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2 credit hours 1 hour lecture, 2 hours tutorial each week
ASSESSMENT Coursework Comprising: Assignments / Tests in first half of the semester Research Paper in second half of the semester 30% 30% (60%)
Students are introduced to the process of writing academically and integrating supporting details into their own work, using citations and paraphrase. LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE COURSE ARE TO: • • • apply the process of writing when producing written texts. produce coherent and cohesive written texts. use English accurately and effectively in producing written texts
Please take note that under University regulations, you are required to attend 90% of the course to qualify for the Final Examination. Failure to attend will result in barring.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL LETTERS
Here are two jumbled letters. One is written to a hotel, and the other to a friend.
Work in pairs. Decide which sentences go with which letter, and put them in the right order.
a. b. c. d.
f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.
I would like a single room with a shower. I’m writing to ask you a favour. I don’t mind where you put me. I’ll sleep anywhere! I have a further request. I would like to make a reservation for the nights of 22nd, 23rd, and 24th January. I hope the above is convenient. Write soon and let me know. I’m coming down to London at the end of the month to go to a conference. Could I have a bite to eat when I arrive? I hope you are all well, and that you’ve recovered from the busy Christmas period. I would be extremely grateful. Could I possibly have a room at the back, as I find front rooms rather noisy? Could you put me up for a few days? Just a sandwich will do. I look forward to your reply. It’s the 22nd-24th January. As I will be arriving quite late, could you possibly put a cold buffet in my room on the 22nd? I hope that’s all right. There’s something else I’d like to ask you.
(Soars and Soars 1987:53)
THE MOZART EFFECT: HOW MUSIC MAKES YOU SMARTER
Have you ever noticed how your favorite music can make you feel better? Well, new research studies now show how music can make you smarter too! Scientists at Stanford University, in California, have recently revealed a molecular basis for the “Mozart Effect”, but not other music. Dr. Rauscher and her colleague H. Li, a geneticist, have discovered that rats, like humans, perform better on learning and memory tests after listening to a specific Mozart’s Sonata.Recently, a new book called The Mozard Effect by Don Campbell, has condensed the world’s research on all the beneficial effects of certain types of music. Some of the hundreds of benefits are: • • • • • • • • Improves test scores Cuts learning time Calms hyperactive children and adults Reduces errors Improves creativity and clarity Heals the body faster Integrates both sides of the brain for more efficient learning Raises IQ scores 9 points (research done at University of California, Irvine)
In 1996, the College Entrance Exam Board Service conducted a study on all students taking their SAT exams. Students who sang or played a musical instrument scored 51 points higher on the verbal portion of the test and an average of 39 points higher on math. Major corporations such as Shell, IBM, and Dupont, along with hundreds of schools and universities use music, such as certain Baroque pieces, to cut learning time in half and increase retention of the new materials. In my teacher and parent training seminars, I have been using music for years as a strategy to reduce learning time and increase students’ memory of the material. Music activates the whole brain and makes you feel more energetic. Listen to these tapes when you study, work or drive in the car to receive the tremendous benefits. This is the music of such composers as Mozart, Vivaldi, Pachabel, Handel and Bach. I use these tapes every day and found them to be extraordinarily effective. Each CD or tape has specially selected music to enhance learning, spatial intelligence, creativity and body awareness. 3| Page
Copyright @ 2011 The Center For New Discoveries in Learning, Inc.
THE INFLUENCE OF MOZART’S MUSIC ON BRAIN ACTIVITY IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING
Jausovec N. Jausovec K, Gerlic I. Source Department of Education, Universza v Mariboru.Pedagoskafakulteta, Koroska 160, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia.Norbert.email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org> OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the influence Mozart’s music has on brain activity in the process of learning. A second objective was to test priming explanation of the Mozart effect. METHODS: In Experiment 1 individuals were first trained in how to solve spatial rotation tasks and then solved similar tasks. Fifty-six students were divided into 4 groups: a control one—CG who prior to and after taining relaxed, and three experimental groups. MM—who prior to and after training listened to music; MS—who prior to training listened to music and subsequently relaxed; and SM—who prior to training relaxed and afterward listened to music. The music used was the first movement of Mozart’s sonata (K.448). In Experiment 2, thirty-six respondents were divided into three groups: CG, MM (same procedure as in Experiment 1), and BM—who prior to and after training listened to Brahms’ Hungarian dance No. 5. In both experiments the EEG data collected during problem solving were analyzed using the methods of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) and approximated entropy (ApEn). RESULTS: In the first experiment the respondents of the MM, MS, and SM groups showed a better taskperformance than did the respondents of the CG group. Individuals of the MM group displayed less complex EEG patterns and more alpha band synchronization than did respondents of the other three groups. In Experiment 2, individuals who listened to Mozart showed a better task performance than did the respondents of the CG and BM groups. They displayed less complex EEG patterns and more lower-1 alpha and gamma band synchronization than did the respondents of the BM group. CONCLUSIONS: Mozart’s music, by activating task-relevant brain areas, enhances the learning of spatiotemporal rotation tasks. 4| Page
SIGNIFICANCE: The results support priming explanation of the Mozart effect.
FORMALITY AND INFORMALITY: DIFFERENCES IN ARTICLES
ARTICLE A Audience
INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Interview of 5 minutes maximum to be recorded as an example of INFORMAL SPOKEN LANGUAGE.
Student A asks B 1. How would YOU define Academic Writing?
Student B asks A 2. How do you think the course is different to other forms of writing you have studied?
Transcribe word-for-word one of the questions – the question you asked as the interviewer and include hesitations e.g. ummmms and errrrsand pauses expressed as ……… or [pause].
Write as a FORMAL WRITTEN SUMMARY – approximately one paragraph.
Example : A. Transcript format Josh: Thomas: Thomas, how would you define Academic Writing? [PAUSE] I thought it would be…
Thomas, a first year, first semester Mechanical Engineering student of Academic Writing at UTP, was asked for his opinion on the new subject. He was initially hesitant but…
SUMMARISING AND PARAPHRASING
Summarize and paraphrase the following short article
Selling a product successfully in another country often requires changes in the original product. Domino’s Pizza offers mayonnaise and potato pizza in Tokyo and pickled ginger pizza in India. Heinz varies its ketchup recipe to satisfy the needs of specific markets in Belgium and Holland, for example, the ketchup is not as sweet as it is in the United States. When Haagen-Dazs served up one of its most popular American flavours, Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough, to British customers, they left it sitting in supermarket freezers. What the premium ice-cream maker learned is that chocolate chip cookies are not popular in Great Britain, and children do not have a history of snatching raw dough from the bowl. For this reason, the company had to develop flavours that would sell in Great Britain. Because dairy products are not part of Chinese diets, Frito-Lay took the cheese out of Chee-tos in China. Instead, the company sells Seafood Chee-tos. Without a doubt, these products were so successful in these foreign lands only because the company realized that it was wise to do market research and make fundamental changes in the products.
Source: Authors: Publication: Publisher: Pages:
Blueprints - Composition Skills for Academic Writing Keith S. Folse; M.KathleenMahnke; Elena Vestri Solomon; Lorraine Williams 2003 Thomson Heinle 208-209
Summary practice Where and how to cut your losses
Half the skill in getting ahead on the career front is knowing when to move on. In everyone’s life there comes a moment when they should make the break – the world is full of has-beens who, perhaps, just didn’t have the courage to take a chance when that chance came. It pays to constantly reassess where you stand. A good stock question to ask yourself is “Where am I going to be, this time next year, if I stay in the same job?” Each career has a different kind of time-scale. The sales scene moves fast – you tend to make your money in the early years, then move on to management before you are too old and too tired to continue with the footin-the-door technique and the patter. The same thing goes, to a certain extent, for advertising. But other careers move at a different pace – to become head curator in a museum, for instance, or head librarian, may take years.
Source: Author: Published: Publisher: Page:
Writing tasks Jolly, D 1984 Cambridge University Press 149
Read the passage below on Rural Tourism, then summarise the advantages and disadvantages in two sentences
Rural Tourism: For and Against Johnson (1971) has listed two major advantages of tourism in rural areas. The first is economic: tourism creates employment. The jobs are mainly in the travel industry, hotels, guest houses, restaurants and cafes. However, visitors spend their money in a variety of ways which affect other jobs indirectly. For example, by buying local souvenirs and gifts, tourists help to support local shops. The second advantage of tourism is the support that the income provides for local services and amenities. As large numbers of visitors use the local buses etc. it makes it possible to keep these buses running for local people. As well as advantages there are also three main disadvantages of tourism (Walker, 1982). The first is erosion of the countryside by so many people: paths, grass and other areas of vegetation and woodland get worn away. In addition, tourist traffic causes congestion and obstruction and delays local people doing their work. Finally, an influx of tourists causes pollution problems in many areas. The pollution can take many forms but the main ones are the exhaust fumes of vehicles which pollute the atmosphere, and the litter that people leave behind, such as tin cans, plastic and paper, and bottles.
Author: Source: Published Publisher: R.R.Jordan Academic Writing Course: Study Skills in English (3rd Edition) 1999 London:Longman
IN-TEXT CITATIONS Paraphrase and summarise this information in 2 ways: (a) Where the researchers are given prominence i.e. subject position (b) Where the research or information is considered more important
From Malcolm Smith, NoorlailaGhaali and SitiFaitimah Noor Minhad There were 1,409 candidates in the program on that date and a sample of around 20 per cent of the student body was contemplated in order to provide a sufficient number for statistical comparisons. 80.4 per cent of the respondents acknowledged the source of information in the reference list of the assignment, but the majority of these (1`30) made no specific citation of authorship elsewhere in the assignment. Most seriously 27 students (9.4 per cent of the total) did not state their source of information anywhere in the assignment, even in the reference list, the incidence of plagiarism among this group of undergraduate accounting students was perceived as significant
From Niall Hayes and Lucas C.Introna Carroll (2002) has suggested that as most students are unsure what plagiarism is, they do not plagiaries with the intent to deceive. Fear of failure generally, especially when students are funded by their family, their government, or a particular company, also places considerable pressure on the students to do well. Yet there are some students who feel they cannot improve upon what is already written and prefer to use the original text rather than their own. Most students from exam-oriented learning cultures plagiarize intentionally and unintentionally due to their lack of experience in essay writing as they are still used to relying exclusively on exams. There is also a lack of clarity across the university about what constitutes plagiarism and a discrepancy in the way plagiarism is detected and enforced.
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There are 6 in-text citation errors in this adapted Introduction. Identify the errors and rewrite the complete text with the correct in-text citations using the APA format.
Student retention has attracted steady attention from scholars and practitioners in the higher education community (Austin 1993, Bean 1980, Cabrera et al. 1993 & Braxton 2000, Tinto 1993). As such, the literature on college student retention is full of scholarship contributing to our knowledge of factors influencing a student’s ability or inability to complete college. From a student perspective, researchers have shown that high school academic achievement, socioeconomic status; gender; commitment to earning a degree; and social academic involvement all influence completion of a degree (Austin 1993; Cabrera and Nora 1996; Tinto 1993). In particular, it is known that students who are socially disadvantaged, academically less prepared, and who experience a lack of resources and support, are less likely to stay in college (Austin 1993; Seidman 2005; Braxton 2000). We also know that those who feel isolated or lack a sense-of-belonging during their early years of college are more likely to leave (Hurtado and carter 1997; Hausmann et al., 2007). We have a wealth of available research to explain college student retention from an individual, student perspective.
From an institutional perspective, according to (Oseguera 2005; Sjoberg 1999) while there is information on institutional context factors and their effect on degree completion, organizational analyses are limited because they mainly tend to evaluate the influence of structural aspects and organizational culture of an institution. For example, size, control, and interactions influence retention but we know less about how these factors collectively influence completion. What is lacking then in institutional analyses of degree completion is an attendant emphasis on peer influence and faculty climates as suggested by (Berger 2000 & 2001; Braxton 2000 and Kuh 2001). In other words, what effects do peer and faculty attitudes and behaviors in the institutional climate, have on student degree completion?
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Source: “The influence of institutional retention climates on student persistence to degree completion: A multilevel approach” by Leticia Oseguera and ByungShik Rhee in Research in Higher Education journal and was published in 2009, volume 50, pages 546-569.
Each of these citations has at least one error. Rewrite the correct version Williams, Richard Michael & Briggs, Tina Sue (1996). Patent and copyright Toronto, Canada: Libraphobe.
Fernandez, S. J., (2003). “Understanding the concept of imagery.”Language Learning, 4, 180-191.
Jonson, K. L., from University of Michigan (n.d.) Newswriting and reporting for today’s media. Retrieved on 15th February 2007 from http://massmedia.com.htm.
Freud, Anna (1936). The ego and the mechanism of defense. International Universities Press ; New York
Psychoanalytic Psychology, edition 4, volume 19. 603-633.
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Anna-Marie Nasrallah “Make Time for Reading” Perseus Books, Cambridge MA
People save their books to use them as reference materials. People whose job training includes studying a lot of textbook material may save some of these books for future reference. A doctor, for instance, may keep his Gray’s Anatomy and his pharmacology books: an English teacher will hold on to The Norton Anthology of English Literature and other anthologies and novels for reference: a lawyer usually keeps her case books. But it isn’t only the professionals who save their books. Those interested in electronic equipment hold onto their books about stereo, computers, videotape machines, and the like. Many families keep encyclopedias and almanacs handy for their children to use for school. Having your own reference book available is so much more convenient than running to the library every time you want to check a fact.
Elizabeth Johnson, Franco San Giorgio, Katrine Schengen, Alaister MacDonald Viking Press, Edinburgh 2003
Some people save books to make a good impression. Some think that a library full of the literary classics, dictionaries, and books about art, science, and history makes them look well read and therefore, sophisticated. Of course, this impression may be inaccurate. Some have never bothered to read the majority of those books at all! In fact, a few people even have libraries with fake books. Also, some people like to reveal to visitors their wide range of tastes and interests. They can subtly reveal their interests in economics, art, politics, philosophy, or animals without saying a word.
Muhammad Ahmed Al-Khoury “The Enchantment of the Literary World” London 2008
People who enjoy reading have discovered the magic of books. Each book has transported the reader to another place. Therefore, each book really represents an experience from which the reader may have grown or learned something. When I sit in my study, I am surrounded by my whole adult life. The Standard First Aid and Personal Safety manual, in addition to providing information, reminds me of the first-aid course I took and how more assured I felt as a result. 13 | P a g e
Bullfinch’s Mythology brings the oral history of Western civilization to my fingertips, reminding me of my link with other times and people. Of course, all of the novels have become part of the mosaic of my life. In short, saving books makes me feel secure as I hold on to what they have given me.
Cosmetics companies are taking insufficient steps to ensure face creams and other products that contain nanoparticles are safe, according to a report by leading consumer magazine Which? The report, responding to advice from nanotechnology experts, warns that untested particles, which can be 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, are being used in products without sufficient safety testing.
Nanoparticles are used in sun screens to block ultraviolet radiation, in emulsions to contain vitamins in face creams, and in other moisturizers to kill off bacteria. However, of the 67 firms approached by Which? only eight submitted information on the use of nanotechnology in their products.
Nanotechnology, the science of manipulating matter on the molecular level, generally raises no new safety issues, but the tiny particles can behave in unusual ways, in some instances becoming toxic. Existing safety rules do not take into account materials posing risks at the nano scale. A common use of nanotechnology is the addition of titanium oxide or zinc oxide particles to sun screens, and European experts have demanded more safety tests to investigate the effects of these lotions on damaged skin.
Date of Publication:5 November 2008 Author: Ian Sample, Science Correspondent
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Use of nanoparticles in cosmetics questioned 16
While there are some published studies that suggest that solid lipid nanoparticles penetrate the skin better than conventional creams, overall it is difficult to find studies showing nanoengineered products are more effective than regular ones or that they are effective at all. The highly competitive world of cosmetics may have something to do with the lack of published studies. Publishing the results of scientific tests requires full disclosure of the method by which the formulation being tested was produced,therefore companies wishing to protect nanotechnology rights are understandably not anxious to do so. The bottom line is thatnanoengineered cosmetics may work well, but we do not have easily available proof that they do because large-scale studies of them have not yet been made public.
Some experts have voiced concerns about the safety of nanotechnology. For instance, some sunscreens use nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, and there are experts who have raised the question of whether these substances remaining in the skin can age it prematurely. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “At the present time, the FDA does not have any evidence that ingredients manufactured using nanotechnology, as used in cosmetics, pose a safety risk.” However, the FDA and other government agencies are still studying nanotechnology to see if the products produced with it – including cosmetics – pose health risks. So as of yet, there seem to be no definitive answers.
Source: Date of publication: Author: Title:
Nanowerk Newshttp://www.scrippsnews.com/node/25586 24 July 2007 Paige Herman and Marie Kuechel Nanotechnology Skin Deep
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Nanotechnology is the general term for a large number of different scientific disciplines dealing with the characterisation and development of materials on the nanometer scale – 1 nanometre is 1 billionth of a metre. The nanos used in cosmetics differ from nanos used in other industrial sectors in structure; use and environmental interaction. They are nanoemulsions and nanopigments. Nanoemulsions are widespread in nature, such as milk. In cosmetics, they are macroscopic preparations containing oil and water droplets reduced tonanometric size to increase nutritious oil content while preserving the transparency and lightness of the formulas. Sometimes fragile active ingredients e.g. vitamins are protected from air inside nanometer-sized bubbles which release the ingredient upon contact with the skin. Nanoemulsions therefore do not cross the skin barrier and public health agencies worldwide acknowledge that they are safe. Nanopigments i.e. titanium oxide and zinc oxide, are minerals already present in our environment. They are used in sunscreens for their ability to reflect and scatter UV light, thus protecting the skin against negative effects of UV radiation, including skin cancer. Numerous studies, including those undertaken within NANODERM, the European Union research programme, concluded that nanoparticles do not cross the skin barrier, even when the skin is damaged. Furthermore, recent studies carried out by the US FDA and in Europe, have demonstrated that no adverseeffects are observed, even where titanium dioxide nanopigments are injected into the bloodstream.
Source: Date of Publication: Author:
Food and Chemical November 2007
Toxicology Vol 45, Issue 11
B.Hall,S.Tozer,B.Safford,M.Coroama,W.Steiling, M.C.Leneveu-Duchemin, C.McNamara and M.Gibney
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European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments (abridged)
SYNTHESISING ADDITIONAL PRACTICE Write a 5-paragraph essay stating your opinion about the following issue. • • • • Provide a thesis statement and support your arguments with information from the following texts. Provide FIVE (5) proper in-textreferences for information obtained from the 3 articles below. Document the information that you have included using the APA method of documentation. Provide a reference list for information that you have cited at the end of the essay.
Biofuels can be made from any organic source that can be rapidly replenished. The two big players in the market are biodiesel and bioethanol – liquid fuels made from living organisms, such as plants and animals, and their by-products. They are considered more renewable and sustainable sources than fossil fuels, and are one of the few technologies with the potential to displace oil for use in transport. Most biofuels currently used come from agricultural crops. Different countries specialise in certain types of biofuel, according to their climate. In Europe it is rapeseed, wheat and sugar beet, while the US primarily harvests corn and soybeans. Sugar cane tends to be grown in Brazil and a huge amount of palm oil comes from south-east Asia. The smart money now is on second generation biofuels - where a much wider range of substances, including manure, food waste, wood, straw and sewage, are broken down to create biofuels. Here the whole crop can be used so you get much more bang for your carbon buck but experts say it will be five to ten years before they become commercially viable. There are particularly high hopes pinned on algae and jatropha, an ancient toxic bush found in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Even the most unlikely products can be turned into biofuels, including chocolate, leftover sweets and chip fat.
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Vikki Miller What are biofuels? guardian.co.uk, 23 May 2008
Biofuels can be substitutes for the fuels traditionally used in motor vehicles. Bioethanol can replace petrol, while biodiesel can be used in place of diesel. Although bioethanol is an alcohol, it is not recommended for drinking. It is produced in a similar way to other alcohols, such as spirits, using crops containing starch and sugar , for example, wheat, maize, sugar cane and sugar beet, which can be converted into alcohol. Crops that produce suitable oils, such as oilseed rape, palm and soya, can be used to manufacture biodiesel. It can also be made from recycled cooking oil or tallow. Talal Al Khatoub The Production of Biofuels The Journal of Alternative Alternative Energy October 2007 Volume 3 pages 46-53 Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is an alcohol, the same as in beer and wine (although ethanol used as a fuel is modified to make it undrinkable). It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates through a process similar to beer brewing. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Ethanol is mostly used as blending agent with gasoline to increase octane and cut down carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually
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methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. Shelldrake, Dr A.W.P. The Future of Fuel Boniface London, Prentice Hall (2005) in Oil Matters ed. Paul Burns and Ann
SYNTHESISING COURSEWORK ASSIGNMENT
You are required to work in a group of three, synthesizing the information from the following 3 (THREE) research papers. Using no more than 2 sides of A4 word-processed paper with Arial font size 11, write a 5-paragraph essay stating your
opinion about the following issue.
To what extent does listening to music alleviate stress, whilst completing a task?
• • • • Provide a thesis statement and support your arguments with information from the following texts. Provide FIVE (5) proper in-textreferences for information obtained from the 3 articles below. Document the information that you have included using the APA method of documentation. Provide a reference list for information that you have cited at the end of the essay.
The Effects of Music on Perceived Levels of Stress
Madeline M. Chimento&Rachel R. Tafalla Loyola University New Orleans Department of Loyola University
INTRODUCTION In today`s fast-paced environment, people are always "stressed out" over deadlines and not having enough time to do everything. Stress is a normal, 19 | P a g e
healthy factor in everyone`s life. Stress only becomes unhealthy when it is prolonged or unnecessary and people often spend large sums of money on trying to rid stress from their lives. The issue of the alleviation of stress was addressed by Hammer (1996), who studied the relationship between music therapy and participants` perceived stress level. Participants participated in music therapy sessions that included relaxation techniques and guided imagery. The State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered before and after the music therapy sessions. In the experimental group, there was a slight reduction in STAI levels and a perceived decline in stress levels after the music therapy sessions. These results suggest that music could be effectively used to reduce stress, but this study does not suggest a practical way to implement the findings. In their experiment, Brennan et al. (2000) attempted to further past research and study music`s practicality in reducing stress by bringing music into the workplace. Their experiment studied the effect music has on self-reported stress levels and the immune system. The researchers obtained baseline levels of self-reported stress and measured the presence of salivary immunoglobin A (S-IgA) in the blood of the participants. S-IgA indicates levels of immune system activity. After playing smooth jazz in the participants` high-stress newsroom workplace, they again measured the participants` levels of self-reported stress and the levels of S-IgA in the blood. Music was shown to have a striking and lasting reduction on the participants` perceived level of stress.The previous research study only reported on the effect of music on the reduction of stress, but did not study the possibility that certain types of music would have the opposite effect on stress. Simply choosing to listen to music is not enough to reduce stress. People must be cautious in the type of music they choose to listen to. Standing and Stace`s (1980) research demonstrates that the type of music chosen to listen to is important because unpleasant sounds can increase stress. Standing et al.`s (1980) research showed how unpleasant noise affected stress by studying how low, insistent levels of white noise would affect their participants. The participants were exposed to the white noise for 30 minutes and then given the STAI to complete. The scores on the STAI were significantly high for the highest decibel group (75 dB) confirming the hypothesis that even moderate levels of displeasing noise will increase levels of stress. METHOD Participants In our study, we recruited 60 participants. All the participants were undergraduate female students from Loyola University who were above the age 18. To the best of our ability, all races and ethnic groups were represented. Some participants participated for course credit while other participants volunteered. The method of recruitment was convenience sampling. Materials Informed Consent forms were used which informed the participants of the purpose of the study and explained that the participants would be filling out two surveys and a cognitive task. Forms Y-1 and Y-2 of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure the participants` current level of stress on two occasions. There were twenty questions on each form, consisting of statements like, "I feel confident". The participants marked how strongly, on a scale of 1-4, they agreed with each statement. 1 represents "not at all" and 4 represents "verymuch so". A cognitive filler task was also used in the study. This task consisted of fictitious words and the participants were asked to match the words to their correct definition. There were two CDs used in the experiment. The first CD was "Beethoven for Bedtime" which included the songs: Symphony #2 in D, Romance #2 in F, Emperor 20 | P a g e
Concerto, Pastoral Symphony, Pathetique Sonata, String Quartet #13 in B-flat, Fur Elise, Violin Concerto in D, and Moonlight Sonata. The second CD was "Evil Empire" by Rage Against the Machine. That CD included the songs: People of the Sun, Bulls on Parade, Snakecharmer, Without a Face, Wind Below, Roll Right, and Year of the Boomerang. Standard #2 pencils were given to the participants to fill out the surveys and the cognitive task. A Sony CFD-S33 CD, Radio CassetteCorder was used to play the CDs and the volume was set on level 3. Design and Procedure The study used a single-variable pre-test/ post-test between groups design. The independent variable was music. The 3 levels of the independent variable were: no music, classical music, and hard rock music. Classical music was exemplified in this study the CD, "Beethoven for Bedtime". The CD, "Evil Empire" by Rage Against the Machine, exemplified Hard Rock music, in this study. The dependent variable in the experiment was stress. A person`s level of self-reported stress was defined as a person`s score on the STAI. A cognitive task that consisted of fictitious words was given to control for the stress the participants experienced because of the cognitive task. Also, in order to control for the participants` differing initial stress levels, Form Y-1 of the STAI was administered in the beginning of the study in order to compare their initial stress level to their stress level at the end of the experiment, which was measured by Form Y-2 of the STAI. Before beginning the experiment, informed consent was obtained from every participant. Once all of the participants arrived, the door was shut and the STAI was passed out along with standard #2 pencils. They were told that the last 4 digits of their Social Security Number would be their code number throughout the experiment. After writing their code number in the upper right hand corner, they were told to read the instructions and fill out the STAI according to how they felt at that moment. Up to this point, no music had been playing and for the control group no music played at all during the experiment. For the second group, we turned on "Beethoven for Bedtime" at volume level 3 for 1 minute before passing out the cognitive task. For the third group, we turned on Rage Against the Machine at volume level 3 for 1 minute. The participants were told that they would have 7 minutes to complete the cognitive task and to put their code number on the sheet before reading the instructions and completing the task. After they finished the cognitive task, we passed out Form Y-2 of the STAI. The music remained playing in the background of the two experimental groups. After they finished, the surveys were collected and then the participants were debriefed. They were told that they had participated in an experiment studying the effects of different types of music on stress. They were told that all of their information was anonymous and that the cognitive tasks were made up of fictitious words and would not be graded. Finally, they were asked if they had any questions and were reminded that they could check out the results at the end of the semester on the website www.clearinghouse.mwsc.edu. RESULTS Results We hypothesized that the pretest measures of stress between all three groups should not differ. The results obtained for the control, classical, and hard rock groups supported this hypothesis (control- M= 54.38, SD=10.03; classical- M= 60.25, SD= 9.82; hard rock- M= 62.00, SD= 9.78) (F (2, 45)= 2.617, p= .084). Furthermore, we hypothesized that post measures of stress would differ significantly with the classical group being the least stressed and the hard rock group being the most stressed. This hypothesis was not supported by the results obtained (control- M= 53.50, SD= 9.15; classical- M= 58.88, SD= 9.28; hard rock- M= 59.88, SD= 9.72) (F (2, 45)= 2.135, p = .130). However, there was a relationship between the pre-test and 21 | P a g e
the post-test STAI scores (r (46)= .747, p< .001).
DISCUSSION It was hypothesized that those participants who listened to classical music would report lower levels of stress than those participants in the control group or the hard rock group. It was also hypothesized that those participants exposed to hard rock music would report significantly higher levels of stress than the control group and the classical music group. The present data were not found to be significant and the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. The mean scores went down for all three groups on the second administration of the STAI, but it was only a slight reduction and it happened in all three groups, indicating that the different levels of the independent variable did not have different effects on the three groups. Some possible reasons why the data is not congruent with past research could be the length of time that the participants were exposed to music and the type of music therapy used. In this experiment, the participants were exposed to music for a short period of time, about ten minutes, whereas in much of the past research, participants were exposed to the music for longer periods of time (Hammer, 1996), and in some cases an entire day (Brennan et al., 2000). Participants were exposed to music for only a short period of time in this study in order to increase the external validity of the study. People often cannot listen to music all day, but maybe only while they are driving or working out. In an effort to increase the external validity, the internal validity was compromised and that could have contributed to the data not being significant. Much of the past research also used music therapy (Hammer 1996). Instead of just playing music, relaxation techniques and guided imagery were incorporated into the experiment, making the music more effective. Another possible reason could be the use of the STAI. Some of the past research used more objective measurements such as salivary recordings and by measuring nervous system activity (Brennan et al., 2000; McCraty et al., 1996). Because the participants were administered two similar surveys within a short period of time, their answers on Form Y-2 might have been influenced by their answers on Form Y-1, an idea supported by the correlation between the pre-test and post-test scores. The high positive correlation (r= .747, p< .001) between participants` answers on the two surveys indicates that their answers on the first survey would be the best predictor of their answers on the second survey, rather than the type of music they listened to. The study did not discover any significant relationship between the type of music participants` were exposed to and the participants` levels of stress, suggesting that music might not have as much of an effect as was originally hypothesized. Because the participants were only exposed to the music for a short time, the results could be indicative of the fact that participants must be exposed to music for a much longer time for the music to significantly affect stress levels. Therefore, listening to classical or pleasing music will not significantly lower stress levels and listening to hard rock or displeasing music will not significantly increase stress levels, if people only listen to the music in the car or during the day for short periods of time. Also, music therapy was not incorporated into this study. Music therapy, such as the guided imagery used in Hammer`s (1996) experiment or the positively induced emotional state used in McCraty et al`s (1996) experiment, compels the participant to become actively involved in reducing their stress levels while listening to the music. This study could have implications for people who passively listen to classical 22 | P a g e
music, or other types of music intended to relieve stress, for short amounts of time and think that they are lowering their stress levels. The results of this study indicate that this belief is not valid. People may need to listen to the music throughout the day and incorporate some type of music therapy, such as guided imagery, into their music experience to gain any of the possible benefits. Because this study did not discover a relationship between music and stress, it could be viewed as weakening the prevailing view that music does affect stress. But, rather than negate the bulk of the past research (Hammer, 1996; Brennan et al., 2000; Wiesenthal et al., 2000; Standing et al., 1980) that does support the hypothesis that music does affect stress, the results of this study could have greater implications for the perceived strength of the relationship between stress and music. Since music was only presented for a short period of time, the relationship between music and stress would have to be strong for the results to have been significant. A relationship could exist, but it might be too weak to have been demonstrated in this study. For future studies, researchers should expose the participants to music for a longer period of time so that the music could have a greater effect. Also, using biological methods to measure stress is preferable if it is possible. These methods are more expensive, but provide more objective and reliable data.It would be interesting to do further studies on the effects of displeasing music on stress. Future studies could also focus on the effects of music on stress and the physical health of the participant and also focus on the strength of the relationship. The results of future studies could be used to implement simple and inexpensive ways to alleviate stress in the general population. REFERENCES Brennan, F.B., &Charnetski, C.J. (2000). Stress and immune system function in a newspaper`s newsroom. Psychological Reports, 87, 218-222. Hammer, S.E. (1996). The effects of guided imagery through music on state and trait anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 47-70. Standing, L. &Stace, G. (1980). The effects of environmental noise on anxiety level. The Journal of General Psychology, 103, 263-272. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research IX (2006)
Music, Relaxation, or Silence: What Facilitates Optimal Spatial-Reasoning?
Jacqueline Lasser, Department of Psychology
INTRODUCTION Should women play Mozart music while they are pregnant in order to have smarter babies? A visit to “Mozart Effect” websites allows parents to purchase Mozart’s music for prenatal, infants, and children in order to make them “smarter” in the future (e.g. www.mozarteffect.com). However, empirical research on the effects of listening to classical music, in particular, Mozart, yields a complex series of findings and more questions than answers.
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Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) were the first to describe the effect of classical music on cognitive functioning. They called this influence, “the Mozart effect”, and it is defined as the improved performance on spatial reasoning tasks while listening to Mozart’s classical music. Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) found a significantly better performance in college students on the Stanford-Binet Scale of Intelligence paper folding and cutting task while listening to Mozart compared to listening to a relaxation tape or silence.
Replicating the Mozart Effect
The original study of the Mozart effect by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) has been replicated many times, and there are three important studies that support their research. Wilson and Brown (1997) measured the performance on a paper and pencil maze task while listening to Mozart, silence, and a relaxation tape and found that listening to Mozart enhanced spatial-reasoning performance over each of the other conditions. Furthermore, Ivanov and Geake (2003) found the scores on a paper folding task in primary school children were higher while listening to Bach and Mozart compared to silence. Rideout and Taylor (1997) were also able to support the Mozart effect and generalize the Mozart effect to Yanni, which is similar to Mozart in tempo, structure, melody, and harmony. Both conditions demonstrated an improvement on a paper folding and cutting tasks in the presence of Mozart and Yanni (Rideout and Taylor, 1997). While these studies verify the influence of music on certain tasks, others refute the effect. Steele, Bass, and Crook (1999) failed to replicate Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky’s (1993) experiment. There was no significant Mozart effect found. The lack of support for the Mozart effect was also found in the results of McKelvie and Low (2002). Spatial performance was once again tested in the presence of popular dance music, Mozart, and silence. There was no difference in performance on the tasks for either condition, thus, providing evidence that the Mozart effect does not influence spatial-reasoning performance (McKelvie& Low 2002). The improved performance in the presence of Mozart music uncovered by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) originated the popular notion that music can make one smarter. However, the studies have focused on a very specific component of cognition, spatial reasoning. The effect of classical music on spatial reasoning centers on two primary explanations. First, Rideout and Laubach (1996) suggest that Mozart music influences activity in the brain. When their participants listened to Mozart, they found a correlation between the differences in brain activity, using an electroencephalograph (EEG) and an improved performance on a spatialreasoning task. The differences or separations in the frequencies of the EEG increased while listening to Mozart, and they claim that this separation facilitates easier neural firing that is needed for spatial tasks (Rideout&Laubach, 1996). Mozart music “excites” the brain and primes it for neural firing responsible for higher brain functions (Rauscher et al., 1995). Second, Thompson, Schellenberg, and Husain (2001) attribute the improved performance on tasks while listening to Mozart as an effect of arousal and an improved mood. Each participant listened to Mozart, Albinoni, another classical composer, and silence while each time performing a paper folding and cutting task. Albinoni’s music was expected to induce low arousal and a sad mood, compared to the Mozart and silence conditions. The researchers concluded that participants performed better on the spatial task after listening to Mozart compared to those who performed in silence, but there was no difference on the spatial task score for those who listened to a sad excerpt by Albinoni. However, in reference to mood and arousal, the Mozart group scored significantly higher on positive mood and arousal and lower on negative mood compared to the Albinoni group (Thompson et al. 2001). Thus, participants improved performance is claimed 24 | P a g e
to be triggered by the positive mood and increased arousal level provoked by Mozart. The explanation of arousal and mood impacting performance leads to the consideration of whether or not other upbeat types of music, such as techno music, might elicit the same arousal and positive mood as Mozart. Furthermore, it is questionable whether Mozart not only improves one’s mood and arousal, but may also help individuals to relax. Another component that may also have an impact on the Mozart effect is the amount of musical training of individuals. Brander and Rammsayer (2003) compared musicians to non-musicians on various intelligence tasks and found musicians to do better on intuitive thinking, as in spatial reasoning, over logical thinking tasks. This study explored three aspects. First, spatial reasoning ability was examined in the presence of techno music, as well as Mozart, to investigate if other upbeat music can elicit the same arousal and positive mood as Mozart. Second, the study examined Mozart’s influence on the relaxation state of the individual by using vocal relaxation prior to the spatial task. Third, this study observed the correlation between performance on the test and the musical training background of participants, in reaction to Brander and Rammsayer’s (2003) study that found musicians do better on intuitive thinking, as in spatial reasoning. With the support of the previous research on the Mozart Effect, this study hoped to find three results. First, the performance on a spatial-reasoning task will improve while listening to Mozart. Second, participants listening to vocal relaxation will have an equivalent score to those listening to Mozart and will have an improved score over silence and techno music. Third, participants with musical training (4 years or more) will perform differently compared to non-musicians (less than 4 years). METHODS
Participants Participants for the study included 27 male and 96 female undergraduate students enrolled at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (n =123). Their ages ranged from 18 to 25, with a mean age of 19.20. Of the sample, 116 were Caucasian, 2 were Hispanic, 2 were African American, and 3 were Asian/Pacific Islanders. The students participating in the study received extra credit in their psychology class. Materials and Procedure Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: Mozart music, techno version of Mozart’s music, vocal relaxation tape, and silence. Prior to the task, the participants completed a questionnaire that investigated their musical training. After that, each condition was exposed to five minutes of their assigned music or relaxation techniques that was played on a CD player, except for the silence group who started the task immediately. They were then given eight minutes to complete the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale matrix reasoning task in the presence of their assigned music, except for the vocal relaxation and silence conditions, which performed in silence. The matrix task involved a series of 22 items in which the participant was given three boxes of a pattern, and he or she had to determine the last box of the pattern by choosing from multichoice answers.
RESULTS A One-Way ANOVA revealed no statistically significant results between Mozart (M=2.77, SD=1.67), techno (M=3.18, SD=2.16), relaxation (M=2.96, SD=2.29), and silence (M=3.55, SD=2.82) conditions, in regards to the number of wrong answers on the task [F (3,101) =0.55, p>.05]. A correlation between the number of answers wrong 25 | P a g e
for those listening to music and whether a participant was a musician, more than four years of training, or a non-musician, less than four years, was also analyzed. A Chi Square analysis revealed no statistically significant results for those in the Mozart condition [χ2 (6, N=31) =7.04, p>.05] and those in the techno condition [χ2 (7, N=28) =12.25, p>.05]. However, a Univariate Analysis of Variance with group and musical training as variables found an interaction effect of musician by group [F(3,115)= 7.20, p=.00], and a main effect for group [F(3,115)= 3.24, p=.025]. DISCUSSION Exposure to Mozart’s classical music did not result in an enhanced performance on the spatial reasoning task as compared to silence, vocal relaxation, and techno music and, thus, refutes the hypothesis that the Mozart Effect exists. The lack of significant differences between the conditions also does not support the hypothesis that techno music effects performance or that relaxation has an equivalent effect as listening to Mozart music. Thompson, Schellenberg, and Husain (2001) attributed the improved performance on tasks while listening to Mozart as an effect of arousal and an improved mood. However, the results of this study cannot support this claim. The techno music, which provided a comparison of a positive mood and increased arousal level, did not improve the score on the task and did not reflect a similar score to that of listening to Mozart. However, the Univariate Analysis of Variance does provide some insight into the role of relaxation. Musicians and non-musicians performed the same when exposed to vocal relaxation, and their scores were extremely similar to those listening to Mozart. The hypothesis that musical training has a different effect on a participant’s performance was supported. Although musicians did not have a higher score on the spatial-reasoning task over non-musicians, which would have supported Brander and Rammsayer’s (2003) study that found musicians do better on spatial reasoning over logical thinking tasks, there was an interaction effect of musician by group. Those who were musicians and in the Mozart, techno, and relaxation conditions had similar scores and, in fact, had fewer errors than non-musicians. Musicians performed the worst in the presence of silence compared to the nonmusicians in the silence condition and compared to the other musicians in the other conditions. These results may provide evidence that musical training does have an effect on spatial reasoning performance in the presence of music. In future research, the type of musical training and the age at which musical training occurs can be investigated as an influence on spatial reasoning ability alone and in the presence of Mozart music. These results, however, are still inconsistent with the original study by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) and other such subsequent replications that found a significantly improved performance on the spatial task in the presence of Mozart music. The failure to replicate the Mozart effect may be attributed to not using the paper folding and cutting task that was used by many who witnessed the Mozart effect. Perhaps, this study’s spatial task was not a proper assessment of spatial reasoning, or perhaps, the task was too easy for the participants and did not require them to use as much spatial reasoning. Furthermore, the music chosen for this study may have been too familiar to the participants and distracted them from the task. Although this study provides support for the side that refutes the Mozart effect, more studies need to be conducted before a final decision can be proclaimed. Additional experiments would reveal what particular variables facilitate this phenomenon. Perhaps only certain spatial tasks and music facilitate this 26 | P a g e
phenomenon. Moreover, the role of arousal and relaxation needs to be further investigated, because this research is currently limited. Physiological research on the brain while performing a spatial task in presence of Mozart, silence, relaxation tapes, and techno music would be most helpful in uncovering the mystery of the Mozart effect.
Brandler, S. &Rammsayer, T. (2003).Differences in mental abilities between musicians and non-musicians. Psychology of Music, 31(2), 123-138. Ivanov, V. K. & Geake, J. G. (2003). The mozart effect and primary school children. Psychology of Music, 31(4), 405-413. McKelvie, P. & Low, J. (2002). Listening to mozart does not improve children’s spatial ability: Final curtains for the mozart effect. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 241-258. Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., &Ky, K. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance.Nature,365, 611. Rideout, B. E. &Laubach, C. M. (1996). EEG correlates of enhanced spatial performance following exposure to music. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82(2), 427-432. Rideout, B. E., Dougherty, S., &Wernenrt, L. (1998). Effect of music on spatial performance: A test of generality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86, 512-514. Rideout, B. E. & Taylor, J. (1997).Enhanced spatial performance following 10 minutes exposure to music: A replication.Perception and Motor Skills, 85(1), 112-114. Thompson, W. F., Schellenberg, G., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the mozart effect. American Psychological Society, 12(3), 248-251. Steele, K. M., Bass, K. E., & Crook, M. D. (1999). The mystery of the mozart effect: Failure to replicate. American Psychology Society, 10, 366-369. Wilson, T. L. & Brown, T. L. (1997). Reexamination of the effect of mozart’s music on spatial-task performance. Journal of Psychology, 131(4), 365-370.
Does Background Music Impact Computer Task Performance?
Christine Phillips As more customers begin to access the Internet with high-speed connections, website designers take advantage of this speed by using more sophisticated multimedia with music audio files to hopefully attract a greater number of users to their sites. Yet, little research has been done to determine whether the use of music actually improves user perception and/or performance on the Web. Many studies have looked at non-computer task completion while listening to background music in a real-world setting. According to a study completed by Hallman, Price, and Katsarou (2002), calming music led to better participant performance on an arithmetic task and a memory task than no music. It was also found that background music on cognitive test performance led to improved performance when compared with a control condition (Cockerton, Moore, & Norman, 1997). Arkes, Rettig&Scougale (1986) found that as a task increased in complexity, listeners preferred music that was simple. The Mozart Effect (Rauscher, Shaw, &Ky, 1993) is a well-known phenomenon that showed that participants who listened to Mozart performed better on spatial tasks. Nantias and Shellenberg (1999) replicated this study and found participants performed better on spatial tasks than those listening to nothing or easy listening music. However, another study involving computer-generated music found that it was 27 | P a g e
the pairing of music that was preferred over the other selections and the task, and not specifically Mozart. This finding strengthens the argument that a pairing of a positive stimulus (music that is preferred by the listener) with a less engaging stimulus may increase performance (Nantias&Shellenberg, 1999). This study investigated the influence of two different music genres on performance on a computer-mediated task. Half of the participants were given a time limit per task (10 minutes), and half were in an untimed condition. It was hypothesized that communication of participants would be more task-oriented when the music was perceived as conducive to the task and that those in the timed condition would report more feelings of frustration on tasks and websites than those in the untimed condition. METHOD Participants Seventy-two undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses and graduate methodology courses at Wichita State University participated in this study. Average age of the participants was 23.82. Participants were assigned to either a Classical, Punk, or No Music group based on their familiarity with the music type. Assignments were made so that all groups were balanced according to familiarity. In addition, participants were randomly assigned to either a timed or untimed condition. Materials A communication program was developed which allowed users to communicate with one other participant anonymously. Participants were given the task to assume they had been stranded on the moon and had to rank a list of 15 items in terms of importance to their survival with 1 being the most important and 15 being the least important. Scores were then compared to a recommended solution (Hall and Watson, 1970). The computer program also randomized a music playlist for each participant. Each participant received a completely randomized version of the playlist. Participants listened to the background music through headphones. Procedure The experiment was conducted in a 16-computer classroom. Each participant communicated anonymously with one other participant in the room to complete the task. Participants communicated with each other until they came to agreement on the ranking of the 15 items, or until they ran out of time. All pairs of participants listened to the same type of music. RESULTS A 2 X 3 between-subjects ANOVA was computed to examine the effect of time and music type on the ranking of the 15-items. The difference between the participants ranking for each item and the NASA ranking for each item was totaled for a final score. The lower the score, the more accurate the ranking (i.e., the closer it was to the NASA solution). Figure 1 shows those listening to classical music had a better score than those in the punk music and no music conditions. There was no significant effect of time or interaction.
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Figure 1. Performance Scores on the Moon Task across Conditions ( the lower the score the more accurate)
Communication Content A content analysis was completed to identify all comments not relating directly to the problem-solving task. Those scores were then analyzed using a 2 x 3 between-subjects ANOVA with time and music type. There was a significant main effect of music type. Post hoc tests show the significant difference in the no music condition having significantly fewer off-task comments than those in the other conditions (Figure 2). There was no significant main effect of time or interaction.
Figure 2. Number of Off- Task Comments Across Conditions
DISCUSSION Results from this study showed that those in the classical music condition performed better on the problem-solving task than those in the Punk music or No Music conditions, regardless of time constraints. Interestingly, participants in the Classical music condition performed better despite the fact that they contributed more off-task comments to one another than the No Music condition and about the same number of off-task comments as the Punk music group. Most of the off-task comments were personal in nature (i.e., emoticons, jokes). These results are supportive of research by Jensen (2001), which states that participants listening to classical music are more likely to disclose personal information than those listening to no music.
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Those in the classical music condition appeared to be more involved in the task, leading to better scores on the problem-solving task and an increase in the use of hyper-personal communication. It is possible that classical music helped the participants relax creating an opportunity for them to not only succeed at the problem-solving task, but also have a more interactive communication experience. Future studies should examine the effects of different types of Classical music on computer-mediated tasks as well as other types of computerbased tasks, such as Web browsing and playing online games.
Acknowledgement: We'd like to acknowledge Jeff Howard for the creation of the Visual Basic program used in this study.
Arkes, H. R., Rettig, L. E., &Scougale, J. D. (1986). The effect of concurrent task complexity and music experience on performance on preference for simple and complex music. Psychomusicology, 6, 51-60. Cockerton, T., Moore, S., & Norman, D. (1997). Cognitive test performance and background music.Perceptual and
Motor Skills, 85, 1435-1438.
Hall, J. & Watson, W. H. (1970).The effects of a normative intervention on group decision-making performance.
Human Relations, 23, 299-371.
Hallman, S., Price, J. &Katsarou, G. (2002). The effects of background music on primary school pupil’ task performance. Educational Studies, 28, 111-122. Jensen, K. (2001). The effects of selected classical music on self-disclosure.Journal of Music Therapy, 38, 2-27. Nantais, K. M., &Schellenberg, E. G. (1999). The Mozart effect: an artifact of preference. Psychological Science, 10, 370-372. Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., &Ky, K. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365, 611.
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