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Physiology and Immunology Unit

Big Idea: from the individual cell to the entire organism; each function
harmoniously to create a balanced internal environment while reacting with
the external world to create homeostasis.

Physiology State Standards organized by body system:

With Related Reading Assignments

Cardiovascular System and Respiratory System

• Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides
cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon
dioxide (CO2)
Chapter 37: Circulatory and Respiratory System (pgs. 942-950 and 956-

Excretory System
• Students know the homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of nitrogenous
wastes and the role of the liver in blood detoxification
Chapter 38: Excretory System (pgs. 985-989)

Digestive System
• Students know the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes
(amylases, nucleases, lipases) stomach acid and bile salts.
Chapter 38: Digestive system (pgs. 978-984)

Nervous System
• Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different
parts of the body’s interactions with the environment.
• Students know how feedback loops in the nervous system and endocrine systems
regulate conditions in the body.
• Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in
transmitting electrochemical impulses.
• Students know the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in
sensation, thought and response.
Chapter 35: Nervous System (pgs. 890-909)

Musculoskeletal System
• Students know the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction, including the
roles of actin, myosin, Ca+2, and ATP.
Chapter 36: Skeletal and Muscle System (pgs. 926-932)

Endocrine System
• Students know how hormones (including digestive, reproductive, and
osmoregulatory) provided internal feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the
cellular level and in whole organisms.
• Students will learn about how the liver controls glucose balance.
Chapter 39: Endocrine System (pgs. 996-1015)
Blood Glucose Regulation Activity (pg. 1025)

Immunology State standards:

Immune System
• Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against
• Students know the role of antibodies in the body’s response to infection.
• Students know the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in the
immune system.
Integumentary system (pgs. 933-936)
Blood and Lymphatic System (pgs. 951-955)

Infection and Disease

• Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.
• Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with
respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary
defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments for these
• Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for
example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by
microorganisms that are usually benign.
Chapter 40: The Immune System and Disease (pgs. 1030-1047)

Nutrition and Wellness

Environment and Your Health (pgs. 1049-1054)
Food and Nutrition (pgs. 970-977)
Drugs and the Nervous System (pgs. 910-914)