre-washing, dyeing and sizing. Storage of 150 m long yarn sheet on accumulator. Automatic and manual controls of pressure of padders with electronic load cells. Quick creel change.
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PARTEX DENIM 5.10 Machine Specification: Brand name


Model Year of construction Country of origin Creel capacity Speed of winding Warping width Maximum reed space Maximum beam diameter Number of dye bath Total no. of boxes No. of pre dryer No. of post dryer Air pressure required Air consumption Steam pressure required Steam consumption Water pressure required Water consumption Electric power consumption Production/day

Benninger Zell
Ben Indigo 2005 Germany 16 1-50 m/min 1800 mm 2600 mm 1000 mm 6 13 10 14 6-8 bar 15 m3/hr 6 bar 5500-5700 kg/hr 2 bar 20 m3/hr 120 kW/hr - 190 kW/hr 40000 mtr/day

Machine Specification (Sizing part): Brand name


Machine Speed Squeeze Pressure No. of Squeeze Roller No. of Emersion Roller No. Of Size Dryer Preparation Tank Temperature Storage Tank Temperature Size Box Temperature Cooking Time Refractor value & Ford cup value

Ben size tech


30-40 m/min 16.4 kN 02 pair 02 14 90OC 94OC 90OC 25-40 minute Measure the Solid % in size liquor

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PARTEX DENIM

Machine process Sequence of Dyeing & Sizing


Pre-beam creel zone Sewing section Benlink zone/ yarn welding area Accumulator BL Pre Wetting Box Three Pre Wash Box Sheet Dyeing process (Regular, Bottoming, Topping, Pure Black) Three Post Wash Box Pre-drying cylinder Accumulator TA Size bath Post drying cylinder Accumulator BN After Waxing Device Yarn leasing area Weavers beam winder
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PARTEX DENIM Some other assisting areas in the dyeing and sizing process are Skying zone Dye kitchen Size kitchen Blower Reserves tank Size cooker Beam crane Yarn sheet spreader roller

Some other assisting areas in dyeing sections:


Preparation Tank (K-905) Indigo stock solution tank (K-915) Black Stock solution Tank (K-920) Store Tank (K-925, K-930, K-935, K-940)

Reactor (K-910):
The dyestuff is prepared in stock solution tank, it may happen some times that the dyestuff may get coagulate and the function of Reactor is to break the coagulated dyestuff. There is a separate arrangement of- Hydrogen peroxide Tank, Acetic Acid Tank, D Black Tank, Reducing agent Tank, Tenside, Caustic Soda, Normal water & Also Hot water (50o C) tank respectively.

5.10.1 Creel section:


The beams are creeled in the creeling zone .There are 16 pre beams capacity. Pre-Beams are creeled here. Pre-Beams are negatively moved by the tension of warp sheet from front side of m/c. Must have to maintain same speed & tension on each pre Beam. Here is a control panel to control the speed of pre Beam.

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Figure: Creeling section

PARTEX DENIM
The beams can be controlled in groups or individually. The let-off can be individual let-off, single group let-off or warp- round let-off. There are two creels present on the machine in order to replace the used creel quickly with a creel on which beams are already installed. The back beams are mounted in the back beam unit with insert able journals. The Unwinding tension is imparted by pneumatically loaded and automatically regulated band brakes and break shoes. The upper beam supports can be shifted pneumatically making it easier to mount the bottom beam. Most important part of creel section is Benlink or yarn sewing section. Benlink is the process of joining the previous warp sheet with next warp sheet.

5.10.2 Benlink:
Benlink tape is used for this process. It is costly. Benlink tape heated for almost 46 min. Before Belting Separating, rods are removed to pass through tape before entering warpers beam. In case of ring Denim higher count is set at front side of creel section for example. If we use 7S, 9 S, 12S then first 4 pre beams contain yarn of 12S. In case of slub; if we use 4 pre beam for slub then first 2 slub, then regulary again 2 slub at middle.

5.10.3 Accumulator:
Here pairs of Roller moving ups-down to maintain proper tension on yarn. It also performs the storage of yarn. There are 3 accumulators used, one is after creeling before dyeing next is after dyeing before sizing and final one is after sizing before weavers beam. Dyeing & sizing is a continuous process. Accumulator stored extra yarn by going up pair of R/r, during this time necessary work such replacement of weavers beam is done, then again Accumulator come s its original position. Remember that, for linear yarn tension of accumulator is low & for coarse Yarn, tension is high. Load cell Roller used here for maintaining yarn tension.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.4 Pre treatment:


Pre-treatment process in sheet dyeing consists of treatment of the cotton yarn sheet with caustic and wetting agent. Pre-wetting is carried out in order to get proper dyeing of the sheet. Pre-wetting is carried out with a Wetting agent, at room temperature. Increasing temperature also increase the In some cases, if well penetration of the dye is required, the yarns are treated with strong caustic soda solution followed by hot wash and cold wash treatment prior to dyeing. The pH of the bath is 11.8-12.

Yarn separator roller

Safety device Pressure roller Feed roller Measuring roller Squeezing roller

Window Yarn sheet

Immersion roller

Figure: D-100, Pre wetting, Pre dyeing, mercerizing box

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.5 Pre-Washing (1-3 box):


After pre treatment, pre-washing of the warp sheet is done. Pre washing is done in order to remove the excess pre-treatment chemical from the warp sheet. If they remain inside the sheet than it will cause the fibers to loose and also dyeing will not occur uniformly. Squeezing rollers are provided at the end of each bath to remove the excess liquor from the sheet. These rollers also drive the warp sheet. Pressure on these rollers is adjusted according to the tensile strength of the warp sheet with the help of load cells. Clod washing is done after hot washing in order to reduce the temperature of the warp sheet. Before dying, washing is important for better penetration of dye molecules in the fibre.

Yarn separator roller

Yarn sheet

Squeezing roller

Squeezing roller

Immersion roller

Figure: D-200, 220, 240 (Wash box)

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.6 Dyeing:


As discussed above denim warp sheet is dyed with Indigo (Vat) dyes and sulfur dyes. There are some options in dyeing of warp sheet. Indigo (Regular): In this case we use indigo in all tanks. According to shade. Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo. First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur dye (black color) and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo. Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur). Pure Black: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with sulphur dye (black color) with high concentration of color.

Undyed yarn sheet

Dyed yarn sheet

Squeeze roller

Window

Dye Chamber

Nitrogen Chamber

Immersion roller

Figure: Dyeing box (D600 D690)

Washing is done after dyeing bath in order to remove unfixed dye. There are three wash box in this machine. The wash boxes are similar as pre wash box.
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PARTEX DENIM

Dyeing Recipe: Regular


Step 1 Pre-wetting: Bath
D - 100

Components
Caustic soda (NaOH) Wetting Agent (Tenside) Temperature Squeezing Pressure Normal Water Total volume

Quantity
(5-6) g/L (10 -15) g/L (70-80) o C (40-50) kN As required

Step 2

Pre-washing: Bath
D 200 D 220 D 240

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature Total volume/box

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

Step 3

Dyeing: Bath
D 400 D 420 D 440 D 460 D 480 D 490

Components
Indigo ----(1.7-2.0) % shade pH Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water Total volume/box

Quantity
11.8 - 11.9 Room (55-60) k N As Required 600 L

Step 4

Post-washing: Bath
D 600 D 620 D 640

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature Total volume/box

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

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PARTEX DENIM

Dyeing Recipe: Bottoming


Step 1 Pre-wetting: Bath Components
Black ----(1.5-2.5) % shade Reducing agent Wetting agent (Tenside) Caustic Soda Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water

Quantity
10 g/L 5 g/L 10 g/L (80-90)o C (40-50) kN As required

D - 100

Step 2

Pre-washing: Bath
D 200 D 220 D 240

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

Step 3

Dyeing: Bath
D 400 D 420 D 440 D 460 D 480 D 490

Components
Indigo ----(1.7-2.0) % shade pH Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water

Quantity
11.8 - 11.9 Room (55-60) k N As Required

Step 4

Post-washing: Bath
D 600 D 620 D 640

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature

Quantity
As required 70-85 kN Room temp.

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PARTEX DENIM

Dyeing Recipe: Topping


Step 1 Pre-wetting: Bath
D - 100

Components
Caustic soda (NaOH) Wetting Agent (Tenside) Temperature Squeezing Pressure Normal Water

Quantity
(5-6) g/L (10 -15) g/L (70-80) o C (40-50) kN As required

Step 2

Pre-washing: Bath
D 200 D 220 D 240

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

Step 3

Dyeing: Bath
D 400 D 420 D 440 (Dyeing) D 460 (Normal wash)

Components
Indigo ----(1.3-1.4) % shade pH Squeezing Pressure Temperature Water Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature Black ----(1.7-1.8) % shade Reducing agent Caustic Soda Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water

Quantity
11.8-11.9 (60-65) k N Room As required As required 70-80 kN Room temp. Room temp. 25 g/L 22 g/L (80-90)o C (40-50) kN As required

D 480 D 490 (Dyeing)

Step 4

Post-washing: Bath
D 600 D 620 D 640

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Acetic Acid

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

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PARTEX DENIM

Dyeing Recipe: Pure Black


Step 1 Pre-wetting: Bath
D - 100

Components
Caustic Soda Wetting Agent Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water

Quantity
As required As required (80-90) o C (40-50) kN As required

Step 2

Pre-washing: Bath
D 200 D 220 D 240

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp.

Step 3

Dyeing: Bath
D 400 D 420 D 440 D 460

Components
Black ----(4.0-6.0) % shade pH Reducing agent Caustic Soda Temperature Squeezing Pressure Water Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature

Quantity
12.8 - 13 25 g/L 20 g/L (80-90)o C (40-45) k N As Required As required 70-80 kN Room temp

D 480 D 490

Step 4

Post-washing: Bath
D 600 D 620 D 640

Components
Normal water Squeezing Pressure Temperature Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Acetic Acid

Quantity
As required 70-80 kN Room temp. For pH control
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PARTEX DENIM Dyeing Procedure:


At first necessary chemicals and water is given according to recipe in preparation tank. Then dyestuff is prepared. K- 915 & K-920 are used for the preparation of Indigo& Black dyestuff respectively. For Indigo, reducing agent is Sodium Hydrosulphite and for black, Reducing agent either Sodium Sulphide or Glucose (only for Liquid Black). A good monitoring near preparation tank is necessary. Then both preparation is taken to mixing tank from where goes to dye bath. Level is maintained between mixing tank and dye bath. Sensor is attached with every bath which helps to maintain pH. Dye take up happened form Dye bath due to continues yarn passing. Flow meter used to show reading of every component like sulphur black, Reducing agent, Tensid, NaOH, Water. There are some reserver tanks, known as buffer tank. Two buffer tank for dye, one for pre dyeing and other for mercerizing. Then it is necessary to blank the mixing tank. At this moment, mixture goes to buffer tank to storage. To maintain recipe standard it needs continuous dozing. Dozing motor used for this purpose. It maintained systematically, any shortage shown at flow meter, also shown at computer screen. Necessary steps then taken. N2 used at dye bath to prevent Indigo or black dyestuff fixation .There is a arrangement of sky roller used for dye fixation & squeezing roller for removing excess dye. Before entering into the sizing box the warp yams are dried out. This is known as pre-drying.

Cooking tank and dosing system:


A color kitchen is also known as cooking tanks. There are several cooking tanks are also provided with the machine which is used for the preparation of liquor for pre-treatment, dyeing and sizing. They are connected with the machine via dosing system. The computer-controlled dosing system for dyestuff and chemicals is the heart of the machine. Indigo vat, hydrosulphite and caustic soda are continuously added according to calculated quantity indications and depending upon speed. Color Unlevelness owing to fluctuations in bath concentrations does no longer occur. Owing to the high circulation rate of the dye liquor in two circuits, local bath concentration differences are avoided. The metering control stores the required adjustment parameters and guarantees a high level of process reliability and reproducibility. The used dyes can also be preserved with the help of two storage tanks on the machine. Useless dye is drained easily from the tanks with the pipes connected at their bottom.

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.7 Drying Zone:


After wash box the yarns go through the dryer section. The wet yarns are dried by using cylinder drying. Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the drying cylinders. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on the cylinders. The drying zone contains 10 cylinders.

5.10.8 Accumulator:
Accumulator is also known as compensators. After drying an accumulator is provided on the machine. Whose function is to minimize chance of stoppage of machine because of the change of beam on the head stock and insertion of rods in the leasing zone they accumulate the extra warp when the speed is reduced from the headstock by moving assembly to upward direction. When the head stock is moved with a greater speed the excess warp is removes from the accumulator.

5.10.9 Sizing:
Although the quality and characteristics of the warp yarns coming out of the winding, warping and dyeing processes are quite good, they are still not good enough for the weaving process for most of the yarns. The weaving process requires the warp yarns to be strong, smooth and elastic or extensible to certain degree. To achieve these properties on the warp yarns, a protective coating of polymeric film forming agent (size) is applied to the warp yarns prior to weaving. This process is called slashing or sizing. One sizing tank is provided after the drying zone. The capacity of the size box is about 500 liters. Sizing material is provided automatically by dosing system or it can be manually added.
Immersion roller Squeeze roller Sized yarn sheet

Safety guard

Separator heated roller

Feed roller Size liquor

Size bath

Unsized yarn

Figure: Size box

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.10 Size Cooking Process:

At first different sizing agent according to recipe is taken manually in the mixing tank or preparation tank and water is supplied by the pipe in the mixing tank. A fan circulated for mixing agent. Temp is maintained in the mixing tank by steam. Then the mixed or prepared liquor is supplied to the storage tank. From this storage tank liquor is supplied the size box by pump. The concentration of the size liquor is checked by the refractometer because different concentration will have to use for different warp set. The size liquor level in the size box has to maintain. The liquor in the size box is measured with a sensor to regulate the specified level. There is a regulating Valve, it works on PLC (programmable logic circuit) method. Generally size level is maintained by passing 180mm size liquor .when this level comes down to 120-130 mm then regulating valve is open ,pass the size liquor & maintain the level. The temperature of the size box is maintained by the steam. Simultaneously the application of the pneumatic squeeze presser with air cushion cylinder to regulate the squeeze presser & achieve the uniform size pickup.

Relation between Count and Size Pick up%:


Count (Ne)
7 9 12 16 20

Pick Up%
6-7% 8-11% 10-14% 12-18% 16-22%

Size Add On%:


Warp set (Count)
7,9 16 7,9,12 7,9,16

size add on %
8 12 8 10

Ford Cup Value:


Time in Second
> 50 30-50 < 30

Viscosity Level
High viscosity Medium viscosity Low viscosity
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PARTEX DENIM Controlling Point of Sizing:


Viscosity of the size solution Sizing machine speed Size add-on levels Concentration of the size mixture Volume of the size box (both quantity and size level) Threading arrangements Volume of the size box (both quantity and size level) Condition of squeeze rollers Squeezing pressure Hardness of squeeze rollers Diameter of squeeze rollers Yarn count and size box warp density per unit space.

The important feature to be remembered during sizing:


If the hairiness of the yarn is high then the concentration of the size would be high. If the twist is high in the yarn then the concentration of the size would be high. If the yarn (finer) count is high then the concentration of the size would be high & less Binder Required. If the yarn (coarser) count is high then the concentration of the size would be low, more Binder is required. If the temperature of the bath is high then the viscosity of the size would be less and vice versa. If the cooking time is more than the viscosity would be less. Increasing squeezing roller pressure decreasing size pick up %.

Refractometer:
A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction. This meter is used in sizing to measure the reflection of light in size liquor.

Figure: Refractometer

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PARTEX DENIM 5.10.11 Drying Zone:

After the size box the yarns go through the dryer section. The wet yarns are dried by using cylinder drying. Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the drying cylinders. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on the cylinders. The drying zone contains 14 cylinders.

5.10.12

Accumulator:

After drying another accumulator is provided on the machine. Its function is same as previous.

5.10.13

Leasing Zone:

Due to the nature of sizing, the yarns in the sheet may be stuck together at the exit of dryer section. Therefore they are separated into individual ends using leasing rods. The individual sheets of yarns from each section beam are separated.

5.10.14

Expansion Comb:

Pins in the expansion comb separate the yarns within each sheet. With the expansion comb the warps are spread according to the required width of the weavers beam.

5.10.15

Beaming:

The yarns are wound on to weavers beam at the headstock. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. A guide roller guides the yarns to the weavers beam.

5.10.16

Transportation of Beams:

After the winding of dyed warp beams the from the head stock the samples of the yarn are taken to laboratory for testing and then it is transported to the weaving department.

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PARTEX DENIM

5.11 Functions of chemicals used in Yarn dyeing:


Acetic acid:
Acetic acid is used to neutralize the pH.

Caustic Soda (NaOH):


Caustic soda is used with the reducing agent solution. The caustic soda react with the Leuco Vat acid at the same time And the leuco vat acid form sodium salt of a leuco vat dye. This salt is water soluble. NaOH is also responsible to rise the PH of the dye bath is about 11.8-11.9 (indigo) and 12.8-13.0 (Black). In case of Bottoming, in pre dyeing bath Caustic Soda used, because black does not penetrate into the fiber, caustic soda helps to penetrate.

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2):


Hydrogen peroxide is used as oxidizing agent and accelerates the fixation process. As a result dye molecule is fixed with the material.

Reducing Agent:
Reducing agent is used in reduction reaction of water insoluble dye as like vat dye. Insoluble dye particle is covered on the surface by another insoluble layer, the reduction is restricted to the available external surface of the Vat dye particles. When the dye is treated with a solution of reducing agent (Na2S2O4) surface of dye particles coming into contact with the solution and gets reduced & produced insoluble Leuco Vat acid.

Wetting Agent:
Wetting agent helps to increase the uptake of the dye by the fiber. Here Tenside is used as wetting agent. A continuous flow of Nitrogen is supplied to the dye bath in order to prevent oxidation.

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PARTEX DENIM

5.12 Equipments used in dyeing lab: Name


Color Assessment Cabinet

Image

Functions
Color fastness and shade match.

Metrohm meter

pH, Indigo and Hydro measurement.

Portable Spectrophotometer

Black color measurement.

ORP

Measure Oxidation Reduction Potential

Metrohm pH meter

pH measurement

Digital Balance

Weight measurement

Desktop Computer

Machine control and dosing command.

Micro Oven

Drying

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PARTEX DENIM

5.13 Chemicals used for dyeing and sizing:


Dyes Auxiliaries
Commercial Name
Acetic Acid Caustic Soda Dicrylan V-HKN Den Wet SA (Wetting Agent) Hydrogen Peroxide Ladiquest-1097 U Liq Optifix EC Reducing Agent DP Sequestarant (Secho-IND) Sodium Sulphide Sodium Hydro Sulphite Wetto PBTS Wetto MR 48-B

Dyes
Commercial Name
Direfix SD Liq Diresul Black RDT D-Liq Diresul Brilliant Green RDT-H-Liq Diresul Brown RDT-Gs-Liq-150 Diresul Red RDT-BG-Liq Diresul Yellow RDT-E-Liq Sulfotex Black SN-155 GremDanim EFW Indigo Blue Sulpher Black Powder

Sizing Chemicals
Commercial Name
Acrylic Size PCB PD Ben Tex K-2000 Size Ben Tex B-120 Size Ben Tex B-99 Size Ben Tex B-60 Native Tapioca Starch Emsize E20 Emsize E60

Manufacturer
PENTA CHEMICAL BENTEX BENTEX BENTEX BENTEX UGA EMSLAND GROUP EMSLAND GROUP Pakistan Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Germany Germany

Country

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PARTEX DENIM

5.14 Calculation:
Problem: 01
Given, Shade: 1.7% Count: 7 OE Total Ends: 4464 Set Length: 16400 m Find required amount of dye.

Solution:
We know, Tex =

590.5 = 84.36 7 84.36 4464 = 376.58 g/m 1000

Weight of 4464 ends =

Weight of 16400 meter = 376.58 x 16400 = 6175912 gm

100 1

gm gm

yarn yarn

contain contain

1.7

gm dye gm dye

1.7 100

6175912 gm

yarn

contain

1.7 6175912 gm dye 100


= 104990.504 gm dye = 105 Kg dye

Answer: 105 Kg dye required to dye 16400 meter yarn of 4464 ends.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Six

Weaving

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6.1 Definition:
The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. Over the years, both the process as well as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes. As of today, there is a wide range of looms being used, right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom.

6.2 Basic Weave Designs:


Plain weave Twill weave Zigzag twill Herringbone twill Broken twill Most of the other weaves are derived from these basic weaves. The immediate derivatives of these structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave.

6.2.1 Plain Weave:


Plain weave is the simplest of all weaves. It has one-over one-under interlacing for both warp and filing yarns, therefore the plain weave formula repeats on two warp and two filling yarns. Plain weave requires only two harnesses. In Denim manufacturing this weave is called Chambray.

Figure: 1/1 plain weave (Chambray)

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PARTEX DENIM 6.2.2 Twill Weave:


Twill Weave is produced in a stepwise progression of the warp yarn interlacing pattern. The interlacing pattern of each warp yarn starts on a different filling yarn and follows the same formula. These results in the appearance of a diagonal line called twill line in the fabric, which is then characteristic of this design. Depending on the direction of the twill line, the twill weaves are called right-hand or left-hand twills. The sum of the digits in the formula determines the unit cell of the design, which also gives the minimum number of harnesses, requires weaving the design; at least three harnesses are required for a twill weave. Common twill, Steep twill, Reclining twill and broken twill are the different variations of the twill weave.

Figure: 3/1 Right Hand Twill (RHT)

Figure: 3/1 Left Hand Twill (LHT)

6.3 Classification of Modern Weaving Machines:


Modern Weaving machines are classified according to their filling insertion mechanism. The classification is as follows: Rapier Projectile Air-Jet Water-Jet

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PARTEX DENIM 6.3.1 Air-Jet Weaving:


Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles, which provide the initial acceleration. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn.

Figure: Relay Nozzles

Figure: Rapier head

6.3.2 Rapier Weaving:


In Rapier weaving, a flexible or rigid solid element, called rapier, is used to insert the filling yarn across the shed. The rapier head picks up the filling yarn and carries it through the shed. After reaching the destination, the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn, which completes the cycle. A rapier performs a reciprocating motion. Rapier weaving machines can be of two types: Single Rapier Machines: A single, rigid rapier is used in these machines. The rigid rapier is a metal or composite bar usually with a circular cross section. The rapier enters the shed from one side, picks up the tip of the filling yarn on the other side and passes it across the loom width while retracting. Therefore, a single rapier carries the yarn in one way only and half of the rapier movement is wasted. Also there is no yarn transfer since there is only one rapier. The single rapiers length is equal to the width of the loom.
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Double Rapier Machines: Two rapiers are used in these machines. One rapier, called the giver, takes the filling yarn from the yarn accumulator on one side of the loom, brings it to the center of the machine

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PARTEX DENIM
and transfers it to the second rapier which is called the taker. The taker retards and brings the filling yarn to the other side. Similar to the single rapier machines, only half of the rapier movements is used for filling insertion.

6.3.3 Projectile Weaving:


Projectile weaving machines use a projectile equipped with a gripper to insert the filling yarn across the machine. The gripper projectile draws the filling yarn into the shed. The Projectile glides through the shed in a rake- shaped guide. Braked in the receiving unit, the Projectile is then conveyed to its original position by a transport device installed under the shed.

Figure: Projectile loom

Figure: Water jet insertion

6.3.4 Water-Jet Weaving:


A water-jet weaving machine inserts the filling yarn by highly pressurized water. The relative velocity between the filling yarn and the water jet provides the attractive force. If there is no velocity difference, then there would be no tension on the yarn results in curling and snarling of the yarn. Water-jet weaving machine can only be used for hydrophobic fibers.

6.4 Weaving in Partex Denim:


In Partex Denim weaving is air Jet & Rapier. There are 132 airjet& 36 rapier machines. The department is working under the good supervision of Mr. Paul who is weaving manager and very much dedicated to his work. He is working with all his technical, management hardworking staff. Like some other departments weaving department is running 24 hours a day and meeting the sales requirements. Weaving department is playing a leading role in denim manufacturing at of denim at Partex Denim.
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6.4.1 Specification of Airjet:


Brand name: Model Country of origin Speed Reed Shedding Air pressure required Total relay valve Number of heald shaft Number of cutter Let off motion Take up motion : PICANOL : OMP800-2P-190 : BELGIUM : 850 rpm : Profile Reed : Cam shedding mechanism : 9.5 bar : 14 : 6 to 8 (Generally 3 to 4 used) :2 : Electrical : Electrical

6.4.2 Specification of Rapier:


Brand name: Model Country of origin Speed Reed Shedding Number of heald shaft Number of cutter Let off motion Take up motion : PICANOL : GamMax-2P : BELGIUM : 650 rpm : Flat Reed : Cam shedding mechanism : 6 to 19 (Generally 3 to 4 used) :2 : Electrical : Electrical
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6.5 Looming:
Looming covers the process involved in warp preparation after sizing up to setting them to loom. The process can be shown as follows: Drawing-in Warp Tying Loom During slashing, the exact number of warp yarns required in fabric is wound on to the loom (or weaver's) beam. The warp ends are then passed through the drop wires of the warp stop motion, the heddles of the harness frames and the dents at the reed. This can be achieved by drawing -in or tying in, the choice depending upon whether or not the new warp is different form the warp already on the loom.

6.6 Drawing-In:
The process of drawing every warp end through its drop wire, heddle eye and reed dent can be performed manually or by means of automatic machines. In both case, a length of warp yarn, just enough to reach to the other side of the frame, is unwound. Leasing (i.e. selecting warp) of the warp at this stage simplifies the separation of the yarns. Then they are threaded through drop wires heddle eyes and reed dents. The automatic drawing machine can handle the leasing-in and drawing -in process in one single operation.

6.7 Tying-In:
When fabric of a particular type is being mass-produced, the new warp beams will be identical with the exhausted beams on the looms. Therefore, if every end on the new beam is tied to its corresponding end on the old beam, the drawing-in process can be omitted. Tying-in may be done by means of a small portable machine on the loom or as a separate operation away from the loom.

6.8 Basic Motion:


In order to interlace wrap and weft threads to produce a fabric, the following motions are necessary on any type of loom: Primary motions Secondary motions Tertiary motions

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PARTEX DENIM 6.8.1 Primary Motions:


These are fundamental or essential motion. Without these motions, it is practically impossible to produce a fabric. It is for this reason that these mechanisms are called primary motion.

Primary Motion

Shedding

Picking

Beating

Tappet Shedding Over Picking Dobby Shedding Under Picking Jacquard Shedding Modern Picking

Single Beating

Multiple Beating

Variable Beating

Airjet

Rapier

Projectile

Waterjet

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PARTEX DENIM
6.8.1.1 Shedding Mechanism:
The shedding mechanism separates the warp threads into two layers or divisions to form a tunnel known as shed. The shed provides room for passage of the shuttle. A shed may be formed by means of tappets, dobby and jacquard. Shedding Components: There are two main shedding components: Heald frame Cam

The Heald or Heddle:


Alternate vertical movements according to the evolution of the warp yarn and the passage of the picks drive the heddles. Healed frame or heddles consists of a wooden frame, which consist of healed wires. To provide straight path for the passing of the warp. These are twisted and metallic wires, which slides on flat bars within the frame.

Cam / Tappet:
The purpose of the cam is to control the motion of harness frames, the lift of reed and the weave pattern. Possible weave patterns of fabric are 1/1, 2/1, 3/1 and 4/1. There are 4 cams in the air jet loom and a single cam is double plated. The cam acquires special curved shape. Different cam setting can be used for different weave pattern. It is the required condition that the machine revolution should match with gear system gear ratio is adjusted according to the weave pattern.

Healed Shaft:
A healed shaft consists of a wooden or metal frame carrying healed wires. The width of a healed shaft is slightly greater than that of the warp sheet and is usually 36 to 48 cm deep. The functions of a healed shaft are: To carry healed wires and maintain warp yarns in their correct positions To form a shed line.

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PARTEX DENIM
6.8.1.2 Picking Mechanism:
The picking mechanism passes weft thread from one selvedge of the fabric to the other through the shed by means of a shuttle, a projectile, a rapier, a needle, an air-jet or a water-jet. The inserted weft thread is known as pick.

Components of Picking Mechanism: Cone Stand:


The purpose of this stand is to hold the cones. The main components of cone stand are: Cone holder Disc Tensioner

Cone Holder:
The shape of the cone holder is a little bit like an aero plane. It contains two propeller shape rubber stopper so as to stop the forward and backward slippage of the cone during running condition and to provide grip.

Plastic Disc:
The weft yarn from the cones passes through a plastic disc provided with the hole in the center the purpose of this hole is to allow the weft yarn to pass through the disc setting of the disc is in such that at a time of weft yarn from the first and fourth or the last weft yarn passes through the first and second disc respectively. The distance between the discs can be adjusted with the help of the spring provided with the nut. From the disc the weft yarn is delivered to the Tensioner.

Tensioner:
The use of tensioner is to give tension to the weft yarn otherwise the weft yarn coils within its self. This tensioner consists of two small discs or plates. A spring is also provided at the side of one disc so that the discs can adjust themselves according to the count of the weft yarn. If count is fine then low tension is required whereas coarser count needed relatively higher tension. The alignment of the disc and the cone is in such a way that a free path is provided to the weft yarn.
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PARTEX DENIM

Weft Yarn Path Diagram (Airjet):


Package Yarn PFT Movable Main Nozzle FD1 FD2

Balloon Breaker Package stand

Pre winder

Balloon Breaker

Fixed Main Nozzle

Filling Cutter

Relay Valve

Relay Nozzle

Selvedge Cutter

Warp Yarn Path Diagram (Airjet):


Emery Roller

Back Rest Dropper Heald Frames Reed Fabric Roll

Yarn Sheet

Fabric

Stand

Weavers Beam

Batcher

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PARTEX DENIM

Weft Yarn Path Diagram (Rapier):


Package

FT

Filing Detector

Giver Head

Taker Head

Balloon Breaker Package stand

Pre winder

Balloon Breaker Rapier belt Disk

Cutter

Cutter

Warp Yarn Path Diagram (Rapier):


Emery Roller

Back Rest Dropper Heald Frames Reed Fabric Roll

Yarn Sheet

Fabric

Stand

Weavers Beam

Batcher

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Cone Break Detector:
Cone break detector detects filling yarn breaks that occur between the cone and prewinder. The cone break detector stops the weaving machine before the prewinder is empty. Cone break detector between the cone and the prewinder prevents starts up marks.

The Filling Tensioner:


Filling tensioner are necessary to ensure a most uniform yarn tension between the cones and prewinder drum, therefore ensuring an absolute uniform tension under filling yarn winding without any loop formation.

Weft Accumulator or Prewinder: The prewinder draw filling yarn from a cone, winding it on the winder drum which in turn, makes for gentle pick insertion. The weft yarn is drawn off the package and wound on to measuring bands and fingers by the rotating motion of thread guiding tube. The diameter of the measuring band can be adjusted according to the width of the loom. Adjusting the measuring bands and the number of coils sets the pick length. The electro magnetically controlled stopper pin releases the weft yarn at the machine angle set.

Storage Control:
As it takes time to rise the motor rpm to the standard rpm at starting required weft yarn for next insertion is wound in advance to secure smooth weft insertion. While the loom is running, corresponding length weft yarn to one insertion is supplied to the prewinder, and storage is controlled in the prewinder.

Measuring Control:
One pick length of weft yarn is measured by releasing or hooking solenoid FDP pin electrically. There are two timings; one is for the first pick at starting and the other is preceding pick at normal operation. These timings secure accurate measuring, storage, measuring and weft insertion are controlled by output of signal command.

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Balloon Breaker:
The balloon breaker reduces the balloon dimensions when drawing yarn from the prewinder. The closer the prewinder to the balloon breaker, the smaller the yarn balloons. When weaving heavy filling yarns, there is the potential to increase the rate of insertion when using a balloon breaker.

Main Nozzle:
Nozzle is a duct of smooth varying cross section in which air is used to accelerate weft yarn through the shed across the width of fabric. On air jet weaving machines in each channel there are two main nozzles, one is fixed and other is movable.

Relay Nozzles:
Relay nozzle mounted in sley are connected in groups to electromagnetic valves. The electromagnetic relay nozzle valve starts the air jet. The length of time the valve is opened depends on the reed width and relay valve spacing as well as on the yarn. The compressed air is distributed from the compressed air tank via the valves to the nozzles. Relay nozzles are arranged over the entire length of the reed, the relay nozzles assists the movable main nozzle in blowing the pick through the reed guiding channel. These relay nozzles are divided up into groups, in that each group of nozzle is served independently by a relay nozzle valve. These valves are driven such that the rate of insertion is correct and that yarn flow is uniform.

Filling Cutter:
The function of cutter cuts the filling at the left hand and right hand side of an insertion. The cutter is driven by the motor and is completely independent of the machine drive. The position, the movement of cutting and the condition of the filling cutter are very important for the insertion. Cutter is mounted on both ends of the fabric. On yarn supply side, yarn is securely cut every time reed is beaten. On driving side preceding yarn is cut between the temple and the space roll. The motion of the cutter cam attached to the main shaft is transmitted through cutter cam lever and cutter rod to cutter edge.

Filling Detectors:
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The filling detectors or sometimes called feelers mounted at the reed holder on the loom and the end of the driving side photo electrically monitors whether there is weft yarn arrive or not.

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6.8.1.3 Beat Up Mechanism:
The beat-up mechanism beats or pushes the newly inserted length of weft thread (pick) into the already woven fabric at a point known as fell of the cloth. These three mechanisms namely shedding, picking and then beat-up are done in sequence.

Beating Components: Sley:


The sley is a metal frame. In case of air jet contains profile reed, relay nozzles, filling detector, stretch nozzle and side detector. At its forward motion the last pick is beaten up to the fell of the cloth, and at its forward motion the weft is allowed to insert through relay nozzles through the open shed. The heavy reciprocating sley with the help of a reed firmly beats up the last pick to the fell with the sufficient velocity.

Reed:
The reed is an arrangement if vertical steel wires spaced a given distance apart a securely fastened at the top and bottom by the bindings. The spaced between two wires is known as "dent". Reeds are made with any desire number of dents per inch, according to the requirements of the cloth that is to be woven. A reed contains a definite number of dents on a given length; this is termed as the count, the pitch, or the number of reed. The reeds are named differently. Reeds are named from the number of dents contained in one inch. The shape and thickness of the metal wires used in the reed is important. Reed selection depends on several considerations including fabric appearance, fabric weight (ends per unit width), beat up force, air space requirements and weave design.

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PARTEX DENIM Available Reeds in Partex Denim:


Reeds are very expansive machine parts and its correct use makes it long time running. In fine counts reed damages very quickly. A good manager is that who runs his weaving shed with minimum number of reeds rather than investing a large amount on reeds and storing them. In Partex Denim the shed of 168 looms is running on following reeds. With these reeds Partex Denim has made almost all of these orders.

Reed Count
Dent per meter (DM)

Reed Space
(mm)

590 590 652 652 869 931 1085 1190

1725 1742 1725 1742 1740 1739 --1738

6.8.2 Secondary Mechanisms:


These mechanisms are next in importance to the primary mechanisms. If weaving is to be continuous, these mechanisms are essential. So they are called the secondary mechanisms. They are: Take-up motion Let-off motion.

Secondary Motion
Take Up Let Off

Positive Negative

Positive
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Negative

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6.8.2.1 Take-up motion:
The take-up motion withdraws the cloth from the weaving area at a constant rate so as to give the required pick-spacing (in picks/inch or picks/cm) and then winds it on to a cloth roller. The main part of the mechanism is the take up rollers, which draws the cloth at the regular rate, and the number of picks per inch decides this rate. The take up roller is covered with emery cloth or hard rubber depending upon the type of cloth woven. The drive to the take up roller is by a train of gear wheels put into motion directly from the main shaft.

6.8.2.2 Let-off motion:


The let-off motion delivers the warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at constant tension by unwinding it from the weavers beam. The secondary motions are carried out simultaneously. The speed of the servo motor is transmitted to warp beam gear via reduction gear, thus driving beam.

6.8.3 Tertiary Mechanisms:


To get high productivity and good quality of fabric, additional mechanisms, called auxiliary mechanisms, are added to a loom. The auxiliary mechanisms are useful but not absolutely essential. This is why they are called the auxiliary mechanisms. These are listed below. Weft stop motion Temples Brake Warp stop motion

Tertiary Motion

Warp stop

Weft stop

Selvedge motion

Box motion

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PARTEX DENIM
6.8.3.1 Weft stop motion:
The object of the weft stop motion is to stop the loom when a weft thread breaks or gets exhausted. This motion helps to avoid cracks in a fabric.

6.8.3.2 Warp stop motion:


The object of the warp stop motion is to stop the loom immediately when a warp thread breaks during the weaving process.

6.8.3.3 Brake:
The brake stops the loom immediately whenever required. The weaver uses it to stop the loom to repair broken ends and picks.

6.9 Special Features of PICANOL:


6.9.1 Unique Sumo main motor:
The oil-cooled Sumo main motor drives the weaving machine directly, without belt or clutch and brake. The very short drive train is simple and compact, and the machine is up to full speed right from the very First pick. The speed of the motor is controlled electronically, without a frequency converter, thus reducing power consumption and permitting greater flexibility. The shed crossing time is set entirely from the display. This combination of the Sumo motor with electronic settings makes it easy to obtain the highest possible industrial speeds taking into account the yarn quality, number of harnesses and weaving pattern, and considerably reduces the set-up times.

6.9.2 Picanol PC Suite:


Picanol PC Suite is a collection of PC software to monitor the design, settings and production data of the weaving shed in a very easy way. LoomGate makes it possible to communicate between the PC and the weaving machines over the network. Using LoomGate, machine settings are transferred from the PC to the machines and vice versa, the weaving machine can be updated with new software, or the actual settings and operating parameters of the weaving machines can be consulted. LoomGate also includes a monitoring function to consult and process machine and shift production data on the PC.
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PARTEX DENIM 6.9.3 Automatic full pick finding:


The machine has an automatic full pick finder driven by the Sumo main motor. Pick finding is done using a shiftable gear on the Sumo motor, so that no slow motion motor and clutch are required. In case of a broken pick the machine stops and only the harness frames are brought in motion automatically so as to free the broken pick, without the reed touching the beat-up line. This reduces the stop time in case of a filling break and avoids starting marks.

6.9.4 Exchangeable shed formation:


The PICANOL can be fitted with a positive cam motion, electronic positive dobby or electronically driven jacquard. The basic machine structure for the cam, dobby and jacquard versions is identical, making it possible to change the shed formation system at any time in the future. For example, it is possible to change quickly from cam to dobby, and vice versa. It is even perfectly possible to convert to jacquard.

6.9.5 Electronic Let-Off and Take-Up:


The electronically controlled let-off (ELO) and take-up (ETU) are fitted as standard. The ETU makes it possible to weave fabrics with variable pick densities, with highly accurate settings.

6.9.6 Easy fitting and removal of warp beam and cloth roll:
The warp beam is driven by an electronically controlled let-off system via a separate gearwheel that remains on the machine. Fitting the warp beam and changing the cloth roll are done by means of quick connections - no tools are required.

6.9.7 Perfect lubrication:


Lubrication is by means of a central circulation system controlled by pressure and pressure difference sensors. Constant filtering of the oil ensures perfect lubrication. The number of oil lines has been greatly reduced, while the lines themselves are shorter and are made of remolded rubber.

6.9.8 Double pressure roller:


The double pressure roller ensures a better grip of the sand roller onto the cloth. Because of the division of the pressure of one pressure roller over two pressure rollers a zone contact is established instead of a line contact (obtained with one pressure roller). This zone contact provides a better control of take-up and allows weaving of heavily beat-up fabrics in an easier way.

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PARTEX DENIM 6.9.9 Optimized sley drive:


The sley is driven by a cam and cam follower system, for perfect beat-up and balanced lower inertia for higher speeds.

6.9.10 Electronic Selvedge System and Electronic Rotary Leno:


The unique Electronic Selvedge Systems (ELSY) are driven by separate stepper motors that are controlled electronically. The selvedge patterns and crossing times can be programmed independently of the shed crossing. This can be done even while the machine is running, so the weaver immediately sees the result of the new settings. The crossing time of the Electronic Rotary Leno (ERL) can similarly be programmed while the machine is running.

6.9.11 Quick Step filling presenter (Rapier):


The Quick Step filling presenter operates with independent modules, each consisting of an electronically controlled stepper motor with a presenter needle. The system handles up to eight colours. The operator enters the weave pattern on the microprocessor keyboard or at the Jacquard control unit.

6.9.12 CANplus prewinders (Airjet):


The CANplusprewinders have a sensor for the reserve windings and may have a built-in optical yarn break detector. Thanks to the adjustable motion and force of the magnetic pin, the OMNIplus 800 is able to weave yarns ranging from extremely light to coarse.

6.9.13 Programmable Filling Tensioner (Airjet):


The Programmable Filling Tensioner (PFT) reduces the peak tension in the yarn at the end of insertion when the magnetic pin on the prewinder closes. This makes it possible to weave weaker, more delicate or elastic yarns at higher speeds. The PFT is automatically threaded along with the prewinder when the latter is threaded pneumatically. The PFT is mounted on the balloon breaker ensuring he ideal insertion line together with the fixed main nozzle.

6.9.14 Clamp on the movable main nozzle (Airjet):


At the entrance to the main nozzle a pneumatically controlled mechanical clamp holds the yarn during the non-insertion period, enabling the continuous airlow to be kept at a very low level. This improves the fabric quality and reduces the number of stops with weaker yarns.

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PARTEX DENIM 6.9.15 Argus filling detector (Airjet):


The Argus filling detector ensures perfectly reliable detection of the yarn. The detector has a full view of the entire cross-section of the insertion channel, so that detection is independent of the position of the yarn in the channel. Argus is the new filling detector positioned next to the reed. It is mounted directly on the reed holder. The Argus filling detector features 128 eyes covering a zone of 6.5 mm from the back of the reed channel, compared to a detection zone of 2.5 mm for a standard model.

6.9.16 Fixed and movable main nozzles (Airjet):


The entirely new air supply system and more efficient main nozzles permit higher performance. The position of both the fixed and the movable main nozzles is simple to adjust. Moreover, the airjet pressure and timing can be adjusted separately, giving reduced air consumption. The Electronically-controlled Low Continuous Airflow (ELCA) system holds the filling yarn in the ideal position during the non-insertion period. The digital setting for each channel prevents the yarn unraveling.

6.9.17 New relay nozzles and valves (Airjet):


The OMNIplus 800 relay nozzles are optimized for more efficient use of air. The shape of the nozzles and the position of the holes give a higher Pitot value and enable maximum use to be made of the available insertion time. The new D-type relay nozzle has 16 holes instead of 19, which makes it more efficient for the same air pressure. Air consumption can be reduced with up to 15%. The new Diamond-Like Coating (DLC) on the relay nozzles ensures a significantly longer lifetime when weaving abrasive yarns. The electro-magnetic valves on the relay nozzles have been redesigned and are easy to reach, so that changing the width can be done quickly and easily. The airlines between valve and relay nozzle have been made as short as possible, thus further reducing air consumption.

6.9.18 Adaptive Relay Valve Drive (Airjet):


The new ARVD feature automatically optimizes the closing time of the relay nozzle valves related to the behavior and the air friendliness of the weft. This program uses the winding information from the prewinder in order to calculate the optimal closing moment of each relay nozzle valve on a pick by pick basis. The relay nozzle valves will close earlier in case of a fast filling, consequently saving compressed air.
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PARTEX DENIM 6.9.19 Stretch nozzle (Airjet):


The chimney stretch nozzle is fitted at the right-hand side of the reed and stretches the tip of the pick at the end of insertion. Thanks to air pressure the yarn passes through a zigzag conduit in the chimney and is stretched. It is frequently beneficial to include an extraction nozzle to the chimney stretch nozzle. Combined with the programmable filling tensioner, the chimney stretch nozzle ensures the best insertion for a filling yarn.

6.10 Different Parts Manufacturers Name:

Name
Heald Frame Dobby Reed Take Up Drop Wire Air Blower Winding m/c Knotting m/c Brand Electric Cable Supplier

Brand
Heddle Frames Stubli Burckle, Blue Grob, Picanol Grob Sohler, Electrojet Brandt Fischer Poege BBS Electronic

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PARTEX DENIM

6.11 Selvedge:
Selvedge is an important role for further processing of a fabric. Air-jet weaving machine can be equipped with various types of selvedge formation devices. Several machinery manufacturers incorporate different types of selvedge formation devices as per requirement of the end products.

Types of Selvedge:

Name
Both end bounded Selvedge

Figure

Application
(Handloom)

One end bounded

(Rapier loom) (Rapier, Airjet)

Fringed Selvedge Tucked-in Selvedge

(Projectile, Rapier, Airjet)

Fused Selvedge

(for synthetic fabric)

Leno Selvedge Dummy Selvedge Adhesive bonded Selvedge Twisted Selvedge Stitched Selvedge

(Rapier, Airjet)

(Rapier, Airjet)

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PARTEX DENIM

6.12 Calculation:
Problem: 01
Given: Ends per Inch (EPI): 66 Weave: 3/1 RHT Repeat: 4 ends Find required reed number?

Solution: Repeat Per Repeat Per Inch = 66/4 = 16.5 Meter = 16.5 x 39.37 = 649.60

Available Reed = 652 DM

Answer: Reed number = 652 DM

Problem: 02
Given, Actual Production = 188773 pick Calculated Production = 192000 pick Find out efficiency?

Solution: We know, Efficiency = =

Actual Production Calculated Production


188773 100 %

100 %

192000 = 98.32 %

Answer: Efficiency = 98.32 %


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PARTEX DENIM
Problem: 03
Given, Fabric construction =

99 66 47

64"

Weave = 3/1 R.P.M = 600 Efficiency = 80 % Find out production per hour in yards? Solution: We know production/hr= =

rpm time x efficiency PPI 36 600 60 .80

47 36 = 15.64 yds/hr
Answer: Production Per hour per loom = 15.64 yds

Problem: 04
Given, Fabric construction =

99 66 47

64"

Weave = 3/1 R.P.M = 600 Efficiency = 90 % Find out weft yarn consumption in cone? Solution: Length of a pick = 72 Length of 600 pick = 600 x 72 = 43200 inch = 1097 meter

Weft yarn consumption in one minute = 1097 meter Weft yarn consumption in 60 minutes = 1097 x 60 = 65820 meter Weft yarn consumption in 8 hours = 65820 x 8 = 526560 meter

Length of 9 OE yarn in one cone = 42300 meter


42300
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Total cone required =

526560

.90 = 11.20 = 12 cones

Answer: Total cone required = 12

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Chapter Seven

Finishing

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7.1 Definition:
In general, before marketing, all the process which are applied on the fabric after weaving is called finishing. In short sense, finishing is the process by which the fibers, yarns and fabrics are made as presentable to the customer and these processes are implemented after coloration. The term finishing covers all those treatments that serve to impart to the textile the desired end-use properties. These can include properties relating to visual effect, handle and special characteristics such as waterproofing and non-flammability.

7.2 Objects of Finishing:


To increase the attractiveness of fabric. To increase the service ability. To increase the beauty and glitterness of fabric. To increase the fineness and to ensure smoothness. To ensure the softness of the fabric. To free from hairiness of the fabric.

7.3 Types of finishing:


7.3.1 Physical/Mechanical Finishing:
The finishing process which is performed by machines but not using of chemicals is called physical/mechanical finishing. Example: Calendaring, embossing, raising, sanforizing etc.

7.3.2 Chemical Finishing:


The finishing process which is performed by application of chemicals which reacts with fibres is termed as chemical finishing. Example: Starching, Mercerizing, resin finishing, Desizing, Water Repellent Treatment, Flame Retardant Treatment, etc.
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PARTEX DENIM

Denim Finishing:
Finishing of grey denim fabric normally carried out after weaving. It takes an important role in fabric properties, appearance, softness and residual fabric shrinkage. The finishing of denim fabric is carried out for several purposes. Finishing of denim fabric can be varied according to the specific requirement of customer. The finishing process may vary from harsh hand (loom state), soft hand (desizing) and sulphur over dyeing.

7.4 Finishing In Partex Denim:


Partex Denim finishing department is a well-established modern section with a suitable range of the finishing processes required for denim. Department is working under the supervision of Mr. Mahfuz, manager finishing. Proper finishing process is necessary otherwise the fabric will be rejected by the buyer. In case of denim mainly controlling of the shrinkage and the skew of the fabric is done. Besides, finishing process finishing section of Partex Denim have to do a lot of others job like fabric storing, inspection, sample processing etc. So a finishing section in a denim industry plays a vital role. Finishing section of Partex Denim Ltd is responsible for the following: Finishing process Quality control Inspection Sample processing and preservation Finished fabric storing and delivery

The following types of finishes are applied to the denim fabric at Partex Denim. Singeing Softening Skew control Sanforizing Calendering Desizing Mercerizing Resin finishing
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PARTEX DENIM

Flow Process Chart for Denim Finish Line


Fabric Unwinding
Motor speed: 25-80 m/min

Brushing

Protruding fibre removed by blower

J-Box

Fabric store unit

Singeing

Gas Pressure: 1-2 Bar Bust removed by blower Bust removed by blower

Brushing

J-Box

Fabric store unit

Softening

Softener Flacks used for soften the fabric

Skewness

Strengthening the weft yarn

Dryer - 1, 2

Steam pressure: 2 Bar

Mini Stenter

Control of fabric width

Sanforizing

Fabric Shrinkage Control

Calendaring

Make the fabric surface uniform

Folding

Prepare for next step


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PARTEX DENIM Machine Specification: Brand


Origin Model Total machine Year of Manufacture Roller width Working width Steaming cylinder dia Shirking bench cylinder dia Felt calendar cylinder dia Felt calender drying cylinder dia Mechanical speed Shrinkage value Average steam consumption at 6 bar Average soft water consumption at 2-3 bar Power consumption : Italy : CBDENIM : 02 : 2005 : 200 cm : 180 cm : 64 cm : 61.2 cm : 200 cm : 80 cm : Up to 80m/min : Up to 18% : 1000 kg/hr : 5-6 m3/hr : 106 Kw

Cibitex

7.5 Process Sequence of Denim Finish Line:


7.5.1 Brushing:
In the brushing stage, the grey fabric is brushed to remove the loose lint and loose fluff from the fabric surface. It also raised the protruding fibers on the fabric surface which are removed in the next stage of singeing process.

7.5.2 J-Box:
Store the fabric for some while during the process. This unit is important when change of batcher. Stored fabric supports the continuous operation.

7.5.3 Singeing:
The fabric is then singed in both or only face side which burn off the protruding fibers from the fabric surface. Normally denim fabric is singed twice in a single passage of a singeing machine. The denim finished fabric must have soft and pleasant handle.
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PARTEX DENIM Reasons for Singeing:


Textiles are first and foremost singed in order to improve their wear and end use properties. The burning-off of protruding fiber ends which are not firmly bound into the yarns results in clean surface which allows the structure of fabric to be clearly seen. Fabrics which have not been singed soil more easily than singed fabrics. The risk of pilling, especially with synthetic fibers, is extremely low in case of singed fabric. A closely singed fabric is essential for printing fine intricate patterns. The risk of skitter dyeing with singed piece dyed articles in dark shades is considerably reduced as randomly protruding fibres cause a diffuse reflection of light. Singeing process facilitates and speeds up desizing. This effect, however, is achieved only if the fabric is impregnated with desizing liquor immediately after singeing.

Fabric before and after Singeing:

Before Singeing

After Singeing

Types of Singeing:
Singeing can be classified into two types: 1. Direct singeing 2. Indirect singeing

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1. Direct singeing is the most popular procedure. The fabric passes either glowing metal with contact (mainly for pile fabric) or a direct gas flame. Important for both techniques: when the machine stops, the fabric is moved from the metal and the flame stops, too. 2. The indirect singeing works with highly heated ceramic modules. Infrared beams are burning the loose fibres. Speed controls the singeing effect.

PARTEX DENIM Singeing Parameters:


Fabric speed (m/min) Flame intensity (mbar) Fabric temperature (oC) Singeing positions Burner fabric distance (mm)

Singeing Techniques on Fabric:

Both side singeing

Double singeing

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PARTEX DENIM 7.5.4 Softening:


After the singing range, the fabric is subjected to a chemical pad treatment. Softeners are often used in the chemical treatment in order to impart soft feeling of the fabric.

7.5.5 Skewness Control:


The skewness in denim fabric, particularly in twill weave creates a serious problem in subsequent garment manufacturing and its washing. Leg twist is a major problem in denim manufacturing. Due to this problem the leg is rotated in the opposite direction of the twill of the fabric after laundering. Leg twist is assumed to be happen due to the directional yarn stresses. These are inherent in regular twill weave fabrics and developed during weaving. During washing the yarn stresses is relaxed which change the regular position of interlacement between warp and filling yarns. Due to this reason the legs are twisted. Normally leg twist not shown on garment stage. It only observed after laundering of the garment. Although leg twist appears after first laundering and it increases progressively with repeated launderings.

Figure: Fabric with skew

Figure: Fabric without skew

Ideally warp and weft should be at right angle to each other in normal fabric. Skew in the fabric occurs when the warps are displaced from their vertical position or when the weft is displaced from their horizontal position. The leg twist is created due to tensions in the fabrics. It is related to the twill direction. Normally a righthand twill fabric twists in the counter clockwise direction. Similarly a left-hand twill fabric twists in the clockwise direction. These leg twist problem can be eliminated through compensating the tensions by deliberately skewing the fabric in the counter clockwise direction for right-hand twills (RHT) and in the clockwise direction for left-hand twill (LHT). Hence the RHT denim fabric should be skewed by advancing the right selvage with respect to the left selvage in the fabric of face up. This results in counterclockwise skew. Similarly a LHT fabric should be skewed by advancing the left selvage when run face up. The amount of the skew to be applied depends

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PARTEX DENIM
upon many factors, such as the type of twill weave, the weight of the fabric, the yarn sizes, and the twist of the yarns. The twill angle is also an important factor. Normally the fabric straightness has only a single skew roller or a pair of rollers offset the same amount. A single skew roller is not able to give a full 8% skew in a single passage in heavy weight denim fabric. However, minimum two skew rollers, and preferably three or four skew rollers give better results. In general, Z- twist cotton yarns generate right-handed skew. All S-twist yarns exhibit left hand skew. In general open-end yarns result in less skew than the ring spun yarns.

Figure: Woven fabric skewness

When any woven fabrics are removed from looms, the warps and wefts start to contract each other in order to undergo equilibrium condition. Hence the warp and weft yarn become closed to each other and the free spaces between them reduced. It has observed that the type of deformation of fabric depends upon many factors, among which the weave of the fabric (either plane or twill) is most important. The forces acting on the yarns after removing the fabric from the weaving loom is shown in Figure.

Warp Contraction Force

Weft Contraction Force

Weft Contraction Force

Warp Contraction Force

Forces acting on the yarns after releasing the fabric from the weaving loom

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The movement of yarn in a plain fabric

The movement of yarn in a twill fabric

In case of plain weave fabric, the free spaces in warp and weft direction are equal. Hence the forces acting on all sides of each float are equal, which makes the fabric more stable. However in case of twill weave fabric, at the portion of a float; there is a gap or free space equal to the actual diameter of the yarn. Due to this free space, there may be possible that the floating yarn push away the crossing yarn.

The floating yarn to push away the crossing yarn at the interlacing point

Figure: A

Figure: B

Figure: C

The two forces acting opposite to each other in the floats makes them like an in-plain lever (Fig. A). The position of the free spaces on either side of the float determine the direction in which the float to be skewed. For a right hand 2/2 twill fabric, the location of the free spaces, as shown in Fig. A will skewed clockwise shown in Fig. B. For a left-hand 2/2 twill fabric, as shown in Fig. C, the floats will be skewed anticlockwise.
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Herringbone or any other types of zigzag twill, there is no risk of the fabric becoming skewed, as in such weaves, floats (in-plane levers) act oppose to each other. The degree of skew movement depends upon yarn characteristics, weaving tensions, and the fabric structures.

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PARTEX DENIM 7.5.6 Dryer:


Wet fabric is dried in this section. Steam produced by boiler heating the cylinder drum. It increase the inside temperature of the drum. The temperature can be adjusted by changing steam pressure. There are 20 drums for drying.

7.5.7 Stenter:
Stenter is used for control the width of fabric by fixing a definite width.

7.5.8 Sanforizing:
Sanforizing is a mechanical finishing process of treating textile fabrics to prevent the normal dimensional alternation of warp & weft. After sanforizing the residual shrinkage of woven fabric may be zero. The sole objective of sanforizing is to control the length wise shrinkage of fabric. The maximum percentage of shrinkage depends on fabric construction and quality but controlled according to the customer specifications.

Shrinkage phenomenon:
During spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing and the various finishing processes, yarns and cloth are under a continuous tension. Yarns and/or fabrics are not fixed materials. They consist of separate, stretchable fibres which submit to the tension. In other words, fabrics do stretch in length and width. The tension within the yarns, which is caused by this stretching, can be eliminated when the friction within the fabric is reduced. This reduction in friction occurs during laundering where both water and soap act as a lubricant. The lubricant, along with the mechanical action of the washer, helps the fibres relax and contract to their original length before the elongation takes place. This means that the fabric shrinks and recaptures its original equilibrium.

Controlled Compressive Shrinkage Process:


The internationally well known and most important shrinking process today dates back more than 70 years. Though the correct expression for this process is Controlled Compressive Shrinkage, the average person knows it as SANFORIZED. The process is a purely mechanical treatment without any addition of chemicals.

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PARTEX DENIM
The purpose of the process is to shrink fabrics in such a way that textiles made up of these fabrics do not shrink during washing. The amount of potential wash shrinkage must be determined prior to shrinking. A full width sample is wash-tested according to the test method. After the lengthwise and widthwise shrinkage has been determined, the compressive shrinkage machine can be adjusted accordingly.

Principle of Mechanical Shrinking:

Figure: Shrinking process

The shrinking process takes place between the rubber belt and the heated shrinking drum. The pressure roller presses the rubber belt against the shrinking drum and the belt is stretched. When the pressure of the roller is relieved the belt shrinks again. The fabric inserted between the rubber belt and the drum has to follow the shrinking of the belt and is itself shrunk. The fabric shrinkage can be varied by varying the pressure of the roller on the rubber belt. The greater the roller pressure, the greater the shrinking. The fabric is fed on the convex part of a drying cylinder and when the blanket retracts to the concave section of the blanket, the cloth is physically forced to comply with the curvature and shrinks according to the thickness of the blanket. The cylinder serves to hold the fabric on to the blanket and does not let it slip back. The excessive heat of the shrinking cylinder can cause damage to rubber belt. In order to prevent this, perforated water pipes spray water on the belt as it leaves the fabric. This has two advantages; The rubber belt is cooled down and prevented from surface hardening. Very little water remains on the grainy surface of the rubber belt and absorbed by the fabric. This results in good and easy shrinking process.

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PARTEX DENIM 7.5.9 Calendaring:


After grey fabric is subjected to singeing, softening, skewness, sanforizing etc. it is finally dried to retain its true shape and dimensions. But in this state the fabric becomes least lustrous. Because for those operations the threads in fabric become weavy and crimped. But if a fabric is to appear highly lustrous then its surface should be parallel to each other and all should lie in the length direction.

Objects of Calendaring:
To cause a closing together of the threads of the fabric by flattening them and thus tending to fill up the interstices between warp and weft. To produce a smooth, glossy and highly lustrous appearance on the surface of the cloth. To reduce fabric thickness. To reduce air permeability and water permeability of fabric by changing its porosity.

Essential elements of calendaring:


The following three elements should be controlled during calendaring. High pressure High temperature Suitable degree of dampness Besides these the number, composition & arrangements of pressure bowls and speed of running cloth are also should be controlled carefully.

Figure: Calendaring Process

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PARTEX DENIM

7.6 Mercerization:
Mercerization is a physio-chemical process where yarn (cotton) is treated with 15-25% caustic soda solution at a temperature of 200-300C. It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension and wash thoroughly.

Flow Process Chart for Mercerization

Fabric Unwinding

Speed: 25-35 m/min

Bath-1

Dosing of NaOH at room temperature

Bath-2

Dosing of NaOH at room temperature

Bath-3

Normal water wash at room temperature Width control Hot water wash at 90OC Hot water wash at 90OC

Stenter

Bath-4 to 7

Bath-8

pH control

Bath-9

Normal water wash at room temperature

Dryer - 1, 2

Moisture remove and drying

Fabric folding

Prepare for next process


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PARTEX DENIM 7.6.1 Physio-chemical changes during mercerization:


When cotton fibre is brought into aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide of 18% concentration, the cellulose begins to swell immediately and in a few seconds the fibre is elliptical in X-section. On further swelling, the section rounds off and the major axis of the ellipse is at least 25-30% greater than the fibre width of the corresponding collapsed fibre. The cellulose of the wall sweels inwards until the lumen is practically eliminated. When the fibre is transferred to water and well washed. Shrinkage begins and on drying at room temperature a further and final shrinkage occurs. During the last three shrinkage proceeds uniformly towards the centre and the lumen does not recover its original size.

7.6.2 Advantages of mercerization:


Increase tensile strength Improve hygroscopicity Improve dye affinity Improve smoothness Improve luster Improve dimensional stability and physical compactness 20-30% dye and chemical save while dyeing after mercerization.

7.6.3 Effect of mercerizing condition:


The condition or considerable points for mercerization are: Concentration of caustic soda. Temperature Tension Time Wash thoroughly Wetting agent

The lusture of mercerized cotton depends on various factors:


Cross-section of the fibre Staple length of the fibre Wall thickness of the fibre Concentration of caustic soda Temperature of solution

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PARTEX DENIM
Percent stretch Yarn construction Yarn twist Doubling of yarn Degree of singeing Application of tension Rate of dyring

7.7 Desizing:
Desizing is the process of removing size materials from fabric. This is done simply passing the fabric through some hot water bath for several times. Sometimes softener can be used for better removing of size materials and also for better soft hand feeling.

Flow Process Chart for Desizing


Fabric Unwinding

J-box

Temporary fabric store

Bath-1-6

Normal water wash at 80-90 OC

Dryer - 1, 2

Dryer, moisture remove

J-box

Temporary fabric store

Fabric folding

Prepare for next process


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PARTEX DENIM

7.8 Resin Finishing:


Resin may be applied on the fabric surface to form a coating or it may be applied to the amorphous region of the material to impart a crease resisting property. It is a permanent chemical finishing process.

Flow Process Chart for Resin


Fabric Unwinding J-box Fabric straighten roller Roller Printing

Coating

Stenter/Heat setting Rolling

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Eight

Inspection

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PARTEX DENIM

8.1 Inspection in Partex Denim:


Quality is ultimate concern; every single yard of the denim goes through inspection department and rated by a point count system to ensure that quality is up to standard before packing. Defective fabric pieces are rejected and sold as seconds and relatively minor defective points are marked clearly using stickers to alert cutters. The inspection department is working under the supervision of Mr. Mahfuz, Manager, Finishing. Ten inspection frames of Taiwan are used. Input is finished fabric & output is inspected fabric roll.

8.2 Inspection Process:


Fabric batcher is set at the back side of machine equipped with rollers which provides fabric unwinding. Inspection table is laminated white to enhance the defect identification. Four tube lights are provided to optimize the lighting. Measuring counter is provided in front of the inspection table for controlling length. It has forward, reverse, start and stop button controls. Inspection is carried out on white board table. The cloth is pulled over the white board table by a variable speed motor and different cloth defects are recorded for quality control purpose. They inspect the fabric according to 4 point system. After inspection fabric is wound on roller.

8.3 Four (4) Point System:


This is issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials with reference to the designation: ASTM D5430-93. Faults are scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to their size and significance.

Size Of Defect (Length in Inches)


3 inches or less Over 3 inches but less than 6 inches Over 6 inches but less than 9 inches Over 9 inches

Penalty Points
1 2 3 4

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PARTEX DENIM

8.4 Machinery Description:


Inspection Table:

Name
Brand Model M/C dimension Speed size of inspection board Motor power Roller width Fabric roll diameter

: Inspection m/c
: STT Machinery : Amoeba : 2580 mm x 2920 mm x 2310mm(LWH) : 0 - 80yds/min : 860mm (height) : 3 HP : 72 inch : 450mm

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Figure: Work Flow diagram

PARTEX DENIM
Wrapping Machine:

Name Brand Electric power Air consumption Speed Size Packing range

: Wrapping m/c : STT Machinery : 9 KW : 850L/min : 5 - 6 packages/min : 97027001300mm(LWH) : 38 - 70 (length), 100 400mm (dia)

Shrinking machine:

Name Brand Heat consumption Horse power Speed Size Packing range

: Shrinking m/c : STT Machinery : 45 KW : 1HP (main drive), 1/2HP 2 (air blower) : 5 18 M/min : 750 850 17500mm (LWH) : 38 - 70 (length), 100 - 400mm (dia)
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PARTEX DENIM Fabric Defects are divided into two types:


Removable defects Non removable defects The defects which can remove when inspection is called removable defects. The defects which cannot remove when inspection is called non removable defects.

8.5 Major Fabric Faults:


Starting mark:
Causes: Main cause is loom stoppage. Remedy: This can not be avoided but can be controlled by starting mark setting.

Reed mark:
Causes: If any fault occur at reed Faulty denting in the reed. Remedy: Right selection of the reed and right denting.

Snarl:
Causes: Excess main nozzle pressure Low filling tension Remedy: Main nozzle air pressure control Correct setting of the PFT finger value

Double pick:
Causes: Cutting problem of the cutter. Faulty setting of the air pressure. Remedy: Cutter position is to be set correctly. Air pressure should be reset.

Miss pick/ broken pick:


Causes: Excess air pressure of main nozzle Remedy: Main nozzle air pressure should be reduced
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PARTEX DENIM
Warp breakage:
Causes: Bad sizing Low strength of the yarn Crossing of the warp yarn Remedy: Re knotting Proper sizing

Loose or Tight (sizing Fault):


Causes: knotting is given, when yarn breaks, the yarn tension does not match with other yarn as a result Loose or tight occurs.

Filling Stop:
Causes: If weft is failed to reach FD1 If weft is too long & reach FD2 Remedy: Correct setting of the weft length Correct setting of main nozzle Correct setting of relay nozzle Proper setting of air pressure Proper setting of pre-winder Proper setting of creel position

Oil Mark or Crease, Hole:


When fabric gets spots of oil lubrication from any part.

Contamination:
It is a yarn fault, Plastic Others are mixed with yarn.

Patti:
It is the dark color or thick weft lines in the fabric.

Crease Mark:
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Creases occur due to improper finishing.

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PARTEX DENIM Department wise defects and codes no:

Yarn
Defect
Coarser warp Coarser weft Finer warp Finer weft Oily warp Oily weft Slub Contamination

Dyeing
Code no
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Sizing
Code no
201 202 203 204 205

Weaving
Code no
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308

Finishing
Defect
Crease Up singed Width variation M/C Stop Stain Hole/Torn Sleeve mark E.H mark Weave

Defect
Shade variation Stain Stop mark S.S.V Dyeing patta

Defect
Loose Tight Beam stain Size spot Bad selvedge Less width Slack end B.F

Defect
Broken pick Double Pick Miss Pick Lashing Starting mark Reed mark Knot Snarl Smash Stain Bad selvedge Floating end Double end Wrong drawing Less width Weave Hole Crease mark

Code no
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418

Code no
501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509

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PARTEX DENIM

8.6 Quality Assurance Procedure:


At first grey fabric is inspected thoroughly with the help of the inspection machine if any defect is present there then the fault code number is written in inspection sheet.

When 100 yards fabric inspections is completed then stop the operation & fabric is cut by scissor. Next, types & no. of fault is converted into point system as mentioned below. This point is expressed as percentage by using the following formula:

Inspection Calculation Formula =

Total Point 36 100 Fabric length Fabric width

Point Range
Up to 20 Points / 100 m. Up to 20 30 Points / 100 m. Up to 30 40 Points / 100 m. More than 40 Points / 100 m.

Class
Class A Class B Class C Rejected

Class Name
Elite Zenith Insta Rejected

After calculation, the operator place the Identification sticker on the fabric roll with mentioning details of the fabric as Order no, Usable width, Fault grade, Roll length, Total point, set, style etc. Finally, Fabric roll goes to packing section & then Stored or delivery.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Nine Research & Development (R&D)

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9.1 R & D Department in Partex Denim:


Research & Product development department is an important department for any textile industry. This plays a direct role on developing a product. Partex Denim Ltd. has also a Research & Development (R&D) department with modern amenities which correlates very well with the upcoming new product. Continuous research programmed is carried-on here, which is completed by product development. The R&D department is independent and equipped to promptly invent new designs for new fashion and develop buyers requirements timely. This department keeps all documents from dyeing recipe to fabric construction and keeps master roll to keep shade in same consistent even over a longer discontinuity. Partex always researches to develop new fashion as per the world requirement as well as to maintain comfort & durability.

Figure: R&D department

Most often this department creates new product on the basis of new design & structure by their own creativity according to the current market demand and then give it to the buyer. If this design is approved by the buyer then it is stored. They already developed over 5000 samples. When an order comes from buyer in form of washed sample. The technical person determines the shade percentage, amount and type of washing to that fabric to get the appearance like the sample. So it is very important to wash the sample fabric to justify his assumption. For this purpose a small washing unit is established in the factory. Every order firstly comes into R&D department via marketing peoples by mail or swatch. The R&D experts analyze these samples and match it with their developed samples. If they find similar samples then this is sent to buyers for approve. If buyers approve it then the R&D section goes for production.

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9.2 Developed Samples:


3/1 (both RHT & LHT) 2/1 (both RHT & LHT) 2/2 RHT 3/2 RHT 4/1 RHT 1/1 chambrey Broken Twill Herringbone Twill Zigzag Twill Fancy Design Regular OE & Ring Slub Cross Slub Stretch Denim Polyester Denim 4.5 Oz/Yd 2 to 15.75 Oz/Yd 2

Samples according to Weave

Samples according to Count

Samples according to Weight

Light weight: 4.5 Oz/Yd2 Medium weight: 7.5 Oz/Yd2 Heavy weight: 15.75 Oz/Yd2 Indigo Special Indigo Dark Indigo Blue Black Black Ash Reactive color denim Coated Denim Printed Denim

Samples according to Color

Samples according to Finish

The R&D department also performs different testing solutions. Most modern and efficient lab instruments from Atlas, UK which is operated by trained technicians. The variable light box, Spectrophotometer, Rubbing tester, Washing Fastness, Tensile strength tester etc. gives accurate results and helps to keep quality good and more consistent. Lab reports of a running lot are constantly maintained. After each process a sample for testing is sent by the production staff usually after many meters of run.Lab reports contain information about various tests performed according to buyer requirements and their results with remarks of responsible staff about the fabric.

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The tests that can be performed are:


Skew Weight (Oz/Yd 2) Shrinkage warp% Shrinkage weft% Pilling ICI Tensile strength Wash fastness Rubbing Fastness

Equipments Used in R&D:


Quickwash Plus Pilling Tester Rotawash GSM balance GSM cutter Shrinkage Measurement Scale Tensile Strength Tester Rubbing Tester Pilliscope Spectrophotometer Grey Scale

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9.3 Name of some Buyers:


Name
Okaidi

Logo

Name
Marks & Spencer Tosco

Logo

Name
Tommy Hilfiger Next Gap USA Tema Wal-Mart USA Lindex

Logo

Tom Tailor VF Asia-lee USA Ralph Lauren

Kappahl Charles Vogele H&M Sweden Zara UK Riders

Nautica

Wrangler

Uniqlo

Adams

Reef

C&A
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Chapter Ten

Denim Wash

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10.1 Denim Washing:


Partex Denim is not a washing plant although they have a small washing unit. It is just used for product development and buyer swatch match. Though it is an important topic thats why we tried to give some information for understanding about Denim washing. Beside these washes, Basic washes are carried out in Partex Denim which is described after the introduction part.

Basic Concept:
Denim has been used as clothing material for centuries due to its high durability. But todays fashion arena likes denim jeans due to its attractive shades, designs, attractive styles and various types of wash appeal, rather than for its robustness. Denim jeans in the past were worn in a raw, rigid and starch-finished form. But todays fashion requires various types of washing treatments, such as desizing, enzymatic washing with or without stones, decolorization, neutralization, brightening and finishing.

Figure: Washed denim

Normally denim washing is carried out in sewn garments. The denim jeans are subjected with different washing techniques, such as rinse wash, bleach, enzyme wash, acid wash, stonewash, moon wash, sand wash, sun wash, over dyed/ tinted look, whiskering, damaged, used look. In denim washing, enzymes played an important role to get clean, smooth, fuzz free fabric surface with reduced tendency of pill formation and improved fabric handle. Traditionally, indigo denim
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fabric is deep blue in shade. Denim finish may be of two types, such as raw denim and prewashed denim. In raw denim, the denim is not washed after weaving. Raw denim jeans shows natural shade of indigo which is faded during wear and subsequent washes at home. However in some cases it is believed that, raw denim is not practical as it creates some problems of rubs off on other materials which come into contact with it. The unfixed dye on the surface of the fabric may cause stains to other fabric. In order to overcome this problems, denim jeans is washed after sewn. The main plus point of pre-washing of denim jeans is that the colour is not transferred to other fabrics or surfaces during wear.

10.2 Types of Denim Wash:


Denim washing are of two different types. 1. Mechanical wash 2. Chemical wash

Chemical washes of denim fabric may be of different types. Denim Bleaching Enzyme washing Acid washing Rinse wash Cellulose wash Ozone fading Snow wash Salt water denim Flat finish Over dye Sun washing Super dark stone
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Mechanical denim washes are stone washing and micro sanding. During stone washing, stones are used in order to achieve typical wash down effect. There are three types of micro sanding, such as: Sand blasting Machine sanding Hand sanding Whiskering Shot gun denim Water jet fading Super stone wash Ice wash Thermo denim Laser technology finish

Some important steps in the process of Denim Washing:


Pre treatment (Desizing, Rinsing, Scouring etc.) Enzyme or Stone wash Clean up to adjust the desire effect Bleaching Tinting / Dyeing Softening & Much more

Pre treatment:
This is very first & basic step but most important step of washing. Here the fate of denim garment is decided thatits going to appear good or bad. Good Pre treatments avoid streaking, stiffness & color loss. This processremoves impurities, starch & stains during handling of fabric. This step is also called desizing (Removal of Size applied during denim fabric making in weft yarn). All the woven fabric contains size on them due to reasons to strengthen the yarn for weaving. There are many types of sizes available in the market but they can be divided in two major groups. 1. Water Soluble (CMC or PVA based sizes)
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2. Dissolvable sizes in water (Starch based). Starch based sizes are most commonly used due to cheap prices & readily availability.

Methods of Removing Sizes from Denim Jeans:


Washing with High Alkaline agents (i.e. Soda ash) Washing with High Acidic agents (i.e. Acetic acid) Washing with Oxidative chemicals (i.e. Hydrogen Peroxide) Enzymatic desizing with Alfa amylase. This is eco friendly& convenient.

10.2.1 Desizing:
The sized denim fabric consists of cellulose fiber coated with a film of starch. Cellulose and starch are chemically related. During weaving the warp yarns are subjected to considerable stress and strain due to fast moving reed and other machine parts. In order to prevent the end breakages, the warp yarns are sized. Although several other substances have been developed, still sizing is still based upon starch. The starch makes the cloth less absorbent which impairs the uptake of bleaches, dyes, and other chemicals. Hence complete removal of the size is extremely essential. There are various methods of desizing. Traditional desizing is carried out with acid, alkali or oxidative desizing agents. However, these chemicals having some limitations and disadvantages. The cellulose material may be damaged and loses strength with these chemical treatments. With the introduction of desizing with enzymes (amylases), the limitation and drawbacks of traditional desizing process has been removed. The enzymatic desizing is considered to be the best and safest. Conventional desizingdegrades the cellulose which is not occur in case of enzymatic desizing. Enzymes are very specific in their action and act only on the starch without reacting on cellulose. The enzymatic desizing process is performed by using alpha amylase enzyme which hydrolyses the cellulose. The enzyme desizing process offers high efficiency and specific action. Amylases
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completely remove the size. These enzymes are harmless to the fabric and are environment friendly.

Advantages of enzymatic desizing are:


There is no adverse effect of enzyme on cellulose, on machinery and on other bath auxiliaries. Hence loss of strength in desized fabric is minimum. In enzymatic desizing, multiple washing is not required to remove the residual chemicals and hence there is saving of water in enzymatic desizing. Enzymatic desizing is carried out in moderate temperature, and the process time is also reduced. This ultimately leads to increase in productivity and saving in energy. Neutralization is not required in enzymatic desizing. Enzymatic desizing offers softer feel and less hairiness on the fabric.

10.2.2 Bleaching:
Denim bleaching normally carried out with a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4. Bleaching may be carried out with or without the addition of stone. The bleaching washing effect and de-coloration usually depends on strength of the bleach liquor, liquor quantity, temperature and treatment time. The bleached fabric materials should be properly antichlored or after washed with peroxide to reduced the subsequent yellowing or tendering of the bleached denim fabric.

Limitations of bleaching:
There are some limitations of bleaching, such as: The same level of bleaching is very difficult to achieve in repeated runs. Bleaching treatment sometimes damage to cellulose resulting in strength losses and or pinholes at the seam, pocket, etc.
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Bleaching liquor is harmful to human health. This may also causes corrosion to the machine parts.

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Bleaching treatment needs antichlor treatment in order to eliminate the subsequent yellowness to the fabric.

Figure: Bleach wash denim

10.2.3 Stone wash:


Stone washing of denim fabric gives Used or Vintage look on the garments. This is due to the varying degree of abrasion in the garment. The traditional stone washing of denim garments normally carried out with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look. The pumice stones having oval and round shape with a rough surface, work as an abradant in washing cycle. The variations in shape, composition, hardness and porosity gives different washing effect in the denim fabric. During washing, these stones scrap off dye particles from the surface of the yarn of the denim fabric which shows a faded, worn out and brilliance effect in the denim fabric. Due to ring dyeing of denim fabric and heavy abrasion during stone washing, the fading is more apparent but less uniform.

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Figure: Stone wash denim & Pumice stone

In order to get the desired washed effect, the stone should be of proper hardness, shape, and size. For heavy weight denim fabric large and hard stones are suitable and also last longer. Similarly, smaller and softer stones are suitable for light weight denim fabrics. The degree of colour fading during stone washing depends on several factors, such as, garment to stone ratio, washing time, size of stones, material to liquor ratio and load of garments. The washing time may varies from 40 - 120 min. Stones may be reused until they disintegrate completely. Pumice is a natural volcanic stone used for stone washing garments. It is crystallized with substantive pores. Pumice is mostly used for stone washing due to its durability to chemicals treatment, its strength and light weight.

Limitations of pumice stone usage:


Stone washing of denim fabric with pumice stones has some disadvantages and limitations, such as: Stones may cause wear and tear of the fabric and may damage to washing machine due to abrasion of the stone with fabric or machinery parts.
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It may also create the problem of environmental disposition of waste of the grit produced by the stones. Increase the labor cost to remove stone dusts from finished garments. The denim garments is required to wash several times for complete removal of the stones. The stone washing process may cause back staining and re-deposition. The process is non-selective. Metal buttons and rivets in the denim garments as well as the drum of the washing machine sometimes get abraded which substantially reduces the quality of the garment and the life of the equipment.

10.2.4 Enzyme wash:


In order to minimize the adverse effect of stone-washing, the denim garments is washed with enzymes. The enzyme breaks the surface cellulose fibers of the denim fabric and removes during washing. During enzyme washing certain amount of indigo dye and cellulose fibers from the surface of the fabric are removed.

Figure: Enzyme wash denim

Enzymes are proteins, found in all living organisms, plants, as well as animals and microorganism. All organisms produce a wide range of enzymes. Enzyme washing is ecologically friendly due to the natural origins of enzymes. Enzymes basically catalyse specific chemical
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reactions and are known as bio-catalysts. Enzymes act on living cells and can be work at atmospheric pressure and in mild temp and pH.

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PARTEX DENIM 10.2.5 Sand Blasting:


Sand blasting is a mechanical process in which localized abrasion or colour change on the denim garment is created. The process involves blasting an abrasive material in granular, powdered form at a very high speed and pressure through a nozzle onto certain areas of the garment such as knees and elbows. The garment treated surface shows distressed, abraded or used look. The common blasting materials used are sand and metal granules. During sand blasting process the garment are first subjected to stone wash to the desired degree of washing. It is then sand blasted.

Figure: Sand wash denim

A solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate often sprayed in desired area of the garment in order to obtain the same look. The garment is then neutralized, rinsed softened and dried. The sand blasting is a water free process therefore no drying required.

10.2.6 Acid wash:


Acid wash on denim jeans is becoming very popular due to its significant contrasts and attractive appearance in color. Acid wash can be carried on Indigo &Sulphur base fabric garments. Acid wash was a chemical wash process on denim which stripped the top layer of color and makes a white surface while the color remained in the lower layers of the material, giving it a faded look. Acid was first launched in 1980s as a new innovative finish on denim
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garments. This wash was being carried out by soaking stones in bleach and then followed by neutralization. Acid was of denim garment normally carried out by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution which contains sodium hypochlorite (5 to 10%) or potassium permanganate (3 to 6%). This cause localized bleaching which produce non uniform sharp blue/white contrast.

Figure: Acid wash denim

In this wash addition of water is not required. The color contrast can be increased by optical brightening treatment. Acid washed denim fabric sometimes become yellowish after washing. This is due to incomplete neutralization, washing or rinsing, so that manganese not removed from the garment. However the manganese can be removed by washing with addition of ethelene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid as chelating agent. The process of acid washing jeans involves soaking of porous pumice stones and chlorine or potassium permanganate (PP) bleach. Sodium-bisulfate is used for neutralization. It is recommended to use two separate washing machines for Acid Washing & Neutralization etc. Precautions:
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During acid washing, the workers should wear mask & aprons. The operator should use protective rubber gloves and safety glasses.

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10.3 Denim Washing in Partex Denim:


When an order comes from buyer in form of washed sample the technical person determine the shade percentage, amount and type of washing to that fabric to get the appearance like the sample. So it is very important to wash the sample fabric to justify his assumption. Partex denim only gives washed sample receipe so that buyer can get his desired design but does not run mass production. Three types of Sample washing are done in Partex Denims. 1. Enzyme wash 2. Bleach wash 3. Stone wash A typical recipe for above three types of washing is given below:

Desizing
Chemicals
Anti-stain ET-2550 Superzyme ultra plus

Temperature
60-70 0C

Time
20 minutes

Rinse
2 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C

Enzyme wash
Chemicals
Anti-stain ET-2550 Eurozyme-1100L Acetic Acid

Temperature
45 0C pH: 4.5-5

Time
20-30 minutes

Rinse
2 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C

Bleach Wash
Chemicals
Bleaching powder

Temperature
50-60 0C

Time
As required

Rinse
3 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C

Peroxide Wash
Chemicals
Anti-stain ET-2550 Caustic soda Hydrogen peroxide

Temperature
50-550C

Time
As required

Rinse
2 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C
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Neutralization
Chemicals
Sodium Thiosulphate

Temperature
Room

Time
5 minutes

Rinse
2 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C

Softening
Chemicals
Euro N5 soft Euro Silk -2660

Temperature
50 0C

Time
5 minutes

Rinse
2 Times

Extracting
1 Time

Drying
60-800C

Enzyme wash has to be done for dark shade. Bleach wash has to be done for light shade The above function is maintained very efficiently by R & D department.

10.4 Chemical Used for Washing:


Name
Antistain ET-2550 Euro Silk-2660 Superzyme Ultra Plus Eurozyme-1100L Euro NS Soft Eurozyme N-315 Sodium Thiosulphite (Hypo) Sodium Meta-bi-Sulphite Caustic Soda Bleaching Powder Acetic Acid Hydrozen Peroxide Soda Ash Light Pumic Stone Imacole C-2G

Origin
G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh G-Tex Kem. Bangladesh China BASF Germany/Turky Thailand/China KCI, India Bangladesh Bangladesh Nirma, India/China Indonesia Clarient, Thailand
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10.5 Machine used in washing unit:


Industrial Washing Machine

Figure: Industrial washing machine

Features:
Single door design for general washing, sweater and sample washing machine. Automatic washing timer and pre-set front and backward rotation. Option to install 4 steps gear box or frequency controller for speed control for different requirement of garments.

Industrial Washing Machine:

Figure: Industrial washing machine

Features:
2 doors, 2 chambers design Special for sand wash purpose Automatic washing timer and preset front and back rotation Option to install 4 steps gear box or frequency controller for speed control for different requirement of garments Option with water level ruler

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PARTEX DENIM Industrial Water Extractor:

Figure: Industrial water extractor

Features:
Special Design for Industrial Laundry Stainless steel inner basket, durable and strongly built Equipped with shake absorbing spring With hand clutch for fast-stop Installed with insulated motor and automatic clutch for fast start and longevity

Industrial Drying Tumbler:

Figure: Industrial drying tumbler

Features:
Preset forward and backward rotation of inner basket. Stainless steel inner basket, clean and durable Equipped with thermostat. Solenoid steam value set for steam save and temperature control.
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10.6 Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Fraying:
It is a type of finish in which some selected area of denim jeans have been sanded to create a worn effect. In others words fraying is the destruction of denim fibers in a selected areas, such as waistbands, pockets or hem of the jeans.

Application

Sand wash:
Denim sand wash is carried out with pumice stones, enzymes and sand in combination. This gives a aged look in denim jeans.

Rinse wash:
Rinse wash denim is washed at about 500C in a hot bath. Sometimes softener is used to soften the fabric.

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Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Over-dyed / Tinted Denim:
Over-dyeing / tinting of denim is an additional dyeing treatment which is normally carried out on jeans after sewn. This add another tone of color to the jeans. Normally denim garments is over-dyed with yellowish dye for appearing dirty look. Tinted / over-dyed denim garments shows a used / vintage & muddy look to the garments. During tinting, a little amount of tint or color is added to the garment in order to change the hue/cast/tone of indigo shade.

Application

Torn Jeans:
Some jeans are teared at some places in order to get natural tearing look. The fabrics have actual rips, holes, tears and/or lacerations.

Vintage Denim:
It is a type of denim washing in which the denim garments is subjected to heavy stonewashing or a cellulose enzyme wash, with or without bleach for showing an old and worn out look.

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Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Destroyed/damaged/used/whiskers:
Whiskering, also known as 'Cat's Whiskers', are the crease lines around the crotch. Whiskering can be done on the sides of knee and crease marks on the back of the knee. During natural wear, in the portion of a crease, Pigment is removed. Denim garments can be made of old, worn and /or used look by several different ways, such as with the help of laser, sandblasting, machine sanding, hand sanding or abrading by some kind of power tool. With the help of a grinder, whiskering can be produced around the hip to crotch area of the pant. Damaged look of a denim pant can be made by cutting the edges at different areas before washing, such as at bottom, pockets, fly and knee area.

Application

Flat Finish:
Flat finish of denim fabric involves mercerization plus calendaring processes to achieve the flat surface. It imparts an even wash down effect and clean surface. The mercerization process swells up the cotton fibers which is pressed in calendaring to achieved a flat surface.

Ozone Fading:
In this technique of denim washing, the garment is bleached with ozone dissolved in water in a washing machine. However this technique can also be carried out in a closed chamber by using ozone gas. The advantages of these methods are: There is minimum loss of strength It is a simple method and environmentally friendly. The ozonized water after laundering can easily be deozonized by UV radiation.

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Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Super Dark Stone Wash:
This type of denim wash offers an extra dark indigo color which is obtained from a double-dyeing technique.

Application

Super Stone wash:


It is type of wash treatment of denim garments in which the denim garments is subjected to prolonged stonewash treatment for more than six hours. Soda ash and soap are used for hard wash. Steam is used up to 60-80 0C for one hour to finish the washing process. It is followed by acetic acid wash treatment, then the garments are neutralized and rinsed.

Dirty wash:
In this washing process, after stone-washing treatment, the denim garments are dyed with special chemicals. This shows a dirty looks to the garments.

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Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Laser marking/Spray painting:
Laser marking/Spray painting is a computer controlled technique through which different patterns or designs, such pictures, images, lines, text etc. can be developed on denim garments. It is also called spray painting in denims. In this technique chemicals or pigments is sprayed on the fabric in order to get different pattern on the garments. This is followed by curing of the garment. The advantages of the systems are: It is a water free process. Hence it is an It is an ecological and economical process. There is zero effluent discharge. As this process in computer controlled, the chances of human error is negligible. This system having excellent reproducibility and higher productivity. The machine requires less maintenance and cleaning. Consuming less time. This technique having no adverse effect on fabric strength.

Application

Ice Wash:
Ice washing is a type of denim washing in which almost half the dye is removed during washing.

Water-jet fading:
In this method of water jet fading, one or both surfaces of the denim garment are exposed through hydro jet nozzles. This hydro jet treatment gives a patterning effect to the garments and /or improves the surface finish, texture and durability of denim garment. This process is not involved with any chemical, hence it is environmental friendly and more economical. The required colour fading is achieved without affecting the fabric strength or durability, or warp shrinkage.

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Most Common Denim Washes: Washing Type & Features


Quick Wash Denim:
In normal indigo dyed denim is associated with various problems

Application

during washing. The denim fabric manufacturers are in search to develop a new dyeing method in which the wash cycle can be minimizes. In this regard, Quick wash denim has been introduced in which the fabric is dyed with modified technique of dyeing, so that during wash cycle, indigo dye can be removed easily during a shorter washing cycle. Quick wash treatment procedure consumes less water and chemicals and required less time for washing, retaining fabric strength. By controlling the ionic form of indigo and cellulose in the dyebath, the uniformity of indigo dyeing can be achieved. The alkalis used and pH conditions of indigo dye-bath produce stable color yield. Advantages of quick wash denim: Quick wash denim requires less indigo dye. The washing treatment also requires less enzymes and oxidizing agent. Hence it is an economical and environment friendly process. The development of streaks in garments after washing has been avoided by using a modified alkali-ph controlled system giving uniformity of shade. The washing time is 20-30% less than conventional denim.

Snow Wash:
This type of washing treatment for denim is a variation of acid wash. It gives bright white highlights.

Sun Washing:
Sub washing of denim fabric imparts a sun faded appearance to denim garments. It is carried out by bleaching and stoning of the denim garments.

Soft feel denim:


Soft feel denim can be made with the addition of softener at the garment stage.
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Chapter Eleven

Utilities

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11.1 Definition:
The definition of utilities can be expressed in many ways. A company that generates, transmits and/or distributes electricity, water and/or gas from facilities that it owns and/or operates. An economic term referring to the total satisfaction received from consuming a good or service.

Production and profit are closely related. In order to get a quality final product, it needed fresh raw materials as well as effective manpower and machinery in good working condition. Utility plays a vital role to maximize the production as well as the profit. A utility system used in industrial facilities. This area includes boilers, chillers, cooling towers, air compressors, and their associated fluid distribution systems.

Utility department of Partex Denim Ltd. is related to the following things:

Electricity : Gas Generator, Rural electrification Board (REB) Water : Deep Tubewell Gas : TITAS Steam : Boiler Compressed air : Air compressor Chiller Humidification plant Workshop Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Water Treatment Plant (WTP)

11.1.1 Water Supply:


Water is supplied by deep tubewell. There are two tank main & reserve tank for water storage. The level of water is monitoring continuously and reading is taken in every hour. A daily report is prepared for that and this water is supplied to many sections like dying, boiler, generator, compressor etc Total water consumption: 700m3/day.

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PARTEX DENIM 11.1.2 Boiler:


A steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel for supplying steam. Boiler function is to therefore the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (here gas is used) to water and ultimately to generate steam. The steam produced in the boiler section supplied to different section of mill.

Supplied sections for steam:


Sizing Finishing Dyeing unit Washing unit Chiller

Figure: Boiler

Specification of Boiler: Brand


Country of Origin Year of manufacture Model Fuel used Power consumed Maximum steam output Water content Fire tube Maximum heat capacity Maximum working pressure Gas pressure Total tube Air: Fuel Sparking input power Sparking output power

: MechMar
: Malaysia + England : 2005 : AS 2400/150 (24000 PPH) : Natural Gas : 25 kWh : 10.8 ton/hour : 15.45 m3 : 130 : 6.5 MW : 10 bar : 1.3 bar : 130 4:1 : 240 V (AC) : 1000 V (DC)

Key Features:
Designed and manufactured to the latest international standards. Full wetback design thus minimizing radiation heat loss and refractory maintenance. Large furnace volume assures high combustion efficiency and for a wide variety of fuels to be burnt efficiently. Compact in construction yet designed for easy access, important for internal inspection, cleaning and maintenance.
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PARTEX DENIM
Full automated operation provided for control for burner system, steam pressure and for failsafe operation.

Working Principle of Boiler:


In boiler gas is used as fuel. The gas pressure of main line is high. A regulator is used to lower the pressure then the gas feed to boiler's burning unit. The heat produced in the burning unit raise the temperature of the water of closed vessel. And convert the water into steam. The steam is then going to header. Steam for different machine like dyeing, sizing, finishing etc supplied from here. Some steam is going to economizer and the steam from economizer go to the feed tank which increase the temperature of water of feed tank up to 60OC 65OC. So when this water will feed to the closed vessel, it will be easy to make it steam. Water from feed tank comes to water vessel through gate valve, check valve and feed pump. There are two feed pump, both of two should not run simultaneously.

11.1.3 Generator:
An electrical generator is a machine, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The energy conversion is based on the principle of the production of dynamically induced e.m.f. When a conductor cuts magnetic flux, dynamically induced e.m.f. is produced in it according to flow if the conductor circuit is closed.

Features:
12 cylinders turbocharged and intercooled Fully integrated engine diagnostic and control system including: Spark timing control Turbocharger control Speed governing Individual cylinder knock detection Air/Fuel ratio control Fuel tolerance High altitude capability Low Btu option Rich burn combustion

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Figure: Generator

Machine Specification: Brand


Total machine Country of Origin Year of manufacture Fuel No. of inline cylinder Firing Order Capacity Volt Speed

: Waukesha
: 04 : USA : 2005 : Natural Gas :6 : 1R-6L-5R-2L-3R-4L-6R-1L-2R-5L-4R-3L : 900 kWh : 50 H.Z & 400 Volts : 1000 rpm

Working Principle of Generator:


In generator to produce induced e.m.f. it is required to cut the magnetic flux by conductor. For this reason the conductor needs to move. For this movement a mechanical energy is required. This mechanical energy supplied by burning gas. Gas is supplied with a specific pressure. A serious amount of heat is produced due to the combustion of gas. This heat is cool down by a cooling tower. Water is continuously circulated and removes the heat.

11.1.4 Air Compressor:


Compressed air along with gas, electricity and water is essential to most modern industrial and commercial operations. It runs tools and machinery, provides power for material handling system and ensures clean breathable air in contaminated environment. In Partex Denims rotary screw compressor is used.

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PARTEX DENIM Machine Specification: Brand


Country of origin Year of manufacture Total machine Compressor Output Dryer Output Output Pressure Power Consumption

: Kaeser
: USA : 2005 : 08 : 20.5 m3/min/mc : 52.5 m3/min/mc : 9-9.5 bar : 132 kWh/mc

Rotary Screw Compressor:


The main element of the rotary screw compressor is made up of two close clearance helical-lobe rotors that turn in synchronous mesh. As the rotors revolve, the air is forced into a decreasing inter-lobe cavity until it reaches the discharge port.

Control Unit Cooling section Reduced Voltage Starting Inlet Filter

Airends Direct Drive System

Motor

Figure: Compressor

Features:
With one-to-one drive, the air end is directly connected to the motor via a maintenance-free coupling that eliminates transmission losses. Direct drive screw compressors deliver outstanding performance and increase energy savings. It uses oversized air ends specifically selected to produce the required output in flow and pressure. Compared to compressors using small, high-speed, gear-driven air ends, the one-to-one drive provides significant savings. No-loss power transmission. Lower power consumption. Reduced maintenance and related downtime costs.

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PARTEX DENIM Dryer:


The atmospheric air drawn into a compressor is a mixture of gases that always contains water vapors. However, the amount of water vapor that air can carry depends on the temperature. As air temperature rises which occurs during compression the air's ability to hold moisture increases also. When the air is cooled its capacity to hold moisture reduces which causes the water vapor to condense. Removing the moisture from the compressed air not only prevents costly breakdowns and production downtime, but also keeps maintenance and repair costs to a minimum. Refrigeration drying is usually the most efficient solution for the majority of compressed air applications.

Figure: Dryer

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PARTEX DENIM Features:


Low pressure drop, non-fouling heat exchanger. Low pressure drop filtered separator with microprocessor controlled filter monitor removes liquids and particulates to 3 microns. "No-loss" electronic Eco-Drain for reliable condensate removal. On/off load digital scroll refrigeration compressor (Dual Control models only). Hot gas bypass control (Demand Manager models only). State-of-the-art control system with timed auto-start and stop. Optional cold coalescing oil removal filter eliminates oil aerosols to 0.008 ppm.

11.1.5 Chiller:
A chiller can be generally classified as a refrigeration system that cools water. Similar to an air conditioner, a chiller uses either a vapor compression or absorption cycle to cool. Once cooled, chilled water has a verity of application from space cooling to process use.

There are two types of chiller:


Vaporisation Chiller Absorption Chiller

In Partex Denim Ltd. the absorption type of chiller is used.

Specification of absorption chiller: Brand


Model Origin Year of manufacture Cooling capacity Chilled water flow rate Chilled water temp. Cooling water flow rate Cooling water temp. Heating source Steam consumption Steam pressure

: LS
: LSH-W036S : Korea : 2005 : 300 usRT : 181.4 m3/h : 7-12OC : 334.7 m3/h : 32-37OC : Steam : 1357 Kg/h : 8 Kg/cm2G

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PARTEX DENIM Chiller Tower Specification: Brand


Model Year of manufacture Capacity Water in Water out Fan motor power Air Capacity

: Spacco
: SPC 600 RT : 2005 : 2060 m3/h : 37OC : 32OC : 20 HP : 132400 m3/min

Working Principle of Chillers:


Absorption chillers are used to generate cold water (44F) that is circulated to air handlers in the distribution system for air conditioning. Absorption chillers use heat instead of mechanical energy to provide cooling. A thermal compressor consists of an absorber, a generator, a pump, and a throttling device, and replaces the mechanical vapor compressor. The basic cooling cycle is the same for the absorption and electric chillers. Both systems use a lowtemperature liquid refrigerant that absorbs heat from the water to be cooled and converts to a vapor phase (in the evaporator section). The refrigerant vapors are then compressed to a higher pressure (by a compressor or a generator), converted back into a liquid by rejecting heat to the external surroundings (in the condenser section), and then expanded to a low- pressure mixture of liquid and vapor (in the expander section) that goes back to the evaporator section and the cycle is repeated. The basic absorption cycle employs two fluids, the absorbate or refrigerant, and the absorbent. The most commonly fluids are water as the refrigerant and lithium bromide as the absorbent. These fluids are separated and recombined in the absorption cycle. In the absorption cycle the low-pressure refrigerant vapor is absorbed into the absorbent releasing a large amount of heat. The liquid refrigerant/absorbent solution is pumped to a high-operating pressure generator using significantly less electricity than that for compressing the refrigerant for an electric chiller. Heat is added at the highpressure generator from a gas burner, steam, hot water or hot gases. The added heat causes the refrigerant to desorb from the absorbent and vaporize. The vapors flow to a condenser, where heat is rejected and condense to a high-pressure liquid. The liquid is then throttled though an expansion valve to the lower pressure in the evaporator where it evaporates by absorbing heat and provides useful cooling. The remaining liquid absorbent, in the generator passes through a valve, where its pressure is reduced, and then is recombined with the low-pressure refrigerant vapors returning from the evaporator so the cycle can be repeated.

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PARTEX DENIM 11.1.6 Humidification Plant:


Humidifier is a system to provide proper humidity and temperature in a working space. To maintain the proper humidity and temperature in a weaving mill is very important. Different electrical circuit board of weaving machine cannot work for a long period without proper temperature and humidity. Proper humidity helps to remove the producing static electricity due to friction of different machine parts.

Working Principle:
There are three dampers in the humidification plant. By two damper airs from outside into the plant and. by another one re circulated air again supplied to the plant. There is a passage to a cooled water sprayed area. Here the cooled water (6-7OC) is sprayed to the air. The cooled water is supplied from the chiller. Then this cooled air pass in the weaving section by duct line. The air from the conditioned space (weaving section) again sucked by the underground duct. This air is full of dust, lint, fibre etc. Then a filter a part of this air again re circulated in the plant filters this air and rest of the air is leave to the outside.

Area
Warping machine Dyeing machine Loom Finishing (Cibitex) Finishing (Mercerizing) Finishing (Coating) Finishing (Desizing) Inspection Lighting Compressor Chiller Humidifier Boiler E.T.P W.T.P Power produced by Generator

Total Machine
2 2 168 2 1 1 1 10 --8 2 2 2 ----4

Consumption per machine (kWh)


25 100 ---150 150 150 150 ----132 75 150 25 ----900

Total Consumptions (kWh)


50 200 600 300 150 150 150 50 80 1050 150 300 50 25 25 3600

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Total Power consumption

3330

PARTEX DENIM

Effluent Treatment Plant

(ETP)

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Introduction:
In this industrialized age, environmental pollution is a matter of great concern. Surface water pollution is one of the elements of environmental pollution. Chemical processing industries especially textile processing industries are claimed to produce huge effluent to discharge in our rivers. A complex mixture of hazardous chemicals both organic and inorganic is discharged into the water bodies from all these industries, usually without treatment. It is well known that textile mills consume large volume of water for various processes such as sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, finishing and washing. Due to the nature of various chemical processing of textiles, large volumes of wastewater with numerous pollutants are discharged everyday. In Bangladesh most of the industrial units are located along the banks of the rivers and they do not use Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for wastewater. As a consequence, industrial units drain effluent directly into the rivers without consideration of the environment. Setup an effluent treatment plant is mandatory for a factory today. Authority gives no permission of electricity and gas connection to a new factory without ETP.

ETP in Partex Denim:


Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) of Partex Denim Ltd. has successfully established in the beginning and running continuously 24 hours a day. They are maintaining all the discharged parameters according to environmental law.

Figure: Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

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PARTEX DENIM

Quantity:
The quantity of effluent to be treated shall be of the order of = 720 m3/day.

Capacity of the effluent treatment plant:


The effluent treatment plant has been designed on the basis of the following: Denim fabrics manufacturing plant. Contaminated effluent is 100% Less contaminated is nil Operated continuously for 24 hours a day Flow rate of treatment envisaged is 30m3/hr.

Inlet Effluent Parameters (General):


Flow Rate
pH BOD COD TSS TDS Oil & Grease Colour Temperature

30 m3/hr
8-14 400-600 PPM 1000-1200 PPM 200-500 PPM 3000-6000 PPM 30-60 PPM Dark Mixed 600C

Outlet Effluent Parameters (Bangladesh Standard):


Flow Rate
pH BOD COD TSS TDS Oil & Grease Colour Temperature

30 m3/hr
7-8 < 50 PPM <250 PPM <100 PPM <2000 PPM <10 PPM Clean <300C

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Process Flow Chart:


Raw Effluent

Screening Pre-Treatment Equalization & Skimming

Coagulation

Flocculation Primary-Treatment Neutralization

Sedimentation

Biological Treatment Secondary-Treatment Outlet to River/Drain

Sludge Dewatering

Sludge Drying

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11.2 Pre-Treatment
Screening:
The raw waste water (Raw Effluent) from the process of the plant would be first screened through a manual bar screen strainer channel, where all particles with dia. > 5mm as well as small pieces of the fibre and floating suspended matters like polythene paper, polythene bags, rags and others materials removed by bar screen net. The bar screen consists of parallel rods or bars and is also called a bar rack. These devices are used to protect downstream equipment such as pumps, lines, valves etc. from damage and clogging by rags and other large objects. The bar screen is cleaned manually by means of rakes. The screening is disposed off suitably after they are de-watering. The screened clean effluent flows by gravity to an equalization tank.

Equalization and Skimming:


The raw waste water from the screen chamber is collected in the equalization tank, where it is equalized with respect to its characteristics and homogenous flow and an uniform pollution load as well as to make bacteria acclimatized the waste water is stored in a tank. High speed bottom fixed aerating device which blows air through the waste at a rate about 0.1 CUF of air per gallon of effluent. The rising air tends to coagulate the grease and oils and cause them to rise to the surface where they can be removed by a scraper mechanism. Besides, in order to accomplish a proper equalization of both varying loading and flocculating pH values. The equalization tank is designed for hydraulic retention time of around 6 hours. A substantial part of the COD will also be removed by the dissolved air flotation process.

11.3 Primary-Treatment
Coagulation & Flocculation:
The homogenized effluent is than pumped to a flash mixing tank followed by a flocculation tank. Where added coagulants like lime (Calcium Hydroxide) and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) for coagulation of the total dye particles. The basic idea of adding coagulant is to bring together all the suspended and dye particles so that they can precipitate out in a flash mixing and coagulation mechanism. Adequate quantity of poly electrolyte polymer solution are dosed to enhance the process of color removal by the flocculation process.

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PARTEX DENIM Precipitation and Sedimentations Tube Settler-1:


The flocculated effluent is taken by natural gravity in to the tube settler-1 from flocculation tank for precipitation of dyes and suspended particles. The flocs formed are removed in the downstream tube settler-1 by the help of tube settler media. The effluent will further flow by overflow system to a pH correction tank where requisite quantity of acid will be dosed and pH will be adjusted as per the requirement.

pH Correction:
The overflow effluent from tube settler-1 tank is than taken by gravity in to the pH correction channel for neutralization. 33% HCl acid is dosed for neutralizing the pH from around 10 to 7. The pH correction channel is designed for hydraulic retention time of around 10 minutes and is provided with slow speed agitator for thoroughly mixing of waste with acid. A pH indicator is installed in the tank for measuring the pH (optional).

11.4 Secondary-Treatment
Biological Reactor 1 & 2:
The neutralized effluent is taken by gravity in to the biological treatment aeration tank for treatment of organic matter to reduce BOD/COD aerobically. The biological reactor is designed on extended aeration principle. The aeration is provided with fixed type surface aerator for providing the required oxygen for the biological degradation of BOD and COD. The air is supplied by means of the bubble diffusion.

Figure: Biological Reactor

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PARTEX DENIM Tube Sattler- 2:


After aerobically treatment effluent flows by gravity to the tube settler 2, the biological solids generated are removed from the tube settler 2 by the help of tube settler media.

Filter Feed Pump:


The effluent from tube settler 2 overflow in to the pressure sand filter and activated carbon filter feed pump. From here the disinfected effluent is pumped by means of the pressure sand filter feed pump to the pressure sand filter. The pump is normally operated in automatically with interlock to the level switch in the filter pump.

Pressure Sand Filter:


The effluent is pumped to the pressure sand filter. The filtration takes place in the downward mode. The filter is filled with a layer of graded sand media supported by a layer of graded gravel. The suspended matter in the effluent is filtered out in this unit, the effluent is then flown into the activated carbon filter.

Activated Carbon Filter:


The filtered effluent from the pressure sand filter flows into the activated carbon filter. In this unit to the feed flow is downward through a layer of granular activated carbon filter in which dissolved organics in the effluent are absorbed.

Treated Effluent Tank:


The effluent emanating from the activated carbon filter is collected in the treated tank. From this sump the final treated effluent is disposed off. As indicated before, this effluent is utilized for backwashing the pressure sand filter and activated carbon filter units.

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PARTEX DENIM Sludge Treatment:


The sludge generated in tube settler-1, tube settler-2 and biological reactor is taken to a sludge sump and pumped to a sludge thickener where sludge is concentrated. The thickened sludge from the thickener shall be pumped to sludge drying bed for de-watering. The de-watered sludge is formed into cake by natural dry or a centrifuge. The dried cake will be disposed in a tank. The overflow from the sludge thickener will be flow back to equalization tank for further treatment.

Sludge drying

Sludge disposed tank

Disposed sludge

pH measurement experiment:
Due to our training period we performed an experience to measure the pH value before treatment and after treatment and we found exact result from it. We measured the pH by using pH paper and for the sake of clarity we instantly taken a picture of pH paper by a 14.1 megapixel digital camera. We cannot measure the others parameters due to unavailability of instruments.

Discharge water value: pH 7.0-8.0

pH scale

Raw effluent value: pH 11-12

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Twelve

Maintenance

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PARTEX DENIM

12.1 Introduction:
Maintenance of machineries is very important for any type of industries and it is a must for all textile mills. All machines and machine parts of spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with extreme care. Because production quality and quantity both are depends on the maintenance with regularity.

Definition of Maintenance:
Maintenance is the action taken to prevent a device or component from failing or to repair normal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper working order.

Objectives/Advantages of Maintenance:
To keep the factory plants, equipment, machine tool etc. in optimum working condition. To ensures accuracy of product & time schedule to delivery customers. To minimize downtime of machine. To prolong the useful life of factory plant & machine. To modify or improve productivity of existing machine to meet the need for production & thus avoid sinking of additional capital. To improve the factory environment.

12.2 Types of Maintenance:


Maintenance can be classified as following way:

12.2.1Reactive/Break-down Maintenance:
Reactive maintenance is basically the run it till it breaks maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the designer originally intended to ensure design life is reached.

Advantages:
Low cost Less staff

Disadvantages:
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We are spending more dollars associated with capital cost because, while waiting for the equipment to break, we are shortening the life of the equipment resulting in more frequent replacement or repair. If it is a critical piece of equipment that needs to be back on line quickly, we will have to pay maintenance overtime cost. Possible secondary equipment or process damage from equipment failure.

12.2.2 Preventive/Schedule Maintenance:


Preventive maintenance can be define as action performed on a time or machine-run-based schedule that detect, preclude or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life time to an acceptable level.

Advantages:
Increase component life cycle. Flexibility allows for the adjustment of maintenance periodicity Reduce equipment or process failure & estimated 12% to 18% cost saving over reactive maintenance program.

Disadvantages:
Labor intensive Includes performance of unneeded maintenance. Potential for incidental damage to components in conducting unneeded maintenance.

12.2.3 Predictive/Planned Maintenance:


Predictive maintenance can be define as measurements that detect the degradation of machine, thereby allowing casual stressore to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state. Results indicate current & future functional capability. Basically, predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset schedule.

Advantages:
Increased component operational life & availability. Allows preemptive corrective actions. Decrease in equipment or process downtime & estimated 8% to 12% cost saving over preventive maintenance program. Better product quality. Improved worker & environmental safety.

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PARTEX DENIM
Decrease in cost for parts & labor.

Disadvantages:
Increased investment in diagnostic equipment. Increased investment for proficient manpower & staff training. Saving potential not rapidly seen by management.

12.2.4 Capital Replacement:


If it is seen that the repairing cost of machine parts is more or equal or little less than buying a new one, then the old one is replaced instead of repair. It is known as capital replacement.

Maintenance Department of Partex Denim:


There is very active maintenance team in Partex Denim. Every group having a leader and two assistant fitters. They all are very efficient and hard working. They can fix any type of mechanical problem of machines. No necessity happens to hire others from outside to fix machine maintenance. There are electro-mechanical groups to work for electrical problem of machineries. They work for overall factory.

Maintenance Procedure:
1. For there is any mechanical fault of machine which is responsible for production hamper, operator informs mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitters come and observe the problem firstly, and then they begin to fix it. 2. If mechanical fitters be unable to fix it, then they inform technical in-charge, he then comes in spot and fix it. 3. For there is any electrical problem of machine or serious founding mechanical problem, mechanical and electrical department are informed, they come and fix the problem. They commence at work after informing of production manager. 4. For restore active maintenance, senior production officer orders mechanical fitters to fit required machine.

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PARTEX DENIM Cleaning Types:


Section
Warping Dyeing Weaving Finishing

Cleaning
Every day (by air) Every shade change ( by water) Every day (by air) In a week/month (by water)

Oiling & Greasing of Weaving Machine:


Name
ISO 150 VG 220 ISO 320 RARUS 425 EP 2 PG 75

Brand
Mobil Mobil Mobil Mobil Mobil Molykote

Area
Airjetcentre box Rapier centre box All cam box Knotting m/c All m/c (Grease) Leno holder

Quantity
27 liters/loom 27 liters/loom 7 liters/loom Every 90 days/drum/mc 120 Kg/month for 168 looms 01 Kg/week for 132 airjet looms

Amount
One drum= 208 L One drum= 208 L One drum= 208 L One drum= 20 L One drum= 180 Kg 01 pcs = 01 Kg

12.3 Functions/Elements of Maintenance Department:


Following are some important functions of maintenance department:

Inspection or check-ups:
Crews kept for inspection should be well trained. External inspection means to detect from abnormal sound, vibration, heat, smoke etc. Internal inspection means to check internal parts of the machine.

Lubrication:
Systematic lubrication means the application of right type of lubricant at right time at right place & in right quantity. It is done to minimize friction & reduce decay of machine parts.
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PARTEX DENIM
Planning & analysis:
Every preventive maintenance work should be pre-planned. The program is specified in detail by mentioning daily, weekly & yearly attention.

Records & analysis:


Following records are generally maintained: Operational manual Maintenance instruction manual History cards & history register Inspection register Log books Defects register etc.

Training of maintenance personnel:


The technicians & supervisors of maintenance department should be well trained in a systematic way.

Storage of spare parts:


In is essential to store some essential spare parts which are needed every now & to keep the machine running & reduce stoppage time for machine defects.

12.4 Requirements for Good Maintenance:


Good supervision & administration of maintenance department. Operators should be well trained. Proper maintenance record should be maintained. Adequate stock of spare parts should always be kept. Manufacture of the machine tools should be consulted as & when required. Maintenance department should remain in contact with planning & purchasing department deciding the type of machine tools to be purchased.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Thirteen Store & Inventory Control

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PARTEX DENIM

Store and Inventory Control:


Inventory control of raw materials, semi-finished goods, finished goods and other miscellaneous goods lead smooth production. As Partex Denim Ltd. follow the correct way of inventory control system, it can have a good and huge production as it demands. There are two (one is small & other huge) room for storing and inventory control.

Scope of inventory control:


Raw materials Yarns Dyes store Others chemicals store Finished fabric Spare parts General store Capital equipment Accessories Stationary Maintenance parts.

Inventory System for Raw Material:


The main raw material of denim fabric is yarn, which is stored in two stages such as1. Long time storage 2. Storage before production

1. Long time storage: Amount of yarns which are required for the production of several months as prerequisite. 2. Storage before production: The amounts of yarn, which are loaded in the store, room concern with the production section for continuous speed of production.
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PARTEX DENIM
Inventory System of Spare Parts: The spare parts of different section such as preparatory & dyeing, weaving section, finishing section are stored. If a machine is innovated its slightly effected parts will be stored as spare after repairing needed. In addition, these parts are used in conjunction with new parts.

Inventory Control of Finished Goods: After the completion of finishing, the finished fabric is stored from where the finished fabric is delivered to the buyer.

Other Inventories: Other inventories like empty packages or packages with few yarns & cartoons are stored in wastage room. From this, packages with few yarns are used for sample production. Mechanical equipments for maintenance are stored in mechanical room, lubricants are stored in lubricant room & a drum is kept in the shed as stand by requirement.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Fourteen

Marketing Activities

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PARTEX DENIM
Marketing Activities: The commercial section of Partex Denim Limited performs the following functions: Official dealing with buyer Communicate with factory in charge for issuing delivery date Dealing with bank Preparing different necessary documents

Procedure of Export Business by Partex Denim: To get order: Like any other factory, Partex do not need to any kind of product marketing to get order. It is so much renowned denim factory in Bangladesh that they do not knock the buyer's door for order. Buyers come here with query for definite sample or style for their own interest.

Sample preparation: Partex denim already prepared over five thousand types of fabric sample. So they have huge number of fabric sample collection. If buyer's requirement match with any of earlier fabric then a sample from stock is send to them, otherwise a new sample is prepared and sends to buyer.

Issuing of P.I (Performa invoice): If the buyer approves the sample, then Partex issues Performa invoice to the buyer.

What is P.I. (Performa Invoice)? Performa invoice is a paper where all the terms and condition of that business dealing is write down. Partex mainly notice the following points in their PI: Description of the product. Price Last date of L.C open 'by the buyer Date of delivery Date for bill payment after delivery
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Some other official terms and condition

L.C. (Letter of credit) opens by the buyer: If the buyer agrees with the terms and condition on the P.I then the buyer open L.C against that order.

What is L.C (Letter of Credit)? L/C (Letter of Credit) is credit contract whereby the buyer's bank is committed (on behalf of buyer) to place an agreed amount of money at solicits disposal under some agreed condition.

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Fifteen

Security

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PARTEX DENIM

Security Section:
The main objective of the security is to safe handling of the goods from/to the mill premises. For the achievement of such objective a team of security guards has been employed by the Company. All the keys relating to the mills office, labor colony, (quarters) are lying into the responsibility of the security officer. No outside visitor can come into the mills premises without the permission of the security guards or administration department.Whenever any visitor wants to enter the mills, security guard firstly contact with the authority in the mills to grant the permission to enter into the mills premises. Security guards check each and every person before coming in or going out of the Company gate for the security purposes.They have certain uniform of brown shirt and brown pent. They are the guardian of everything of the Company.

Security Main Gate:


This office has been made to keep the record of each and every thing coming into and going out of the mills gate. This office keeps and maintains the time record of all the workers on time cards and pay register for the final costing of the workers salaries. It keeps the attendance records, which is then used to calculate the salary to be paid to the workers on monthly basis. It keeps the records of the overtime, leaves, number of days worked of all the workers and then calculate their overtime on the basis of the basic salary of each worker. For 24 hours close attention to the production floor and also the outside, there are several close circuit camera all over the factory. This operation is done by the administration department from administration office.

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PARTEX DENIM

Security Post:
This image taken from goole earth showing direct sallellite picture of the factory to understanding the secutiry post all over the factory. Black circle shows security post and Red circle is the main gate of the factory.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM

Chapter Sixteen

Quality Assurance

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM

Quality Assurance in Denim


Denim has gained much popularity that if you look around, you will surely notice somebody wearing denim in your nearby. Now, more than just complementing a rugged style, the denim has become suitable for any occasion. Denim is being worn irrespective of demographic differences. The material denim is synonymous with familiar blue jeans and is denoted by a rugged twill textile that produces the familiar diagonal ribbing. Today, there are around twenty Denim manufacturers in Bangladesh alone catering to the domestic and export markets. The manufacturing facilities are fast catching up at India, Pakistan and Vietnam. Denim today is now available in various shades of blue, black and brown within each there are different effects generated by washing. As Denim is a competitive market product, there will always be pressure on price and quality. One can gain upper hand in pricing if their manufacturing cost is low. One of the ways of reducing the manufacturing cost is reducing the raw material cost, reducing the production losses and reducing the second's generation. Quality Assurance in Denim mill can thus significantly help in achieving the above objectives. Academically, Quality Assurance may be defined as "the planned and systematic activities implemented in a system for fulfilling the quality requirements of a product or service." The current paper highlights in brief various check points employed in Denim mill for arresting the non-conformities so as to reduce the production losses and quality down gradations.

Technical Specifications: The following guidelines can be followed at each stage starting from raw material selection to dispatch of denim fabrics: 1. Handling of Raw materials in Godown: Basic raw material for denim fabric is yarn. The same is either produced internally or is procured from outside. Following care should be taken for avoiding the damage of packages in go down: In case of yarns purchased from outside, yarn should be unloaded from truck gently and location of godown should be as near to warping. This will ensure minimum yarn damage due to impact and significantly improve the warping performance due to reduction in cut ends. In case of In-house yarn, plastic packages are used generally. Car needs to be taken to use undamaged plastic packages only so as to minimize breaks at warping due to worn out packages.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM
2. Approval of raw material: The raw material for composite Denim mill is fibre while for non composite mill it is yarn only. The raw material should be approved first before consuming for production. Following raw material parameters effect the yarn properties and running performance.

For any new supplier/yarn sample it is always better to test the same by running the yarn as weft in the running looms for assessing its performance. Slub yarn approval should be given only after assessing the appearance either on yarn appearance board or by producing the fabric by running the same on the loom along with standard Slub yarn.

3. Warping: Warping serves as the acid test for the assessing the yarn quality. Warping performance is considered to be satisfactory if breaks/million metre at 1200 mpm is as under:

Following points should be taken care while warping for getting the lower end breakage rate: Damaged package found while mounting should not be creeled. Tension in the yarn should be adjusted so that yarn sheet is neither slack nor very tight (Norm is 10% of the yarn breaking strength). High speed provides necessary tension to the yarn sheet. In case of higher breaks speeds can be reduced to some extent. Drum pressure should be selected based on the hardness required of the warpers beam. The warpers beam rims (flanges) should be checked periodically for damage and eccentricity. The breakages should be recorded along with the reason like cut ends, breakage from Slub, opening of splice portion so as to take corrective action for next supply.
Md. Israfil Alam Rana israfil_tex@yahoo.com Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM
4. Dyeing & Sizing: It has been found that yarn performing very good at warping sometimes create problem at dyeing range due to greater liveliness leading to grouping of yarn. Sometimes yarn performing poorly at warping leads to good running at dyeing. This may be due to elimination of all weak points at warping itself. In addition to performance concerns, shade consistency and centre side variation is also one of the challenges for mills having sheet dyeing ranges. These challenges make dyeing and sizing as very important operations in the Denim manufacturing. Following points should be taken care while dyeing & sizing: Alignment of warpers beam in creel should be perfect. In India most of the milis are using indigo in powder form only. Thus purity, moisture content and tone (reddish/greenish) of indigo powder must be checked before taking in bulk production. The parameters like pH & mV of the dye liquor needs to be checked every 30 to 45 minutes. Generally it is kept around 11.5 to 12.0 and 750 30 respectively. In many advanced machines, online checking & display of these parameters is also available. For shade consistency, yarn should be drawn from every beam for shade evaluation manually as well as by spectrophotometer. Mills facing Center Side Variation should draw yarns from both the sides and centre from front of the dyeing machine and check for any variation Size add on is generally kept around 8 to 12% depending on yarn count. Solid content or Rf % is generally kept around 8.5 to 14 % depending on yarn count. Moisture in sized beam should be around 7 to 8% so as to get better loom performance. Sized yarn should be tested for checking the increase in strength and loss in Elongation. Generally yarn strength is increased by 25% and yarn elongation is dropped by 20%. In any case yarn elongation of sized yarn should be above 3.0% for better loom efficiency Excellent work practices should be adopted for cutting the lappers and attending breaks in dry splitting zones so as to minimize yarn cross ends/missing ends so as to get better performance in weaving.

5. Weaving: Weaving is an operation where first image of denim fabric is realized. On getting perfect beams, the weaving efficiencies generally reaches Y6 to 98% per shift. In general the performance is considered satisfactory till Warp and Weft break level is less than 1.5 breaks/ cmpx. Following points should be taken care while weaving so as to supply defect free material to the next operation. Weft yarn should be kept covered with plastics / cardboards so that no fly gets deposited on the packages. Care should be taken while beam knotting so as to avoid any crossed ends. High speed air jet looms are commonly used for weaving denim fabrics. Air pressure should be adjusted perfectly depending on the weft so that weft passes smoothly through the shed without creating defect like furkey.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM
6. Singeing: Singeing is an important operation as it burns the protruding fibres from the fabric surface. Following care needs to be taken while singeing: Flame quality should be perfect (singeing should be done in blue flame only). Flame height should be uniform (4 to 5 inches) and should not vary throughout the width else it will lead to bands in the fabric. Speed should be optimum (around 70 to 80 mpm) so that effective singeing action is performed.

7. Finishing: In denims two types of finishing machines (Foam finish/Wet finish) are found. Both have it's own advantages and disadvantages. Irrespective of the type of finishing machines, following points should be taken care while finishing operation: The greige fabric must be tested for knowing the shrinkage & skew potential. Based on the shrinkage & skew potential, shrinkage & skew is applied so that residual shrinkage in fabric is less than 3.0% and skew movement less than 2.0%. The fabric entering Sanforiser should be moist (around 12 to 1 5%) in order to get good body. I n absence of moist fabric, the fabric feel is very limpy. Nowadays online moisture meter are also installed in the region for monitoring of same. The draft between sanforiser and palmer cylinder should be less than 1.0% so that shrinkage applied is not lost due to stretching. The finished fabric should be checked for all properties like weight, shrinkage, skew, stiffness, tensile and tear strength before releasing to inspection department.

8. Inspection & Packing: Inspection provides the true picture of the fabric quality by informing the main defects for down gradation. Action can be taken in particular department for reducing the value losses. Following steps to be taken in inspection and packing department for getting the right quality product: Inspection to be done for 100% fabric by any accepted inspection system. In general 4 point inspection system is commonly followed. Full width fabric sample of 10" length from every roll is collected for pick checking and shade grouping. Full width sample after every 4000m should be sent to laboratory for parameter testing like weight, shrinkage, skew, stiffness, tensile and tear strength. Paper tube length & quality should be perfect so that fabric doesn't hang from the edges and paper tube doesn't get collapsed during storage or transit.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

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PARTEX DENIM
Each fabric roll is weighed and packed using HOPE woven cloth, shrink wrapping or stretch wrapping Fabric weight (OSY) should be checked from length and weight of the roll before dispatching so as to segregate lower weight rolls if any.

9. Washing and shade grouping: Washing and shade grouping is very important activity in Denim mill. Export buyers or very reputed domestic buyers ask for the taper/sequencing report along with the dispatches. Generally buyers ask for the washed swatches along with taper/sequencing reports. The important point is as under: The collected 10" sample from every roll is cut into five equal pieces. One piece from all the rolls of the particular order are stitched as blanket along with standard swatch and washed as per the customer recipe or own developed recipe. After washing the swatches are measured on spectrophotometer for shade values and off shade rolls are removed from the dispatches. In case of major shade off, recipe of washing can be changed (if acceptable to customer) and same should be communicated to customer for getting the desired shade as required. 10 Storing of Rolls Storing in godown is all together a specialized activity. If not done properly all the good work done so far will be no use. In general, care should be taken for following points; Rolls should be stacked horizontally and not vertically. Vertical stacking lead to waviness problem on opening. Rolls should be stacked in such a way that it is easy to locate any roll at the time of dispatch.

10. Dispatch: Dispatch is last activity but certainly but very important. Following care needs to be taken during dispatch operation: Care should be taken the approved roll list given by QA is only loaded Loading should be gentle enough so that there are no damage to the packing

Conclusion: From the above it is clear that each and every operation is important and contributes significantly to the quality of the product. One should arrest the non-conformity where it happened so that further operation is not affected. This way production loss is minimized and product produced is of superior quality.
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Md. Israfil Alam Rana israfil_tex@yahoo.com Cell: 01717123339

PARTEX DENIM

Discussion
Partex Denim Ltd. is the largest and most versatile business conglomerate in the private denim sector in Bangladesh. Partex Denim Ltd. is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to continuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training, communication and employees involvement. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality denim fabric in time. To meet the manufacturing to quality and promote delivery Partex Denim Ltd. decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the year the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world renowned manufacturers. According to their capacity they have an enriched production team which is very rare in other factories of Bangladesh. The working environment of Partex Denim Ltd. is very cordially & friendly. All of the executives & employees of Partex Denim Ltd. are very much cordial & they always appreciate the learners. The goal of Partex Denim Ltd. is to get high production & to maintain the quality of the product at a minimum cost.

Some suggestions:
The warping floor is dirty most of the time though it is cleaning every day. Fly dust removed from yarn surface create this problem. Necessary steps should be taken for keep better cleaning condition all the time because warping section situated at the front side of Main gate. Cleaning environment will increase better satisfaction to buyers. The upper shed of the factory floor is a little bit broken/leakage in some places which causes water fall when raining. The temperature of the sizing shed is higher than others though it has ventilation system. We think blower fans speed should increase for better suction of hot air. There is no overhauling maintenance for few machines. We think overhauling maintenance should carry on by maintenance department for continuous production of machines. Unnecessary lighting should remove for less power consumption. There is no conference room for workers training. We think workers training can improve the total production system and also the profit. So a conference room should establish.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

Page192

PARTEX DENIM
There is no identity card for officers. I think this is very important for security system and also for advertising.

Limitations of the report:


I had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more details it was not possible to do so. Some of the points in different chapter are not described as these were not available. The whole process is not possible to bind in such a small frame as this report, hence our effort spent on summarizing them.

Conclusion
I have completed my industrial attachment successfully by the grace of Allah. Industrial attachment sends me to the expected destiny of practical life. Though it was established only a few years ago, it has earned very good reputations for its best performance over many other export oriented textile mills. During my training period, talking with the clients of this mill I knew that the mill is fulfilling the countrys best export oriented finished fabric as well as very good quality fabric due to its modern machinery & good management system. Mill is settled with utility to give all convenient supports to the productions for twentyfour hours. It had self-power generator system to satisfy total power consumptions of the mill. I am enough fortunate that I have got an opportunity of having a training in this mill. During the training period I have received co-operation and association from the authority full & found all man, machines & materials on appreciable working condition. All stuffs & officers were very sincere & devoted their duties to achieve their goal.

Finally I would like to wish Partex Denim Ltd. to have a blast & thanks to administration of Partex Denim Ltd. for their cordial attitude to me.

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

Page193

PARTEX DENIM

References:
1. http://www.partexholdings.com/index.html 2. http://www.partexdenim.com/ 3. http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl 4. http://morrisontexmach.com/welcome.cfm 5. http://www.denimsandjeans.com/ 6. http://articles.fibre2fashion.com/ 7. http://www.picanol.be/PICBESITE/EN/ 8. http://www.cibitex.it/_eng/home.asp 9. http://www.sttm.com.tw/e_index2.html 10. http://www.ngaishinghk.com/english/products/industrialWashing.htm 11. http://www.mechmar.com.my/products_as.htm 12. http://www.dresserwaukesha.com/index.cfm/go/list-prodsubline/productline/gascompression-engine/ 13. http://us.kaeser.com/Products_and_Solutions/Compressed-air-treatment/default.asp 14. http://www.lsaircondition.com/lsgonjo_eng/default.asp 15. http://spacco.com/documents/25.html 16. http://www.aesa-ae.com/en/textile-air-engineering/

Md. Israfil Alam Rana

israfil_tex@yahoo.com

Cell: 01717123339

Page194