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A REFINED NONLINEAR THEORY OF PLATES WITH TRANSVERSE SHEAR DEFORMATION J. N. &DDY Dcpar:ment of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A.

(Received 1 August 1983; in revisedfonn 17 November 1983) M-A higher-order shear deformation theory of plates accounting for the von Karman strains is presented. The theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in the Hcncky-Mindlin type firstorder shear deformation theory and accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. Exact solutions of simply supported plates are obtained using the linear theory and the resulta arc compared with the exact solutions of 3-D &sticity theory, the first order shear dcfonnation theory, and the classical plate theory. The present theory predii the ddlections, stresses, and frquncics more accurately when compared to the 6rstorda theory and the classical plate theory.

INTRODUCTION

First general solutions to the equations of linear elasticity corresponding to thin plates were presented by Cauchy [l] and Poisson [2] using the methods of series expansion, and by KirchhoffI31 using certain hypothesis. An expansion in powers of the thickness of the plate was used by Goodier[4] to obtain a general solution in terms of a series of biharmonic functions for a plate subjected to edge tractions. It is well known from experimental observations that the Poisson-Kirchhoff theory of plates, in which it is assumed that normals to the midplane before deformation remain straight and normal to the plane after deformation, underpredicts deflections and overpredicts natural frequencies. These results are due to the neglect of transverse shear strains in the classical plate theory (CPT). Refined plate theories, due to Levy [5j, Reissner[6,7], Hencky[8], Mindlin[9], and Kromm [ lo] are improvements of the classical plate theory in that they include the effect of transverse shear deformation (see[111).In the Hencky-Mindlin theories the displacements are expanded in powers of the thickness of the plate (see[12-141). Extensions of the Kirchhoff-von Karman theory[l5], a geometrically nonlinear theory associated with the classical plate theory, to refined plate theories were considered by Reissner[l6,17] and Medwadowski[l8]. Extension of the Kromms theory to geometrically nonlinear analysis, in the sense of von Karman, is due to Schmidt[l9]. These higher-order theories are cumbersome and computationally more demanding, because, with each additional power of the thickness coordinate, an additional dependent unknown is introduced into the theory. Further, these theories require an arbitrary correction to the transverseshear stiffnesses, and the transverse shear stresses do not satisfy the conditions of zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. Of course, the Reissner-Kromm theories satisfy the stress free conditions, but these are based on the stress fields. Thus, need exists for the development of a higher-order shear deformation theory that avoids the shear correction factors, and accurately predicts transverse shear stresses. Levinson [20]considered such a plate theory, in which the in-plane displacements are expanded as cubic functions of the thickness coordinate. Unfortunately, both Levinson[20] and Schmidt[l9] used variationally inconsistent set of equilibrium equations (they used the equilibrium equations of the classical plate theory), and therefore did not correctly account for all of the strain energy associated with the displacement field. The present theory accounts for the cubic variation of the in-plane displacements through the plate thickness, the van Karman strains, and transverse shear strains which vanish on the top and bottom faces of the plate. The equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and therefore they are consistent with the assumed displacement field. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the present theory, the exact solutions of the linear

881

882

J. N.

REDDY

theory are presented for bending and vibration of simply supported, homogeneous, isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plates. Comparison of the present solutions with the 3D elasticity solutions shows that the present theory yields more accurate stresses and natural frequencies than the first-order shear deformation theory.

KINEMATICS

We begin with the displacement field in which the displacements along the X- and y-directions are expanded as cubic functions of the thickness coordinate, and the transverse deflection is assumed to be constant through thickness:

Y,

a,

Y9 0

= 4% Y, 0.

(1)

Here U,o, and w denote the displacements of a point (x, y) on the midplane, and I/, and t,G,, are the rotations of normals to midplane about they and x axes, respectively. The functions {,, c,, 6, and c,, will be determined using the condition that the transverse shear stresses, a, = a, and a,, = a, vanish on the plate top and bottom surfaces:

(2)

these conditions are equivalent to the requirement that the corresponding strains be zero on these surfaces. We have

au2 au,

4 = 5 + -aY = l)Y +

2z& + 3z25,+ 5.

(3)

+z[S,-;($(ll.+$)] +z~y-~(;>(~y+3]

(9

u2=v

us = w.

One should note that, although cubic variation of the in-plane displacements through thickness is accounted, the displacement field in qn (5) contains the same number of dependent variables as in the first-order shear deformation theory. This is an attractive feature from finite-element modeling considerations.

883

The von Karman strains associated with the displacement field in qn (5) are

where

It is interesting to note that the new strain components contain higher-order derivatives of the transverse detbtion.

CONSTITLJTIVE EQUATIONS

a plate of constant thickness h and made of an orthotropic material (i.e. the plate possesses a plane of elastic symmetry parallel to the x-y plane) the constitutive equations can be written as

For

where Q, are the plane-stress reduced elastic constants in the material axes of the plate: Q,,=

1 -

h2V21

,Q,,=

vi;v ,Qu=

12 21 (53,

7,

(W

12 21

Qu

G23,

Qs =

Qei =

G12.

EQUATIONS

OF MOTION

Here we use Hamintons principle to derive the quations of motion appropriate for the dispIacement field (5) and constitutive equations (8). The principle can be stated in analytical form as (see Reddy and Rasmussen[21])

J. N. REDDY

b

q&v dx

dy dr

]

=-

S[f-I (

R +k

ah+awasw -1 ax ax ax

+M,Z+P

)

,[-g$+$)]

ah %W + M astiy 2T+P2[-g3+t$)] 2 7 + ay ay )

(9)

where the stress resultants N,, M,, P,, Qi and R, are defined by

W,,M,P,)=

s

s -W

(Q,, 4) =

a,&

23

dz

(10)

K,12,4,4,I5,&)

are defined by

= s h/2

(11)

-W

88s

Integrating the expressions in eqn (9) by parts, and collecting the coefficients of SU, 60, SW, S$,, and S$,, we obtain the following equations of motion:

where

& = 12- $

r,=I,

The boundary conditions are of the form: specify un or N,, \

(13)

uns or Nms w or an

dW

Qn

(14)

or Pn

on r

886

J. N. &DDY

Qi= Qi -$Ri(i=

1,2)

a - = n,

an

and P, and P,,, are defined by expressions analogous to N. and N,,,, respectively. This completes the derivation of the governing equations. An examination of the boundary conditions in qn (14) shows that both $ and awlan are geometric boundary conditions in the present theory. Consequently, one should use interpolation functions that guarantee interelement continuity of slopes in the finite-element modeling of the theory. The resultants defined in qn (10) can be related to the total strains in qn (6) by the following equations:

&

D,, D,

0 0

sym.

=

Dbb. sym-

(Ati,D,,Fv,H,,)=

(A,,D&)=

J J

~~Qy(llz2,1,z6)dz(i,j=

1,2,6)

@+Q&,z2,z4)dz(iJ=4,5)

(17)

or A,= Q, D, = Q&h3/W

FM Q&h5/80), Hy = Q&h/448) = A,, = G,h, AS5= G13h D,, = G,(h3/12), D55= G,,(h3/12) FM = Gu(h5/80), F,, = G,,(h5/80).

(18)

transverse

aal

SUPPORTED

The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear partial differential equations in eqn (12) is an impossible task. Even the linear equations do not allow an exact solution for all geometries and boundary conditions. Here we consider the exact solutions of eqns (12) and (13) for infinitesimal displacement theory of simply supported, rectangular plates. Since the coupling between stretching and bending is zero for the linear theory, we consider only the flexural displacements and natural frequencies. The following simply-supported boundary conditions are assumed (a and b are the plane-form dimensions and the origin of the coordinate system is taken at the lower left comer of the plate):

w(x, 0) = w(x, b) = w(O,y) = w(u,y) = 0

(19)

The resultants of eqn ( 16)can be expressed in terms of the generalixed displacements, for the case of infinitesimal displacements, as

au

(20)

888

J. N. RilDDY

Ttie last three ~Uatio~s in eqn (12), for the linear theory, am be expressed in term of the displacements as

+H,*

-4

-$[D,,($+~)+F,( +D,,&+t$)+FI(

-~)(~+~) -;)(f$+$)]

+~ss~~+$)+D5s(-;)(~+$)

w4

+&2( -$($+$)+bs($+~)

++($+k)+&(

-;)(h+g)] WI

plateswith

-_ jj -*JIy

at2

WC)

Following the Navier solution procedure, we assume the following solution form that satisfies the boundary conditions in eqn (19), w= f W, sin ax sin fly eVrw

m,n-I

$, = f

ma-I

(22)

$, = i Y, sin QTcos fly e+ nsn-1 where a = mn/a and /3 = m/b, and.o is the frequency ofthe natural vibration. Further we assume that the applied transverse load, q, can be expanded in the double-Fourier series as

q = f Q,,,,sin a~ sin /3y.

m.n-I

(23)

Substituting eqns (22) and (23) into eqn (21), and collecting the coefficients, we obtain (24)

the coefficient

890

1. N.

&DDY

c,, =

Cl2 =

c,=

0

4 *

s;z 4,

- $

c2)=

c33 =

A,fa2D,+#12Dn-SD,,+ 0

- $

S;I FM

4 *

4 gj (> (a*+fl*)

M II=

&+I7

12 =

Ai,=

4,

lu33=r3,

A&=0.

(25)

(26)

891

where

CII =

AMzG13 %J +

- g

= c12s15 haGI

b3Q,, +

a~2(2G12

Qdl

~13 =

WG3

b28W12

Q12> B3Qil +

cz=~hG13+~

(a 2Q,, + /J2Gd

c23=g(G,,+Q,,)

c~~=$IzG=+?~~

17/r

(a 2G,2-t P2Qu)

and Qi, are given by eqn (8b). The static solution is given by eqn (22) with z = 0 and (IV, X, Y) from eqn (26). Note that for uniformly distributed load Q,,,,,is given by 7,m,n=l,3

O,m,n ==2,4,...

,...

(28)

NUMERICAL

Bending

RESULTS

Numerical results are presented in Tables 1 and 2 for homogeneous isotropic (v = 0.3) and orthotropic plates under uniformly distributed transverse load of intensity qo. The

r L

bl4 r/h 5 I 10 1W CPT --

Table I. Comparison of deflections and stresses in isotropic (v = 0.3) plates under uniformly distributed transverse load (m,n = 1,2,. . ,19) e

HSDT FSDT

0.4640

.~..

(0.3324) 0.4909' 0.4543 ';.:;;;I 0.4905 0.4543 ';.::;;I 0.4905 (0.4959) 0.4909 (0.4965)

0.2890

y;; .

0.2673 ';.::;:I 0.1947 ';.;;;;I .

0.4690

0.0444

0.2673

0.2813

0.1946

0.0

0.4909 (0.4965) 0.5615 0.6813 0.6446 0.6613 0.6609 0.6813 0.6813 %B"E . 0.5051 0.5240 L%: . 0.5240

10

100

CPT

+nu&err

in pwcnthesis

nrc

892

J.N.

REDDY

Table 2. Comparison of dcikctions and stresses in orthotropic square plates under uniform transverse load (m, n = I, 3,. . . (19)

cllwh, b/a

2 0.10 0.14 1,40R.5 387.23 1,408.S 387.5 1.408.5 3Rl.B 1.326 345.1 65.975 33.R62

490

FSUPT 21.542 CPT 21.210 EXdCC 262.67 HSDPT 262.6 65.95 33.84 FSOPT 262.0 65.38 33.21 CPT 262.2 65.55 33.44 Exrct 14.048 (13.57) 6.921 (6.229) 4.8lB (4.n27) 10.873 (10.45) 5.341 (4.657) 3.731 (2.884) 6.243 (5.765) 2.951 I';$" (i.186)

$hoW

HSOPT 13.98 114.00) 6.958 (6.998) 4.944 (4.997) 10.85 (1n.w 5.382 ;5i;:2) (j.857) 6.163 ;"(;;r' ;ioJ$4) (i.131) FSOPT 11.20 yy) I";;;"' 0.0 (i.999) 8.701 (ln.88) 4.338 ;5;;;2' (;.R87) 4.940 ~6;;:"' $A:" 0.0 G.219) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CPT II .n 0.0

h/a

0.05

Exactt 21.542

HSDPT 21,542

- __

*from Reference 1223

*numbers in parenthcsls denote the sheer stress vrlues obtained from the stress cquilibrim

cqurtions.

following orthotropic material properties, typical of aragonite crystals (converted from elastic constants given in[22] to engineering constants), are used.

El =

20.83 x lo6 psi, Ez = 10.94 x 106 psi 6.10 x lo6 psi, GIJ = 3.71 x 106psi, G2) = 6.19 x lob psi 0.44, y21 = 0.23. (29)

G12

VI2

The elastic constant cl1 used in Table 2 has the value of 23.2 x 106psi. The following nondimensionalized deflections and stresses are tabulated in Table 1:

ui - 0

i=1,2 (h2/w2),

(h2/qoo2)

c4 -

(30)

--

a4

(uw).

Two pairs of transverse shear stresses, one obtained from the constitutive equations and the other from equilibrium equations are presented in the tables. In the first-order shear deformation theory, the shear correction factors are assumed to be L, = K: = 5/6. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of Tables 1 and 2: (1) Even for the isotropic plates the effect of transverse shear deformation is significant. The classical plate theory (CPT) under predicts (for a/b = I) the deflections by 4.9% at a/h = 10 and 170/,at a/h = 5, and stress u, by 0.7% at a/h = 10 and 2.6% at a/h = 5 when compared to the higher-order shear deformation plate theory (HSDPT); see Table 1.

893

,s I

.3 .l

0 -.1

XL

_._ -*_

equations

HSDPT from equilibrium equatfans FSDPT frun constitutfve equations

-. 3 -. 5

Fig. 1. Distribution of the tranmnrc shear strw across the thicti of simply supported mctangular plrtcsunder uniformly distributad transverse load (orthotropic case).

(2) The first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDPT) is quite accurate when the transverse de&&ions are concerned. But the stresses are no better than those predicted by CPT; see Tables 1 and 2. (3) The transverse shear stresses predicted by the constitutive equations (8) of the higher-order theory are the most accurate of the three plate theories when compared to the exact solution of Srinivas and Rao[22]; see Table 2 and Fig. 1. It is interesting to note that FSDPT and CPT give more accurate transverse shear stresses than HSDPT when the stress equilibrium equations of 3-D elasticity theory are used:

etc. (see Appendix 1). (4) The infinite series for deflections converges faster than those for stresses; the convergence is slower for thick plates than for thin plates; see Table 1. In summary, the higher-order theory yields more accurate distribution of stresses, especially shear stmsses, when compared to the other plate theories. This feature of the higher-order theory is of umsiderabk interest in the analysis of laminated composite plates, because an accurate prediction of the interlaminar shear stresses enables an accurate determination of the strength and failure of laminates. Natural vibration The numerical results of the natural vibration of isotropic (Y= 0.3) and orthotropic (see eqn (29) for material properties) square plates are presented in Tabks 3 and 4, resp. The results are compared with the exact solutions of the thmedimensional elasticity theory[22-24). In Table 4 the first three eigenvalues obtained by the present theory are compared with the exact values, and the values obtained by FSDPT and CPT. From the results presented in Tabks 3 and 4 the following observations can be made:

894

Table 3. Comparison

J. N.

hDDY

ln

---

111 cPT I

of isotropic

(V =

0.3)

p&cs

_CPT

n 1 2 Exact 1243 0.704 I.376 2.018 2.431 2.634 3.612 3.RO9 3.987 4.535 4890 5.411 5.411 6.449

b/a = I FSDPT HSDPl 0.093u 0.2219 0.3406 0.4149 0.52C6 0.6520 0.6134 0.7446 0.8896 0.9174 0.9984 1.W64 1.1268 ----0.3732 (0.3853) 0.4629 (0.4816) 0.3951 [0.6261) 0.7668

b/a = f1 FSDPT HSDPT 0.7038 1.373a 2.0141 2.4263 2.6283 3.6013 3.1891 3.9148 .4.51>8 4.8737 5.3915 5.3915 6.3846 0.7436 1.3729 2.0123 2.4235 2.6250 3.594% 3.7818 3.9666 4.5089 4.8600 5.3754 5.3754 6.3609

-r

1 2 2 3 3 .i 3 4 4 5 5 4 5

2 1 ! 2 2

1 3 2 3 4 1 2

0.6389 0.7511

0.9268

--

!

I

1.0889

4 3 5 5

0.7180 10.7224) 1.4273 (1.4448) 2.1281 (il.lGIl) 2.5908 12.648?) i.8247 (2.8895t 3.9575 (4.0935) 4.1822 (4.3343) 4.4062 f4.57Sl) 5.0729 'p;:' 'p;",' (6:5014) 6.1680

____-_inerti&

f&actlul

m 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 3 n I 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 4 I 3 4 2 II* 1.3077 1.3331 1.4205 1.4316 I.3765 1.5777 1.45% 1.5651 1.4372 1.7179 1.5737 1.5068 1.6940 III 1.6530 1.7160 1.6805 1.7509 1.8115 I 0.0474 0.1033 0.1189 0.1695 0.1888 0.2184 0.2477 0.2629 0.2%9 0.3330 0.3326 0.3479 0.3720

of an

orthotropic square

FSDPT

plate

HSDPT

11, 1.30% 1.3339 1.4216 1.4323 1.3772 I.5789 1.4603 I.5658 I.4379 1.7186 I.5744 1.5076 1.6947 III 1.6550 1.7209 1.6827 1.7562 1.8210 1.7361 I.8622 I.8255 1.9466 1.8588 I.9395 1.9912 1.9514 I 0.0474 0.1032 0.1187 0.1692 0.1884 0.2178 0.2469 0.2619 0.2959 0.3311 0.3310 0.3463 0.36%

Ii 1.3159 1.3410 1.4285 1.4393 1.3841 I.5857 I A670 1.5725 I.4445 1.7265 1.5812 1.5141 1.7022

III I.6646 1.7305 1.6921 1.7655 1.8305 1.7450 1.8714 1.8341 I.9560 1.8657 1.9479 2.OwJ2 1.95%

CPT I 0.0(93 (0.0497)+ 0.1095 (0.1120) 0.1327 CO. 1354) 0.1924 (0.1987) 0.2070 (;;2g) (0:2?79) 0.2879 (0.3029) 0.3248 (0.3418) 0.3371 E!) (0:4773) 0.4172

0.0474 0.1033 0.1188 0.1694 0.1888 0.2180 0.2475 0.2624 0.2%9 0.3319 0.3320 0.3476 0.3070

1.I334

1.8523 1.8195 1.9306 1.8548 1.9289 1.9749 1.9447

1

4 3 2 4

l

Pure thick-twist modes + Numbers in parenthesis indicate frequencies obtained by omitting the rotatory inertia.

(1) The classical plate theory overestimates the frequencies. The errors increase with increasing mode numbers. (2) The frequencies predicted by FSDPT are fairly accurate; the error increases with increasing mode number. (3) The frequencies predicted by HSDPT are the most accurate of all. (4) The effect of transverse shear deformation increases with increasing mode number.

895

A refined nonlinear shear deformation theory of flat plates is presented. The theory accounts for (a) zero traction boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate, (b) cubic variation of in-plane displacements through thickness (hence, a parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses through thickness), and (c) the von Karman strains. Additional features of the theory are that no shear correction factors are used in the theory, and the resulting equations of motion include the same variables as in the first-order shear deformation theory. Exact solutions for the case of infinitesimal displacements are presented for bending and free vibration of simply supported rectangular plates of isotropic as well as orthotropic materials. The solutions of the higher-order theory are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact solutions of the threedimensional theory of elasticity. The numerical results should serve as references for those who wish to develop a finite-element model of the higher-order theory described herein. Extension of the present theory to laminated anisotropic plates is presented by the author (see[251).

Acktwwfedgement-The

support of the research reported here, in parts, by the Air Force Oflice of Scientific Research through grant AFOSR-61-0142 and NASA Langley through grant NAG-I-459 are gratefully acknowledged. The author is thankful to Dr. Anthony Amos (AFOSR) and Dr. James Stames, Jr. (NASA) for the encouragement and support of the work.

REFERENCES A. L. Cauchy. Sur leguilibre le mouvement dune plaque solide. Exercises dr Mafhem I&e 3, 328 (1828). :: S. D. Poisson, hitmoire sur leguilibre et Ie mouvement des corps Clastique. Metn. Acud. Sci. 8,357 (1829). 3. G. Kirchhoff, Uber das Gleichgewicht und die Bewegsmgeiner Elastiscben Scbelbe. /. Angew. Math. 40,5l (1850). 4. J. N. Good&, On the problem of the beam and the plate in the theory of elasticity. Trans. R. Sot. Can& 32, 65 (1938). M. Levy, M&moiresur la theorie des plaques elastiques planes. J. Mruh. pures et Appl. 3, 219 (1877). E. Reissner, On the theory of bending of elastic plates. J. Muth. Phys. 23, 184 (1944). E. Rcissncr. The clfcct of transverse shear deformation on the bending of elastic plates. J. Appl. Mech. 12 (Truns. ASME 67) A69 (1945). 8. H. Hencky. Uber die berucksichtigung der schubverxerrungen in ebenen platten. &.-Arch. 16 (1947). 9. R. D. Mindlin, Influence of rotatory inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates. J. Appl. Mech. 18 (Truns. ASME 73) A31 (1951). IO. A. Kromm, Verallgemeinerte theorie der plattenstatik. Ing.-Arch. 21 (1953). II. V. Pant, Theories o/ Efastic Plcrtes. Noordholf, Leyden. The Netherlands (I 975). 12. R. Tiffen and P. G. Lowe, An exact theory of generally loaded elastic plates in terms of moments of the fundamental equations. Proc. Land. Math. Sot. 13, 653 (1963). 13. L. Librescu, EMsrosrosratics Kinetics of Anisotropic and Heterogeneous Shell-type Structures. Noordhoff, and Leyden, The Netherlands (1975). 14. K. H. Lo, R. M. Christensen and E. M. Wu, A higher-order theory of plate deformation, Part I: Homogeneous plates. J. Appl. Merh. 44,663 (1977). IS. Th. von Kannan, Festigkeitsprobleme im Maschinenbau. Encyklopadie dcr mathemarischen Wissenschaften, Teubner, Leipzig, 4, Art. 27, 350 (1907-1914). 16. E. Reissner, Finite ddlections of sandwich plates. I. Aeronuut. Sci. 15, 435 (1948). 17 . ,. E. Reissner, On variational theory for finite elastic deformation. /. Math. Phys. 32, I29 (1953). 18. S. J. Medwadowski. A refined theory of elastic, orthotropic plates. I. Appl. Mech. 25, 437 (1958). 19. R. Schmidt, A re8ned nonlinear theory of plates with transverse shear deformation. I. Indusr. Math. Sot. 27, 23-38 (I 977). 20. M. Levinson, An accurate simple theory of the statics and dynamics of elastic plates. Mech. Res. Commw. 7, 343 (1980). 21. J. N. Reddy and M. L. Rasmussen, Athznced Engineering Analysis. Wiley, New York (1982). 22. S. Srinivas and A. K. Rae, Bending, vibration and buckling of simply supported thick orthotropic rectangular plates and laminates. Inl. 1. Solids Srrucrurcp 6, 1463 (1970). 23. S. Srinivas, C. V. Joga Rag and A. K. Rao, An exact analysis for vibration of simply-supported homogeneous and laminated thick rectangular plates. 1. Sound Vib. 12, 187 (1970). 24. H. Reismann and Yu-Chung Lee, Forced motion of rectangular plates. Deuelopments in Thcoreticol and Applied Mechanics (Edited by D. Frederick), Vol. 4, p. 3. Pergamon Prrts, New York (1%9). 25. J. N. Reddy, A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates. Rep. VPI-E-83.28, ESM Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA (June 1983);also to appear in 1. Appl. Mech.

APPENDIX stress equilibrium equations for the classical plate theory, the first-order shear deformation theory, and the higher-order theory (for simply supported, orthotropic

Transverse sheor stresses from stress equilibrium equarkms The transvcrsc normal and shear stresses obtained from the

J. N. %DDY

when Qe arc @cn by cpn (86), and W dcnotcs the ampiitudc in eqn (22).

(2) Firsr-order shear &formation theory

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