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SEMANTICS Study of meaning in various languages . Study at level of words , phrases , sentences , and larger units of discourses . The way we speak , talk ,write and express collecting all these things in mind we can finally come to ideas , conclusions or pattern or context being discussed , which converges to semantics. Ill get back later Ill return after sometime (semantic meaning derived )

John killed Bill John is not alive anymore (semantic meaning) Most languages have parallel meaning/semantics as in language like ENGLISH . Most languages have one common idea behind using similar type of expressions . So , it becomes easy to translate (at least roughly) but the translated sentence becomes too clumsy . study of semantics includes lexicology , syntax , pragmatics , etymology , Semantics and reference are closely connected . UTTERANCES - Any stretch of talk , by one person , before and after which there is silence on the part of that person. Any utterance is the USE by a particular speaker , on a particular occasion , of a piece of language , such as a sequence of sentences , or a single phrase , or even a single word. They are generally represented by enclosing in double quotes when written. hello Blah Blah Blah Blah They represent physical events lasting for a short amount of time . SENTENCES - It is neither a physical event nor a physical object . It is conceived as string of words put together by the grammatical rules of a language. A sentence can be thought of as the IDEAL string of words. Example - IIIT Hyderabad is located in Gachibowli. Sentences are free from properties like loud , slow , time , place , etc. Though utterance can have all these things . Two statements if differ by even a single word , leads to a different sentence. Sentences are always grammatically correct , though it may not apply to utterances. They are always without quotes when written. Delhi is capital of India - Sentence

Delhi is capital of India - Utterance Stop there ! - Not a sentence ( not a correct grammatical statement ) One should stop before crossing the road Sentence (grammatically correct) {I made the coffee} & {I made coffee} are two different sentences as the is missing from second statement.

Utterance is related to accent , the way of pronouncing the given statement , whereas not related to Sentences. While talking we generally use Utterances , not sentences . A : Was Napoleon emperor of France in 18th century ? (sentence) B : Yes , he was (not a sentence) PROPOSITION -. It is that part of meaning of the utterance of a declarative sentence which describes some state of affairs. In uttering a declarative sentence a speaker typically asserts a proposition. It is central to semantics Example - Taj Mahal is in India. True propositions correspond to facts whereas False are not. One can entertain them by thinking of them , believing them whether they are true or false. A proposition is an abstraction that can be grasped by the mind of an individual person. In this sense, a proposition is an object of thought. Propositions are not equated with thought because they are personal private mental process. Propositions are publicly speaking. It is accessible to different person. A propositions is clearly not a process wheras though is a part of process.

REFERENCES - While using expressions , sometimes part of language is used to refer to some outer world entity (called as referent) . Referring expression is the expression used to refer . It is actually an utterance overall. that boy in the corner That boy refers to a boy who is actually standing in the corner. The speaker who is uttering this definitely has some particular person in mind. Referring expression depends in context used it is used. Example The man who works hard , definitely gets his reward . (it doesnt refer to anything) The man who cleaned this room. (It refers to a particular person) Indefinite noun phrase can be referring expressions , but not always , there are always disambiguities , but they can also be removed by using certain , definite , which enhances the referring character of the expression. Example Certain member of assembly was chosen for this post . Even noun phrases of various kinds , personal pronouns , proper names , longer descriptive expressions can be used for referring expressions. EQUATIVE SENTENCES Sentences where the referents can be interchanged , as both identify the same referent . Example - My name is John . John is my name . There are two referent s in it My name and John

As they both refer to same thing , so they can be interchanged which lay no effect overall. It can be considered to be a kind of test for checking whether sentence is Equative or not. PREDICATES - These are words left over when referring expressions are removed from the sentence which makes the most sense within the sentence. Example These shoes are costly. Referent - These shoes Remaining words - [ are , costly ] Most meaningful word - costly Hence , Predicate costly Generally , the left over word or group of words is predicator and when stripping out predicator from suffix is called Predicate . Degree of predicator Number of arguments present (referring expression) within the simple sentences. Example IIITH is in Gachibowli : degree of predicator 2 Variable Reference / Constant Reference : Ex : Sachin tendulkar is an Indian cricket player . No doubt , there can be many people with name Sachin and might be possible they are playing in Indian cricket team but it becomes clear who we are referring to . Here the referent is clear. But John is likely to come tomorrow , here John can be variable referent. Generic sentences : Generic in literal sense means in general , sentences in which statement is made about a whole class of individuals than a single person. Example Human beings are mammals. (Generic sentence) That man over there is a mammal (Not a Generic sentence) Universe of Discourse : The referring expression used for a particular referent depends on the view or idea within a persons mind. And this inner world of imagination and ideas differ from person to person. Therefore , no two person can have same universe of discourse . It includes both the imaginary and real world. Example I was like superman running ahead of all in the race. Here it clearly explains that speaker is considering himself to be SUPERMAN which is a fictious character. So , this determines the imaginary world going on in speakers mind. Any idea or imagination cannot be totally imaginary . It must be related to reality in one way or another . Example Spiderman jumped from Empire State building

Empire state building is in reality but spiderman is fiction. If two people have same universe of discourse then they are likely to have successful communication. Universe of discourse context of utterance immediate situation of utterance

DEIXIS Some words or phrases when used means the same irrespective who uses them , the place where they are uttered , irrespective of time and context but some need to be changed to suit the conversation . These changing words are called DEICTIC words . In greek meaning pointing . Deitic words take meaning from situation of utterance. A : I am going tomorrow to London B : Great! I too wish to go. Here Both speakers use word I , but in first cases it refers to A and in second it refers to B. Types of deictic words : Deixis of place : Here , there , next room Deixis of time : today , tomorrow , next hour Deixis of verb : write , hit , kicking Deixis of Discourse : This , that , those There cannot be any language without deixis . Without it communication needs cant be fulfilled. WORD EXTENSIONS Extension of a one place predicate is the set of all individuals to which that predicate can truthfully be applied. Extension of man is the set of all man in this world. Extension of car is the set of all cars running today all over the world. These are generally noun (common nouns). It refers to generally a set of all entities. It is different from sense , it is a common title used to depict the property of its community. ANALYTICITY It is the sense derived from Sentences ,which gives necessarily TRUE value , because of the words in it. Example Dog barks. SYNTHETICITY One sentence which is not analytic , but may be either true or false . We dont have any prior information so that we can confirm about its TRUE value Example John is haughty in nature

As we dont know who is John . So , we cannot say anything about him . We dont have prior knowledge. CONTRADICTION Contradiction is always False ,as a result of words in it . Totally opposite to analytic. Example Cats are dogs Analytic can be changed to contradiction by inserting not within the same statement. Using not in synthetic statement doesnt lay any effect. It still keeps the dilemma. PARAPHRASE It means rewriting of a given sentence (semantically implying same meaning) Example - John is child of Bill Paraphrase Bill is father of John HYPONOMY It is a kind of relationship between two words or set of words such that one acts like a parent class an other as subclass , where properties of subclass are derived from parent one and sub class is described as a type of parent. Example humans are mammals We can say human is a hyponym of mammals. HYPERNYMY Opposite of Hyponomy Mammals is a hypernym of humans SYNONYMY A kind of relationship shown between lexical words (predicates), where one may be replaces with the other in a given context. Example [big , large] It is a big house It is a large house Here big and large are synonymous words . One can be replaced with other when we describe the size of house . ANTONOMY A kind of relationship shown between lexical words (predicates), which is opposite of synonym , describes the polar opposite property . Example - [big , small] It is a big house.

It is a small house. Proper synonymy and antonymy doesnt exist . It depends only where they are used. TYPES : [BINARY ANTONYMS GRADABLE ANTONYMS CONVERSES ] ENTAILMENT Semantically derived meaning from a few uttered or spoken words. If p statement is true , then q is also true .This means P entails q. It is a kind of proposition q derived from statement p . Example - John killed bill entails Bill is not alive anymore It is transitive in nature . Two paraphrases entails same thing . AMBIGUOUS SENTENCE When a given sentence has more than one sense. Example The chicken is ready to eat It has two meanings : i) chicken is ready to be eat by someone. Ii) chicken is going to eat something of its food. Its ambiguity is due to structural arrangement of words , while uttering it gets different meanings even there are no ambiguous words within the sentence. POLYSEMY In polysemy a particular word has many different closely related senses . Example : Run - flee from battleground Run - a downward trickle of water Run - move about in hurried and hectic way LOGIC It is the philosophical study of valid reasoning. It examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. Logic deals with meanings in a language system, not with actual behavior. Logic deals with Propositions. Predicate logic provides an account of quantifiers general enough to express a wide set of arguments occurring in natural language. Predicate logic allows sentences to be analysed into subject and argument in several additional ways. Use of connective - & ~ or Argument : LIVE() Variables : X = [ chair , boy , cat , dolphin]

LIVE(chair) FALSE LIVE (boy) TRUE LIVE (cat) TRUE LIVE (dolphin) TRUE PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC A propositional logic is a logic in which formulae representing propositions can be derived. P Q Example : P :Ram is a boy Q : Ram has two hands PQ PRAGMATICS Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker and interpreted by a listener . This involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context influences what is said. This approach also explores how listeners can make inference about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speakers intended meaning. This type of study explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated. Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. Pragmatics is the study of relationships between linguistics forms and the users of those forms. The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about peoples intended meanings . Pragmatics requires us to make an idea what speaker has in mind , so involves mid reading. SYNTAX Syntax is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms, how they are arranged in sequence, and which sequences are well formed. CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE The additional conveyed meaning , more than just words of the speaker mean. A special knowledge of the context of utterance is required in order to make the necessary inferences.








Flouting implicature A flouting implicature is a conversational implicature based on an listener assumption that the speaker is deliberately breaking a conversational maxim while still being cooperative. Generalised implicature A generalized implicature is a conversational implicature that is inferable without reference to a special context.

Manner implicature A manner implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressee's assumption that the speaker is either observing or breaking the conversational maxim of manner. Particularise implicature A particularized implicature is a conversational implicature that is derivable only in a specific context. Quality implicature A quality implicature is a conversational implicature based on the listener assumption as to whether or not the speaker is observing or breaking the conversational maxim of quality. Quantity implicature A quantity implicature is a conversational implicature based on an listeners assumption as to whether the speaker is observing or breaking the conversational maxim of quantity. Relevance implicature

A relevance implicature is a conversational implicature based on an listeners assumption as to whether a speaker is observing or breaking the conversational maxim of relation or relevance. Standard implicature A standard implicature is a conversational implicature based on an listeners assumption that the speaker is being cooperative by directly observing the conversational maxims. EXPLICATURE It is a technical term in pragmatics, the branch of linguistics that concerns the meaning given to an utterance by its context. The explicature of a sentence is what is explicitly said, as opposed to theimplicature, the information that the speaker conveys implicitly. The truth value of a sentence is determined only by its explicature. Explicature consisted only of the literal meanings of a sentence, while implicature only intentional meaning. SPEECH ACTS Actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts such as all utterances with title promise, request , invitation. The speaker generally expects that his communicative intention will be recognized by the hearer. Both speakers and hearer are usually helped in this process by the circumstances. Surrounding the utterance are called speech events. Locutionary act : It is the basic act of utterance , or producing a meaningful linguistic expression. Illocutionary act : It is performed via the communicative force of utterance. SPEECH ACT CLASSIFICATION Declaration : are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. Representativeness : are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. Expressiveness : are kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. Directives : are those kind of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. Co missives : are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future action. They express what the speaker intends. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS Direct speech deals with direct relation between structure and function. A declarative sentence is a direct speech act . Whenever there is an indirect relation between structure and function. When a declarative is used to make request/command it becomes indirect speech act. Indirect speech acts are generally associated with greater politeness than direct speech acts It is raining outside (declarative) - Direct speech act

Is it raining outside ? (interrogative) Indirect speech act It appears it may rain. (possibility/hope) Indirect speech act SPEECH EVENTS It is an activity in which participants interact via language in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome. It is a social situation involving participants who necessarily have a social relationship of some kind and who on a specific occasion, may have particular goals. The usefulness of speech act analysis is in illustrating the kinds of things we can do with words and identifying and understanding some of the conventional utterances form we use to perform specific actions. POLITENESS AND INTERACTION A linguistic interaction is necessarily a social interaction. Factors influencing the interaction involves external factors which determine their relative position of participants based on social values(age and power). We take part in a wide range of interactions where the social distance determined by external factors is dominant. Factors determining speech in public are amount of forcefulness , degree of friendliness , temper and other surrounding influence. The internal factors are more relevant to participants whose social relationships are actually in the process of being worked out within the interaction. Both type of factors have an influence not only on what we say , but also on how we are interpreted. Politeness in an interaction is defined as the means employed to show awareness of another speakers face. FACE - It means the public image of a speaker. It refers to that emotional and social sense of self that every one has and expects everyone else to recognize. Face acts can be threatening or saving If someone actions is meant for threatening the social image of other one, then they come in Face threatening acts. When one tries to remove or lessen the danger on ones self image , then it comes under Face saving act




Despite differences in style , most speakers seem to find a way to cope with the everyday business of social interaction. Example Hello - How are you See ya ! - Bye They automatic sequence always contain two parts . First part and Second part. The utterance of a first part immediately creates an expectation of the utterance of a second part of the same pair. There can be various ways to fill in adjacency pair.

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE It refers to a group of words , that exaggerate or alter the usual meanings of the component words. Figurative languages may involve analogy to similar concepts or other contexts and may involve exaggerations . These alterations result in figures of speech. Words in literal expressions denote what they mean according to dictionary or common usage. Whereas in figurative they actually refer to a different meaning. It requires memory containing all possible meanings that are available which can be applied to a particular word in a given context . Simile Metaphor Figures of speech Personification Hyperbole Paradox SIMILE - A figure of speech in which one thing is explicitly compared to another. Example He is like a lion in playground METAPHOR In it a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not likely applicable in order to suggest a resemblance. Example - He was a lion in playground PERSONIFICATION The attribute of a special nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions . Example The sun opened its sleepy eyes and smiled down on earth as a new day began. HYPERBOLE A figure of speech which uses an extravagant or exaggerated statement to express strong feelings. Example They had been walking so long John thought he might drink the entire lake when they came upon it. PARADOX - A statement or proposition which is self- - contradictory unreasonable or illogical. Example This statement is a lie. PRESUPPOSITIONS It is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse. Example - I dont work after evening any longer. Presupposition --- I used to work even after evening earlier.

Presupposition must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and listener for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. Introducing negation of an expression does not change its presuppositions :

I want to do it again | I dont want to do it again. Both expression give that speaker used to or at least once did the thing in past. In entailment using not(negation) given different meaning whereas in presuppositions it remains same . In this way it is differentiated from entailment and implicature Example the president was assassinated . | the president was not assassinated Entail - president was dead Presupposition - president existed METONYMY It is a part of figurative speech used in skillful conversation in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept. Metonyms can be either real or fictional concepts representing other concepts real or fictional . It can be compared to METAPHOR , but in metaphor there is substitution because of its similarity whereas in metonymy it is based on understood association. Example Westminster - parliament of united kingdom (a real entity) Scrooge - - used a metonymous with miser and rich people ( a fictional character) ETYMOLOGY| president was not dead

It is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By an extension, the term etymology (of a word) means the origin of a particular word. For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to their origin.

Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological(in the form of dialects) data. The form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may often be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead later borrowed from another language. The study of semantic change. Etymologists must often make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words. Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well.

ORIGIN OF WORDS Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are borrowing from other languages. Word origin also occurs from old words , when they are semantically changed over time. Old words are used in a new fashion, they are changed phonetically. Lexicography
It is divided into two related disciplines: Practical lexicography : It is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. Theoretical lexicography: It is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the vocabulary of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situation, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'. General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries. Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries. Practical lexicographic work involves several activities and the compilation of well crafted dictionaries require careful consideration like1) Defining words 2) Organizing definitions 3) Specifying pronunciations of words. 4) Defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary 5) Selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary 6) Selecting equivalents in bi- and multilingual dictionaries 7) Translating collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and multilingual dictionaries.


An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics - Patrick Griffiths


Discourse and Inference - Jerry R. Hobbs

Arti_cial Intelligence Center SRI International Menlo Park, California PRAGMATICS - GEORGE YULE

A Semantic Approach to English Grammar - R. M. W. Dixon