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good at creating music, singing, playing instruments, expressing emotions and transmitting their messages to the audience, but they, the artists, are not necessary great at negotiating deals, promoting themselves, booking their own concerts, dressing and taking pictures of themselves. For these duties, a creative, informed and connected manager is needed, so the artist can focus on the creative and artistic side of the business. There is a great amount of creativity managing an artist career. But it is also a science, and after all, a business. Basically, the manager is in charge of the exploitation of all the artists talents, artist developing, touring, sponsorship, merchandising, financing and sometimes personal advising. Trust, is the key ingredient in the relationship between artists and managers, because they will take care of the future of the artist, or the destiny of the band in this long-run partnership. Managing, planning, organizing, sales and promotion are the main duties for a manager; sometimes, managers are involved also in branding, and other entertainment activities. Everything that works in behalf of the artists is the managers responsibility, that include determining their business status and recommending a business entity, marketing the artists image, coordinating live performances, establishing commercial and merchandising relationships, establishing career goals, planning the road map, making suggestions and leading the team to work in favor of the artist or band to find the route of success and reach the goals.

PAYMENT STRUCTURE FOR AN ARTIST MANAGER Usually, managers are paid by a percentage of the artists gross earnings. This commission can be between 10% for established artists to 25% for new artist. Fernn Martinez, manager of

Juanes, a big latin artist, charge 30% of the artists earnings. Not too often, managers are paid by a commission that is based upon the net earnings of the artist, but as I said before, this is unusual. A special clause must be written in the Artist Management Contract: The Sunset Clause, which means the manager's percentage of the artists gross earnings decreases every few months until it eventually falls to zero. Managers dont receive any payment for booking, that is not their job

MAJOR NEGOTIATING POINTS OF AN ARTIST MANAGEMENT CONTRACT Before shaking hands, the artist or band and the manager have to agree in principle to a contract and understand the main reason of their relationship, which is that the artist agrees to have their career managed and by no one else, and the manager agrees to manage the artists career and exploit their talents for commercial gain. Particularly, the artist management contract has some key points that basically relies on a list of managers duties, such as: All phases of their career in the entertainment industry The appropriate music and show design for live performances Publicity, public relations, employment, and advertising Image and related matters Booking and talent agencies that work on behalf of the artist The selection of other key members of the team such as attorneys, business managers, accountants, publicists, and webmaster The manager is not obligated to seek or obtain any employment for the artist, thats an Artists Agent job. Paul Allen in his text book Artist Management for the music business puts it very well when he says, The manager will do whatever else is necessary to effectively advance the career of the artist. Thats the major negotiating points in an Artist Management Contract.

THE ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ARTISTS SUPPORT TEAM. The Artist Manager has to select the members of the support team in order to create a strong power human-force that not only follow the established plan, but helps to route of the artists future, and serve as a vertebral column of the artists career.

The booking agent is a person who finds jobs for musicians. Booking agents make their money by taking, usually 10% of the value of the shows they book. In addition to that, agents are involved in negotiating artists for appearances in commercials, TV specials and arranging tour sponsorships. The booking agent presents the promoter or producer of the show with a

performance agreement, which stipulates the artists requirements.

A music attorney is a crucial member of any artists team. An attorney not only has to know about law, but has to understand the entire music business in order to protect the artists interest. A solid reputation within the industry is important for the benefit of the artists career. The music industry is full of contracts, and involves promises in exchange for payment, thats why an artist needs an attorney, a music attorney.

Publicists are hired to promote the band, conduit information to newspaper, magazine and online coverage as well as radio and TV opportunities. The publicist job involves writing and sending out press releases or newsletters about the artist or band to the fans and to media advocates, such as music editors, radio programmers and concert promoters. A major label

provides a publicist for the artist, but an unsigned artist has to find one. Managers of this type of artists will hire a publicist on a project by project basis to control budget.


Inside the artists team, Managers should count with the service of the business advisors, capable to manage the artist financial assets. A banker is needed to manage the artists or band savings and checking accounts, and other financial services as loans and credit cards. Basically is the person who gives the talent, access to significant financial tools. An insurance professional is essential in the artists team because he or she will need liability coverage for transportation, for injuries during a performance, and a life insurance for the artist and his/her family when needed. To take care of the regular collection of money, paying expenses, and making deposits in the bank account, an accountant is hired. This person will be in charge in these activities, and with habitual and normal tax accounting. A business manager will be needed to handle expenses and incomes of the artist or band, and to advice the manager and artist to invest or deposit the remaining of paid bills in the best possible way on behalf of the client. Often, a business manager is an accountant, usually their earn is a 5% of the money managed on benefit of the artist or band.

In addition to these key members of the artists support team, a webmaster is needed to maintain a high quality artist website in order to generate traffic on the site. In this URL, visitors will know about tour dates, read current information as tour dates, bio, buy merchandising items, stay in touch with the fans, and the most important thing, having a fan base for future purposes and keeping track of those followers and believers that will consume the artists music and its derivatives. Besides these valuable team members, the artists manager needs the help of others key members to create a strong entity that will work in convenience of the artist or band. These other members are a tour manager, an image consultant, a show designer, a makeup consultant, a back up band, and many others that may contribute to the achievement of goals, the manager mapped out on the artist or bands plan.

THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT Managers are in charge of taking care of the business side of an artist/band career or destiny, so the artists can focus on the creative side of their profession and make more and better music. In a few words and exactly as we saw in class, managers do anything that will help to enhance or promote an artists career. Professional and independent artists, signed and unsigned bands, mainstream and underground talent, commercial and non-commercial talent, rock stars and street musicians required the assistance of a person dedicated in Artist Management to help them in organizing their artistic activities. Choosing an Artist Manager could be one of the most important choices artists make in their career, and may affect it positively or negatively, due to the important responsibility that the artist manager plays in Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling the performing artist's destiny on the long run. The artist manager has to deal with these four main functions I mentioned before, that are necessary not only to supervise the other people working for the artist or band, but to have a clear path in benefit of the artists future, and to know what to do with their potential.

The route to success has to have a road map, a set of logical steps or plans that can be reached or achieved. That road map is what the Managers called Planning, and basically is the

identification of simple goals that clarify the vision of the artists career. According with Dr. Carter McNamara, the goals are, Where you want to go, why you want to go there, how you will get there, what you need to get there, and how you will know if you are there or not.

A logical structure, of the necessary resources, is needed to develop and carry out a career plan and to execute it. Managers have to define the roles and responsibilities of the artists team and

supervise not only their duties, but their efficiency as well. Time is the most valuable asset in the management world. Managers organization skills have to deal with funding and financing, and these serious topics have to be achieved by a mixture of strategies such as finding sponsors, creating an accelerated tour schedule, helping the artist to secure loans, asking friends and family for support, etc.

The art of directing activities is called leadership. Alan Klein said once that, leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen." Artist Managers keep the team motivated in order to achieve the goal, and ensure the time and energy of the artists team directed toward the career success of the artists. The manager is the orchestra conductor of the artists career.

To be an effective professional, the artist manager has to assemble all the resources such as people, equipment, time, financing, and monitor the effectiveness of the plan that is already on its route, in order to do the potential adjustment that may incur during the course of the development.

OTHER ARTIST MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND PERSONAL TRAITS Other skills are necessary to deal with talent, be successful in the music industry as a manager, and do not die in the intent. An understanding of peoples behavior and the industry itself is the key of this interaction of artist, music and fans. A strong understanding of human nature is required to manage a career where egos thrive, such those activities involved with creativity. Leadership is also an important skill to have as a manager, because is the influence of the manager that helps the artist to follow, develop, achieve the goals of the established plan, and stay focus in his or her career. In relation related with

leadership, coaching skills are necessary to deal with short-term circumstances that improve the

artistry of the band or artist.

A way to measure the effectiveness of a manager is his or her

networking skills, the capability to return a call, to use the networking resources, attend and participate in industry events and seminars in order to be where the music moves, and to be in touch with the people who move the music industry machine.

Nstor Dueas-Torres