Note: Page numbers in this free version may not be correct due to formatting changes.

MORE
CONCOCTIONS
FROM

THE BEER ENGINEER

By

JAMES F. WILLENBECHER
The Beer Engineer

Published in the United States by

CEI PUBLISHING A Division of Crossfire Engineering Inc. 217 Magnolia Street 5830 West Turkey Lane Kennett Square, PA 19348 Tucson, AZ 85742 (860) 627 - 5544

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Cover Design by Judy Willenbecher Technical Editors John Gosselink a brewer from Pella, Iowa. Mary Samuels a brewer from Olympia, Washington. Caroline Williams a brewer from Corpus Christi, Texas. Harold R. Wood BS, BHS, MS is a longtime brewer and registered Toxicologist from Santa Rita, Guam. Thomas E. Arduini, BS, is a homebrewer and Laboratory Technician from West Haven, Connecticut. Michael A. Pascucilla, BS, RS is a homebrewer and Registered Sanitarian from West Suffield, Connecticut. And last but not least, ST a homebrewer and LAN Specialist from Atlanta, Georgia. Special Editors O.B. from Waldmüenchen, Germany and Somers, Ct. Karin Cioto from Berlin, Germany and Vernon, Ct. Berni Hartmann from Kassel, Germany and Ellington, Ct. Dave Levesque of Forrestville, CT

© Copyright 1994 by Jim Willenbecher

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: International Standard Book Numbering ISBN:

94-080001 0-9632514-1-4

All rights reserved. Copyright laws prohibit the reproduction of this book, either whole or in part, in any form, without the written permission of Crossfire Engineering Inc. and the author. Recognized critics may quote brief passages of the book. Storage of this book in any type of retrieval system is not allowed. Any type of retrieval system means any form or any means including, but not limited to, electronic, photocopying, magnetic, computer disk, film, or microfilm.

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PREFACE
This technical reference manual started as a simple update of my original book, Concoction of a Beer Engineer. But, sometime during the addition of the many new sections and the correction of my grammar and spelling errors, I realized that it had taken on a life of its own. Suddenly, a unique new handbook was born. Most of the material in this manual is directed toward the brewing of German beers. Other beer styles are covered, but the primary topic is German brewing. Both my wife and I come from German families and have been around the German brewing tradition all our lives. This Technical Reference Manual was published, in part, to share my thirty-five years of traditional German brewing experience with all of you. The brewing Hints in this technical reference manual will help you to understand the simplicity and excellence of the German brewing process. Never be afraid to brew any style of beer you wish. Because most brewing books cover the fine English brewing tradition, this manual was designed to supply the other side of the coin, German brewing. Remember, behind every English bitter, there is a fine German beer. More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer is not your typical brewing novel. It is a technical reference manual for brewers who want to control their brewing process. While some text and graphics in this manual have been taken from Concoction of a Beer Engineer, many new subjects, and a great deal of new information, graphs and tables, not available when Concoction of a Beer Engineer was first printed, have been incorporated into this manual. This manual goes far beyond the scope of the original document and provides more detailed, yet still simple, procedures for the brewing of World Class beers. This technical reference manual will: 0 Give you 79 unique World Class beer recipes that include detailed hop schedules, starting gravities, final gravities, alcohol levels, international bittering units (ibu), combined flavor units (cfu), and combined aroma units (cau) for selection, comparison, and illustration. 0 Give you equivalent grain malt to malt extract conversions for the convenience of the all grain brewer who would like to use the recipes. 0 Give a unique recipe selection chart for selecting the right beer for you. The chart gives the starting gravity, final gravity, ibu, cfu, cau, type of beer, name, number, alcohol content, color, and page number. All recipes are in the order of starting gravity and ascending ibu for easy selection. 0 Give a unique, design your own, approach to brewing World Class beers. 0 How to design your own hop schedules to get the exact hop bitterness, flavor, and aroma (nose) you prefer. These sections include corrections for hop alpha acid, hop utilization, type of hop used, amount of the hop used, and the volume and the Specific Gravity of the boiling medium. 0 How to predict the alcohol level, starting gravity, final gravity, color, hop bitterness, hop flavor, hop nose (aroma), and carbonation level of any beer before you start to brew. 0 How to use the specialty grains like Crystal, Chocolate, Black, Cara-Pils, and other grains with the simple Mini-Mash. 0 How to use small quantities of lager, ale, wheat, and other malt grains, normally requiring mashing, with the more thorough Mini-Mash. 0 How to carbonate your bottled beer with speise, Dry Malt Extract (DME), or Dextrose (Corn or Brewers Sugar). 0 How to carbonate your kegged beer with speise, Dry Malt Extract (DME), or Dextrose (Corn or Brewers Sugar). 0 How to properly correct carbonation rates for preference and altitude. 0 How select, clean, and maintain your bottles and kegs. 0 How to care for dry and liquid yeasts. v

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How to culture your own yeasts. How to prepare and use yeast starters. How to properly use dry yeasts. How to convert from U.S.A. units into metric and Imperial units. How to convert from metric and Imperial units into U.S.A. units. Provide check lists for brewing with dry and cultured yeasts. How to make and attach your own beer labels. Provide thirteen Figures and Graphs along with twenty-six Tables, many of which are not found in any other homebrewing book. Provide complete Hop Utilization charts and graphs. Provide complete design guidelines for using hops and malts. Provide over eighty brewing hints and tips with many clarification notes to improve your beers. Show you differing points of view, expressed by the editors, and explanations of each of their positions when required.

WARNING! The Beer Engineer has been grammatically challenged since birth, and even
with the best efforts of the very talented editors, the reader must be constantly vigilant. Attacks from both bad grammar and improper punctuation are possible at every turn of a page. As the Beer Engineer writes, "Before I graduated college, I couldn't even spell ingineer. Now I are one."

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I An Introduction to Brewing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 German Brewing: All Natural, No Chemicals, The Reinheitsgebot, No Sugar Brewing Your First All Natural Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1st Step, Brewing the Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Select the Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sanitize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Remove the Labels & Yeast Pack.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rehydrate the Yeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mixing the wort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fill the fermenter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Stir the Wort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Beer Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2nd Step, Fermenting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Airlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Spigot Nozzle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Fermentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3rd Step, Bottling the Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sanitize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Airlock Deactivation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Racking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Priming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Filling the bottles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Carbonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Aging and Drinking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Controlling the Alcohol Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Improving Your Kit Beers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 General Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 General Improvement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Adding Malt Flavor & Aroma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Adding Hop Flavor & Aroma.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The 8 by 15 Kit Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Hopping Tricks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 German Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 English Blend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 What More Can I Do?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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III

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IV

General Hopping Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Boiling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Hop Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making Your Own Wort Chiller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Right Hop for the Job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Hopping in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taste That Wonderful Hop Flavor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Flavor Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Flavor Hop Flavor Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Flavor Unit (CFU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Flavor In Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ah! Can'tya Smell That Hop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aroma Utilization (AU).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1st Aroma Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd Aroma Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Aroma Schedule.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Hop Aroma Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 by 15 Kit Schedule Aroma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Aroma Units (CAU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The KFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry Hopping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intensity of CAU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Aroma in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sweet Bitterness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Bittering Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bittering Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Gravity Effect on BU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bittering Utilization Calculations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bitterness of a Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alpha Acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Brewing Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Boiling Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Weight.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hop Form or Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Bittering Units Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Bitterness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computing the Alpha Acid Units for a Hop Blend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bittering in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mini-Mash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mini-Mash Process.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mini-Mash Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mini-Mash Ingredients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Mini-Mash.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 26 29 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 38 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 46 46 47 49 50 51 51 52

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VII

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Getting Ready. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Simple Mini-Mash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Complex Mini-Mash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mashing Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting the Juice:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finishing off the Mini-Mash.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grains Used in the Recipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Cara-pils.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 RoastedBarey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Chocolate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Lager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Ale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 München. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Toasted .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Vienna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Rauch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

52 52 52 53 53 54 54 55

Mini-Mash Process in Brief.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 IX Beer Predictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Degree Of Extract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravity of a Beer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Degree of Extract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Predicting the Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Start & Finish Weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Start & Finish Gravity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol Content Prediction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real Gravity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What About the Color?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beer Predictions in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Your Hop Schedules.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine the Total IBU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine the Hop Flavor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine the Hop Aroma.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Your Hop Schedule in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 59 60 61 61 63 63 63 66 66 66 67 67 68 69 73

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XI

Making the Bubbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Altitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level of Carbonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volume of Beer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming Ingredients.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speise Priming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Krausening.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raw Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry Malt Extract Speise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measured Dry Priming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cup Measured Dry Malt Extract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cup Measured Corn Sugar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming with Speise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming with Dry Measured Amounts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming with Dry Malt Extract (DME). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priming with Corn Sugar (Dextrose). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making the Bubbles in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Be Kind to Your Little Beasties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Yeasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of Commercial Yeasts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dried Yeast Rehydration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wort Inoculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yeast in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culturing a Yeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cultures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparing the Culture Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inoculating the Culture Medium.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Yeast Starter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparing the Yeast Starter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Yeast Starter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culturing a Yeast in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 79 79 80 81 83 83 84 84 85 86 86 89 90 90 91 92 92 92 93

XII

XIII

x

XIV To Keg or Not to Keg?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Keg Choices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Serving Keg Beer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forced Carbonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbonation by Priming.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kegging in Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV

95 95 97 98 99 99

Recipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Abbreviations in Recipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Die Altkastanie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Des Königs Lieblingsbier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Der Altmeister .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Das Kosewort Bräu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Der Altschatz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Die LeuchtBombe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Der Amerikaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Der Löwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Der ange. Tippelbruder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Der Luftkopf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Der Ausgang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Das mutige Eichhörnchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Das Bajonettstoß . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Der Nachruf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Der Barbare .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Die Nacht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Der Besserwisser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Das Neuschlossstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Der Betrüger.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Der Niedrigste am Baum .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Die Böse Hex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Der Nussknacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Der Buschklepper.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Pils `R' Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Corks' Gold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Das Plappermaul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Die Dampfwalze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Die Rauchfahne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Das Drachenblut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Der Rekrut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Die Endlösung .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Der Rote Baron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Der Engländer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Der Schäker .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Das Erste Gebräu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Der Schalk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Der Furier.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Die Schaukel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 G. Addams Dec Lager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Der Schlauberger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 G. Addams Oktoberfest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Das Schreckbild. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 G. Addams Mass Lager .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Die Schwartze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Das Gewölbe des Himmels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Der Schwarze Hund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Das Hafermehl Bräu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Der Schwertstreich.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Das Heinzelmännchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Der Schwindler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Der Heizkörper.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Der Spritzer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Der Himmelswagen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Der Steife Bock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Der Hindernisläufer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Der Struwwelpeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Der Höllenbrand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Die Taschenlampe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Der Höllenschlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Der Tautropfen Wirthaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Das Irrenhaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 This Pud's for You. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Der Jabo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Der Übungsplatz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Der Kajak.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Der Verrückte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Der Kläffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Die Verschämte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Die Klapperschlange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Die Kleine Eisenbahn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Die Kletterrose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Die Knallkörper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Der Kommandant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 xi

Der Wahnsinn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Das Weihnachtszeitbier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Das Wilde Mädchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Willy the Kid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Die Zauberformel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Die Zeittöter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129 104 125 142 104 123

XV

Tables and Charts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I General Hop Usage Information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II Hop Flavor Magnitude VS. CFU Range.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Hop Aroma (Nose) KFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV Hop Aroma Magnitude VS. CAU Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V Hop Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI Bitterness Magnitude VS. IBU Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII Summary of Standard Hop Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII Beer Style VS. IBU Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX Degree of Extract and Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X Ethyl Alcohol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI Priming Rate Correction for Altitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII Priming Rates for DME, Speise, and Corn Sugar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII Manufacturer's Recommended Temperatures For Rehydration of Dry Yeasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIV Comparison of Dry & Liquid Yeasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Recipe Selection Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI Temperature Corrections for SG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII U.S. Fluid Ounce Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII U.S. Gallon Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX Foreign to U.S. Liquid Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX U.S. Ounce Weight Conversion Factors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI U.S. Pound Weight Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII Large U.S. Conversion Factors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII Effective Bitterness Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIV Manufacturers' EBU Correction Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXV Alcohol Content VS. Alcohol Indication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI Total SRM VS. Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143 143 144 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 152 153 153 154 158 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 162 162

xii

Appendices
A Hydrometer Readings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Use Your Hydrometer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrometer Temperature Correction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B Effective Bittering Units.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Bitterness Units (EBU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturers' EBU Correction Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C Determinationof Alcohol Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D Installing a Bottling Spigot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E Care and Handling of Bottles and Kegs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sanitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Between Use Cleaning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sanitizing before filling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottling Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F Concoction Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G Brew Evaluation Sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H Dry Yeast Brewing Checklist.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Yeast Culture Brewing Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J Brewing Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taste and Smell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardness.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 163 164 165 165 165 167 169 171 171 171 171 172 172 176 178 179 180 181 182 182 183 185 199

Sc h e lte n s c h re c kt m e h r an d e m Ve rs tän d ig e n , De n n h u n d e rt Sc h läg e an d e m Narre n Pro v . 17, 10

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Figures & Graphs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14. Making a Simple Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fermenting a Beer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Racking a Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Bottling a Beer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pounds of Malt VS. Approximate Alcohol Content.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Total Hop Utilization VS. Boiling Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Hop Flavor Utilization VS. Boiling Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Hop Aroma Utilization VS. Boiling Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Hop Bittering Utilization VS. Boiling Time.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Utilization Derating for SG.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Ethyl Alcohol (Percent by Volume VS. Percent by Weight). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Reading a Hydrometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Temperature VS. SG Correction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Installing a Bottling Spigot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Brewing Equations
E-1. E-2. E-3. E-4. E-5. E-6. E-7. E-8. E-9. E-10a. E-10b. E-10c. E-12. E-13. CFU Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 CAU Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 IBU Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 DOE Prediction Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Gravity Prediction Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Target IBU Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Required IBU Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Required Bittering Hop Weight Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Required Utilization Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Speise Priming Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 DME Priming Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Corn Sugar Priming Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 IBU for Kits Equation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 IBU for Hopped Malt Extracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

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This book is dedicated to my wife Judy and the guys: Gracie Underfoot and Maximilian Holdme whose presence, support, and patience made this technical reference manual possible.

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Se i n ic h t u n te d e n Säu fe rn u n d Sc h le m m e rn . De n n d ie Säu fe r u n d Sc h le m m e r v e rarm e n , u n d e in Sc h läfe r m u ß ze rris s e n e Kle id e r trag e n .
Prov. 23, 20.21

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xvi

An Introduction to Brewing 1

1

I

An Introduction to Brewing

Brewing is a very satisfying avocation. It is a task of love from start to finish. The brewer sees beer from its first airlock bubble to their last burp. Brewing can be simple, like making instant soup. It can also be complex, limited only by your imagination. The choice is up to you. Chapter II, Brewing Your First All Natural Beer, is an example of simple brewing. The recipes in Chapter XV, Recipes, are examples of very complex World Class beers that are still very easy to brew.

German Brewing
All Natural: German brewers strive to brew All Natural beer. They follow the old principle of KISS (Keep It Simple Stupid.) Brewing requires no chemicals, additives, enhancers, stabilizers, or other adjuncts. Alcohol and hops will preserve your beer. The aging will provide clarity, head, and smoothness. All Natural is brewing at World Class levels. No Chemicals: It was serendipitous that I started brewing before developing an allergic reaction to commercial beer and wine. I soon observed my allergic reactions did not occur with my concoctions. It was easy to prove an additive, not the alcohol, was at fault. Concocting saved me from a dry existence. If allergic reactions force you to start brewing All Natural, the great taste will keep you brewing. Did you know some commercial beers have over a hundred different additives? For more information on chemicals and their effects read, This Crud's For You or, Chemicals and How to Use Them, by the Beer Engineer. The Reinheitsgebot: Brewing requires four ingredients: Malt, Hops, Yeast, and Water. The revised (the original was in 1516) German Brewing Purity Order, The Reinheitsgebot demands: "Gebraut aus Malz, Hopfen, Hefe und Wasser." [Translation: "Brewed with malt, hops, yeast, and water."] They did not know what Hefe (yeast, or the bible's leaven) was back in 1516 but somehow they got it into their living bread. German beers need no other ingredient (American, English, Irish beers are a whole other story). If you wanted, you could grow all the ingredients organically in your own yard. No Sugar: Beer requires no sugars, corn or cane. In 1776, the British were given their independence. We composed a new dictionary to pronounce our words the correct way. Why use any of their sugar beer ideas now? Do not waste your time brewing English sugar beers. Use malt to make your favorite English Beer. All Malt beers are just as easy to make. If you want to spend your time making cheap beer, that is OK. If you want to make a premium beer at reduced cost, homebrew is for you. Over 75 percent of our customers brew using beer kits. They like the convenience of having the basics already done for them. Some will add a few ounces of crystal malt or an ounce or two of hops but they like the kit beers. There are over 100 different beer kits and many different types of malt extracts to choose from. The combinations of these two simple ingredients allow you to make over 100,000 different beers. There is a winning combination in there for everybody's taste. With the many malts, hops, and specialty grains available any style beer can be brewed. While there is no substitute for a full grain mash, most brewers simply do not have the time. The Beer Engineer's Mini-Mash changes that forever. It could make a grain-head out of you. It reduces the time and energy required to use grains. The Beer Engineer's predefined hop schedules can be used to add your desired amount of bitterness, hop flavor and nose to all your beers. Specialty grains, used in the recipes, require nothing but the quick and easy Mini-Mash (see Chapter VIII).

2

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
The Mini-Mash will never replace a full grain mash; it was not intended to control the total brewing process. A great Pilsner requires precise control of the entire mashing process. Full mash, all grain brewers will, however, find an excellent way of approximating some of their beers with Mini-Mashing. All brewers can benefit by Mini-Mashing. It will save them many hours brewing their everyday beer. While there are many brewing books describing how to use hops for bittering, this manual goes far beyond that. The Beer Engineer shows how to control any hop by telling the German secrets of hopping. This technical reference manual has many numbers and tables. If math is not your strong point, chill. Use the predefined schedules and recipes. The math is for brewers who like to predict the outcome of a beer numerically. You can use the Mini-Mash and Hop Schedules to add flavors and aromas to all your beers. Math calculations do not make a beer. Great beers are made with malts, water, hops, yeast, love, and time. Over the last decade, I have taught many brewers my Mini-Mash and Hop Schedules. Their responses have been a great aid in writing this manual. I have found that each of them uses the Mini-Mash and Hop Schedules in their own special way. Boiling hops and malts together is unnecessary (many beer kit manufacturers make extracts and add them to their kits instead of boiling with malt). I prefer the old fashioned way of boiling all my boiling hops in all the malt. My way causes some problems for people who do not have a big boiling pot (see my remedy in the Hints). The important thing is to add the bitterness, flavor, and aroma to all your beers. Water and malt (or just water) and heat will extract the wanted effects. Think of a hop schedule as adding a dash of salt to instant soup. The Mini-Mash is like brewing coffee: heat and strain. There are many chemical additives on the market sold as replacements for grains, hops, and aging time. Commercial breweries use them with excellent results. Very expensive and sophisticated equipment enables the commercial brewers to use them effectively. So many homebrewing books recommend these adjuncts and additives to the homebrewer that the amount of ink used has convinced some brewers that it is true. I hope this manual will show an easy alternative to the use of all adjuncts and additives. The 1960's, 1970's and part of the 1980's were very agreeable to miracle chemical solutions. Now the effects of the additives and artificial ingredients are just showing up. Many people have allergic reactions as I do. They get headaches from commercial beers but do not know the reason. Lately, some of my friends have been telling me that they are no longer able to drink commercial beers. Has a steady diet of homebrew de-toxed them? Possibly they've just been around a pig headed Dutchman like me too long. I still sell chemical additives to those who ask for them, but most of my customers are following my ways. They are brewing the All Natural way. Both Judy's family and mine have been making beer and wine for many generations. We have never used any additives, except acid blend, yeast nutrients, and sugars in our wines. This is the reason I was easily able to identify the general cause of my allergic reactions. The recipes in this manual show how to brew excellent beers with nothing but all natural ingredients. Look over the recipes. Design your own concoctions from scratch. You may never make a beer from the recipes but read them anyway. By reading them, you will see that each has something to show you. These recipes provide insight into the effect of malts, hops, and time on beer. The body and malt flavor of a beer is dependent upon the amount of material left when fermentation is complete. Sugar, either Corn or Cane, will ferment leaving only alcohol, yeast, hulls, CO2 and some "Other Things." The amount of "Other Things" is so little, sugar is considered completely fermentable by the practical brewer. Malt, on the other hand, is not completely fermentable. Besides the alcohol, more yeast, and CO2 , the malt leaves much of itself behind. The grain's malting and mashing process determine the amount of unfermentables in the malt. A beer's body is increased by adding more malt or specialty grains to the beer. Corn and other sugars will reduce the body. The hop bitterness, flavor, and aroma come from the hops used. A beer made with nothing but malt extract would be lacking. A good hop and a specialty grain or two and you will have transformed the mediocre into a delight.

The head on a beer should last to the bottom of the glass. It should also provide an entertaining lace pattern on the side of the glass. This Super Head is easy to get. It comes naturally with age in an all malt beer. Head varies with the body of the beer. The addition of the body building specialty malts will build you a head naturally by increasing the unfermentable sugars. Unfermentables keep the gas bubbles from escaping in the head. This works like glycerin in the soap bubbles of a bubble pipe. Hops also add to the head retention, as does aging. Soap is a head killer. Never wash your equipment, bottles, or beer glasses with soap or in the dishwasher. Use only the recommended cleaners and sterilizers from your homebrew shop. If you want hop Alpha Acid Percent, ask your supplier. Your supplier is the only one who will have the correct Alpha Acid Percent for the hops they sell. Books and manuals can guide you to your perfect beer, not current hop parameters. The recipes provided in this manual are yours. You can use them. You can even enter them into contests. Many of my friends have used them. They rate their beers as very praiseworthy. The rest of the information, tables, figures and wording of this manual are copyright protected and are for your use only.

Ein je d e r s p ric h t v o m v ie le n T rin ke n , d o c h n ie m an d s p ric h t v o m g ro ß e n Du rs t.

TBE

CONCOCTION NOTES

4

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer 4

II

Brewing Your First All Natural Beer

The brewing of your first All Natural Beer is as simple as 1, 2, 3: Brew, Ferment, Bottle. With a minimum of equipment and four easily obtained ingredients, you can brew excellent all malt beer. After this chapter, the manual expands into the world of hopping and the Mini-Mash.

1st Step, Brewing the Beer
I. Select the Beer: although difficult, can be accomplished with some help from your brewing supplier. I like to start people with one of two choices. For the amber beer lover, I suggest any 3.3 pound, all malt, ale kit and one 3.3 pound can or bag of hopped amber malt extract. For the timid lite beer lover, I suggest any 3.3 pound pilsner kit and one 3.3 pound wheat malt extract. Note: a hopped wheat malt extract or a wheat beer kit can be substituted for the wheat malt extract to produce a more bitter, European style pilsner. Have your supplier recommend a good yeast to use with your choice. II. Sanitize: all your brewing equipment, including your can opener. Use only an approved brewing cleaner & sterilizer. Follow the cleaner instructions. Although household bleach is a great sanitizer, it is not recommended because it is difficult to get its smell out of your equipment. Environmentally safe, easy to rinse, products are available at your brewing supplier. III. Remove any labels & yeast from the beer kit and malt extract and discard. Before opening cans or bags, place them in a tub or sink of very hot (140-200EF) water for 15-20 minutes. This will soften the malt extracts. IV. Rehydrate the Yeast: Refer to the rehydration process that is described in Chapter XII, Be Kind to Your Little Beasties. Hint 1:Never use a plain, white, no-named pack of yeast that comes in some kits, always buy a fresh name brand yeast. V. Mixing the wort. Dry both the beer kit and the malt extract syrup containers with a clean towel. Pour about one gallon of hot water into your fermenter and then open and add the beer kit and the malt extract to the water in the fermenter. Stir well to mix the malt syrups and hot water before continuing. Note: When using the recipes in this manual (not a beer kit) it will be necessary to boil the malts prior to adding them to the fermenter. When malts are boiled, some form of forced cooling will become necessary prior to pouring the wort into the Fig.1: Making a Beer fermenter. Always cover your cooling wort to avoid unnecessary airborne contamination. Dust and the winds carries mold spores and bacteria. Hint 2: Use an indelible marker to mark ½ and whole gallon marks on the outside of your bucket. Cover the marks with clear tape. This will last for years and make your brewing and bottling so much easier. VI. Fill the fermenter rapidly (to promote aeration) up to the five (5) gallon mark with warm water (see

Brewing Your First All Natural Beer
Appendix J, Brewing Water). Target your final wort temperature range between 86EF and 95EF to avoid temperature shock to the yeast. VII. Stir the wort vigorously to create foam in the beer. After the yeast is rehydrated, slowly add a little wort to the rehydrated yeast (see Chapter XII, Be Kind to Your Little Beasties). Continue adding wort until the yeast solution is about the same temperature as the wort. Now, pour the yeast mixture into the fermenter while gently stirring. Yeast rehydration and thermal shock reduction will increase yeast's viability several thousand fold. The wort will naturally cool to room temperature by itself. Your brewing work is now complete. Reward yourself with a beer. Soon you can have a homebrew. VIII. If you keep a beer log, measure and record the corrected Specific Gravity (SG), date, total volume, and the time the yeast is added. This will help you later when you start concocting.

5

2nd Step, Fermenting
I. Insert the airlock into the cover. Place the cover on the fermenter. Move fermenter to the fermenting place. All beer kits come with Ale yeast and when using an Ale Yeast, the fermentation temperature range is between 68EF and 75EF. Some Ale yeasts will ferment as low as 63EF but fermentation is very slow below 68EF. The ideal temperature would be around 68EF. See Chapter XII, Be Kind to Your Little Beasties. Most experienced brewers will ferment their ales at about 68EF. This cooler fermentation reduces the strong yeast byproducts produced at the higher end of the range. Hint 3: For lagering you must buy or culture a live liquid lager yeast. You cannot use the kit yeast. The ideal lagering temperature for a liquid lager yeast is 48EF to 55EF. If you use a Dry Lager Yeast fermentation should take place between 58EF and 65EF. Hint 4: If you intend to lager, do not chill your beer to the lagering temperature until the beer has begun to foam up. Let the beer stay at room temperature until the foaming starts. II. Rotate the spigot nozzle so that it points up. Fill it with a sanitizer (one that needs no rinsing) or with inexpensive vodka. Cover the spigot with a plastic sandwich bag or plastic wrap and hold in place with a rubber band. This will keep spigot clean, dust free, and ready for transfer later. It will also catch any small drips caused by worn spigots. III. With the bucket in its fermenting location, fill airlock ½ full of vodka (water for the more dauntless person) and, when using a cylindrical air lock, install the plastic float. IV. Fermentation will start in about two hours when the yeast is properly handled. The beer will ferment very violently for the first day or so and then slow down and get to the real work. The violent fermentation is called the Primary Fermentation and will last for about two to four days. Note 2: All beers will benefit from being transferred (racked) into another sanitary (secondary) fermenter when the active primary fermentation subsides. Later, when grains are added to your brewing process, it will be necessary to transfer the beer in this manner to remove any grain components (see Fig. 3 in the Bottling Section). Some people use glass carboys, some, like me, use another plastic fermenter. After thirty five years of brewing, I prefer the plastic fermenting bucket with a spigot. Life is hard enough without lifting sixty pounds of glass and beer. V. Fermentation will generally continue for another seven (7) days at 75EF or ten (10) days at 68EF (68EF is ideal for all ales). If you are lagering, each yeast has its own time and temperature profile and you should consult with your brewing supplier for information specific to the liquid yeast you are using. See Chapter XII, Be Kind to Your Little Beasties, for more information on lager yeasts and lagering. Fig.2: Fermenting a beer

6

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Hint 5: It is a good idea not to judge the process by the airlock bubbles. Train and use your taste to determine complete fermentation. This will take a little training but will pay off in the long run. Plastic buckets are seldom air tight and can fool all of us. Hint 6: Always remove the plastic float before touching a plastic fermenter. A bent paper clip is an excellent tool for float removal. Hint 7: When using grains in more advanced brewing sessions it will become necessary to transfer the beer into a clean fermentation vessel to remove and eliminate the effects of any Trub that settles with the end of the violent primary fermentation. For now it is just advisable to improve the beer's taste. Hint 8: The old plastic triple (or tibble for those who imbibe) ripple, red top, airlocks are fine for one time use but they are almost impossible to sanitize properly. There is no easy way to get inside them and remove the blow-by from the previous fermentation process. If you like the tripple ripple, for the nostalgic reasons (they are very cute and make happy little sounds) fine. Use a new one every time. The "Cylindrical Airlocks" are easy to clean with an airlock brush.

3rd Step, Bottling the Beer
I. Sanitize another fermenter (a.k.a. bottling bucket), spigot, bottle filler, paddle, and transfer hose. II. Airlock deactivation. Remove airlock float from the fermenter and then the airlock and the cover. III. Racking (a.k.a. transferring the beer) Place full fermenter higher than the empty one. Remove plastic bag from spigot. Attach ends of tubing to both spigots. Open spigots and allow beer to flow. Try not to disturb sediment on bottom of fermenter. Some sediment, collected in spigot, is normal and will not affect your beer. Hint 9: Tilt bucket to get out all the beer. If you mess up, don't worry. Beer is tough and the aging will take care of any extra sediment. Hint 10: Be sure the beer has completed its fermentation by tasting. If the beer tastes like good, flat beer, its fermentation is complete. If the beer tastes sweet, or you are just developing your taste buds, you must take a hydrometer reading and then replace the cover and reactivate the airlock. Let it ferment another couple of days and then repeat this section. If the hydrometer reading stays within 0.001 when corrected to 60EF the beer is done. Caution: Hydrometer reading samples should only be drawn off with a sanitized glass turkey baster. Fig.3: Racking the Beer Hint 11: Although hydrometer readings are sometimes used to check for complete fermentation, there are two drawbacks: First, every time the cover is removed some of the protective CO2 is lost from the top of the beer. Second, the chances of infection is increased every time a sample taken.

IV. If you are keeping a beer log, Measure & Record the Final Corrected Specific Gravity, Total Volume, and Date for your beer. V. Priming. Va. The novice, brewing at about sea level, should boil 7/8 of a cup of corn sugar in one cup of water. If you live more than 500 feet above sea level or want to be all malt see Chapter XI, Making the Bubbles. Stir

Brewing Your First All Natural Beer
while boiling to dissolve and sterilize the sugar. Remove from the heat and cover with tin foil. Cooling may be quickened by placing the pan of sugar water in a cold water and ice bath. Vb. Add the cooled priming liquid to the beer and stir, gently but thoroughly. Aeration is not wanted in this stage. The addition of air will lengthen the aging time required for the beer. Here, you will have to develop your own technique. After adding the priming sugar to the beer you must bottle immediately. VI. Filling the bottles. VIa. Sanitize fifty 12-ounce or Forty 16-ounce beer bottles along with their caps or seals (see Appendix E). VIb. Detach the hose from empty bucket and attach the bottle filler to the hose. Place the full bucket above your bottling area and draw one or two bottles of beer through the bottle filler and pour it back into the bucket. This will purge the spigot, hose, and filler. Try not to mix in a lot of air. VIc. Fill each bottle to the top using a bottle filler. Withdrawal of the bottle filler leaves a perfect head space in the bottle. VId. Cap or seal with sanitized caps or rubbers. VII. Carbonation. Move your beer to a warm (68EF to Fig.4: Bottling the Beer 75EF) place to carbonate (condition). After one week of conditioning, chill a test bottle. Open the test bottle and check it for carbonation. If it is not carbonated, it needs more time. Let the bottles remain in a warm place for another week.

7

Aging and Drinking
The other difficult task (perhaps more difficult than selecting which style to brew) is aging your beer. There is real agony in this process. You know the beer you are aging is already better than anything you can buy, but you must wait for it to get even better. Theory says that 1 week of aging is recommended for each degree of final gravity. That is if your beer's final gravity is 1.016, sixteen weeks of aging is required. I find half that time is acceptable for new brewers. Some brewers, new to all malt beers, drink their first few batches of beer in a week. I do not have to tell you experienced brewers that aging does improve the beer. Patience has more than its own reward when brewing. One of the secrets to a "World Class" beer is age. Drinking a natural, all malt beer is the reward for a job well done. All Malt beer costs a few bucks more per case than sugar beers (sometimes referred to as prohibition beers) but most people agree that it is worth the cost increase. Try your all malt beer at cellar temperature (50EF to 60EF). You may like it better than from the refrigerator. The all malt flavor is enhanced by the slightly warmer temperatures. Hint 13: If your buckets do not have spigots installed, see Appendix D, Installing a Bottling Spigot.

Controlling the Alcohol Content
What decides the alcohol content of the beers you make? This question has been on the minds of most brewers who come in for advice. Along with this question, there are some interesting Old Wives Tales that should also be cleared up while we are on the subject of alcohol. Yeast is required to make alcohol. Each yeast strain has its own alcohol tolerance that limits the amount of alcohol it can produce before putting itself to sleep. The stronger (higher alcohol tolerance) the yeast is, the more sugars (hopefully malt based) it can convert to alcohol. False: Adding a strong yeast to your beer

8

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
will increase its alcohol content. True: Adding a strong yeast to a beer that has enough malt sugars to produce more alcohol than a weaker yeast can tolerate will increase the strength of the beer. Malt sugars are available in many forms: Malt Extract Syrup (MES), Dry Malt Extract (DME), Malted Grains (after mashing). You can approximate the amount of potential alcohol your beer will have using Figure 5 on the next page. Many people try to make a beer strong with the addition of cheap sugars like cane sugar, corn sugar, and beet sugar. These will give you cheap alcohol but, do you really want to spend hours of your time making cheap beer? German beers should always derive their alcohol from malt sugars alone. Some brewers use corn sugar to prime their German beers. I guess, since no one can taste the difference, they call it authentic German beer. It is not! They should call it German Type beer, not German beer.

Fig. 5: Pounds of Malt VS. Approximate Alcohol To use Figure 5, determine the number of pounds of malt per gallon you have placed into the wort. Go to the left vertical axis of the graph and locate the number corresponding to the pounds per gallon. Draw an imaginary line to the corresponding number on the right vertical axis. Now, where this imaginary crosses line intersects the appropriate curve (first from the left is for Mashed Malted Grain, middle line is for Malt Extract Syrup, and lastly the line on the right is for Dry Malt Extract) draw a vertical line to the horizontal axis to decide the approximate alcohol content. The top is for Percent by Weight (U.S. Beer Units) and the

bottom is for Percent by Volume (German Beer Units). Example: If you make a beer with 6.6 pounds of MES and 5 gallons of water you will have used:

Drawing a line from 1.3 on the left vertical axis till it intersects the MES line and looking up to the upper horizontal axis it can be decided that the beer will be approximately 3.7% alcohol. This is a premium strength beer. Hint 12: Bottling is the most difficult and time-consuming element in the home production of beers. Ask your Brewing Supplier about the KegMan. The KegMan allows you to use easily obtained

Concoction Notes

10

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer 10

III

Improving Your Kit Beers

The Beer Engineer has several simple brewing techniques to improve the simple kit beer in the previous chapter. My personal preference is for a rich, malty brew with a good hop flavor and nose. Whoops, I meant to say aroma. The beer of your longing may be different. It does not matter. This Technical Reference Manual will teach you to brew any beer style. Improving a kit beer is easy. So easy, I still think of it as brewing Instant Beer.

General Information
General improvement. Any beer will be improved by the technique of racking the beer after the first stage of fermentation is completed. This racking is not intended to clarify the beer, it is to insure that any remaining grain is removed from the beer before fermentation proceeds. Adding Malt flavor & aroma. To add a beautiful malt flavor and aroma to beer I use the Mini-Mash. Onehalf of a pound of fresh crushed Specialty Malts such as Crystal Malt or Chocolate Malt will give a kit beer a real World Class malt flavor (see Chapter VIII, The Mini-Mash). These grains provide the malt aroma, flavor, color, and body I like. If I want more color, I just add some Chocolate or Black Malt. Hint 14: All Specialty Malts should be fresh ground. It is very much like coffee. No true coffee lover would ever use preground beans. The same is true of grain. The first time you grind the grain, smell the aroma. Ah! Mini-Mashing is fun. It has no complicated rules. Use the Mini-Mash to add malt aroma, malt flavor, and more body to any beer. Just perform the Mini-Mash shown in Chapter VIII and pour the liquid from the MiniMash into your fermenter. This liquid will replace the hot water called for in Chapter II. Adding Hop flavor and aroma. The bitterness of kit beers, made with hopped malt extract, is adequate. Increased bittering is usually not necessary. Hop flavor and aroma comes from the breakdown of the hop by boiling, like the herbs added to a soup. Boiling a hop with any liquid will release the hop properties. You can boil the hop in water, a can of plain malt in water, the Mini-Mash liquid, or a can of malt in the Mini-Mash liquid. Hint 15: Never boil the beer kit that is bittered with hop extracts. Boiling a complex hop extract bittered kit may spoil the kit. If a kit manufacturer has designed hop flavor and aroma into the kit, these hop parameters may be lost by extended boiling. The next four chapters cover the bitterness, flavor, and aroma extractions from the hop. For now, we will limit our discussion to the improvement of kit beers. For the kit beer, I have developed the 8 by 15 Kit Schedule. It will work with any hop or combination of hops. It is independent of the quantity of hops used. This schedule will work in any liquid. What could be simpler? I prefer to use the hops of Germany and Eastern Europe. Examples of these hops are: Northern Brewer, Hersbrucker, Spalt, Hallertau, Polnischer Lubin, Tettnanger, Saaz, and Styrian Goldings. There are many other great hops available. I will not presume to tell you which is your favorite. Sniff the hops at your brewing supply shop. Each hop variety has a different aroma. Use fresh hop pellets for this 8 by 15 Kit Schedule. Whole flower (AKA leaf) and plug hops may be slightly more aromatic but they are not suited for this schedule. Pellets are easier to use because they divide into portions easily and will settle in the bottom of fermenter with the yeast. The hop pellets do not have to be strained from the liquid. How much hops is too much hops? Sometimes, I use half an ounce of a hop. Other times, I use sixteen ounces of hops. It is your concoction, you decide. I recommend that you start with 1 ounce of a single hop.

Improving Your Kit Beers
This will give you an impressive example of the schedule results and the hop's flavor and aroma.

11

The 8 by 15 Kit Schedule
1. Bring the water or malt and water liquid to a rapid boil and maintain during the schedule. 2. Divide the hops (pellets are the most practical in this application) into eight cups or dishes. Accuracy is not important in the division. 3. Set a timer (kitchen or equivalent) for 15 minutes. 4. Add 1/8 of the hops and start the timer. 5. Add 1/8 of the hops after 2 minutes (13 minutes on timer.) 6. Add 1/8 of the hops after another 2 minutes (11 minutes on timer. 7. Add 1/8 of the hops after another 2 minutes (9 minutes on timer.) 8. Add 1/8 of the hops after another 2 minutes (7 minutes on timer.) 9. Add 1/8 of the hops after another 2 minutes (5 minutes on timer.) 10. Add 1/8 of the hops after another 2 minutes (3 minutes on timer.) 11. Add last of the hops after another 2 minutes (1 minute on timer.) 12. Continue boiling for the last minute till timeout. 13. Remove from heat and pour the Malt Extract Can into the hot liquid if it was not used in the boil. This will cool the mixture. Stir for a minute. 14. Pour into the fermenter and add the Beer Kit where indicated in Chapter II. The beer kit in conjunction with the water will cool the wort quickly and no other technique is necessary to insure rapid cooling. The 8 by 15 Kit Schedule will give new life to all kit beers. The use of hop blends (see next page) will increase the complexity of your beers.

Hopping Tricks
To achieve complexity in a beer, it is vital to have as many complimenting flavors and aromas as possible. Because of my adherence to the KISS principle, I developed the German Blend and the English Blend. Each adds a complex array of aromas and flavors to any beer. This is the start of a World Class Beer. The German Blend is a formulation of several different varieties of German and East European hop pellets. To make your own blend, mix one part of German Hallertau, one part of German Hersbrucker, one part of Czechoslovakian Saaz, one part of German Tettnanger, one part of German Northern Brewer, and one part of Slovenian Styrian Goldings. Mix them all together and shake them all about. Now you have a German Blend. In my opinion the imported variety are always the best. Use the North American varieties of these hops when they are the only ones available. They will also make a dandy blend. The English Blend is a formulation of several different varieties of English and Canadian hop pellets. Make your own blend by mixing one part of East Kent Goldings, one part of English Fuggles, one part of Brewers Gold, one part Willamette, and one part of Slovenian Styrian Goldings. Mix them all together and call it English Blend. Again I think the imported variety are always the best but do not let the North American varieties of these hops deter you from blending. Substitute Willamette and/or U.S. Fuggles for UK Fuggles or Canadian B.C. Goldings for UK East Kent Goldings. It really does not matter. Whatever blend you come up with will be great. Complexity in hops is the goal of blends.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

What More Can I Do?
That question has no answer. This manual will give you many techniques to control every aspect of your beer. You may never want to go past this point. If you do, you will be stepping into World Class brewing. The manual will show you how to predict and control the Hop bitterness, hop flavor, hop nose, malt aroma, body, head, carbonation, and color or your beer. You decide how deep you want to delve into the world of the concoctor.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concoction Notes

13

IV

General Hopping Information

The hop is a wonderful medicinal herb. It transforms a malt beverage into a beer. Hops temper the malt's

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
sweetness and provide the natural preservatives for beer. Hops add character to a beer. They provide the bitterness, aroma and flavor recognized in all World Class Beers.

Fig.6: Total Hop Utilization VS. Boiling Time The first mention of hops in beer was in the year 1079. Tradition and superstition would plague the acceptance of hopped beers for the next seven centuries. Hopped beer would not be universally accepted until the middle of the seventeenth century. That is when the world recognized the great taste of German beer. Hops are herbs, just like basil, celery, and oregano. You can add them to beer just like you add herbs to a soup. Only the hop flowers are used in the brewing process. The hops come in five basic forms: Whole Flowers (sometimes erroneously called leaf hops), Pelletized Flowers, Compressed Whole Flowers (a.k.a. Plugs), Hop Oils, and Hop Extracts. Each of these forms has it advantages. HOP BOILING When a hop is boiled, it adds complexity, individuality, and character to the beer. Like any other herb, the boiling time determines the amplitude and characteristics imparted. Figure 6 shows the three distinct regions of the Hop Boiling Cycle. The regions are Aroma, Flavor, and Bitterness. Aroma and Flavor have their own boiling region while bitterness is added for all boiling times. There are three general observations that can be made from Figure 6 concerning hop boiling: 1. A hop boiled for over 45 minutes will impart only bitterness to the beer. For all practical purposes, the hop aroma and flavor will be dissipated in the steam. 2. A hop boiled between 3 and 11 minutes will provide aroma without a significant amount of flavor and bitterness. 3. A hop boiled between 13 and 30 minutes will provide flavor to the beer with the bitterness contribution less than half the maximum potential. Note: This is why boiling of a beer kit will change everything the manufacturer has designed into the kit. Since the aroma and flavor hops are no longer present in the kits, the aroma and flavor will be boiled off and the Iso-hop extracts can potentially be changed into a less bitter compounds.

General Hopping Information
SIMPLE HOP SCHEDULES What does this mean to you? It suggests that hops should be added in a hopping schedule. This schedule will determine at which times the hops are added to the boil and thus control the derived hop parameters. Let's examine a very basic three-infusion hop schedule and see what effect the infusions have on the beer. Infusion 1: A hop boiled for seventy-five (75) minutes. The results are: Zero percent of the Aroma, Zero percent of the Flavor, and Ninety-Seven percent of the Bitterness. Infusion 2. A hop boiled for twenty (20) minutes yields: Zero percent of the Aroma, One-hundred percent of the Flavor, and twenty-five percent of the Bitterness. Infusion 3. A hop boiled for seven (7) minutes yields: One-hundred percent of the Aroma, Seven percent of the Flavor, and Fourteen percent of the Bitterness. This simple schedule example shows how dividing the hop into three parts, adding one part at the beginning (75 Minutes), the middle (20 Minutes), and last (7 Minutes) of the boil has produced bittering, flavor, and aroma from the single boil. The boiling time is critical to the hop flavor and aroma. Over boiling will shift hop aroma into flavor and/or bitterness and hop flavor into bitterness. A common brewing mistake, effecting hop flavor and aroma, is a slow wort cooling rate. The hop liquid temperature must be lowered quickly. A slow cooling rate increases the effective boiling time and will alter the hop flavor and aroma you planned to achieve. Slow cooling rates are key factors in the reasons why homebrewers should not exceed the ninety minute boil times.

15

Making Your Own Wort Chiller
An excellent wort chiller can be made with very little effort. The fastest wort chillers are the counterflow type. These consist of an inner beer line made of stainless steel (preferred) or copper tubing surrounded by a water jacket. All wort chillers should be maintained in a clean state with the use of Beer Line Cleaner (BLC) that is available from most fully equipped brewing shops. To make the simplest of all counterflow wort chillers you will need a fifty-foot garden hose (¾ inch ID), a twenty five-foot length of stainless steel or copper tubing (d inch ID), a tube of silicone rubber bathtub caulking compound, plastic electrical tape, and a bucket. To make the chiller follow the simple instructions below: 1. Drill two holes in the garden hose about twenty feet apart and approximately centered in the garden hose. 2. Insert the tubing (beer line) into one of the holes of the garden hose and out the other hole so that about twenty-feet of the tubing is inside the garden hose. 3. Seal the entrance and exit areas of the beer line into and out of the garden hose with the silicone rubber compound. Use more than you thing is necessary. Allow the rubber to wrap around the hose and travel up the external surfaces of the beer line. 4. Allow the silicone rubber compound to cure overnight and then apply a second layer over the first to build up thickness and strength around the entrance and exit holes of the beer line. 5. Allow the silicone rubber compound to cure overnight and then cover the areas with the plastic electricians tape to give strength to the joints and make them look "slightly professional." 6. Neatly coil the hose and beer line and garden hose with a diameter that will easily fit into the bucket. 7. Drill one hole in the bottom side of the bucket to allow one of the beer lines to fit through it. 8. Insert the beer line, on the exit end of the garden hose, through the bucket hole and place the coiled beer line and hose into the bucket. 9 Seal the beer line exit hole in the side of the bucket with the silicone rubber compound and let it cure overnight. Your wort chiller is now ready. To use it hook the garden hose up to a supply of cold water and the and

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connect the beer line that exits the side of the bucket to a syphon hose that is in your hot wort. Start the water flow at the highest flow rate possible and draw a syphon through the beer line. After the beer starts to come through the beer line and flow into the fermenter, you can cut back the water flow to obtain the desired cooling with the minimum wasted water. This simple counterflow wort chiller is several times more efficient than the emersion type. It will also cost you less to make than its less efficient cousin. Prosit!

The Right Hop for the Job
What hops should you use in your beer? The hops you choose are up to you. If you like a particular hop, use it in your beer. If you are brewing True to Style you must use an appropriate hop. Table I, General Hop Usage Information, gives you some indication which hop to use in which style of beer. Remember, it is your concoction. You do it your way. Many books have been written on beer making. You have probably read some of them. The better books will explain the rudimentary basics of bittering. The information in this manual is unique. More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer will show you the long-hidden German secrets of hop bittering, flavoring and aroma. This manual will go forward from those old reference books and teach you how to design your own hopping schedules. The methodology will allow you to make any hop perform to your specifications.

General Hopping in Brief
I. The hop boiling time will control the characteristics the hop imparts in the beer. This is why all hops should be added in schedules. II. Rapid cooling of the hop liquid or wort is essential to brewing. III. Homebrewers should not boil hops over 90 minutes.

17

V

Taste That Wonderful Hop Flavor

There are many variables affecting hop flavor. If you could control these variables, you could tame the capricious hop. Because the homebrewer is unable to control most of these variables, this chapter will explain how to deal with this lack of control and achieve excellent flavor extractions. If you cannot control the hop's condition, control how you use it. The following are just a few examples of hop variables. Hops are affected by age, forming, sizing, maturity at harvest, harvesting methods, dehydrating techniques, storage conditions, sanitation of workers, etc. All hop variables change the flavor characteristics of the hop and the homebrewer cannot control these variables. They can only buy their hops from a reputable supplier. A good supplier will maintain ambient conditions to limit hop damage. The homebrewer can only keep the hop as fresh as when purchased.

Fig.7: Hop Flavor Utilization VS. Boiling Time Brewers should keep in mind that hop flavor is subjective. Flavor is in the mind of the person judging it. Experts will disagree on flavor more than any other beer characteristic. Chemists can measure bitterness with scientific instruments. Flavor is too complex to isolate in the laboratory. The beer industry employs many tasters. These Tasters are trained to serve as Quality Control personnel. Consistent flavor is the tasters' goal.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
As seen in Figures 6 and 7, flavor varies with boiling time. Over boiling will dissipate the flavor. You must be careful at the end of boiling to cool down the wort as quickly as possible.

Hop Flavor Utilization
I developed the Flavor Utilization Plot, Figure 7, to predict the amount of flavor a hop can provide. Table V, Hop Utilization, presents the same information in an easy to read table form. Table V should be used for all calculations while the graphs are very useful for planning a beer. Flavor Utilization is independent of the hop variety but each hop variety will give a different amount of flavor. The flavor does not depend on the hop's Alpha or Beta Acid Percent. You must determine the flavors you like on your own. There are a few helpful guidelines to follow. Use German hops in German bier. Use English hops in English beers. Use Australian hops in Australian beers. Use American hops . . ., and the rule goes on. The addition of all the hops at one precise time may not give the same flavor for two reasons. First, the cooling time and rate are not completely controllable. Second, harvesting and handling variations within each hop lot will change the flavor. The effects of both variables are easy to reduce by averaging. Boiling a fraction of the hop weight, at several times close to the desired utilization time, works very well. I use a hopping schedule that requires hop additions at several predetermined times within the Flavor Region. Each infusion of a hop in this region also has its own "mini" schedule. I have defined five standard scheduled times for hop flavor addition. These times are thirty (30), twenty five (25), twenty (20), fifteen (15), and ten (10) minutes of boil time. Look over the recipes. You will see I use one or more infusions. Each addition is mini-scheduled. This schedule is the same for all infusions: a of the hop at the desired time, a more two minutes later, the remaining a two minutes later. Using a schedule of three hop additions, at two (2) minute intervals, compensates for the variations in cooling time and the hop itself. For example, To use one ounce of a hop at twenty five minutes, I would use the following schedule. Add a of the ounce at twenty five minutes. Add another a of the ounce at twenty three minutes. Add the last a of the ounce at twenty one minutes. In effect, this stretches out the hops' boiling time and minimizes the errors. My mini-schedule of three a hop weight infusions is not the only schedule possible. A friend uses one-fifth of the hop every minute. I think that is overkill. Oh well, it's his concoction. A weight scale is not required to divide the hops. Exact weights are not important. Eyeball measurements are adequate. Remember beer responds to love, not math. I just divide the hops into small custard cups. When I get distracted, the custard cups help me to determine where I am in the schedule. Custard cups are excellent but any other easy-to-handle containers are just as effective. Computation of Flavor Utilization (FU) of each hop addition is easy. They are available in the summary for the predefined schedules. The following examples show how to compute the flavor utilization that you can apply to your own custom schedule. FU for a schedule is just the average of the FUs for each infusion and are given in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules.

Standard Flavor Hop Flavor Schedules
Flavor Schedule 30: Add a a of the hop at 30 minutes. Add another a at 28 minutes. Add the last a at 26 minutes. From Table V, Hop Utilization, we get the FU for these three times, 30, 28 and 26 minutes, as 0.16, 0.24, and 0.32 respectively. Add the three FUs together. Divide the sum by three. The result is the average FU for The Flavor Schedule for 30 minutes.

Taste That Wonderful Hop Flavor

19

Flavor Schedule 25: Add a of the hop at 25 minutes. Add a at 23 minutes. The last a is added at 21 minutes. Again use Table V to get the FU for these three times, 25, 23 and 21 minutes, as 0.35, 0.39, and 0.4 respectively. Add the three FUs together. Divide the sum by three. The result is the average FU for The Flavor Schedule for 25 minutes.

The remaining flavor schedules are computed in the same way. The text has been eliminated to keep the redundancy to a minimum.

Although the 10 minute region is a high aroma area, I have found that the cooling rate of the wort is critical to take full advantage of this region for hop aroma. Therefore, I call this region a flavor region.

8 by 15 Kit Schedule Flavor Utilization
Add c of the hop at 15 minutes, c of the hop at 13 minutes, c of the hop at 11 minutes, c of the hop at 9 minutes, c of the hop at 7 minutes, c of the hop at 5 minutes, c of the hop at 3 minutes, and finally the last c of the hop at 1 minute. Table V provides the FU for these eight times as 0.3, 0.2, 0.13, 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, 0.03, and 0.03 respectively. Add the eight FUs together. Divide the sum by eight. The result is the average FU for The 8 x 15 Kit Schedule.

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The highest flavor is achieved at 25, 20, 15, and 10 minutes but the effect of the 8 by 15 Schedule is impressive. The 30 minute infusions should be avoided, if possible. The cooling times will usually push it into the no flavor region and the Bitterness Utilization Curve becomes steep after twenty-five minutes. A steep curve makes the stable control of bitterness more difficult. Bitterness is discussed later in this chapter.

Combined Flavor Unit (CFU)
The calculation of CFU does not change with the hop used. Remember, every hop has the same Flavor Utilization. Hop substitution formulas do not work with Flavoring hops. One ounce of Hallertau hops will not produce the same flavor as one ounce of Pride of Ringwood. Be careful when substituting Flavoring hops. Hops of different variety or processing will change the flavor perceived. Calculate CFU by using the simple equation CFU Equation (E-1) below. This equation has three variables. CFU Equation: E-1

Weight is the weight of the hop in Ounces. The Volume is the total expected volume of the beer including any priming liquid, or other hop infusion liquids added in the brewing process and is in U.S. Gallons. The FU is the Flavor Utilization from Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules or Table V, Hop Utilization. The five and one-half (5.5) is a correction factor. Example: To show how to compute the CFU, we will use the following simple example. The original volume is 5.5 gallons. The priming liquid is 1 pint (0.125 Gal.). The Flavor infusions will be at the 25, 20 and 15 minutes. The Weight (Wt) of each infusion will be .25 ounces. Using the equation above to compute the CFU, we must first compute the Total Volume or Volume = 5.5 + 0.125 = 5.625 Next compute the Flavor Calculation at 25 minutes using Equation (E-1). The Flavor Utilization (FU=0.38) is taken from Table VII @ Flavor 25.

Similarly for the twenty minute infusion:

and the fifteen minute infusion:

Taste That Wonderful Hop Flavor

21

Now the Total Combined Flavor Units (CFU) for the beer are equal to the total of the individual CFUs

What does the 0.237 CFU really mean? I have arranged, by experimentation, the flavor intensities of beers by CFU in Table II, Hop Flavor Magnitude VS. CFU Range. This is a relative chart, based on my preferences, but is very useful when deciding on a magnitude for CFU.

Hop Flavor In Brief
I. II. The Flavor Utilizations of all Standard Hop Schedules are given in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules. Add the Flavoring Hops in multiple stages. Spread the infusions over the entire flavor boil. Use many stages. The more infusions there are, the more predictable and stable the hop flavor outcome will be. Cool the wort rapidly after boiling is complete. Try to maintain the same cooling rate for every beer you make so that your results, while not the same as someone else, will be consistent. A counter-flow wort chiller should be considered for maximum hop flavor control. Hop flavor is subject to natural environmental effects and production techniques. Hop flavor will vary with each harvest and process lot. Don't substitute different hop varieties and expect consistent flavor. Each hop variety is provides different characteristics. Blending hops will aid in establishing consistent profiles. When boiling a hop with the wort, I use hop pellets. They are easy to handle and can easily be added at the scheduled times. Do not bother straining them out. The hop pellets will collect with the sediment at the end of fermentation. Never boil a beer kit. Boiling will alter the flavor profile designed by the master brewer who formulated the kit. Hops are a natural product that will be placed in something to be consumed. There is always a risk of contamination from a variety of sources, human and otherwise. While most people agree that these contaminants will not harm the beer, some of the new bacteria seen on the news can kill you. Blanching them prior to use in your beer would be similar to washing vegetables before eating them. See Dry Hopping in the next chapter. Since hops are harvested once a year, no brewer (home or commercial) can get them any fresher than the present year's harvest. Trust your local shop to sell the freshest hops. If you cannot trust your shop, go to another shop.

III.

IV. V. VI.

VII. VIII.

IX.

ST Editor's note: Data will soon be available on the percent of the flavor oils in hops. This will certainly be included in future additions of this technical reference manual and the Master Brewer Program.

Concoction Notes

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Concoction Notes

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer 24

VI

Ah! Can'tya Smell That Hop

Hop nose: an official term for the hop's beautiful odoriferous emanation from a beer . . . I just call it aroma in this manual. It is sometimes better to be descriptive than official. Brewing is for beer lovers not

Fig. 8: Hop Aroma Utilization VS. Boiling Time pontificators. The aroma of a hop is released by bruising, boiling, or age. For the purposes of brewing only boiling will be covered. Figure 8, Hop Aroma Utilization VS. Boiling Time, shows the range of boil time for hop aroma. Some think the addition of hop aroma to a beer is an uncontrollable process. This is because little technical information on aroma hopping has been made available to the homebrewer. I hope this manual will correct that common misconception with its simple method to introduce hop aroma into a beer. The variables affecting hop flavor also affect the aroma. As said in the Hop Flavor chapter, a homebrewer cannot control these variables. A homebrewer can only buy from a trustworthy brewing supplier. The volatile oils in the hop's flower contain its aroma. Chemists can measure the presence of these oils. If you ever desire to calibrate your nose, you could have it done. But why bother, have a beer and enjoy life. Because these oils are released by bruising, I think aroma hops must never be frozen (freezing might thermally bruise the hop and prematurely release its aroma). Vacuum sealing may also damage the aroma hops but from an engineering standpoint a little damage is always preferred to total destruction. The hop aroma should be correct for the style of beer you are brewing. Although there are no rules, there is a simple guideline that can help. An English hop such as Fuggles, Kent Goldings, Willamette(USA), and Northern Brewer are great hops for an English ale or bitter. Likewise, the German and East European hops, Hallertau, Hersbrucker, Tettnanger, Northern Brewer, Saaz, Spalt, and Styrian Goldings should be selected

Ah! Can'tya Smell That Hop
for German and European beers. Use German and East European hops in German style beers and English hops in English style beers. There are even Australian and New Zealand Hops available for the Down Under brewers.

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Aroma Utilization (AU)
Hop Aroma is a function of boiling time. See Figures 6 & 8. Prolonged boiling will dissipate the volatile aroma oils and cause the beer to lose its nose (another slip, aroma) with more flavor and bitterness. Radical over-boiling will send both aroma and flavor into pure bitterness. Three scheduled aroma infusions impart a wonderful hop aroma to any beer. While any of these infusions will provide adequate aroma, all three will give your nose a real kick.

1st Aroma Schedule
The first addition of the aroma hop is at the end of the boil for extract and whole grain brewers or the mixing of the ingredients for kit brewers. and is called the 1st Aroma Schedule. The hop may be added to the liquid from a mash, a Mini-Mash, water and malt extracts, or just plain water. The choice is up to the individual concoctor. The hops of the 1st Aroma Schedule are allowed to remain with the beer during fermentation. Pellets can be poured into the beer; they will settle with the yeast and trub. Whole flowers (a.k.a. Leaf) can be placed in a hop boiling bag before addition to the beer.

2nd Aroma Schedule
Because primary fermentation is very active, the exiting CO2 gasses will force out most of the aroma oils. This is corrected for by a second aroma hop addition that is performed after primary fermentation. It is called the 2nd Aroma Schedule. Usually, primary fermentation requires one to four days from yeast inoculation. The 2nd Aroma Schedule requires the hop to be boiled in about one cup of boiling water. Cool immediately with a cup or two of very cold water. This is the most potent infusion and replaces the aroma lost by primary fermentation out-gassing. In the 2nd Aroma Schedule the hop is allowed to remain in the beer during secondary fermentation. Sterile hop pellets can be poured into the beer; they will settle with the yeast and trub. Hop flowers must be placed in a hop boiling bag and then sterilized before addition to the beer.

3rd Aroma Schedule
The third infusion is performed at bottling time and is called the 3rd Aroma Schedule. Add the hops in the standard aroma schedule below to about a cup of boiling water. Cool quickly with a cup or two of very cold water. Strain thoroughly through sanitized strainers prior to adding to the finished beer. Hop flowers are best used here. The 3rd Aroma hop flowers can be coarse-strained to remove the bulk of them. The final straining is accomplished with a tea strainer. The tea strainer is a very fine mesh screen available at most gourmet shops. This schedule will introduce some air into the beer at the wrong time but will add the "hard kick in the nose" some beers cry out for. Aging can fix up the air problem anyway.

Standard Hop Aroma Schedules
1st Aroma, 2nd Aroma, and 3rd hop aroma schedules all have the same aroma infusion patterns. The Aroma Schedule is simple. Add the aroma hop in thirds. Get the liquid to the boil and then set the timer for five

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
minutes. Add a of the hops. At three minute on the timer add the second a of the hops. With one minute left on the timer, add the last a of the hops. Hint 16: If you are using whole hop flowers it is difficult to add them in thirds without using three bags. In order to circumvent this problem, place the hops into a boiling bag and give it a three minute sterilization boil (blanch). Getting three infusion times with whole hops is tries the patience. Tie the bag in a slip knot. Then you can use the inexpensive muslin bags over again. The Aroma Utilization (AU) is read from Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules or Table V, Hop Utilization. The overall picture from Figure 8, Aroma Utilization VS. Boiling Time is more useful in the planning stages. From Table V the AUs for the three infusions are 0.18, 0.1, and 0.03 respectively. Rapid cooling is very important to all Aroma Schedules.

This Aroma Utilization number can be found in Table VII.

8 by 15 Kit Schedule Aroma
Let's look at one of my favorite schedules, the 8 by 15 Kit Schedule. Analyzed for aroma it will yield: The one eight portion at 15 minutes will have an aroma utilization of 0.0, at 13 minutes the AU is 0.04, at 11 minutes the AU is 0.11, at 9 minutes the AU 0.19, at 7 minutes the AU 0.2, at 5 minutes the AU 0.18, at 3 minutes the AU 0.1, and finally at 1 minute it AU is 0.03. The average Aroma Utilization for The 8 by 15 Kit Schedule is:

This Aroma Utilization number can also be found in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules.

Combined Aroma Units (CAU)
CAU is the abbreviation for Combined Aroma Units. Just as with flavor, you can calculate the Total Aroma infused into a beer by adding the CAUs to get the Total Combined Aroma Unit. CAU is independent of the hop variety used. The CAU formula:

Ah! Can'tya Smell That Hop
CAU Equation: E-2

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The Weight is the weight of the hop used in U.S. Ounces. Use 1.0 for the Weight if one ounce of hops is used. Likewise, 1.75 is substituted for Weight if one and three quarters ounces of hops is used. The Volume is the Total Volume of beer in U.S. Gallons at the finish of the brewing cycle. Use 5.0 if you are brewing five gallons, Use 6.0 if you are brewing 6 gallons, and so forth. The AU is the Aroma Utilization for the aroma schedule or from Table V, Hop Utilization. If you just dump all of hops in at one time, use Table V. Hint 17: See Appendix B, Conversion factors when you are using a measuring systems that is different. The KFactor is a correction constant. Each aroma infusion is a function of when the infusion was performed: 1st Aroma, 2nd Aroma, and 3rd Aroma. The KFactor compensates for this in Table III, Hop Aroma KFactor. Example: Lets use a simple ale for an example. The Aroma infusions are at the boiling, secondary, and at bottling. The 1st Aroma Schedule uses ¼ oz, the 2nd Aroma Schedule uses ¼ oz, and the 3rd Aroma Schedule uses ¼ oz. The final Total Volume will be 5.5 Gallons. The CAU for the 1st Aroma Schedule is computed using equation E-2. The AU from Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules, is 0.103. The KFactor from Table III is 6 for the 1st Aroma Schedule.

At secondary Table III gives a KFactor of 12.

At bottling time the KFactor from Table III is 8.5.

The Combined Aroma Units for this example is equal to the sum of all the CAUs in the beer:

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Dry Hopping
Many recipes call for dry hopping. Dry hopping always produces a wonderful effect. I use this effect myself but with a safety twist. Hops are a natural product that contains mold cells, wild yeasts, field contamination, and worker contamination. Blanch your hops. The simple process, consisting of a two to three minute boiling water bath followed with a cold water cool, will add a great deal to your peace of mind without adding significant bitterness. Keep your beer healthy, do not take chances with adding unsanitary hops. It is better to be sanitary than sorry. Learn to love your beer. MP Editor's Note: Because of the confirmed presence of potentially deadly bacteria (from human waste) found in raw food products, it would be unwise to assume that hops were free of this potential hazard. No data are available in the State of Connecticut on hop bio-hazards. Because Connecticut is a large Tobacco Growing State, the same health problems associated with tobacco can be logically attributed to the hop industry.

Intensity of CAU
How does CAU relate to the hop aroma of your beer? Table IV, Hop Aroma Magnitude VS. CAU Range, provides a description of the CAU's magnitude. This is a relative chart but it is very useful for changing magnitudes. Remember that a lot of American beers have "extremely low" CAU values.

Ah! Can'tya Smell That Hop

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Hop Aroma in Brief
I. II. Add Aroma hops in stages. Use as many stages as you have the patience for. I use three infusions. Cool the wort immediately at the end of the boiling schedule. A counter flow wort chiller is required for the initial boil. Very cold, sterile water is used to cool the 2nd and 3rd Aroma waters. Sterile cold water is made by filling ½ pint plastic containers with boiling water and sealing with a plastic lid. Place in freezer to cool. Never use ice cubes from the ice tray. III. I do not think you should freeze an aroma hop. There are many different opinions from the editors on this subject, so you must be the judge. IV. For quantities of liquid of three or more gallons, a wort chiller should be considered. Be sure to clean the wort chiller before using. For the high efficiency, counter-flow models, I suggest you clean with Beer Line Cleaner (BLC). BLC is available from the KegMan. Have your supplier get in touch with him by calling (860) 623-6537 to get info. V. An alternative to a wort chiller is to fill a large sink with cold water and immerse the brew kettle in the cold water. Constantly stir the wort and the cooling water. Ice in the tub (not the wort) will speed this process up. Keep covered with tin foil or lid during cooling. The lid will slow down the cooling rate but will keep the wort safe. VI. For the small volumes of the second and third aroma Infusions, put the boiling hop pot into a tub of water and ice to cool. Keep covered with tin foil or lid for the same reason as above. VII. Including the Aroma hops in the total bitterness calculations is often omitted because of its negligible effect on the total bitterness. I will use this calculation in the bitterness section of the following chapter to demonstrate how to perform the calculation. See bitterness section. VIII The violent action and CO2 expulsion of the Primary fermentation stage dissipates aroma. You should replace the aroma during the less violent (Secondary Fermentation) and again at bottling. IX. Whole hop flowers yield the most aroma oils. This form of hop is not always available or practical. Hop pellets are the easiest to use and are the most available. Freshness is far more important than form when your hopping involves boiling. X. Remember, hops are harvested once a year. Do not try to get hops that are fresher than those of the current harvest. Your supplier may look at you very strangely. XI. When dry hopping, blanch your hops in boiling water for peace of mind and safety also. ST Editor's Note: While it is the safest way, much research has been done in this area. It has been determined that the combination of low pH, alcohol content, yeast activity, and the preservative quality of hops will lessen the safety concerns. True Dry Hopping adds a hop aroma that is unique — it is different from what you get from any heat-processed hops. True dry hopping requires whole hop flowers because the whole hops are not heat processed like the pellets during their extrusion process. I know, the heat will change the characteristics of the whole hop but it is better to be alive to enjoy the beer. My opinion is still for using the blanch. My life is far more important to me than a unique aroma. But you do it your way. Your concoction should be the way you like it. I can only report the possibilities and concerns I have about safety. XII. Hop aroma is not all math. Try a few brews with the 8 by 15 Kit Schedule in the malt and see what a little hop can do for your regular beer. XIII. Used Aroma Hops can be used for bittering your next beer. Keep frozen until required.

Concoction Notes

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VII

Sweet Bitterness

Homebrewers are familiar with the bittering systems of Alpha Acid Units (AAU) and Homebrew Bittering Units (HBU). These systems are very useful to the novice who wishes to change from an unavailable hop to one that is available. Despite their usefulness, they lack the parameters required to hop True to Style.

International Bittering Units
The International Bittering Unit (IBU) is a worldwide standard for defining a beer's bitterness. The American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) and the European Brewing Congress (EBC) use the IBU system to index a beer's bitterness. Although an accurate computation of IBU is possible, it is not necessary for the homebrewer. This Chapter provides the information required to compute and use IBU for planning and modifying a beer's bitterness.

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Fig.9: Hop Bittering Utilization VS. Boil Time

The IBU system incorporates total volume, hop weight, boiling time (utilization), alpha acid percent, hop form or type, and the specific gravity of the boiling medium. If you are a homebrewer who does not vary the hop form, or significantly modify the boiling SG (within ±0.020), you need not include the hop form (whole flower or pelletized) and the SG Derating Factor (SGDF) (on next page) into your calculations. All other "wild and crazy" concoctors should use these two correction factors. IBU can be measured in a laboratory when confirmation is required.

Bittering Utilization
Utilization (Bittering Utilization or BU) is a term that represents the approximate amount of a hop's alpha acid bittering resin that will remain in a beer. About 60 percent of the resin can be absorbed into a wort during boiling. Fermenting, settling, racking, and aging will reduce this amount by half. Utilization is an important factor missing from the HBU and AAU Bittering systems. The IBU system corrects this deficit.

Hop Form

Sweet Bitterness
The hop form influences the utilization of the hop. Figure 9, Hop Utilization VS. Boil Time, shows this

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Fig.10: Utilization Derating for SG influence. Figure 9 is based on experimental data. It represents the amount of bitterness retained throughout the life of a beer. It depends on boiling time. Table V, Hop Utilization, provides the same utilization data shown in Figure 9 in decimal table format. Utilization is usually expressed in decimal format. If you are consistently using pelletized hops to bitter as I do, Table V also lists the utilization for pelletized, whole flower, and the average utilization. For all practical purposes, the conversion from mean value to Pelletized value is done by multiplying the mean value by 1.12. Similarly, the Whole Flower hop value is obtained by multiplying the mean value by 0.88. On Figure 9 you can see that there are dashed upper and lower curves surrounding the main solid line utilization curve. The upper line is the expected utilization for a pelletized hop type. The lower curve is the expected utilization for the whole hop flower type. I have used the pelletize hop value for simplicity in all examples. The Master Brewer software program will automatically choose the correct curve from your menu input and will factor in the correction required. If you use the mean solid line utilization curve, it will result in approximately a twelve percent error that may be acceptable in most home applications.

Specific Gravity Effect on BU
The specific gravity (SG) of the boiling medium modifies the bitterness utilization. A thick wort ( SG greater than 1.100) will not allow full utilization. To be exact, diminish the utilization by 30%. If your wort

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is very thick (SG greater than 1.200), diminish the utilization by 80%. Figure 10, Utilization Derating for SG, shows the derating factor (SGDF) that should be applied to the bittering utilization from Figure 9 and Table V. This compensation is also done automatically in the Master Brewer software program. Any person who must do these calculations should consider using the Master Brewer program. In most homebrewing applications where the same recipe is used over and over again, consistent wort thickness is more important than actual wort thickness. If your SG is always between 1.035 and 1.050 your error would be less than five percent and you can remove the derating factor from your calculations. To use Figure 10, look up the specific gravity of the boiling medium and determine the derating factor. Multiply this derating factor by the Utilization from Figure 9 or Table V. This will correct the utilization for boiling specific gravity. For example, at an SG of 1.050 the Derating Factor is 0.9. This 0.9 indicates that only 90% of the utilization can be expected.

Hint 18: A very good brewing pot can be made from a stainless steel, Single Valve Bud beer keg. Check with your supplier for where to get the top cut off. Hint 19: Keep the boiling pot topped off with water to maintain a nominal specific gravity. Boiling removes about a quart of water every 15 to 30 minutes. Plan your boil with Figure 6 or 9. Table V is for the math computations requiring Utilization. Over boiling will not kill bitterness as it does with flavor and aroma. The more you boil, the more bittering you get. The homebrewer should never boil hops for more than 90 minutes. If you must reduce the volume of the wort to increase the SG, reduce the volume by boiling before the start of the hop infusions.

Bittering Utilization Calculations
I will compute, as an example, the utilization of each of the previously defined flavor and aroma schedules. Brewing does not require an understanding of the chemistry of utilization. However, brewers who do not consider utilization in their bittering are limiting themselves to recipe beers. I will use Table V to obtain the utilization for each boiling time. The utilizations for the Standard Schedules are tabulated in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules. The Standard Hop Schedules that will be used throughout this manual are for dividing the hop into three infusions for each of the schedule times. The utilization for any number of infusions can obtained by calculating the average of all individual utilizations.

For the 30 minute flavor schedule: Hops are added as a at 30 minutes, a at 28 minutes, and a at 26 minutes. The bitterness utilization for this schedule is the average of the three utilizations. From Table V, for a pelletized hop the utilizations for 30, 28, 26 minutes are 0.165, 0.147, and 0.129 respectively. Adding and dividing by three produces the average bitterness utilization for the 30 minute flavor infusion schedule:

Sweet Bitterness
The remaining schedules are likewise computed: For flavor: BU25 = (0.121+0.105+0.090) / 3 = 0.105 BU20 = (0.084+0.073+0.064) / 3 = 0.073 BU15 = (0.061+0.056+0.052) / 3 = 0.057 BU10 = (0.051+0.049+0.048) / 3 = 0.049 For aroma: BU1st = (0.048+0.047+0.047) / 3 = 0.047 BU2nd = (0.048+0.047+0.047) / 3 = 0.047 BU3rd = (0.048+0.047+0.047) / 3 = 0.047 For the 8 by 15 Kit Infusion: BU8by15 = (.061+.056+.052+.050+.048+.048+.047+.047)/8 = 0.051 This concludes the discussion of the mathematics needed to compute the utilization of each of the standard schedules in this manual. You can use these utilizations time and again. You never have to go over the math again. The math was shown in detail to enable you to do anything you want with the schedules. The results are shown above and in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules.

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Bitterness of a Beer
The homebrewing purpose for predicting your beer's bitterness is twofold. First, you will know how to change the bitterness. Second, you can plan a beer that will be True to Style. The total bitterness of a beer is determined by six parameters: Total volume, alpha acid percent, hop weight, utilization, form or type and SG of the boil. The last two parameters are usually avoided in hand calculations. For the exact computation of IBU, use the Master Brewer program. It will leave you more time for brewing. Each of these six parameters can vary in any brew. Any variation will change the bitterness of a beer.

Alpha Acid
Unlike flavor and aroma, you must consider the hop variety used in the bittering. Each variety and each lot within that variety will have a different alpha acid percentage. This varies with process variations, dryness, and other factors. I recommend that bittering hops be purchased. The fortunate people who grow their own hops should use them for aroma and flavor. With the purchased hop, the bittering alpha acid percentage will be available from your supplier. Example 1: Alpha Acid, Two beers are made identically except the hop. One beer was made with 1 ounce of a 5% alpha hop. The other was made with 1 ounce a 10% alpha hop. The latter would be approximately twice as bitter as the former. Hops of different alpha acid percentages have different absorption rates. The absorption rate change is usually beyond the scope of the homebrewer because there is no constant corrections available for this factor.

Total Brewing Volume
The Total Brewing Volume of you beer has a major effect on the bitterness of the beer. Volume changes the concentration of the bittering acids. Any change in the volume of a beer by the addition of a 2nd Aroma, a 3rd Aroma, the priming liquids, or a change from the recipe measurements will change the bitterness of the

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beer. Small variations of less than one-quart in a 5.5-gallon batch (<5%) will usually not be noticed. Example 2: Total Volume, Two beers are made with everything the same except the volume. One beer was three gallons. The other beer was six gallons. The three-gallon batch is twice as bitter as the six-gallon batch.

Hop Boiling Time
Example 3: Hop Boil Time, Two beers are made with everything the same except the boiling time. In the first beer the hop pellets were boiled for thirty (30) minutes. In the other beer the hop pellets were boiled for sixty-six (66) minutes. Now look up the utilizations in Table V. The utilization for the thirty minute boil is 0.165. The utilization for the sixty-six minute boil is 0.33. The hop boiled for sixty-six minutes will make the beer twice as bitter as the hop boiled for 30 minutes.

Hop Weight
Example 4: Hop Weight, Two beers are made with everything the same except the hop weight. The first beer has 1 ounce of hops boiled for thirty minutes. The other beer has 2 ounces of hops are boiled for 30 minutes. The beer with two ounces of hops is twice as bitter as the beer with one ounce of hops.

Sweet Bitterness Hop Form or Type
Example 5: Hop Form and/or Type, Two beers are made with everything the same except one is made with pelletized hops the other is made with whole hop flowers. If the wort is boiled for ninety (90) minutes the pelletized hop utilization will be 0.342 and the flower will have a utilization of 0.266. The result will be about a twenty-two percent shift in bitterness. Example 6: Boiling SG, Two beers are made with everything the same except one is boiled with a SG of 1.040 and the other has a boiling SG of 1.15 (usually caused by a very small boil pot). The SG utilization derating factors from Figure 10 are 0.95 and 0.43 respectively. This represents a reduction in bitterness of about fifty-five (55) percent for the thick wort.

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International Bittering Units Calculations
Chemists can measure the Bitterness produced by a hop in a finished beer by measuring the amount of isohumulones in a known volume of the beer. Your local brewing supply shop can recommend a testing laboratory if you're interested. But why trouble over the abstract, get brewing. I always say, "It is better to taste a beer than to test a theory." International Bittering Unit (IBU) is a measure of the milligrams per liter of the alpha acids of the hops in a beer. Just like Flavor and Aroma, add the individual contribution of each hop addition. Compute the Total IBU of a beer by simply adding all the Contributing IBUs. Each hop addition has its own IBU. The calculations presented here for IBU is formulated in the American system. Conversions are given in Appendix B for other measuring systems. Although the European Brewery Congress and The American Society of Brewing Chemists use metric values in their calculations, I have simplified the math with one correction factor, 7489.

IBU Equation: E-3

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Weight is the weight of the hop used in U.S. Ounces. DAAP is the decimal value of the current alpha acid percent (that's the percent divided by 100). BU is the Bittering Utilization for the specific Hop Form (or Type) from Table V, Hop Utilization or the Schedule Bittering Utilization from Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules. SGDF is the SG Derating Factor from Figure 10, Utilization Derating Factor for SG. Volume is the total volume of beer in U.S. Gallons. Please note that the total volume includes the flavor, aroma, and priming liquids. Example: The analysis of a German bier's IBU proceeds as follows. 1st. Bittering hop is 1.25 Oz. of Hersbrucker pellet @ 4.7% alpha acid and boiled for 90 minutes. DAAP =4.7% / 100 = 0.047. 2nd . Flavor hop is 1 Oz. of Styrian Goldings pellet @4.5% alpha acid or a DAAP of 0.045. This will be divided into thirds for 3 scheduled flavor infusions at 25, 20 and 15 minutes. 3rd . Aroma hop is 1.5 Oz. of Saaz pellet with an alpha acid of 4.3% alpha acid or a DAAP 0.043. One third ounce is used in each of the three aroma schedules. Caution: Never use any published alpha acid percentage numbers unless you just want very rough numbers. 4th . The boiling wort SG is 1.050. From Figure 10, Utilization Derating Factor for SG, the SGDF is 0.91. There will be a total of 6 U.S. Gallons. Five and one-half gallons in the basic beer. One quart (¼ gallon) for the 2nd aroma schedule. One pint (c gallon) for the 3rd aroma schedule. One pint (c gallon) for the priming liquid. Total volume = 5½ + ¼ + c + c = 6.0 gallons when finished. Using the IBU Equation (E-3) and the pellet utilization for 90 minutes from Table V.

The bitterness contribution from the ninety minute boil is 22.8 IBU. Using the utilizations from the previous calculations we will now compute the bitterness from the flavor schedules. The results of the utilization calculations are presented in Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules, for easy reference. The flavor schedule bitterness contribution calculations are shown here for an example of how to perform this calculations for any custom schedule you have. The calculations for the four standard schedules follow:

Sweet Bitterness
The aroma schedule utilizations come from the previous calculations and are also presented in Table VII.

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Now we can compute the Total IBU or IBU for the German bier we have examined above by adding up all the individual IBUs:

I used such decimal accuracy for ease of demonstration. All IBU calculations should be rounded off to the whole numbers. for example, 30 for 30.34. As previously stated, the flavor and aroma contributions to the Total IBU are small and are often omitted for ease of calculations.

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I recommend all the contributing IBUs be included since my flavor and aroma hops contribute about 25% to the total bitterness. The aroma contribution is about 11% and this may be considered within the error margins of the homebrewer and I would never insist that the aroma contribution be included. The more flavor and aroma hops used, the more the contribution to the total bitterness will be.

Total Bitterness
The Total Bitterness (IBU) of a beer is always equal to the sum of all the individual IBUs. There will always be differences between batches because of minor changes in your techniques. Utilization is altered by the boiling off of the water in the wort and by the timing of your water replenishment. Utilization depends on wort thickness and is constantly changing throughout the boil. The effect can be reduced by replenishing the wort volume with boiling water often. Well, now that you can compute the IBU of a beer, what does it signify? Like flavor and aroma, I have arranged all the beers I have ever made into magnitudes of bitterness. Table VI, Bitterness Magnitude VS. IBU Range, is a relative chart but is very useful in deciding to change magnitude. Books are available from your homebrewing supplier that will give the IBU values for many world class beers. Keep your IBU within 2 to 3 IBU of the True to Style beer you are duplicating. IBU is important for any brewer trying to recreate a World Class Beer. The placement of IBU in Table VI is an aid in planning. Find the IBU of the beers you like. Plan your beer for that IBU and then recreate that IBU for yourself. The next chapter deals with planning your hop schedule.

Computing the Alpha Acid Units for a Hop Blend
The alpha acid percent for any hop blend, German, English, American, or whatever, is the weighted average of all the alpha acid percents of the individual components.

Example: A blend is made up of one ounce of a hop with an Alpha Acid Percent of 5.1%, three ounces of a hop with an alpha acid percent of 4.3%, and two ounces of a hop with an alpha acid percent of 3.4%. The alpha acid percent of the blend is computed by dividing (the summation of each hops alpha acid percent times the number ounces of that hop) by the (total number of ounces used in the custom hop blend) as shown in the following demonstration calculation for the example:

Sweet Bitterness

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Bittering in Brief
I. II. III. IV. The Total Volume of beer is the total volume of beer bottled or kegged, not the total volume of the wort boiled. The steep slope of the utilization curve between 25 and 45 minutes should be avoided by the less experienced brewer. Use Table V to find the utilization of non standard boiling schedules. Use Table VII for the utilization of all Standard Schedules. Use only current alpha acid percents. Never use the alpha acid published in any book. Published alpha acid levels will only be right when the moon is in proper relationship with the clothesline on 110th Street in Broad Brook, CT at the exact time the data was published. Plan for easily divisible quantities of hops so you will not need a scale. One, two or four ounce packs are easier to divide into half, quarter, and eight ounce parts than three, five, seven, etc ounce packs. Make sure to keep your boil SG low to obtain maximum bitterness utilization. Top off your boil about every five minutes. If you must use the utilization corrections for boiling specific gravity and hop form, the Master Brewer is strongly recommended.

V. VI. VII. VIII.

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Concoction Notes

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VIII

The Mini-Mash

Beer, made from simple malt extracts, hopped or unhopped, will never measure up to the rich malty flavor and aroma of a World Class beer. A truly great beer requires the addition of specialty grains. Adding these specialty grains continues where hopping schedules leave off. Specialty grains, in combination with the hops and age, bring a beer into the World Class. The addition of these specialty grains is very easy. This chapter will show that if you can make coffee, you can use specialty grains. From prohibition to 1979, malt was available in extract syrup form. "Blue Ribbon" malt extract was available in most food markets for around a buck a can. Nothing else was available. Brewers had to malt, roast, and mash grains from the feed store to get the toasted grain flavors. There was very little information available on malting, roasting, and mashing. Sometimes the malting process produced good malt, sometimes it rotted the grain. After the legalization of beer making in 1979, beer ingredients became readily available. Because of competition in our capitalist market system, the quality and variety of these products has increased every year. Master kit blenders now design beer kits with an adequate blend of extracts and grain flavors for novice tastes. Specialty grains and hops are easily available to the true concoctor. While a beer kit produces a decent beer when made with malt extract instead of sugar, kits are just not up to the discriminating taste of some brewers. They use kits when they want to make "Instant" beers in the summer: I say, Add two cans of malt and call me in a week. Some people love to experiment. They strive to produce the perfect beer. Beer kits will never suffice. Many advanced brewers will dissipate extraordinary effort by the full mashing of whole grain malts and forget to add specialty malts to their grain bill. I developed the Mini-Mash Process around 1968 to add the rich malt taste and aroma to supplement kit and extract beers. A Mini-Mash added to a beer approaches the complexity of malt flavors and aromas characteristic of a World Class beer. Mini-Mashing does this without the exertion of much time or energy. Because the quantities are small, the sparging is quick. Specialty grains do not have to be mashed. The Crystal Malts are sufficiently mashed in their roasting to allow their direct use in any beer except the lightest brews. Black and Chocolate malts are roasted to produce the aroma, flavor, and color. They have insufficient starches to concern yourself about. The starch in Roasted Barley, used in stouts and porters, will be concealed by the rich colors and flavors of the beers it is used in. All brewers can benefit from the Mini-Mash. It enables them to add specialty whole grains to their everyday beers. The process is not a replacement for mashing. If you have six to 20,000 pounds of malt to deal with, you better full mash. Mashing efficiency for the Mini-Mash Process varies between 20% and 75%. Use the Mini-Mash for any grain bill under a couple of pounds of grain. More grain is sometimes used when making specialty low alcohol (LA) beers but the Mini-Mashing becomes more difficult. The MiniMash process is to add body, flavor, and aroma to extract and kit beers. Do not use it to make the whole beer. Mini-Mashing allows you to add grain character to all your beers. Enough talk, lets get grinding. You will derive an instant benefit in your beer. The grains will add a complex character to your beer. Grains add malt aroma, body, flavor, and color.

The Mini-Mash Process
The Mini-Mash process is a shortcut to add rich malt flavor and aroma to extract and kit beers. MiniMashing provides an acceptable reduction in starch haze from all grain malts but is intended specifically for

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the inclusion of specialty grains. Mini-Mashing is performed by two methods. The first method is actually steeping. It is for the purpose of adding the color and flavor of specialty grains to your brew. The second method is mashing and is used to add the Munich and Vienna malts in small quantities. If you do not hold to the temperatures and times, the Mini-Mash will still produce wonderful malt flavors and aroma. Mistakes with the Munich and Vienna malts make your brew a bit starchy but it will still be World Class. The beauty of the process is that it is full of safeguards. It can be off in times and temperatures and still produce a wonderfully complex brew. Mini-Mashing will usually require racking into a secondary fermenter to remove any trub left in the flavor water. Like everything else in this manual, the Mini-Mash is not intended to make brewing a task. Brewing should be easy. When special care is required, such as not boiling the grain with the husks, I point it out. Everything else is just icing on the cake. Oh! Maybe, head on the beer. Mini-Mashing is very simple when black, chocolate, crystal, and roasted barley are used. These grains have all the work done for you. All you have to do is extract the flavors, colors, and aromas. More effort is required with lager, ale, rice, and wheat malts that contain starch. These grains must be mashed to convert the starch into malt sugars. This is why there are two methods for the Mini-Mash. The following materials are required to Mini-Mash:

Mini-Mash Equipment
1. Boiling pot of stainless steel or enameled. The size should be about 6 to 8 quarts per pound of grain. Stainless steel stock pots and beer kegs are the best; enameled canning pots are OK. Never use iron or aluminum pots; the boiling wort is too acidic and will become metal tasting. 2. A coarse stainless steel kitchen strainer, available in any department store. It is the lauter tun of the MiniMash. 3. A good source of clean, good tasting brewing water. 4. A grain mill, rolling pin, or blender/mixer. 5. A stirring spoon or paddle. Metal, not wood. 6. A good thermometer with a range of 80EF-200EF. 7. Heat from a stove or hot plate. A gas "Cajun" cooker is the best source of much instant heat for full mashing in a beer keg. 8. A pot to boil a couple of gallons or so of heating water. 9. Measuring spoons for lager, ale, or rice grains. 10. Tincture of Iodine from your local pharmacy. 11. Optional: an oven with two racks and a large cookie sheet. Hint 20: A great Lauter Tun is made from a 5-gallon donut bucket (obtainable from Bess Eaton or Dunkin Donuts for about a buck) and a nylon Sparging Bag. The bag is optional. Drill 1/16 (1/8 for the impatient) inch holes all over the bottom of the donut pail. The donut pail fits very nicely into any 6.7 or 7 gallon plastic fermenter that comes with a bail handle. A spigot should be installed in the outer fermenter.

Mini-Mash Ingredients
1. Amylase Enzyme Formula: 1 teaspoon per pound of grain if lager, ale, or rice grains are used. 2. Water Crystals or Gypsum 3. The grains you will be using.

The Mini-Mash
Hint 21: Never buy (pre) crushed grain. Always fresh grind your grains. Even if you butcher them in a blender, the taste will be better than with the (pre) crushed grains. Blenders work well if the grain in them is kept under a cup at a time. More grain causes the blender to powder the contents. The blender is not recommended for full grain mashing.

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How to Mini-Mash
1st. Getting Ready:
1a, Use the grain mill to crack (crush) the grain husks open. Do not powder the grain. Powdered grain makes it very difficult to sparge if you are using a Lauter Tun. Grain powder will clog up any grain filter bed. Grain mills are available from your local homebrewing shop. If a grain mill is not available, use a rolling pin. An electric blender in the pulse mode can be used with ¼ cups of grain at a time. Always fresh grind your grains. 1b, Prepare 3 to 5 gallons of Mini-Mash water by adding gypsum or water crystals to all the water you will be using to mix, mash, and sparge the grains. Use ½ to 2 teaspoons per gallon of water. These minerals will harden the water, promote starch conversion in grains with starch, and lessen the harshness in a beer from the grain hulls. 1c, Cover the grain to be Mini-Mashed with room temperature water. Use about 1 quart of treated water per pound. Let soak for about 15 minutes. 1d, Get one gallon per pound of treated Mini-Mash water boiling. Hint 22: The grain liquid should NEVER be boiled with the grain husks. Boiling the grain hulls will cause an unpleasant bitter taste.

2nd. The Mash: The Simple Mini-Mash
(Steeping Specialty Grains) (Black, Chocolate, Crystals, and Roasted Barley)

2a, Pour just enough of the prepared boiling water into the grain to raise the temperature to 165EF ±5EF. Maintain this temperature for about 10 minutes to extract all the grains' goodness. 2b, Skip to 3rd Step, Getting the Juice.

The Complex Mini-Mash
(Starch Conversion) (Ale, Lager, Munich, Vienna, & Wheat) 2a, Pre-heat the oven to about 150EF. Close is good enough. Some ovens will only say warm but this will work fine. Place one oven rack in the bottom of the oven and another rack immediately over the first. On the lower rack, place a large cookie sheet full of water. This will disperse the direct oven heat from the bottom of the mash pot.

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2b, Pour just enough of the boiling water into the grain to raise the temperature to desired mashing temperature from the chart below. 2c, Add the Amylase Enzyme Formula to the grain and water and stir well. Perform a preliminary Iodine test to see the iodine's color reaction to the raw starch in the mash. Use one teaspoon of the mash and one drop of iodine. Note the distinct color change, iodine to dark purple, due to the presence of the starch. Discard the test liquid in a safe area as iodine is a poison.

Mashing Temperatures
(For Lager, Ale, Rice, and Wheat Grain Malts) LIGHT BEERS: 145EF to 151EF HEAVY BEERS: 150EF to 157EF 2d, Cover and maintain the desired temperature range from the chart above for about 30 to 90 minutes. The mashing is over when all the starch is converted. Complete starch conversion is verified by repeating the preliminary iodine test. When the iodine does not change color, the starch conversion is complete. This is where the oven is very useful. The oven's heat will slow the transfer of heat from the Mini-Mash pot and make the maintaining of the mash temperature simple. 2e, Pour enough boiling treated Mini-Mash water into the grain to raise the temperature to 165EF ±5EF. Maintain this temperature for about 10 minutes while stirring to extract all the grains' goodness. 2f, Continue with Step 3, Getting the Juice.

The Mini-Mash 3rd. Getting the Juice:
The easy way: This method is may be used with small (less than 1½ pounds) quantities of grain that will fit into a strainer. Strain the grain with the coarse kitchen strainer. This limits the amount of grain but easy is good. After the first rich liquid is drained off the grain, return the grain to the pot and add a few quarts of hot (165EF ±5EF) water. Stir up the grain and water again. Pour the grain through the strainer again, collecting the less rich liquid into the container with the first rich liquid. The hard way: This method is necessary with larger quantities (1½ pounds and over) of grain that will not fit into a strainer . Slowly pour the grain and liquid into a lauter tun with the outer bucket's spigot turned off. After the liquid flow through the grain has slowed down (filter bed is formed), open the spigot and collect all the initial run off into any suitable container. Turn the spigot off again. Pour the initial runoff on top of the grain bed. Replace the container under the spigot. Reopen the spigot and collect the filtered liquid. When the grain has processed most of the liquid through it, slowly pour fresh treated Mini-Mash water (at 165EF ±5EF) onto the top of the grain filter bed. Continue to collect the Mini-Mash liquid in the container. When the liquid runs at a very light color stop sparging. Over sparging will bitter the beer.

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4th. Finishing off the Mini-Mash:
4a, Rapidly swirl the coarse strained liquid. If the liquid is light in color you can see the grain particles collect in the bottom of the pot, otherwise let the Mini-Mash liquid settle for about fifteen (15) minutes. Syphon off the clear liquid into a boiling pot. 4b, The liquid is now a rich malty grain extract that can be used in any boiled beer recipe. If you do not want to use a boil recipe, the Mini-Mash liquid should be boiled for at least thirty (30) minutes to get a good hot break, rapidly cooled to obtain a good cold break, and then step 4a, above, should be repeated to remove the unwanted settled proteins. This liquid is excellent to boil the bittering, flavor, and aroma hops with your unhopped malt extracts. Whether you use it as a supplement to your extract brewing or make your entire beer from grain malts, the process is essentially the same. Only the quantity and type of grains determine the steps and precautions you must take. Making beer from all grain is something every brewer should consider but this subject is large and warrants a complete book.

Grains Used in the Recipes
What is available for your grain bill? Grains that you can use in the Mini-Mash are briefly described below. This description will allow you to see the types of grains suitable for Mini-Mash. BLACK Malt, or Black Patent Malt, is a grain malt kilned at a very high temperature. It is the French Roast of the beer world. High temperatures during roasting carbonize the malt. This malt contains no fermentable sugars. It adds a burnt caramel flavor and increases the beer's head retention. Black malt should be used sparingly. Two or Three ounces will give five-gallons of beer a nice brown color. Half a pound will make it black. It takes more than 6 ounces to detect the flavor in a beer. Use it in all porters and stouts. Mary says to use black grain in porters and leave the stouts to roasted barley but you do it your way. That is what this manual is all about. The simple Mini-Mash is all that is required for black malt.

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CARA-PILS Malt, or dextrin malt, is a special variation on crystal malt. Its final kilning temperature is lower than crystal malt to prevent the malt sugars turning into caramel. Use cara-pils to add body, sweetness, and smoothness to light beers. Usage depends on individual taste: ¼ to 1½ pounds per batch are normal. This grain slows fermentation and can be replaced by light German crystal malt in all recipes. Be careful that the fermentation goes to completion. Experienced brewers have been fooled by this grain. The simple Mini-Mash is all that is required for Cara-Pils malt. CHOCOLATE Malt is a wonderfully colored and flavored malt. It is made by roasting pale malt at a slightly lower temperature than black malt. Its roasting gives a smooth toasted nut flavor to a beer. It has no enzymes and very little fermentable sugars. This is a perfect color and flavor additive to all beers and ales. As little as 1 ounce in 5 gallons of beer will add a rich brown color. Use 6 ounces, or more, to flavor 5 gallons of beer. Usage depends on individual taste: ¼ to 1 pound per 5.5 gallons are normal. The simple Mini-Mash is all that is required for chocolate malt. CRYSTAL Malt (a.k.a. caramel malt) is a special malt. It has already been mashed during its special malting process (Stewing). The maltster has already done the work for us. Crystal malt is roasted at different temperatures to produce malts that range in color from light to dark. Crystal malt adds body, sweetness, smoothness, color and caramel flavor to beer. It also aids in head retention. The use of a dark malt is obvious in dark beers but the addition of two or three malts will build a complex flavor. ½ to 1½ pounds per batch are normal. The simple Mini-Mash is all that is required for all crystal malts and I recommend that it not be crushed more than a few hours before brewing time. I keep light and dark German crystal malts on hand at all times. The mix can be blended to make any color crystal malt that is required. MÜNCHEN malt (a.k.a. Munich malt) is not a specialty malt. It is high temperature kilned to provide full malt flavor and aroma in many German beers, see recipes. It is usually lighter than Vienna malt and will add a gold color to most beers. ½ to 20 pounds per 5.5 gallons are normal. Munich malt requires the more complex Mini-Mash for "Other Grains". Any recipe requiring a pound or less Munich malt can be made simpler by substituting light crystal malt to remove the complex mashing requirements. VIENNA malt is a not a specialty malt. It is high temperature kilned to provide full malt flavor and aroma. It is usually darker than Munich Malt and will aid in the development of a rich amber color in Märzen (Oktoberfest) and Vienna beers. ½ to 15 pounds per 5.5 gallons are normal. Vienna requires the more complex Mini-Mash for "Other Grains". Any recipe requiring a pound or less Vienna malt can be made simpler by substituting light crystal malt to remove the complex mashing requirements. WHEAT malt is a not a specialty malt. It requires mashing. Use wheat malt extract syrup for the wheat grain required by some recipes. It makes life much easier. I like the effect wheat gives my beers. Wheat malt will give a beer a clean dry taste and a great head. Usage depends on individual taste, 2 ounces to 1½ pounds per 5.5 gallons are normal. Wheat malt requires the more complex Mini-Mash for "Other Grains" and will add some extra time to your brewing. The note on the next page explains how to get around this by substituting wheat MES for the wheat grain. Contrary to the opinions of some brewers, wheat malt is allowed by the Reinheitsgebot because it is a malt. Note on Wheat: Excellent wheat malt extract syrups are available from the USA, Germany, and the UK. Some are pure wheat malt and others are a blend of 55% wheat and 45% barley malt syrup. Wheat malt extract syrups are also available in 1½, 3.3, 4, and 6.6 pound cans and can be substituted for wheat grain in any concoction. Use a pound of wheat malt extract syrup for each pound of wheat malt grain. The conversion is not exact

The Mini-Mash
but then what in life is perfect. I will always vote for the easy way out. ROASTED BARLEY, or black barley, is not a malt and violates the Reinheitsgebot. It is used in traditional Irish and English ales and stouts. Roasted barley is used like chocolate and black malts. The flavor and color are different but it will have the same effect. Roasted barley, in small amounts is used to give a red color to a beer or ale. Usage depends on individual taste, ¼ to 2¾ pounds per 5.5 gallon batch are normal. The simple Mini-Mash is all that is required for roasted barley. LAGER & ALE malts are not specialty malts. These malts can be avoided in making any extract beer since by using extracts you have chosen not to mash in the first place. Why complicate your love affair with beer by making a lot of busy work for little or no gain. Lager and ale malts require the more complex Mini-Mash for "Other Grains." Substituting crystal malts in recipes calling for lager and ale malts will save considerable time and effort. TOASTED MALTS are made by roasting or toasting lager and ale malts in an oven to bring out special colors and flavors. These malts can be made by holding the malts at 375EF for ten to fifteen minutes. Toasted malts will add rust color to the beer. If ale and lager malts are used the toasted malt will have to be processed by the more complex Mini-Mash for "Other Grains." Using crystal malts will eliminate this extra requirement. RAUCH MALTS are made by smoking the malts to be used in a smoker or outdoor barbecue. Many variations are possible for the flavor. Use oak, aspen, hickory, peat, grape vines, or donkey dung to obtain different effects. Note: Some concoctors prefer to add Liquid Smoke such as produced by R. Colgin, Inc. Dallas, Texas. It is available in most supermarkets. This product does contain some sugar so be sure to add during fermentation and not at bottling time.

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Mini-Mash Process in Brief
I. II. Never boil a grain with the hulls. The addition of any grains to a beer will require a secondary fermentation in a different fermentation vessel. Any trub remaining in the Mini-Mash liquid should be removed after the violent primary fermentation is over. Here some brewers use a glass carboy. I usually do not because of the weight of the full carboy. For the past ten years, I have not found any problem with using plastic pails for the finishing out of the fermentation.

III.

Always use fresh crushed grain for your beer. Powdered grain is not a large problem with a Mini-Mash less than one pound of grain but will slow the sparging of large quantities of grain to an agonizing snails pace. IV. Black, chocolate, crystal malts and roasted barley require no mashing. Like coffee, you just brew up the flavor and aroma and then remove the hulls. V. A kitchen oven set to 150EF is a good way to maintain the temperature for 30 minutes to an hour. Be sure to use a large cookie sheet, filled with water, between the mash and heater element to keep direct heat off the mash. VI. The Mini-Mash is not something fancy. We want flavor, aroma, and body from the grain, not fermentable sugars, when extract and kit brewing. Keep sparging to a minimum. VII. Stirring is very important, even if you use the oven. Lack of stirring causes hot spots and enzyme deficient areas in the Mini-Mash. Also, if you do not stir, the thermometer will not read true

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temperatures. VIII. Do not read a thermometer if it is touching the pan. IX. The Mini-Mashing Process is like making coffee. Contamination ruins beer, not improper MiniMashing. Fresh ground grains are important to World Class beers. If you appreciate the taste of fresh ground coffee beans, from your favorite coffee shop, never buy pre-ground grains. X. Recycle the draft. The spent grain is good mulch for all plants and some of our birds like to eat it. XI Torrefied grain is not used in German beers and shall not be covered in this manual.

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IX

Beer Predictions

It is very useful to know what a beer will be like before you mix the ingredients. A good approximation of a new beer's parameters will take the guess work out of designing your hop schedule. This chapter explains how to predict these parameters. It will teach you to approximate the starting, terminal, and bottle gravities of a beer. In addition you will have some knowledge of the alcohol content. Designing your beer True to Style is a snap when you know its parameters before brewing. Although only approximations, these parameters give you the edge needed to develop a complex concoction. Starting (original) gravity, terminal (final) gravity, bottle (apparent) gravity, and alcohol content are the important design parameters of the beer. These parameters will allow you to concoct a beer similar to a World Class Beer. The Hopping Schedule development, covered in Chapter X, Planning Your Hop Schedules, is dependent on the terminal gravity of the beer. Terminal gravity defines the amount of malt the hop must balance in a beer.

Degree Of Extract
Degree Of Extract (DOE) is the brewer's way of quantifying the extracts they buy or make. The DOE is simple to define and measure. If you dissolve 1 pound of something in enough water to make 1 U.S. gallon, the gravity measured for that mixture is the DOE. All DOEs in this manual are in units of U.S. pounds and gallons. Note: Some books have Imperial (British) or metric DOEs and must be converted before using in the American system. Example No. 1: One pound of malt extract is mixed with enough water to make one gallon of liquid. After mixing is complete, the measured specific gravity of the liquid is 1.036 (gravity = 36, brewers gravity = 1036). The Degree Of Extract (DOE) of that malt extract is 36.

DOE Equation: E-4

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Calculate DOE by this simple equation. The Volume is the number of U.S. Gallons. This Gravity is the gravity reading from a hydrometer. The Weight is the weight in U.S. pounds of the product in the liquid. Example No. 2: 6.6 pounds of malt extract is mixed with enough water to make up 5½ Gallons of beer. After mixing is complete, the measured specific gravity of the liquid is 1.043 (gravity 43, brewer's gravity 1043). Use the DOE equation (E-4) to calculate the DOE.

Gravity of a Beer
If we switch the variables in the above equation, we get a new equation to predict gravity. Gravity Equation: E-5

Example No. 3: The volume of liquid is 5 gallons. The weight of the dark malt extract syrup used is 6 pounds. Look up the DOE in Table IX, Degree of Extract & Color. For this malt the DOE is 36. Substitute these values into the gravity equation above.

A 5-gallon batch of beer made with 6 pounds of dark malt extract syrup will have a gravity of 43 (specific gravity = 1.043, brewer's gravity = 1043). The above examples work in the American system of measures. When you read an English brewing book, remember that their DOE is different. The English DOE is for the Imperial system and not U.S. system.

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Terminal Degree of Extract
Terminal Degree of Extract (TDOE), is similar to DOE. The terminal or final gravity of a beer is predicted using TDOE. Terminal gravity is used to compute bottle gravity. Bottle gravity is used in the planning of a hop schedule. The TDOE data presented in Table IX, Degrees of Extract & Color, are experimental. TDOE is the result of years of logging the finished gravities of beers. Terminal gravity differs from bottle gravity because the latter has the priming material included. DOE and TDOE will vary with each lot of ingredients used. Alcohol content affects the TDOE. The addition of champagne or other high attenuating yeasts will also affect the TDOE. This is why the predictions are approximate. Because of the small amount of the specialty grains used in Mini-Mashing, the errors associated with mashing efficiency are insignificant.

Predicting the Beer
Use the DOE and TDOE of each ingredient to predict the initial and end conditions of a beer. With DOE and TDOE, prediction is simple. Just multiply the DOE and TDOE of each ingredient by the weight of that ingredient used. Then add all the results and divide by the total volume of the beer. Example #4: 3.3 1 2½ 1¼ The ingredients (grain bill) for 5½ gallons of beer are: lbs. lbs. lbs. Cups Light Malt Extract Syrup Light Crystal Malt (Mini-Mashed) Light Dry Malt Extract Light Dry Malt Extract for PRIMING

Dry Malt Extract (DME or the U.K.'s Spraymalt) has an approximate density of 0.375 pounds per cup. See Appendix. For concocting purposes the 1¼ cups of DME used for priming is 1¼ cups times 0.37 pounds per cup or .46 pounds (I round this off to 0.45 for neatness). Table IX, Degrees of Extract & Color, provides the following information: DOE for light malt extract syrup is 34. The TDOE is 6. DOE for the Crystal Malt is 18. The TDOE is 12. DOE of the light Dry Malt is 39 and the TDOE is 9. Now to go on, I will make up a table of the facts known, then I will multiply the DOE of each ingredient by the weight of each ingredient. Organize your data as follows: Ingredient Original Wt. Terminal Wt. Malt Syrup Crystal Dry Malt Extract Priming Malt Do the Multiplication: Malt Syrup 112.2 19.8 3.3# i 34 1# i 18 2.5# i 39 0.45# i 39 3.3# i 6 1# i 12 2.5# i 9 0.45# i 9

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Crystal Dry Malt Extract Priming Malt 18.0 97.5 17.6 12.0 22.5 4.0

Add up the Non-Priming columns. Malt Syrup +Crystal +Dry Malt Extract Original Wt.: 112.2 19.8 +18.0 +12.0 +97.5 +22.5 227.7 Terminal Wt.: 54.3

Computing the Original Gravity and Terminal Gravity:

Compute the Original Specific Gravity (SG) and Terminal SG:

Effective Start & Finish Weight
Figure out what the Effective Start Weight (ESW) and the Effective Finish Weight (EFW) will be. The Effective Weight includes the priming malt (or Sugar for non-German beers).

Beer Predictions

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Effective Start & Finish Gravity
The effective start and finished gravities are required to predict the alcohol content of a beer. Neither value should be used to determine the completion of fermentation. These computations are performed using experimental data and are for planning only. To figure out the Effective Start Gravity (ESG) and the Apparent Bottle Gravity (AG) use the equations below. Note: ESG and AG both include the fermentable sugars from Priming.

Alcohol Content Prediction
Compute the alcohol content of the beer with two simple formulas. These formulas are more intricate than those found in most brewing books because they are corrected for high alcoholic content beers. These formulas are for beers with initial specific gravity are as low as 1.015 or as high as 1.160. When you make a special beer, you should know what the alcoholic content is for "Safety." See Appendix C. The prediction method described in this manual is a three-stage method. 1st. Determine the gravity factor.

2nd . Determine the Alcohol Content. U.S. beer is in Percent by Weight.

3rd . Use the Alcohol Conversion Graph in Figure 11 to convert % by Wt. to % by Vol (see Beer

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Predictions in Brief, V, for alternative). Method for using the graph: From the Graph in Figure 11, look up the left-hand side until we get to 3.6 then draw an imaginary line, parallel to the bottom line, to the curve. From this point on the curve, draw another line, perpendicular to the bottom line, to the bottom line. In this example, the alcohol is 4½% by Vol. A quick conversion from one alcohol scale to the other where PPW is % by weight and PPV is % by Volume is

The Ratio is given in Table X, Ethyl Alcohol. Hint 23: All American beer has its alcohol content given as percent by weight. Most other countries give their beer's alcohol content in Percent by Volume. This leads to some erroneous conclusions that their beer is generally stronger than ours. Convert their percent by volume to percent by weight before comparing and you may get a surprise. The alcoholic content of American beer is usually given in percent by Weight. This has lead many people to the erroneous conclusion that European beers are generally stronger than American beers. There are many cases where this is true but that does not make the assumption correct. The European beers print their alcohol content on the label in percent by Volume just as the alcoholic content of wine is given in percent by Volume. A typical American premium beer may be 3.8%. If this same premium American beer was labeled in Germany it would have a percent alcohol of 4¾%. Here is where the false assumptions come from. Figure 11 is a quick way of interchanging between the two formats of expressing alcoholic content. It is a plot of Percent by Volume VS. Percent by Weight and is very useful for rough approximations. The actual conversion is not as linear as the curve shows. For predictions, the figure is good enough to get the alcoholic comparisons we need. When you require accuracy, an excerpt from the Department of Agriculture's Table is given in Table X, Ethyl Alcohol and is very accurate. Use Graph 11 for all your beer approximations. Use Table X for accurate conversions when you need to prove something to the Revenuers.

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Fig. 11: Ethyl Alcohol (% by Vol. VS. % by Wt.) There is an exact method for determination of the alcoholic content of a beer (any alcoholic beverage) that is the "Boil Method." The Boil method (described in Appendix C) will yield sufficient accuracy for most homebrewing applications.

Real Gravity
Real gravity is the gravity of a finished beer with the alcohol removed. This is not required for any planning operation but is of interest to many brewers. To predict the real gravity, multiply the alcoholic content (in % by weight) by 0.46 and add this to the terminal gravity. This will compensate for the gravity loss by the lighter than water alcohol. Further research will be conducted to determine if real gravity is a better indication for IBU requirements than the terminal gravity. An engineer's work is never done. Oh well! Back to tasting, or is it testing?

What about the color?
An estimate of the color of your brew can be made using the Standard Research Method (SRM) numbers of the ASBC. This estimate is rough; all grains vary in their SRM numbers (given in Table IX, Degrees of Extract & Color). Multiply the weight of each ingredient by the SRM number and add them together to obtain the beers total color. Use Table XXVI, SRM VS. Color (See page 162), to see if your beer will come close to the color you wish. Each ingredient of the beer will contribute to the color of the beer.

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Hop boils will also increase the color in a beer.

This simple color calculation is performed for each ingredient used and the sum of all the color calculations will give you an estimation of the color of your beer. The Color Index is described in Table XXX, Color Index.

Beer Predictions in Brief
I. II. III. Predicting the bottle gravity of your beer will be a great aid in planning your hop schedule. Never use a published DOE without knowing what system of measurement was used in developing it. Metric DOE and Imperial DOE is not interchangeable with our U.S.A. DOE without conversion. Remember the predictions should be fun; do not let them have fun with you.

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X

Planning Your Hop Schedules

Planning your personal hop schedule is uncomplicated. Planning consists of four simple tasks: 1st. determine the correct total bitterness for the beer style you are brewing. 2nd . determine the flavor hop, CFU, and schedule. 3rd . determine the aroma hop, CAU, and schedule. 4th . Compute the bittering required from the bittering, flavor, and aroma hops. The following example will be for a German Altbier with a total volume of 6.0 U.S. gallons.

1st. Determine the Total IBU
Choose the IBU Factor for the beer style you will be making. The IBU Factors are given in Table VIII, Beer Style VS. IBU Factor. Use the method given in Chapter IX to predict your terminal gravity and then multiply this terminal gravity by the IBU Factor. The result is the required IBU for the beer to be True to Style. Table VIII represents the relationship between terminal gravity and IBU. It was formed from the analysis of many World Class Beers for their terminal gravity and IBU. The IBU Factor is used to balance a beer's malt component with the bitterness of the finished beer. Every style of beer has a range for the IBU Factor. First time brewers should use a low to mid-range IBU Factor. Experience will teach you what IBU you prefer. Adjustment of bitterness to your personal taste is the reward of concocting. Terminal gravity can be predicted in two ways: (a) Use the terminal gravity recorded from a previously brewed beer. This is the quickest and easiest method. Records are very useful in planning future brews. (b) Use the method described in Chapter IX, Beer Predictions, to predict the terminal gravity from the beer's ingredients. After you have determined the IBU Factor and terminal gravity of the concoction, you are ready to determine the bitterness required.

Target IBU Equation: E-6

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Example: You are making an Northern German Altbier with a terminal gravity of 11 (SG of 1.011). Using Table VIII, Beer Style VS. IBU Factor, the IBU Factor for this Altbier is 2.5 to 3.8. I will use a low value of 2.8. Using the bitterness formula below and substituting the IBU Factor and terminal gravity we get:

Our target bitterness is 30.8 IBU for the sample Altbier.

2nd. Determine the Hop Flavor
Choose the flavor hop for an Altbier. Since the beer will be a German style, I chose the noble Hersbrucker hop for its traditional German flavor. A Northern Altbier is usually accompanied by a strong (impressive) hop flavor. Thus, I want an impressive hop flavor (CFU of .4 to .49 from Table II, Hop Flavor Magnitude VS. CFU Range). I recommend the 25, 20, and 15 minute flavor schedules for any beer in the impressive range. The recipes will give you many examples. You choose the way you love your beer. From TABLE VII, the flavor utilizations for these schedules are 0.38, 0.38, and 0.21 respectively. To compute the CFU, guess the hop weights for the three infusions. I will try the following hop pellet weights: ½ Oz. @ 25 minutes, ½ Oz. @ 20 minutes, and ½ Oz. at 15 minutes. Using the flavor CFU Equation, E-1, from Chapter V to compute the CFU:

The Total CFU is equal to the sum of the individual CFUs.

From Table II, Hop Flavor Magnitude VS. CFU Range, we see that 0.44 is "Impressive" and thus hits our target. If the magnitude was out of the range of the beer style, we would just alter the hop weights and/or number of schedules accordingly. Now the bitterness must be computed for the flavor hops. These flavor schedules contribute to the total bitterness so their bittering effect must be considered. The IBU is computed by using the bittering IBU Equation, E-3, from Chapter VI, Sweet Bitterness. The boiling SG will be 1.050 for a SGDF of 0.91 from Figure 10. From Table VII the bitterness utilizations for these schedules are 0.1, 0.07, and 0.05 respectively. The alpha acid percent for the hop used was 4.7% (DAAP=0.047) in the year of this example. As stated before, your local brewing supplier has the correct alpha acid percents for the hops they sell.

Planning Your Hop Schedules

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The flavor hops' contribution to the Total Bitterness is computed as:

3rd. Determine the Hop Aroma
A typical Northern Altbier requires an intense German hop aroma. I use Hallertau for the aroma. Some Northern Alts (German, not the USA imports) are very strong in aroma. This requires maximum aroma so all three Standard Hop Aroma Schedules will be used. Table VII provides the aroma utilization of 0.103, the bitterness utilization of 0.05, and the aroma KFactors of 6, 12, and 8.5, respectively. For our example, I will use 1 Oz. for the 1st Aroma Schedule, 1.5 Oz. for the 2nd aroma schedule, and 1 Oz. for the 3rd aroma schedule. Aroma CAU is computed by the equation from Chapter VI.

This Total CAU value of 0.57 is in the range of "Intense" (over 50 CFU) from the Table IV, Hop Aroma Magnitude VS. CAU Range. This intense magnitude for CAU is proper for a Northern Altbier. If the CAU was below the intense required range, the hop weights and/or number of infusions should be altered

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to bring it within the required range. These aroma infusions contribute to the bitterness of the beer and their influence can be computed using IBU Equation, E-3. The three aroma hop schedules have a BU of 0.05 given in Table VII and the '94 Hallertau had an alpha acid percent of 4.2% (DAAP = 0.042).

The aroma hops' contribution to the Total Bitterness is 8.3

4th. Determine the Bitterness Hop Contribution
For a true Northern German Bier the bittering hop could be any one of the following: Hallertau, Hersbrucker, Northern Brewer, Saaz, or Tettnanger. I will use Tettnanger pellets with an alpha acid of 5.1% (0.051 decimal). Using the Required IBU Equation, E-7 below, we can compute the Required IBU. The Required IBU is the amount of bitterness required from the bittering hop. The Target IBU (a.k.a. Total IBU) was computed in the 1st step using Equation E-6 to be 30.8. Required IBU Equation: E-7

Using E-7 the Required IBU is computed:

Pick a convenient boiling time; 90 minutes is typical for a German bier; 60 minutes is a good number for English beers. Since we are making a German bier example, we will use 90 minutes. Using Table V, the hop pellet bittering utilization (BU) for 90 minutes is 0.342.

Planning Your Hop Schedules

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Required Bittering Hop Weight Equation: E-8

Using the Required Hop Weight Equation (E-8) to compute the amount of hops (in U.S. Ounces) required to give the Required IBU:

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Since the 0.84 ounce of hops could be hard to measure, an alternate method can be used to determine the boiling time instead of the weight. For this method we use the Required Utilization Equation (E-9) below and round off the computed weight from above to the nearest ½ ounce. For 0.84 Oz., the rounded off value is 1 Oz. Required Utilization Equation: E-9

The Required Utilization can now be computed for using one ounce of hops:

When a pellet bittering utilization (BURequired) of 0.287 is looked up in Table V we see a boil time of 47 minutes will give us a utilization of 0.289. This will allow the use of a standard one (1) Oz. hop pack and provide the exact target bitterness of 30.8 when the Bittering, flavor, and aroma hops schedules are followed. Since this time is well below the 90 minute typical German boil, a recalculation with ¾ Oz. might give a more typical boiling time. Quickly, the ¾ Oz. will require a utilization of .382 or 180 minutes from Table V. Unless you have a counter-flow wort chiller, stay with the 1 ounce for 47 minutes. Table VII, Summary of Standard Hop Schedules, contains a lot of important information. It provides, in table format, everything previously discussed. Table VII allows you to use and analyze the predefined hopping schedules without any detailed calculations. Remember, the Master Brewer software can do the calculations for you a lot faster and easier than any other method. It is well worth the expense for the serious brewer.

Planning Your Hop Schedule in Brief
I. II. III. IV. V. The 10 minute flavor schedule is called a flavor schedule because this region is unstable and most of the aroma is lost with cooling. The 8 by 15 Kit Schedule adds hop flavor and aroma to the malts added to kit beers. Never boil a beer kit that is hopped with hop extracts. Choose the hop that is appropriate for the beer style. Always use the total volume in all hop calculations.

Planning Your Hop Schedules
VI. VII. VIII. Cool, dark, dry storage is all a hop requires for short term storage; extended periods require sealing in airtight bags or mason jars. Always cool an aroma and flavor hop liquid rapidly. Keep good records of the hops and the schedules you use. They will help you to identify what you like.

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Concoction Notes

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Concoction Notes

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XI

Making the Bubbles

Most Americans prefer their beer carbonated. Some old English brewing books refer to "draught beer." This seemed to be their term for flat beer. I do not know what has happened to them since we gave them independence in 1776. They call their beers bitter even when they are mild. Living in England convinced me they may not speak English anymore. The BBC is an oddity when it comes to speech; they speak English. I think they got it right from running so many American TV programs. Priming may be done by the introduction of DME or corn sugar into a live beer before bottling. The ingredient you choose is up to you. German rules require that no sugar be used in True to Style German bier. The fact is, I do not think that anyone can taste the difference. At least, I have never met one. Corn sugar is by far the easiest material to prime with and should be considered for all non-German beers. Yes! Common table sugar will prime beer but should never be used unless there is a national emergency. Prohibition is one example.

Priming Variables
The priming of a beer depends on the following four factors: 1st. The altitude at which you drink. 2nd . The amount of carbonation you desire. 3rd . The quantity of beer there is to carbonate. 4th. The ingredient used to prime the beer.

Altitude
Altitude affects carbonation as it does the boiling point of water. A beer that is normally carbonated for sea level will be over carbonated in Denver. Proper carbonation is only proper when it considers the altitude where you live. Never follow any "One size fits all" priming advice. Compute the amount of priming ingredient you need. Table XI, Priming Rate Correction for Altitude, provides the AltFactor for the altitude corrections of priming rates. Table XI covers most inhabited regions of the world. You can check with any local airport to find out what altitude you live at.

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The amount of carbonation you want is a matter of personal preference up to a point. The person who drinks beer from the refrigerator will want to carbonate higher than the person who drinks beer at cellar temperature. The result of natural, in bottle fermentation is a sediment in the bottom of each bottle. This sediment, when real beer yeast is used, will not move when normal and lower carbonation levels are used. High carbonation stirs up the sediment when the bottle is opened. The rest is up to your taste. If you like it, it is right. Caution: Priming rates above high normal should not be used until you have some experience in brewing. The DME cups are based on a DME density of 0.375 pounds per cup.

Volume of Beer
Because the volume of every batch of beer seems to vary, it is important to consider the amount of beer you have to prime. This is why the bottling bucket should be calibrated (see Chapter II). Once you have your bucket calibrated you will always know how much beer you have to carbonate. Hint 24: If you do not have a bottling bucket, use one level half-teaspoon of corn sugar per 12 ounce bottle. Use one rounded half-teaspoon for a 16 ounce bottle. You should correct this for altitude but there is no easy way to measure smaller quantities. You are better off using a bottling bucket.

Priming Ingredients
Beer can be primed with any fermentable sugar. In this manual I will only cover Dry Malt Extract, Speise (raw unfermented beer), and corn sugar. While there are many other ingredients that can be used to prime a beer, these are the ones I will cover in this manual. Note: Corn sugar is not powdered table sugar (sucrose). Common table sugar always ferments with a cider taste and should be avoided except when making ciders. Table XII, Priming Rates for DME, Speise, and Corn Sugar, provides the amounts of speise (SpeiseFactor), corn sugar (CornFactor), and DME (MaltFactor) to carbonate a beer. The density of DME will vary with relative humidity and packing so work out a convenient system to overcome this problem. This can be by oven drying and weight measurements or some system of your own. It is your concoction.

Bottles
The type of bottle used is very important. Returnable, reusable, heavy bottles, in good shape, are the only bottles to use for bottling beer. These bottles include Bud, Schaefer, and Miller bar bottles in 12 and 16 ounce sizes. The ceramic (plastic now) top Grolsch, Fisher, Fiedler, and others are also excellent for bottling beer. Avoid all nonreturnable bottles and bottles with twist off tops. Caution: New bar bottles can take between 55 and 65 psi of pressure. Used bar bottles with scratches and nicks will withstand only 30 to 40 psig. Old bar bottles with cracks and chips will burst between 10 and 25 psig. A word to the wise is sufficient.

Priming Methods
Priming is the addition of a precise amount of a fermentable substance (speise) into a fully fermented beer during the bottling or kegging process. This fermentable substance, when acted upon by the yeast in the

Making the Bubbles
beer, will produce a controlled amount of CO2 gas pressure. There are five methods for priming a beer. 1, Speise Priming: a: Krausening: A known amount of an actively fermenting beer in the Krausen (foaming) stage is used to give new life to the fermented beer. b: Raw Beer: a portion of the beer itself, taken prior to fermentation, is sterilized and stored in a sealed container for priming at a later date. c: Dry Malt Extract Speise: a priming mixture is made by boiling Extra Light DME and water (1 pound of Extra Light DME per gallon of water) and stored in a sterile container under refrigeration until settled out and needed for priming. This is the method I prefer. 2, Measured Dry Priming: a: Cup Measured Dry Malt Extract: a priming mixture made by boiling a prescribed number of cups of Extra Light DME and water. b: Cup Measured Corn Sugar: a priming mixture in made by boiling a prescribed number of cups of Corn Sugar and water. The degree of measurement accuracy and variations in the wort ingredients (differing DOEs and TDOEs) make priming with 1 and 2 best left to the experienced brewer. Using method 4 also has it drawbacks because the DOE of DME changes with moisture levels, packing, and adulteration by some suppliers. Method 4 and 5 may be the easiest for those who brew infrequently or can not make accurate hydrometer readings. Method 3(for German Beers) and method 5 (for non-German beers) are the two methods I prefer.

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Priming with Speise
This method is for use with actively fermenting beer, still raw beer, and sterile solutions of DME or MES and water. 1st. Look up the Altitude Correction Factor in Table XI, Priming Rate Correction for Altitude. 2nd . Measure the Gravity (corrected to 60EF) of the speise you have. Remember:

3rd . 4th. 5th .

Use Table XII, Priming Rates for DME, Speise, and Corn Sugar, to determine what SpeiseFactor you wish to use. Measure the volume of the beer you are priming. Multiply the AltFactor by the SpeiseFactor and the total volume (Volume) of beer you will be priming and then divide by the measured gravity of your speise. Equation E-10a will give you the number of quarts of speise to add to your beer to carbonate it. Speise Priming Equation: E-10a

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Example 1: You have 5 gallons of beer to carbonate. You live at Sea Level and want normal carbonation. You will be priming with a Speise made from Extra Light DME and water. When the Speise is measured the gravity corrected for 60EF is 36.5. From Table XI the AltFactor is 1. From Table XII the Speise Factor is 14 for normal carbonation. Using equation E-10a, Speise Priming Equation, to calculate the number of quarts of speise required:

Priming with Dry Measured Amounts
All tables and charts are referring to U.S. Dry Measurements for solids and U.S. Fluid Measurements for liquids.

Priming with Dry Malt Extract (DME)
1st. Look up the Altitude Factor (AltFactor) in Table XI, Priming Rate Correction for Altitude. 2nd . Look up the Malt Factor (MaltFactor) from Table XII, Priming Rates for DME & Corn Sugar, for the carbonation level you want. 3rd . Use the DME Priming Equation, E-10b to determine the number of Cups of Malt to use. This method is not as accurate as using the speise method because of variations in the Degree Of Extract of the DME. It is, however, a very simple All Malt priming method for the novice or more carefree experienced brewer. DME Priming Equation: E-10b

Example 2: You live in New York City (12 feet above sea level) and want to prime the 5.5 gallons of beer in your bottling bucket to have NORMAL carbonation with Dry Malt Extract. From Table XI, Priming Rate Correction for Altitude, the AltFactor for 12 feet is 1. From Table XII, Priming Rates for normal carbonation requires a MaltFactor of 0.26. Using the DME Priming Equation, E-10b, the correct amount of DME, in U.S. Cups, can be determined.

Making the Bubbles

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This 1.43 cups can be rounded off to the nearest c cup to 1d cups for easy measuring with the simplest kitchen measures. Caution: Some unscrupulous suppliers adulterate dry malt extract with corn sugar and malto-dextrin to make a little extra money. Be sure of what you are buying. You can test your malt with easily available (your local pharmacy) glucose test strips. This test is not infallible. If you get a positive glucose reading, consult with your supplier for a more detailed analysis because some maltose can give false positive for glucose.

Priming with Corn Sugar (Dextrose)
1st. Look up the Altitude Factor (AltFactor) in Table XI, Priming Rate Correction for Altitude. 2nd . Look up the Corn Factor (CornFactor) from Table XII, Priming Rates for DME & Corn Sugar, for the carbonation level you want. 3rd . Use the Corn Sugar Priming Equation, E-10c to determine the number of Cups of Corn Sugar to use. This method is not appropriate for any All Malt or German beers. Corn Sugar Priming Equation: E-10c

Example 3: You live just outside Denver, Co. (4850 feet above sea level) and want the 7.5 gallons of beer in your keg to have High normal carbonation using Corn sugar. Remember to cut the priming factors in half for draught beer.

Caution: Never prime a true German bier with corn sugar. It violates the Prime Directive for those of you Beer Trek fans.

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Example 4: You live in Van Nuys, Ca. (799 feet above sea level) and want to prime your 15 gallons of beer with Dry Malt Extract to have low normal carbonation.

Making the Bubbles in Brief
I. Always boil any priming sugar, malt, or raw beer before using. Force cool in its boiling pan suspended in a sink of cold water if necessary. These products are handled and must be sterilized. Avoid aeration. II. Priming is affected by altitude. III. Priming is affected by the volume of beer. IV. Corn Sugar is easier to use than DME. V. The Reinheitsgebot requires the use of speise. Krausening, raw beer, and DME are OK. Corn Sugar is not allowed in German and other All Malt beers. VI. Always be sure the Dry Malt you buy has not been cut with Corn Sugar or other adulterants. VII. When priming a keg, always reduce the Priming Factor (Speise, Malt, or Corn) by 50% (½ the stated rate for bottles).

Concoction Notes

Concoction Notes

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XII

Be Kind to Your Little Beasties

Not long ago, philosophers could only guess at what caused fermentation. In 1803, L.J.Thenard was the first person to suggest fermentation is caused by a microscopic organism. Before him, everyone was sure that fermentation was a pure chemical reaction. His theory was met with some incredulity until 1857. That year, Louis Pasteur discovered a living cell that we now call yeast. Pasteur's experiments proved that alcoholic fermentation was caused by the living yeast cell. Because yeast is a living cell, care for it accordingly. Do not freeze it, starve it, or shock it in any way. Often the blame for a bad beer falls on the dry beer kit yeast and is sometimes true. Many beer kits have dry yeasts that are adulterated with common bread yeasts, contaminated with other wild and mutant yeasts, or have been subjected to harsh environments for long periods of time. There is now a fantastic supply of new dry yeasts available to the homebrewer, so if your beer goes unsatisfactory, that old dry yeast excuse will not work anymore. For the more discriminating concoctor, several manufacturers provide a wide variety of pure yeast cultures to further refine your beers (see Chapter XIII, Culturing a Yeast). Many off-flavors produced by any yeast in a beer are avoidable with proper care and handling. With proper yeast handling and temperature conditioning, your beer will be great. Lack of consideration of the yeast dooms your beer from the start to be a mediocre brew.

Types of Yeasts
The brewing yeasts used in the recipes of this manual are from three limbs off the same Saccharomyces branch of the yeast's family tree. These limbs are: the Cerevisiae (Ale), the Uvarum (Lager), and the Bayanus (Champagne). All three of these yeasts come in two forms: dry and yeast culture. Each yeast has a specific purpose in its microscopic life. The first branch of this brewing family tree, and most common, is ale (AKA top fermenting) yeast. It is called top fermenting because it is used at room temperatures and a yeast at room temperatures will ferment very rapidly and appear to work at the top of the ferment. Ale yeasts will ferment in the ideal temperature of 68EF ± 3EF. The second is lager (AKA bottom fermenting) yeast. The bottom fermenting yeast was discovered late in brewing history but is fast becoming the choice of the master brewers. It is called bottom fermenting because at the cold temperatures it ferments at, it will not be as active as it would at room temperatures and appears to sit at the bottom of the ferment. Lager yeast will ferment best in an ideal temperature of 50EF ± 3EF. Some strains will work best at lower temperatures but these are usually unavailable to the homebrewer. The third is Champagne yeast and will ferment in the ideal temperature of 58EF ± 10EF. It is used in high alcohol beers. High-gravity beers (heavy brewing) may create a condition where the amount of sugars to ferment will produce more alcohol than the yeast can tolerate. This condition will limit the attenuation and prevent the completion of fermentation with normal beer yeasts. Champagne yeasts can ferment up to 18% alcohol under ideal conditions (beer yeast must struggle to live above 8% alcohol).

General Precautions
1, 2, Some lager strains require warmer fermentation temperatures. Check with your supplier about the strain you are using. Most dry lager yeasts manufactured during the period from 1990 to 1994 will not work below 55EF.

Be Kind to Your Little Beasties
3, Do not use a lager yeast in a warmer temperature than recommended by producer. Strange flavors often occur when some lager yeasts are used above 60EF.

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All yeasts will work at temperatures up to 95EF, but as the fermentation temperature rises into the seventies and above, the delicate flavor of the beer will be diminished. This should not deter the summer brewer. Many a fine beer is made in the summer in a cool cellar or an air conditioned room.

Forms of Commercial Yeasts
Homebrewing yeasts come in two forms, dry and liquid. Both have their good and bad points. For the novice brewer, I consider dry yeast, either ale or lager, to be the more advantageous choice. Until their brewing skills increase and their taste buds are refined, dry yeasts will be satisfactory. The simplified chart, Table XIV, Comparison of Dry and Liquid Yeasts, shows the good and bad points of each yeast form. This chart summarizes the differences between the yeast types so you can make an informed decision. Be careful of shipping live liquid yeast cultures. Warm up during transit or a long trip could kill the culture by the time you receive it. Your time and money are flushed down the toilet when this happens. The yeast's supplier, manufacturer, and condition may be great but the shipper may not. Caution: When using the dry yeast that comes with a beer kit be sure that it has the manufacturer's name on the package. Many a plain white pack that says "Special Brewing Yeast" may just be dirty bread yeast. I trust people who put their names on their packages. Manufacturers of good yeasts are proud to place their name on the package.

Dried Yeast Rehydration
The proper rehydration of dried yeast is the most critical phase in using dry yeast. Dry yeast, damaged by failure to rehydrate, will fail to produce their fermentation characteristics. A dry yeast must never be added to anything but pure warm (see Table XIII, Manufacturers' Recommended Rehydration Temperatures for Dry Yeasts, water. Cold rehydration and rehydration in a yeast starter or wort may cause a drop in viable yeast cell count of more than 95%. Any foreign substance (sugars, malts, acids, or hops) in the yeast rehydration medium will cause cell poisoning. This is not a very nice thing to do to one of your best friends. A little TLC will go a long way with your yeast buddies. Rehydration is simple. All you need is a large diameter shallow dish (I use a 9 inch cake pan), a thermometer, some boiling water, and a cover for the pan (tin foil works well). 1st. Pour about ½ inch of boiling water into the pan and cover immediately with new tin foil. 2nd . Allow water to cool to the required temperature (see Table XIII). If you do not have a thermometer, make the water body temperature. rd 3 . Wipe the yeast package with a clean paper towel and a sanitizing solution. Uncover the pan, sprinkle the yeast on the surface of the water, and then quickly recover. 4th. Let the yeast rehydrate for about 8 ± 6 minutes. Caution: Never let the yeast rehydrate for more than 15 minutes without feeding it. If you are running out of time, add 2 tablespoons of wort to feed the yeast or put the yeast into a yeast starter (see Chapter XIII, Culturing a Yeast). 5th . Stir the yeast after the rehydration period.

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Be Kind to Your Little Beasties

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Wort Inoculation
When introducing yeast into a wort it should be done in one of the appropriate methods given below. Always sanitize the outside of a yeast package or starter bottle before opening or pouring. Rigorous aeration of the wort prior to inoculation is required. Aeration can be as simple as whipping the wort into a froth for a few minutes or building your own aerator from a fish tank air pump, aeration rock and a simple alcohol sterilization filter. a) For Live Liquid Yeast Cultures (Yeast Labs types) without starter included in the package and Yeast Culture Slants: A yeast starter must be used, see Chapter XIII, Culturing a Yeast). Slowly warm the starter and yeast culture/slant to the same (±5EF), warm (80EF ±10EF) temperature. When the yeast is in active fermentation it may be added to the wort. The temperature of the starter and the wort should also be the same (±5EF). Preparation time for this type of yeast will be two to four days at room temperature. The yeast temperature should be at the same (±5EF) temperature as the wort at inoculation. b) For Live Liquid Yeasts Cultures (Wyeast types) with starter in the package: These should be cared for as the manufacturer specifies on the package. Preparation time for this type of yeast culture will be two to four days at room temperature. The yeast temperature should be at the same (±5EF) temperature as the wort at inoculation. c) For Rehydrated Dry Yeast: Make sure the wort is at 90EF ± 4E before adding a rehydrated dry yeast or at the same temperature as the yeast (±5EF). Add the yeast slowly to the wort. If the Yeast and wort are within the 90EF ± 5EF range, fermentation should start within two to four hours.

Note: When lagering, hold the beer at room temperature until the fermentation becomes active. This will usually take from 2 to 6 hours after inoculation. After active fermentation is achieved, cool the beer to lager temperatures.

YEAST IN BRIEF
I. II. III. IV. Always rehydrate a dry yeast. Assume that all yeast in a beer kits is an ale yeast. Never use a generic (no name or unknown) yeast. I recommend that you always buy a fresh pack of yeast if you are not sure of the age of the beer kit you may be using. There are many inexpensive yeasts to choose: BrewTek, Coopers, Doric, Edme, GlenBrew, John Bull, Lallemand, Munton & Fison, Red Star, Wyeast, Yeast Culture, Yeast Labs, to name a few. In general, ferment ales at 68EF ± 3, liquid lager yeast cultures at 50 ± 3EF, dry lager yeasts at 58EF ± 3EF. Always check with your yeast supplier for the exact optimum temperature of any strain you select. Use champagne yeast in addition to beer yeast for all high-gravity brewing. It will keep your final gravities low. Rehydrate champagne yeasts with the beer yeast and inoculate the beer with both yeasts simultaneously. No single chapter of a book can give more than an overview of a topic like Yeast Culturing. For more information pick up the Beer Engineer's book, In Search of a Good 5¢ Yeast, ISBN 09632514-3-0, at your brewing supplier today.

IV.

V. VI. VII.

Concoction Notes

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XIII

Culturing a Yeast

The proper yeast is critical to the successful concoction of a World Class beer. This chapter provides step by step instructions the culturing and use of your own special yeast. This section is an abbreviated version of the Beer Engineer's instruction booklet, In Search of a Good 5¢ Yeast. Anyone can buy a liquid yeast cultures for each batch of beer they brew. The frugal concoctor will buy one pack of live yeast culture and make hundreds of "clones" (cultures) of equal quality and purity. Culturing a Yeast is simple and inexpensive. The steps required to make 25 "clones of any yeast are given in the following steps. While these steps are for making 25 cultures (slants) and 7 yeast starters, you can increase the quantity to any number you require. The steps stay the same. The term slant is derived from the observation of the culture tubes set at an angle to maximize the yeast growth area. The ingredients for Cultures and Starters are easily available: Yeast NutrientNote 1, Extra Light DME, Agar-Agar PowderNote 2 , Sanitizer, Water, and last but certainly not least the YeastNote 3. The equipment for Cultures and Starters are also easily available: Stainless Steel pot for boiling, Small pot for boiling lids and water. Inoculation ToolNote 4, 25 Culture Tubes Note 5 (slants) and caps, Propane torch/alcohol lamp or equivalent, 7 Pint Canning jars, lids, and sealing bands, a seven-pint Canner with rack and jar funnel, two #2 rubber stoppers (one with hole & one solid), a 3-piece cylindrical airlock, five-feet of ½" or larger plastic tubing, a small cardboard box, tin foil, rubber gloves, Glass Wine Thief, Glass Funnel, 750 ml Wine Bottle, and a wooden board with twenty-five ¾ inch holes drilled at 45E angle to hold cultures inside cardboard box. Footnotes: (1): Yeast Nutrient is available at all brewing supply shops. (2): Agar-Agar (a.k.a. Agar) is available from most Oriental Food Stores and from Crossfire Engineering Inc. (3): Yeast sources are purchased from your local brewing supplier or rescued from the bottom of non-pasteurized beer bottles. (4) An inoculation tool can be made from a 12 gauge, 12 length, diamond point sewing needle available from CEI for $6.99. (5) Sterile, Clear Polypropylene, Culture Tubes with Snap-caps for both aerobic or anaerobic culturing are available from Crossfire Engineering Inc. for $12.95 per sterile bag of 25. For a more detailed look at yeast culturing, ask your brewing supplier for a copy of the booklet, In Search of a Good 5¢ Yeast (Cost $5.95).

Culturing a Yeast

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Cultures
Preparing the Culture Tubes
1st. Wash and rinse all equipment in a good Sanitizer/Cleaner. Be sure to include the inside of the turkey baster's squeeze ball, the holding rack, the outside of the sterile pack of culture tubes. Rinse with boiling water. Use twice the manufacturers recommendation of sanitizer when mixing the sanitizing solution. 2nd . Wash down a draft free work environment with the sanitizer and then cover the work area surface with the clean towel soaked in a sanitizing solution. Set your tube holder in the same area, next to the towel. 3rd . Mix c teaspoon of Yeast Nutrient to 3 cups of boiling water. Measure out 1½ cups of this water for use in the next step. 4th . Boil a mixture of 3 tablespoons of Extra Light DME, 1 very level teaspoon of Agar-Agar powder with 1½ cups of the water from the 3rd step above until the Agar-Agar and DME are dissolved. Be careful the mix does not stick to bottom of the pot or boil over. Do not reduce liquid below 1¼ cups. Add more boiled water from the 3rd step above if it does. 5th . Insert the ½ inch breathing tube into your mouth and drape it over your shoulder to allow all your breath to exit behind you. If you breath through your nose, tape it shut. Do not breath on the sterile materials. 6th. Put the rubber gloves on and wash them down with the sanitizer. 7th . Open the bag of twenty five sterile culture tubes and set, still in bag, in the clean draft free area. 8th . Remove the cap from one culture tube and fill it ½ full with the boiling agar/DME mixture. Use the turkey baster to fill the culture tube. Be sure to collect only the clear mixture and not the foam that may be on the top of the liquid. Recap the culture tube and place it in the holding rack before going on to the next one. Do not touch the holder with your tools or gloves. Repeat this step until all tubes are filled, capped, and in their holder. 9th . Place the tube holder in the cardboard box. Close the box and place the box in a warm, dark place for a week. 10th . After the week in a warm (70EF ± 5EF), dark place, look at each culture tube under a light to test them for contamination. Any tube showing signs of (discoloration) is contaminated and must be discarded. When in doubt, throw it out. One lost tube is nothing compared with a lost batch of beer.

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1st . Wash and rinse all equipment in a good Sanitizer/Cleaner. Be sure to include the outside of the yeast package, the inoculation took, the holding rack, and the outside of the culture tubes and caps. Rinse with boiling water. Use twice the manufacturers recommendation of sanitizer when mixing the sanitizing solution. 2nd . Wash down a draft free work environment with the sanitizer and then cover the work area surface with the clean towel soaked in a sanitizing solution. Set your tube holder in the same area, next to the towel. 3rd . The yeast pack should be prepared per the instructions on the pack. 4th . Boil the small canning jar and the piece of tin foil in a pot of water for ten minutes. In another pot, boil enough water to fill the canning jar. Remove the jar from the boiling water and fill with the fresh boiling water. Cover with the tin foil and set in the work area to cool to room temperature. 5th . Insert the ½ inch breathing tube into your mouth and drape it over your shoulder. Do not breath on the sterile surfaces. 6th . Using a sterile instrument, open the yeast package. th 7 . Light the alcohol lamp or other open flame. Heat the metal inoculation tool until it glows red in the flame. Immediately lift the tin foil from the cooled water jar, immerse the took to cool it, remove the tool, and recover the jar with the foil. 8th . Open the culture tube and dip the inoculation tool into the yeast supply. Remove the tool from the yeast and drop the contents of the tool onto the top of the Agar-Agar medium. Perform this inoculation 3 times to insure a successful inoculation. Using the tool, scratch the surface of the Agar-Agar to allow the yeast to permeate the medium. Secure the culture tube lid and return it to the holder. Do not touch the holder with anything but the sealed tube. 9th. Repeat the 8th step until remaining tubes are inoculated. th 10 . Place the holder in the cardboard box. Place the box in a warm (68EF to 75EF) place for one week. Loosen the caps once each day to release any gas pressure in the tubes. Reseal firmly. Do not remove the covers for any reason, just release the pressure. 11th . After one week, move the box with the yeast culture jars to a cool place (refrigerator) for storage. Do not freeze the yeast cultures. Your yeast cultures should remain viable for over six months. Think of it, Live cultured yeast for under $0.80 per batch of beer.

Culturing a Yeast

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The Yeast Starter
Yeast Starters are used to activate a yeast culture prior to wort inoculation. This method is also applicable to preparing sterilized speise for beer priming. Starting times is usually under two days but can be as quick as two hours if the temperatures are held close to 90EF

Preparing the Yeast Starter
1st. Wash and rinse 7 pint jars, lids, and rings. nd 2 . Place the jars in a canner on the rack and add 3 inches of water to each jar. Put three inches of water in the canner. Place the jar rings near the bottom of the canner. Cover canner and boil for 15 minutes. 3rd . Bring a pot of water to a rapid boil. Add lids, turn down the heat and let simmer over low heat until needed. 4th . Mix one teaspoon of Yeast Nutrient, three-quarters (¾) of a pound of Extra Light DME, and one gallons of hot water. Boil the mixture for at least fifteen minutes. Stir the mixture occasionally. Be careful not to boil over. 5th . Drain and fill jars processed quart jars to within ½ inch of top with the boiling DME mixture. Remove the dome seals from the simmering water bath and secure on the jars with the sealing band. Screw down the lids evenly and firmly. Replace the jars in the canner. Lower the jars into the canner, cover the canner, and boil (process) for fifteen minutes. 6th . Remove the jars from the canner. Set upside down on a newspaper covered surface for 10 minutes to sterilize the jar tops. Turn the jars upright and allow to slowly cool to room temperature. Remove the jar sealing bands and you are done.

Using the Yeast Starter
1st . Sterilize funnel, wine bottle, and inoculation tool in boiling water for five minutes, remove from heat, and put rubber stoppers in. Sanitize the airlock. 2nd . Warm the yeast starter and culture to 90o F ± 5EF temperature. rd 3 . Clean the outside of the starter jar and the culture tube with a very strong sanitizing liquid. Rinse with boiled water. Remove the cap of previously prepared yeast culture tube. Caution: Examine the yeast culture. It should be a creamy, white, gelatinous solution. If it does not look creamy then it has been contaminated and another culture tube must be used. 4th . Add the jar of yeast starter to the sterile bottle using the sterile funnel. 5th . Add the contents of the yeast culture tube to the jar of yeast starter. This can be done with the inoculation tool after it has been sterilized. 6th . Cover the starter with the solid stopper and shake well to aerate. Remove stopper and repeat this covering and shaking process three times. 7th . Exchange solid stopper for the stopper with the hole and airlock. Add vodka to the airlock and place the starter bottle in a warm (70EF±5EF), dark place until the yeast begins active fermentation.

Culturing a Yeast in Brief
I II All other Chapters referred to sanitizing your equipment. This Chapter requires sterilization when indicated. There are many more sources of yeast than the packs you buy in the stores. Beer bottles from different

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III IV V VI parts of the world, that do not pasteurize the beer, are great sources of very specialized yeast. The breathing hose is very important to prevent your breath from contaminating the yeast. Follow the directions on the canner you have. Do not use a Yeast Starter to rehydrate a dry yeast. Use only pure water to rehydrate a yeast. Yeast starters are also a fine source of sterile speise for priming your beer.

Concoction Notes

Concoction Notes

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XIV

To Keg or Not to Keg?

There is nothing magical about kegging beer. A keg is just a big bottle. When you think of it that way, kegging becomes easy to understand. There are many types of kegs to choose from. Each has its good and bad points. Any keg is easier to use than bottles. They wash quicker. They fill quicker. Most of them are stronger. There are many kegs available for use to the home brewer. I list most of the choices in the order of my preference. The first four choices are easily adaptable to a CO2 regulator and tank or fitted with an inexpensive air (Picnic) pump for a quick party. When using air pumps, bottle any beer remaining in the keg after the party is over. CO2 bulb adapters are available for them.

Keg Choices
1st Choice: Sankey, Single Valve Kegs come in two sizes. Seven and one-half gallons and fifteen gallons. The kegs and all replacement parts are readily available. This is the type of keg used by the Big Boys: Budweiser, Miller, and Coors. It is the easiest of all kegs to clean and maintain. They open and close quickly and effortlessly with the KegMan adapter available from your local supplier or direct from Crossfire KegMan Products. This type of keg requires no wooden bung to close. The main objection to this keg is the requirement to brew about eight gallons of beer to fill the quarter keg. Hint 25: This problem is easily solved by using the half keg as the fermenter. Use a No. 10.5 gum rubber stopper and airlock for the transformation. Hint 26: Another method is to brew a high-gravity (heavy) beer. Use the additional malt and a package of champagne yeast in your normal size batch. At kegging time, the keg is topped off with boiled and cooled water to return the beer to normal strength. This boiling will remove any unwanted air and reduce the chances of an infection. Sankey kegs are easy to clean. Its smooth stainless steel insides have no hidden crevices or passageways for mold to hide in. The draw tube can be cleaned in any sink without tools or special setup. This keg is great for all occasions. Gas taps and picnic pumps are available at your local supplier or Crossfire KegMan Products. This is the professional's choice. Primary pressure rating is 65 psig. These kegs may be force carbonated or primed at ½ of any priming rate in Chapter XI. 2nd Choice: The now obsolete Golden Gate Keg is the next most desirable keg. Like the Sankey keg, it is easy to clean and has no draw tube. This is a cleaning plus. The taps for this type of keg are still available from Crossfire KegMan Products but are no longer available nationally. You may find them at Flea Markets. Primary pressure rating is 65 psig. These kegs may be force carbonated or primed just as the Sankey keg. The disadvantage of this keg is its bung must be replaced every time the keg is filled. 3rd Choice: The Hoff Stevens or Twin Probe Keg follows the Golden Gate Kegs. They also have wooden bungs. Cleaning this type of keg is a problem. The internal draw tube (usually plastic) is inaccessible. Special tools and setup are required to clean this keg. A second disadvantage is its bung must be replaced every time the keg is filled. Again the kegs are easily available. Many smaller national breweries, micro-breweries and pubs use them. Fittings are readily available. Primary pressure rating is 65 psig. These kegs may be force carbonated or primed just as the Sankey Keg.

To Keg or Not to Keg?
4th Choice: The Coors and Budweiser beer ball or sphere. They are available in five and 2.5 gallon sizes. The spheres are easily cleaned whether using a batch latch or the original seal. Clean the original sealed spheres by using a faucet adapter to 3/8 ID flexible tube and two pieces of 3/8 OD rigid plastic tubing. Force the sphere open with one piece of the tubing. Insert the other tube, connected to the faucet, to rinse the sphere with hot tap water. After the initial rinse, pour the cleaner/sterilizer solution into the sphere via the rigid tube. A funnel is handy. Lastly, rinse the sphere with hot tap water. Similarly, fill the beer sphere with primed (Low Carbonation level) beer. Seal the sphere with two 3/8 pieces of solid plastic rod. Crossfire KegMan Products will have a capper available to recap these spheres by the Summer of 1995. Primary pressure rating is 35 psig. These kegs may be force carbonated at 15 psig or primed at ½ the low normal level. 5th Choice: The premix soda syrup, AKA Cornelius, tanks are still available. They come in 3, 5 and 10 gallon sizes. This keg has been the standard of the home brewer for many years. They are easy to open and reseal. Recently, they have become hard to find. The major soda companies are phasing out the use of these tanks because of leakage and expense. These kegs have two drawbacks. The first, the draw tube is inaccessible (without tooling) for cleaning and they have many hidden threads and crevices that resist cleaning. The second, they are very prone to leaking and replacement parts are expensive. Adapters to pump these kegs by air (picnic pump) or CO2 bulb are only available as a custom made item. Crossfire KegMan Products does make them. The pressure rating of the soda kegs is 130 psig maximum. These kegs may be force carbonated or primed at ½ of any priming rate in Chapter XI, Making the Bubbles. Editor's note: These kegs are very popular in the homebrewing world and he thinks the soda kegs should be placed in front of the beer balls. Sanitation Engineers disagree with this. 6th Choice: The white plastic Edme, Hambleton Bard and Home Brewery kegs are sold everywhere. They are fine for the occasional beer serving from the limited space of a refrigerator. If you have enough space for a 6-gallon keg, you probably have room for a keg from above. They are considerably more expensive than the kegs mentioned before and are sometimes made of non-brewery approved plastics. They cannot be used with a regulator and CO2 tank. Priming is limited to below Very Low Levels. Always follow the manufacturers instructions for priming. Working pressure is 4 to 8 psig. These kegs must be primed. They cannot be force carbonated. 7th Choice: The Five-Liter Party Keg is easy to use and cheap to buy. It has no cleaning problems. The beer tastes like canned beer but most Americans drink canned beer anyway. Some people may claim that canned beer has an objectionable (tin) taste. This choice is perfect, though, for the small brewer who wants to store many different beers for their own use. Air pumps and CO2 serving systems are available. These kegs must be primed. They cannot be force carbonated. Note: Some difficulty is encountered when the rubber stopper and plug are reinserted into a full can. This causes the deforming of the top of the can and can cause it to leak. Crossfire KegMan Products makes a special plug and inserting tool to replace the plastic insert. This KegMan plug is inserted from the inside of the can, with insertion tool, after the rubber stopper is installed. This product will make life a lot easier than resealing by brute force.

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Serving Keg Beer
Serving keg beer is simple. There are only six commandments to keep. That is four less than Moses had.

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1st. Never serve beer with the clear plastic (¼, 5/16, or 3/8) syphon hose. It is not brewery approved and the plastic used in these syphon hoses will affect the taste of a beer remaining in contact with it for any length of time. There are several brands of hose that are brewery approved. Brewery approved hose should be used in all beer serving lines by anyone who likes beer. Beer should not have that Special Plastic taste and aroma. 2nd . Beer served with a CO2 tank and regulator should be served at about 8 psig. If the beer foams at this pressure, either lower the CO2 pressure, or lower the beer's temperature. 3rd . Lubricate your faucet, gas tap, and other rubber items that will come in contact with the beer, with brewery approved lubricant. This will extend the life of all your equipment and keep your beer clean tasting. 4th . Clean your system thoroughly. Crossfire KegMan Products can supply you with several Beer Line Cleaners (BLC). If you prefer, dissemble your system every week and flush clean with hot water. When in doubt change your hoses. 5th. Never use a CO2 tank and regulator without a relief valve. It is against the law in many states and is a very stupid thing to do. Crossfire KegMan Products have 60 psi blow off relief valves for all 5/16 pressure lines. 6th . Always test a keg for leakage after resealing. A good leak tester is a mixture of dish soap and glycerin (a.k.a. Liqueur Finishing Formula). A little poured around the leak points will easily detect any leak with a little CO2 pressure placed in the keg.

Forced Carbonation
A keg of beer is usually force carbonated with CO2. This will eliminate the small deposit of sediment associated with priming. It is the easiest method of carbonation. There are no calculations to do. Just set your regulator and that is it. Carbonation can be adjusted in 2 psi steps from the normal (40 psi) level specified here. It will follow the pattern in Table XII, Priming Rates for DME, Speise, and Corn Sugar. Use 2 psi as the step adjustment between each carbonation level. Hint 27: Aging the beer for 1 to 3 months in a glass carboy prior to kegging will further clarify a beer. Remember to age in a cool dark place. Some place winemaker's oak chips into the carboys to give an authentic oak cask conditioned taste. Forced carbonation with CO2 is done by following seven steps. 1st . Cool the beer to 35EF. Allow it to remain at this temperature for at least 24 hours. 2nd . Remove the keg from the refrigerator. Pressurize the keg with CO2 with the regulator set between 38 and 42 psig. rd 3 . Rock the keg vigorously for about one minute to mix the gas into the cold beer. Return the keg to the refrigerator and leave the gas source connected at the set pressure. 4th . In a couple of hours, repeat steps 2 and 3. 5th . In another few hours, repeat steps 2 and 3. 6th . Let the keg stay refrigerated for 12 hours to saturate with CO2. 7th . If you are in a hurry to try your beer, reduce the keg pressure to 8 psig and pour yourself a cold one. The beer still has to condition (conditioning) for another one to three weeks but the carbonation should be sufficiently absorbed to judge the potential of the beer.

Carbonation by Priming
Kegs can be carbonated just like they were a big bottle. All you do is follow Chapter XI, Making the Bubbles. It is that easy. You decide on Speise, DME, Corn Sugar (Dextrose) or anything in between. It is

To Keg or Not to Keg?
your concoction. Go for it. Remember to cut the bottle priming rates by 50% when dealing with a draught beer.

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Kegging in Brief
I II III IV Kegging is easier than bottling. Most kegs are available and very cheap. Always use brewery approved materials when in contact with beer. Other materials may add off odors and flavors to beer. Always follow the manufacturer's priming instructions for the non-brewery aftermarket kegs.

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XV

RECIPES

Recipes will help you to understand the new methods and standard schedules presented in this Technical Reference Manual. They may also provide you with the World Class beer recipe you have been looking for. The recipes are all for 5½ U.S. gallons of beer, including the priming solution. Exact measurements are nice but are not necessary. If your are close, everything will be fine. These recipes have come a long way from the old "Blue Ribbon Malt" brews I made back in the "good old days." Select a recipe using Table XV, Recipe Selection Chart in Chapter XV. The recipes are arranged in the order of their starting gravity (SG) and then bitterness (IBU). In addition to this, Table XV provides the color, style, and alcohol content for each recipe. Each recipe provides the 1994 hop alpha acid percents for those who would like to be exact in the IBU calculations. Color may vary with each lot of grain and malt used. Alcohol content is given in percent by weight as an indication of strength. The suggested aging time is the minimum number of weeks, after bottling, to insure proper maturity. All hops are in the pellet form unless otherwise specified by the recipe. Substitutions of hop flowers for pelletized hops will effect the IBU. Mini-Mash recipes require transferring the beer to a clean fermenter after primary fermentation to remove as much sediment as possible. I always transfer the beer into another fermenter. Glass carboys are used at this time by many brewers but I use another plastic fermenter. I save the carboys for aging prior to kegging my beers. I think this preference of mine for plastic is influenced by my age and the number of times I have broken multiple bones in various youthful misadventures. The recipes will allow experimentation with the whole range of beer gravities, bitterness, hop flavor, and hop aroma (nose). I have selected these recipes to increase your brewing experience in these areas. Use them to "open the door" to and enter the domain of the World Class brewer. After a few recipes you will have all the knowledge required to step into the concocting world with your own recipes. Mastery of the brewing skills comes with a lot more practice not a lot of reading. As you try these recipes, I am sure you will develop a profile of your own. Your favorite beer profile may be different from mine. I have settled on hop schedules that work for brewing beer the way I like it. You must now find what you like.

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Hint 28: Instead of boiling for 60 to 90 minutes for bittering, consider using Ireks Hopped Malt extract Syrup for German Beers or Munton & Fison Hopped Malt Extract Syrup for English and U.S. Beers. It can save you a considerable amount of time and energy. Do not substitute other brands unless they are bittered with real hops. Most other brands use hop extracts to bitter. Hint 29: If you do not have a Kicker (Alexander's 1.5 lb cans), just use any 3.3 pound can of malt extract and use half of it. Store remainder of MES in a glass canning jar and lid. Hint 30: Substitute malt syrup and Dry Malt Extract at the rate of 3.3 lbs of syrup per 3 lbs of DME. Substitute Crystal malts for Vienna and Munich malts if you do not want to use the more complex MiniMash. Grain heads can substitute their favorite grains at the rate of 1.3 to 1.4 pounds of malted grain per pound of MES and 1.6 to 1.7 pounds of malted grain per pound of DME. Actual rates of conversion will depend on your mashing efficiency and each malting of the individual grains. Hint 31: Always allow a 10% tolerance on any value given in the recipe description. Manufacturing lots vary and brewing is like horseshoes, close is sometimes all it takes to win.

Recipes in Brief
1, The recipe size used in this manual is 5½ U.S. gallons including the priming and hopping liquids. 2, All lagers that require lagering at 48EF to 52EF require a live liquid yeast pack or culture from one. There are many strains available. Use an appropriate one for the style of the beer in the recipe. 3, All hops are pellet form unless otherwise indicated by the recipe. 4, When using whole grain, it is very important to transfer the beer into a clean fermenter after primary fermentation is over. 5, When priming, the amount represented by "1 Measure," in recipes, can be found in Chapter XI, Making the Bubbles. 6, When Champagne yeast is called for in the recipes, rehydrate it with the beer yeast. Brand specified is very important. 7, Recipes requiring lagering can be made at near room temperature but an appropriate yeast (California Liquid Lager or European Dry Lager) must be used. 8, All dry yeasts must be rehydrated prior to inoculation of wort. 9, Never assume a hop's alpha acid percent has not changed. Hops marked with an "F" are whole flower hops. All Saaz hops are imported Czechoslovakian Saaz, All Hallertau, Hersbrucker, Tettnanger, and Mittelfrüh are imported German hops. All Styrian Goldings are Slovenian. All Fuggles and East Kent Goldings are imported from England.

Abbreviations in Recipes
AA% = percent of alpha acid, MES = malt extract syrup; Lb = U.S. pound, Oz = U.S. ounce weight, In = U.S. Inch, Pk = 7 Gram pack of Yeast or one liquid pouch, Meas = One measure for priming (omit the priming measure if you will be force carbonating your beer with liquid CO2 ).

Remember : See Appendix J, Brew Water

Concoction Notes

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Recipe No.: 3049, Das Weihnachtszeitbier (Christmas time beer) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Color: Brown Start SG: 1.072 Final SG: 1.020/26 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.9% Bitterness: 28 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.60cfu Hop Aroma: 0.32cau Typical aging time required: 16 to 24 weeks 9.9 Lb German Amber MES 1 Lb München Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipe No.: 21, Die Zauberformel (The magic formula) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Color: Brown Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.018/25 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.9% Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.16 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.15 cau Typical aging time required: 14 to 22 weeks 9.5 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb München Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ¼ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

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Recipe No.: 2506, Der Nachruf (The obituary) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Color: Light Gold Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.017/23 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.9% Bitterness: 19 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.25 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.03 cau Typical aging time required: 13 to 21 weeks 9.9 Lb German Light MES ¾ Lb München Grain Malt (or ¾ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Extra Light DME ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Recipe No.: 137, Der Schwarze Hund (The black dog) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Color: Black Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.019/24 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.7% Bitterness: 34 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.26 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.08 cau Typical aging time required: 15 to 23 weeks 9.9 Lb German Amber MES ½ Lb München Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) c Lb Black Grain Malt ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Hint 32: Save your partial MES can contents in a sterile canning jar in the refrigerator. The MES will stay fresh till needed.

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Recipe No.: 1309, Der Steife Bock (The clumsy oaf) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.018/24 Bitterness: 26 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.20 cfu Typical aging time required: 18 weeks 9.9 Lb German Light MES 1 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Brown Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.9% Hop Aroma: 0.22 cau

Recipe No.: 3357, Das Kosewort Bräu (The darling beer) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Color: Dark Amber Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.019/25 Alcohol: Very Strong @5.7% Bitterness: 17 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.56 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.35 cau Typical aging time required: 14 to 23 weeks 9.9 Lb German Light MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Lb München Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.1%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

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Recipe No.: 61, Der Schalk (The rogue) Type of beer: Das Bockbier Start SG: 1.065 Final SG: 1.016/24 Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.26 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 24 weeks 9.9 Lb German Light MES ½ Lb München Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: Strong @ 5.5% Hop Aroma: 0.20 cau

Recipe No.: 3296, Der Schlauberger (The wise guy) Type of beer: Das Weizenbockbier Start SG: 1.069 Final SG: 1.014/20 Bitterness: 12 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.15 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Wheat MES 4 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz,, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German WEIZEN YEAST

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: Very Strong @6.2% Hop Aroma: 0.04 cau

Hint 33: Two stage fermentation is always better than single stage fermentation. Racking a beer into a second fermenter, after the primary fermentation is over, will dramatically improve a beer's taste.

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Recipe No.: 3530, Der AltSchatz (The ancient treasure) Type of beer: Das DoppelBockbier Color: Pale Start SG: 1.078 Final SG: 1.020/028 Alcohol: Very Strong @6.5% Bitterness: 30 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.13 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.10 cau Typical aging time required: 18 to 28 weeks 11½ Lb Extra Light DME ¾ Lb München Grain Malt (or ¾ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipe No.: 3073, Das Schreckbild (The bogeyman) Type of beer: Das DoppelBockbier Start SG: 1.079 Final SG: 1.020/26 Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.54 cfu Typical aging time required: 13 weeks 11 Lb Extra Light DME ¾ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Brown Alcohol: Very Strong @6.6% Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau

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Recipe No.: 1971, Die Schwartze Nacht (The black night) Type of beer: Das Doppelbockbier Color: Black Start SG: 1.085 Final SG: 1.022/30 Alcohol: Very Strong @7.1% Bitterness: 31 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.79 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau Typical aging time required: 20 to 30 weeks 11½ Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb München Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipe No.: 1776, Das Drachenblut dragon's blood) Type of beer: Das Doppelbockbier Color: Blood Red Start SG: 1.091 Final SG: 1.023/27 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 7.6% Bitterness: 27 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.38 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.31 cau Typical aging time required: 20 to 27 weeks 12 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb München Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Black Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

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Recipe No.: 3728, Der Schwindler (The swindler) Type of beer: Das Doppelbockbier Color: Gold Start SG: 1.079 Final SG: 1.020/25 Alcohol: Very Strong @ 6.6% Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.10 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.03 cau Typical aging time required: 18 weeks 11 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb München Grain Malt (or ¼ Lb Light Crystal Malt) 1¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipe No.: 3419, Das Heinzelmännchen (The leprechaun) Type of beer: Das Starkbier Start SG: 1.118 Final SG: 1.026 Bitterness: 13ibu Hop Flavor: .21cfu Typical aging time required: 27 weeks 16 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb München Grain Malt ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: Extra Strong @ 10.0% Hop Aroma: .08cau

Hint 34: To stop a boil over from becoming a mess use a clean spray mister filled with cold water. The cold spray of water will stop the boil over without excessive cool-down of the pot. An old Windex™ sprayer, after a good cleaning, is a fantastic brewing tool.

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Recipe No.: 1617, Die Endlösung (The final solution) Type of beer: Das Starkbier Color: Gold Start SG: 1.125 Final SG: 1.031/38 Alcohol: Extra Strong @ 10.6% Bitterness: 32 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.83 cfu Hop Aroma: 0.41 cau Typical aging time required: 28 to 40 weeks 17 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb München Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipe No.: 4160, Die Böse Hexe (The wicked witch) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.048 Final SG: 1.012/16 Bitterness: 29 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.64 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 16 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES ¾ Lb 100% Wheat MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 3rd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 4.0% Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau

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Recipe No.: 3777, Der Luftkopf (The air head) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.076 Final SG: 1.020/24 Bitterness: 38 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.69 cfu Typical aging time required: 19 weeks 9.9 Lb German Amber MES 1½ Lb 100% Wheat MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Recipe No.: 246, Die Dampfwalze (The steam roller) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.053 Final SG: 1.013/19 Bitterness: 45 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.54 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES 1½ Lb 55% Wheat MES ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: Very Strong @ 6.2% Hop Aroma: 0.39 cau

Color: Gold Alcohol: 4.8% Strong @ 4.5% Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau

Recipes
Recipe No.: 4110, Der Jabo (The fighter bomber) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.050 Final SG: 1.013/18 Bitterness: 32 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.50 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. Recipe No.: 1580, Der Furier (The sargent) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.057 Final SG: 1.014/19 Bitterness: 15 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.14 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES 2 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

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Color: Light Gold Alcohol: Premium @ 4.2% Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau

Color: Amber Alcohol: Strong @ 4.8% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Hint 35: All Grain Brewers can convert these recipes to all grain recipes. To obtain the number of pounds of grain, multiply the number of pounds of MES by 1.3 and the number of pounds of DME by 1.7. Hint 36: When using an oven to minimize mashing heat flow, place a large cookie sheet full of water between the mash and the heater element.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Recipe No.: 2271, Der Rekrut (The Recruit) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.041 Final SG: 1.010/15 Bitterness: 15 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.13 cfu Typical aging time required: 8 to 16 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. Recipe No.: 3320, Der Altmeister (The old master) Type of beer: Das Altbier Start SG: 1.048 Final SG: 1.012/17 Bitterness: 31 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.69 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 18 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES ¾ Lb Wheat MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 25 (AA%=3.8%) ¾ Oz Northern Brewer, Flavor 20 (AA%=7.5%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 15 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Oz Hersbrucker, 2nd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, 3rd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German Ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Standard @ 3.5% Hop Aroma: 0.05 cau

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @4.1% Hop Aroma: 0.39 cau

Hint 37: To make a brew that sparkles with no chill haze the natural way: chill your beer in a clean fermenter for two days before bottling. The temperature must be below 40EF to achieve the best results. Hint 38: Those people who use the ceramic top bottles for your homebrew would do well to stock up on them. Many states are now outlawing there sale because they are not considered recyclable.

Recipes

105

Recipe No.: 234, Das Bajonettstoß (The bayonet thrust) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.053 Final SG: 1.017/24 Bitterness: 16 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.40 cfu Typical aging time required: 15 to 24 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.1%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: Premium @ 4.1% Hop Aroma: 0.34 cau

Recipe No.: 2567, Der Amerikaner (The American) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.053 Final SG: 1.015/20 Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.05 cfu Typical aging time required: 13 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk Lager yeast, Ferment @ 55EF.

Color: Amber Alcohol: Strong @ 4.4% Hop Aroma: 0.10 cau

Hint 39: Long hop boils will darken a beer. For light beers, select a high alpha acid hop and cut down the boiling time.

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Recipe No.: 2036, Der Löwe (The lion) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.055 Final SG: 1.015/20 Bitterness: 21 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.54 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES 1 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz Tettnanger Bitter 90 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger Flavor 25 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=7.7%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. Recipe No.: 1296, Der Engländer (The Englishman) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.057 Final SG: 1.017/22 Bitterness: 24 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.21 cfu Typical aging time required: 14 to 22 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1½ Lb Extra Light DME 1½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk Lager yeast, Ferment @ 55EF.

Color: Gold Alcohol: Strong @ 4.5% Hop Aroma: 0.24 cau

Color: Gold Alcohol: Strong @ 4.6% Hop Aroma: 0.05 cau

Hint 40: Heat your MES, in a hot water bath, for at least fifteen minutes before opening. The MES will flow better. To aid in handling, dry off the can prior to opening. Hint 41: You can see the action of the enzymes converting the starch on a mash. As the light colored starches are converted, the color changes from light to dark.

Recipes
Recipe No.: 2691, Die Nacht (The night) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.060 Final SG: 1.019/26 Bitterness: 33 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.49 cfu Typical aging time required: 16 to 26 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Lb Black Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 45 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=7.7%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. Recipe No.: 2802, Der Betrüger (The cheater) Type of beer: Das Oktoberfestbier Start SG: 1.050 Final SG: 1.015/21 Bitterness: 18 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.03 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

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Color: Black Alcohol: Strong @ 4.6% Hop Aroma: 0.34 cau

Color: Brown Alcohol: Premium @ 4.0% Hop Aroma: 0.04 cau

Hint 42: Never open a fermenter spigot without first removing (or de-activating) the airlock. The water in any airlock will be drawn into the beer if this Hint is not followed.

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Recipe No.: 1148, Die Taschenlampe (The flashlight) Type of beer: Das Münchener Hell Start SG: 1.044 Final SG: 1.010/15 Bitterness: 21 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.34 cfu Typical aging time required: 8 to 14 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES 0.38 Lb Wheat Grain Malt ¼ Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or ¼ Lb Light Crystal Malt) ½ Oz Northern Brewer, Bitter 90 (AA%=7.5%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 3.8% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Recipe No.: 1210, Die LeuchtBombe (The flare) Type of beer: Das Münchener Hell Start SG: 1.041 Final SG: 1.008/14 Bitterness: 29 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.34 cfu Typical aging time required: 6 to 14 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1.25 Oz Tettnanger, Bitter 90 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, F, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 3.7% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Hint 43: If you want to use DME for MES you can convert between them as follows: The equivalent weight of DME = 0.8 times the weight of MES. The equivalent weight of MES = 1.25 times the weight of DME.

Recipes

109

Recipe No.: 3592, Das mutige Eichhörnchen (The brave squirrel) Type of beer: Das Münchener Hell Start SG: 1.048 Final SG: 1.013/18 Bitterness: 34 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.37 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 6.00 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Wheat Grain Malt ½ Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or ½ Lb Light Crystal Malt) 1½ Oz Hersbrucker, Bitter 90 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Hersbrucker, Bitter 60 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 20 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 15 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @4.0% Hop Aroma: 0.20 cau

Recipe No.: 3567, Die Knallkörper (The detonator) Type of beer: Das Münchener Hell Start SG: 1.057 Final SG: 1.014/20 Bitterness: 28 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.37 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 7½ Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt (or 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt) 1¼ Oz Tettnanger, Bitter 90 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 20 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 15 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 10 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, F, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Strong @ 4.8% Hop Aroma: 0.20 cau

Hint 44: If you will be fermenting a beer for longer than two weeks it is advisable to transfer the beer into a glass carboy sometime after primary fermentation is over.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Recipe No.: 2555, Das Erste Gebräu (1st concoction) Type of beer: Das Dortmunder Lagerbier Start SG: 1.050 Final SG: 1.013/19 Bitterness: 22 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.34 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 4.2% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Recipe No.: 4271, Das Plappermaul (The chatter box) Type of beer: Das Dortmunder Lagerbier Start SG: 1.049 Final SG: 1.013/19 Bitterness: 29 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.42 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 weeks 6 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Lb Wheat MES 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ½ Oz Styrian Goldings, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 4.1% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Hint 45: Always keep brewing records that contain your hop schedules and predicted hop bitterness, flavor, and aroma. This is the only way you can track down your perfect beer and brew it again.

Recipes

111

Recipe No.: 3938, Der Ausgang (The exit) Type of beer: Das Dortmunder Lagerbier Start SG: 1.052 Final SG: 1.014/17 Bitterness: 15 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.14 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 17 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.4%) ½ Oz Tettnanger, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.4%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Black Alcohol: Strong @ 4.2% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Recipe No.: 987, Der Übungsplatz (The drill field)) Type of beer: Das Dortmunder Lagerbier Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.015/19 Bitterness: 19 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.44cfu Typical aging time required: 14 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 25 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Black Alcohol: Premium @ 3.7% Hop Aroma: 0.27 cau

Hint 46: Many beer kits are bittered with hop extracts and should never be boiled. But wait, boiling is the only way to achieve a good hot break and clarity in a beer. Therefore, beer kits, bittered only with real hops, should be selected to allow boiling and create a really clear beer. All recipes in this section require boiling and will assure you of a good hot and cold break.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Recipe No.: 3012, Pils `R' Us Type of beer: Das Pilsbräu Start SG: 1.050 Final SG: 1.011/15 Bitterness: 42 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.52 cfu Typical aging time required: 9 to 15 weeks 4 Lb Extra Light DME 3.3 Lb German Wheat MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=7.7%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German pilsner lager yeast, Ferment @ 52EF. Recipe No.: 4246, Der Tautropfen Wirthaus (The Dew Drop Inn) Type of beer: Das Pils Start SG: 1.054 Final SG: 1.014/19 Bitterness: 32 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.53 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb Amber MES 1½ Lb Wheat MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 3rd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German pilsner lager yeast, Ferment @ 52EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium @ 4.4% Hop Aroma: 0.15 cau

Color: Brown Alcohol: Strong @ 4.5% Hop Aroma: 0.20 cau

Hint 47: Never use a dry yeast without rehydrating it. If you are unsure of the rehydration temperature use 98.6EF (body temperature).

Recipes

113

Recipe No.: 1061, Die Zeittöter (The time killer) Type of beer: Das Weizenbockbier Start SG: 1.061 Final SG: 1.011/16 Bitterness: 27 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.40 cfu Typical aging time required: 9 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German Wheat MES 3.3 Lb German Amber MES ¼ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1 Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 25 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German Weizen yeast, Ferment @ 54EF.

Color: Brown Alcohol: Very Strong @ 5.5% Hop Aroma: 0.08 cau

Recipe No.: 2308, Der Besserwisser (The smart aleck) Type of beer: Das Weizenbräu Start SG: 1.043 Final SG: 1.008/13 Bitterness: 15 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.21 cfu Typical aging time required: 6 to 14 weeks 6.6 Lb German Wheat MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Hersbrucker, Flavor 25 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German Weizen yeast, Ferment @ 54EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: Premium @ 3.9% Hop Aroma: 0.08 cau

Hint 48: To get most chlorinated water ready for brewing you should boil it for about ½ hour and then allow it to set overnight, with a cover, to cool. In the morning it will be ready to use. Be sure to aerate the water before adding the yeast. Boiling will remove all the oxygen from the brew water.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Recipe No.: 469, Der Spritzer (The squirt) Type of beer: Das Weizenbräu y Start SG: 1.039 Final SG: 1.005/11 Bitterness: 5 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.13 cfu 6.6 Lb German Wheat MES ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Oz German Mix P: Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) c Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German Weizen yeast, Ferment @ 54EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: Premium 3.8% Hop Aroma: 0.01 cau

y This beer is usually served with a raspberry or cherry syrup poured into the same glass. This is the Berlin way around a pure beer order, the Reinheitsgebot. Yes, you can have a German fruit beer. Recipe No.: 4320, Der Höllenbrand (hell fire) Type of beer: Das Starkbier Start SG: 1.066 Final SG: 1.016/22 Bitterness: 16 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.34 cfu Typical aging time required: 14 to 22 weeks 6.6 Lb German Light MES 1½ Lb Wheat MES 2 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 45 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Hint 49: Never try to use a dry lager yeast below 55EF.

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: Very Strong @5.6% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Recipes

115

Recipe No.: 2925, Der Kläffer (The yelping dog) Type of beer: Das Starkbier Start SG: 1.068 Final SG: 1.018/25 Bitterness: 25 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.34 cfu Typical aging time required: 15 to 25 weeks 6.6 Lb German Amber MES 1½ Lb Wheat MES 2 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 45 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Recipe No.: 74, Das Wilde Mädchen (The tomboy) Type of beer: Irish Red Ale Start SG: 1.041 Final SG: 1.009/14 Bitterness: 43 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.01 cfu Typical aging time required: 7 to 14 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Roasted Barley Grain Malt 2½ Oz English Fuggles, Bitter 60 (AA%=4.1%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 10 (AA%=4.1%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Brown Alcohol: Very Strong @5.6% Hop Aroma: 0.16 cau

Color: Light Red Alcohol: Premium @ 3.8% Hop Aroma: 0.00 cau

Hint 50: Always use a sterilized glass turkey baster to remove your hydrometer samples from the fermenter. This will allow the protective CO2 to remain intact on top of the beer. Hint 51: When using a cultured yeast, it is a good brewing technique to use a sterile yeast starter. The yeast starter will give your yeast a jump start.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Recipe No.: 2493, Die Verschämte (The barefaced lie) Type of beer: Irish Red Ale Start SG: 1.050 Final SG: 1.010/15 Bitterness: 55 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.05 cfu Typical aging time required: 8 to 12 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 1 Lb Dark Brown sugar c Lb Roasted Barley Grain Malt 2½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Dark Red Alcohol: Strong @ 4.6% Hop Aroma: 0.05 cau

Recipe No.: 444, Der Rote Baron (The Red Baron) Type of beer: Irish Red Ale Start SG: 1.056 Final SG: 1.014/20 Bitterness: 54 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.05 cfu Typical aging time required: 12 to 20 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Dark Brown sugar ¼ Lb Roasted Barley Grain Malt 2½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Red Alcohol: Strong @ 4.8% Hop Aroma: 0.05 cau

Hint 52: Always introduce a yeast to the wort in such a way as not to thermally shock the yeast. This can be accomplished by three methods. First, have the actively fermenting yeast starter and the wort at room temperature. Second, have the wort at about 90EF ±4EF when a rehydrated yeast is introduced. Third, by very slowly adding the wort to the yeast liquid to gradually bring the temperature together.

Recipes

117

Recipe No.: 456, Der Hindernisläufer (The steeplechaser) Type of beer: Das Leichterbier (Porter) Start SG: 1.044 Final SG: 1.013/19 Bitterness: 28 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.18 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb Amber MES ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1½ Oz Tettnanger, Bitter 75 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 3rd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk Ale yeast, Ferment at 65EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: Premium @ 3.6% Hop Aroma: 0.12 cau

Recipe No.: 2678, Der Kajak (The canoe) Type of beer: Das Leichterbier (Porter) Start SG: 1.046 Final SG: 1.013/19 Bitterness: 40 ibu Hop Flavor: 0.05 cfu Typical aging time required: 10 to 20 weeks 6.6 Lb German light MES ½ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk Ale yeast, Ferment at 65EF.

Color: Black Alcohol: 4% Premium 3.7% Hop Aroma: 0.05 cau

Hint 53: If you boil your bottling spigots, they will become unusable. Sanitize them with a good sanitizer from your brewing supplier. They can be disassembled for sanitizing by soaking in very hot water for a few minutes and then pulling the inner and outer housings apart. To reassemble, heat them again and reinsert the inner housing into the outer housing.

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Recipe No.: 3456, Das Irrenhaus (The insane asylum, nut house) Type of beer: English Porter Start SG: 1.045 Final SG: 1.011 Bitterness: 30ibu Hop Flavor: .38cfu Typical aging time required: 11 weeks 6.6 Lb Dark MES ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt ¼ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, F., 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.1%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Black Alcohol: 3.9% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .18cau

Recipe No.: 1234, Der Niedrigste am Baum (Low man on the pole) Type of beer: English Porter Start SG: 1.046 Final SG: 1.011 Bitterness: 25ibu Hop Flavor: .20cfu Typical aging time required: 12 weeks 6.6 Lb Dark MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt 1 Oz English Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Black Alcohol: 4% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .03cau

Hint 54: You can never have enough aeration in the first stage of the fermentation process. Beat you wort well. Spare the rod and spoil the brew. Hint 55: A large kitchen whisk works very well as a wort aerator.

Recipes
Recipe No.: 197, Des Königs Lieblingsbier (The king's favorite beer) Type of beer: English Porter Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.012 Bitterness: 31ibu Hop Flavor: .52cfu Typical aging time required: 13 weeks 6.6 Lb Dark MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt 1 Oz English Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. Recipe No.: 1283, Der Wahnsinn (Insanity) Type of beer: English Porter Start SG: 1.061 Final SG: 1.015 Bitterness: 32ibu Hop Flavor: .56cfu Typical aging time required: 16 weeks 6.6 Lb Dark MES 2 Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Oz English Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Favor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Oz English Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

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Color: Black Alcohol: 4% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .07cau

Color: Black Alcohol: 5.2% Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .29cau

Hint 56: Over carbonated beer is most often caused by failure to allow the beer to ferment out completely.

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Recipe No.: 1654, Der Barbare (The barbarian) Type of beer: California Common Start SG: 1.043 Final SG: 1.008 Bitterness: 38ibu Hop Flavor: .37cfu Typical aging time required: 9 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Malt ½ Oz Chinook, Bitter 75 (AA%=12.4%) ½ Oz Cascades, Flavor 20 (AA%=6.1%) ½ Oz Cascades, Flavor 15 (AA%=6.1%) ½ Oz Cascades, 1st Aroma (AA%=6.1%) ¾ Oz Cascades, 2nd Aroma (AA%=6.1%) ½ Oz Cascades, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk European dry lager yeast, Ferment @ 60EF.

Color: Pale Alcohol: 4% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .30cau

Recipe No.: 1308, Der Struwwelpeter (Peter with the static-electric hair) Type of beer: California Common Color: Pale Start SG: 1.059 Final SG: 1.012 Alcohol: 5.2% Strong Beer Bitterness: 18ibu Hop Flavor: .26cfu Hop Aroma: .08cau Typical aging time required: 13 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME 1½ Lb Wheat MES ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz Cascades, Bitter 75 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, Flavor 25 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, Flavor 20 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, Flavor 15 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, 1st Aroma (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, F, 2nd Aroma (AA%=6.1%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk European dry lager yeast, Ferment @ 60EF. Hint 57: Stainless Steel fittings can be welded into a beer keg boiling pot to allow the pot to be drained. The welded fitting should be located through the side of the keg near the bottom. A drain tube should be attached to this fitting inside the keg. This drain tube should turn down into the recess in the bottom of the keg. The outside fitting should be attached to a ball valve shutoff. Do not use a shutoff valve with a non-metallic seal.

Recipes

121

Recipe No.: 4098, Die Kleine Eisenbahn Die Konnte (The little steam engine that could) Type of beer: California Common Color: Pale Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.010 Alcohol: 4.2% Premium Beer Bitterness: 16ibu Hop Flavor: .13cfu Hop Aroma: .01cau Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6 Lb Extra Light DME ¾ Lb Wheat MES ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Oz Chinook, Bitter 45 (AA%=12.2%) c Oz Chinook, Flavor 25 (AA%=12.2%) c Oz Chinook, Flavor 20 (AA%=12.2%) c Oz Chinook, Flavor 15 (AA%=12.2%) c Oz Chinook, 1st Aroma (AA%=12.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk European dry lager yeast, Ferment @ 60EF.

Recipe No.: 4234, Der Höllenschlung (The jaws of hell) Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.068 Final SG: 1.011 Bitterness: 30ibu Hop Flavor: .32cfu Typical aging time required: 11 weeks 9.9 Lb Extra Light MES ¾ Lb Wheat MES ½ Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ½ Oz Chinook, Bitter 75 (AA%=12%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=7.7%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Hint 58: One pound of grain is about 3½ cups.

Color: Pale Alcohol: 6.5% Very Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .12cau

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Recipe No.: 1740, Der Buschklepper (The bushwacker) Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.043 Final SG: 1.008 Bitterness: 16ibu Hop Flavor: .13cfu Typical aging time required: 9 weeks 6.6 Lb Wheat/Barley MES 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz Tettnanger, Bitter 90 (AA%=4.4%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.2%) c Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. Recipe No.: 1209, This Pud's for You (Guess whose rice beer?) Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.036 Final SG: 1.003 Bitterness: 13ibu Hop Flavor: .03cfu Typical aging time required: 3 weeks 1½ Lb Light MES 4 Lb Rice Syrup Solids ½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 65 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Cascades, Bitter 10 (AA%=6.1%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: 3.9% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .01cau

Color: Pale Alcohol: 3.8% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .04cau

Hint 59: Make your own lauter tun from an old donut bucket and a c inch drill bit. Fill the bottom of the bucket with holes. The donut bucket will fit neatly into your plastic fermenter. Equip your plastic fermenter with a spigot and there you have it. A lauter tun for under 15 bucks. Hint 60: To insulate the lauter tun, fit the two bucket contraption into a large garbage can with a spigot exit whole cut into the side. Fill the area between the buckets and garbage can with Styrofoam pellets or fiberglass insulation. While the double bucket lauter tun has an air space for insulation, the extra insulation will significantly increase the flow rate by keeping the sugars warmer.

Recipes

123

Recipe No.: 703, Corks' Gold (Extra Gold) Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.042 Final SG: 1.009 Bitterness: 20ibu Hop Flavor: .05cfu Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6 Lb Extra Light DME ¼ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 65 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz Cascades, Bitter 10 (AA%=6.1%) ½ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: 3.8% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .10cau

Recipe No.: 704, Gomes Addams December Lager Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.062 Final SG: 1.010 Bitterness: 20ibu Hop Flavor: .26cfu Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES 3.3 Lb Wheat MES ¼ Lb Extra Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 25 (AA%=5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 15 (AA%=5%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 50EF.

Color: Gold Alcohol: 5.8% Very Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .08cau

Hint 61: Always purge your kegs with CO2 before filling. This will prevent aeration of your fine beer. The same goes for carboys used for secondary fermentation. A good CO2 purge is always worth the small cost. CO2 is heavier than air and will stay in the container above the beer as it flows into the container.

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Recipe No.: 2877, Gomes Addams Oktoberfest Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.009 Bitterness: 21ibu Hop Flavor: .26cfu Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6.6 Lb Extra Light MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt 1 Lb Vienna Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.4%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.4%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.2%) ¼ Oz Czech Saaz, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.2%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 50EF.

Color: Amber Alcohol: 4.2% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .08cau

Recipe No.: 1777, Gomes Addams Massachusetts Lager Type of beer: American Start SG: 1.046 Final SG: 1.011 Bitterness: 21ibu Hop Flavor: .26cfu Typical aging time required: 12 weeks 6.6 Lb Dark MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.4%) ¼ Oz Tettnanger, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.4%) ¼ Oz Hallertau, Flavor 15 (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Hallertau, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz Hallertau, 2nd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: 3.9% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .08cau

Hint 62: Use only plastic spoons and paddles in plastic buckets. Steel tools will scratch plastic fermenters. Wooden implements are good "germinators" and should be avoided.

Recipes

125

Recipe No.: 1790, Der Heizkörper (The radiator) Type of beer: Irish Stout Start SG: 1.091 Final SG: 1.023 Bitterness: 42ibu Hop Flavor: .46cfu Typical aging time required: 23 weeks 9.9 Lb Dark MES 3.3 Lb Amber MES ¼ Lb Black Patent Grain Malt 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¾ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 2 Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Black Alcohol: 7.7% Very Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .12cau

Recipe No.: 3086, Das Gewölbe des Himmels (The firmament) Type of beer: Irish Stout Start SG: 1.069 Final SG: 1.018 Bitterness: 41ibu Hop Flavor: .36cfu Typical aging time required: 18 weeks 9.9 Lb Dark MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 1¾ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¾ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 15 (AA%=5%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, 1st Aroma (AA%=3.8%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 4 In Brewer's Licorice stick last 10 min. of boil 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Black Alcohol: 5.8% Very Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .07cau

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Recipe No.: 1419, Der Himmelswagen (The sky wagon) Type of beer: Irish Stout Start SG: 1.070 Final SG: 1.018 Bitterness: 32ibu Hop Flavor: .11cfu Typical aging time required: 19 weeks 9.9 Lb Dark MES 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 1½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Black Alcohol: 5.8% Very Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .08cau

Recipe No.: 2740, Der Kommandant (The CO) Type of beer: Imperial Stout Color: Black Start SG: 1.097 Final SG: 1.023 Alcohol: 8.2% High Alcohol Beer Bitterness: 63ibu Hop Flavor: .27cfu Hop Aroma: .12cau Typical aging time required: 24 weeks 9.9 Lb Dark MES 4 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 3½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 25 (AA%=5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 15 (AA%=5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 4 In Brewer's Licorice stick in last 10 min of boil 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF. 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Recipes

127

Recipe No.: 814, Die Rauchfahne (A trail of smoke) Type of beer: Irish Stout Start SG: 1.054 Final SG: 1.012 Bitterness: 47ibu Hop Flavor: .25cfu Typical aging time required: 12 weeks 6.6 Lb Amber MES (100% Wheat) 1½ Lb Amber MES (60/40 Barley/Wheat) ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 2 Oz English Mix P, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.1%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.1%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.1%) 1 In Brewer's Licorice stick in last 10 min. of boil 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF. Recipe No.: 2530, Die Schaukel (The swing) Type of beer: English Stout Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.010 Bitterness: 37ibu Hop Flavor: .25cfu Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6.6 Lb Amber MES ½ Lb Dark Brown sugar ¾ Lb Roasted Barley Grain 1½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.1%) ¼ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.1%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.1%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: 4.7% Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .03cau

Color: Black Alcohol: 4.2% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .03cau

Hint 63: Brew two batches of beer at once. It does not take twice the time. This gives you something to drink while you age your good stuff. Hint 64: If you are lagering in a refrigerator you should install a temperature controller.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Recipe No.: 3925, Das Hafermehl Bräu (Oatmeal Stout) Type of beer: Oatmeal Stout Color: Brown Start SG: 1.041 Final SG: 1.013 Alcohol: 2.9% Standard Beer Bitterness: 15ibu Hop Flavor: .14cfu Hop Aroma: .07cau Typical aging time required: 11 weeks 4 Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Clover Honey 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt (See Note) 1 Lb Rolled Oats (Quaker™ Old Fashioned Oatmeal) ¼ Lb Roasted Barley Grain ½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF. Note: After one (1) week, tie oatmeal in hop bag and simmer for 20 minutes in one gallon of the fermenting beer. Withdraw the bag and let it drain into liquid. After cooling, add the oatmeal liquid back into the rest of the beer. Finish fermenting for another five (5) days. Recipe No.: 1135, Der Nussknacker (The Nut Cracker) Type of beer: Nut Brown Ale Start SG: 1.044 Final SG: 1.008 Bitterness: 20ibu Hop Flavor: .33cfu Typical aging time required: 9 weeks 5 Lb Light DME ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1 Lb Dark Brown sugar b Oz English Mix, Bitter 60 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 20 (AA%=3.8%) ½ Oz English Fuggles, Flavor 15 (AA%=3.8%) 1 Oz English Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: 4% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .22cau

Hint 65: Never use preground grain in any of your beers. Grain that has been ground for more than a few hours, like coffee, will lose much of the flavor and aroma you paid for.

Recipes

129

Recipe No.: 3394, Der Verrückte (The nut case) Type of beer: Nut Brown Ale Start SG: 1.045 Final SG: 1.010 Bitterness: 18ibu Hop Flavor: .27cfu Typical aging time required: 11 weeks 3.3 Lb Light MES 3.3 Lb Amber MES ½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¾ Oz Willamette, Bitter 60 (AA%=4.3%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 25 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 15 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 3rd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 65EF.

Color: Brown Alcohol: 3.9% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .12cau

Recipe No.: 1641, Das Neuschlossstein (New Castle) Type of beer: Nut Brown Ale Start SG: 1.047 Final SG: 1.010 Bitterness: 12ibu Hop Flavor: .20cfu Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 6.6 Lb Amber MES ½ Lb Dark Brown sugar ¼ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 4 Oz Lactose 1 Tsp Calcium Carbonate ½ Tsp Citric Acid ¾ Oz Northern Brewer, Bitter 60 (AA%=7.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 2nd Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF.

Color: Dark Brown Alcohol: 4.3% Premium Beer Hop Aroma: .08cau

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Recipe No.: 1259, Die Altkastanie (Chestnut Ale) Type of beer: Brown Ale Start SG: 1.054 Final SG: 1.014 Bitterness: 22ibu Hop Flavor: .57cfu Typical aging time required: 15 weeks 7 Lb Extra Light DME 1½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt c Lb Chocolate Grain Malt 1½ Oz Perle, Bitter 60 (AA%=6.8%) ½ Oz Willamette, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.3%) ½ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk Ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. Recipe No.: 3975, Die Klapperschlange (The rattlesnake) Type of beer: Malt Wine Start SG: 1.123 Final SG: 1.022 Bitterness: 102ibu Hop Flavor: .10cfu Typical aging time required: 23 weeks 19.8 Lb German Light MES ¼ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 7½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, Flavor 20 (AA%=4.5%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Recipe No.: 2020, Der Schwertstreich (The sword stroke) Type of beer: Malt Wine Start SG: 1.120 Final SG: 1.015 Bitterness: 89ibu Hop Flavor: .02cfu Typical aging time required: 16 weeks 19.8 Lb Extra Light MES ½ Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 5¼ Oz Cascades, Bitter 90 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, Flavor 10 (AA%=6.1%) ¼ Oz Cascades, 1st Aroma (AA%=6.1%) ½ Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast

Color: Brown Alcohol: 4.5% Strong Beer Hop Aroma: .05cau

Color: Light Gold Alcohol: 11.4% Very High Alcohol Hop Aroma: .03cau

Color: Pale Alcohol: 11.8% Very High Alcohol Hop Aroma: .03cau

Recipes
Recipe No.: 2715, Der angeheiterte Tippelbruder (The Tipsy Hobo) Type of beer: Malt Wine Color: Dark Gold Start SG: 1.139 Final SG: 1.026 Alcohol: 14.4% Very High Alcohol Bitterness: 74ibu Hop Flavor: .03cfu Hop Aroma: .00cau Typical aging time required: 18 weeks 15 Lb Extra Light DME 5 Lb Clover Honey 1 Lb Light Crystal Grain Malt 6½ Oz German Mix, Bitter 90 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk Lalvin EC-1118 Champagne yeast Children's beer is used in Germany to build up the strength of children and the following recipes are given to complete the beer profiles. Recipe No.: 1157, Die Kletterrose (Rambling Rose) Type of beer: Das Kinderbier (Children's beer) Color: Black Start SG: 1.028 Final SG: 1.015 Alcohol: 1.2% Low Alcohol Beer Bitterness: 40ibu Hop Flavor: .23cfu Hop Aroma: .07cau Typical aging time required: 10 weeks 3 Lb Extra Light DME 1½ Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Roasted Barley Grain ½ Lb Black Grain Malt 1½ Oz English Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz Styrian Goldings, 1st Aroma (AA%=4.5%) 1 In Brewer's Licorice stick in last 10 min. of boil 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. Special instruction: After four days of fermentation, remove 2 gallons and boil the two gallons for five minutes. Cool and return to the fermenter and continue fermentation for one more week. Hint 66: You do not have to spend a lot of money to get a great temperature controller for your lagering refrigerator. Buy one at your local plumbing supply. Build it yourself with instructions from the Beer Engineer for $4.00 to cover the cost of postage, handling, and printing.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Recipe No.: 1158, Der Schäker (The Teaser) Type of beer: Das Kinderbier Start SG: 1.029 Final SG: 1.013 Bitterness: 14ibu Hop Flavor: .30cfu Typical aging time required: 9 weeks 3½ Lb Extra Light DME 1 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ½ Lb Chocolate Grain Malt ¼ Oz German Mix, Bitter 75 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 25 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ½ Oz German Mix, Flavor 10 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, 2nd Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz German Mix, F, 3rd Aroma (AA%=5.1%) 1 Meas DME for priming 1 Pk German lager yeast, Ferment @ 48EF. See special boiling instruction for Die Kletterrose on page 141.

Color: Black Alcohol: 1.4% Near Beer Hop Aroma: .16cau

Recipe No.: 1159, Willy the Kid Type of beer: Das Kinderbier Color: Dark Brown Start SG: 1.032 Final SG: 1.014 Alcohol: 1.5% Near Beer Bitterness: 10ibu Hop Flavor: .55cfu Hop Aroma: .07cau Typical aging time required: 11 weeks 3½ Lb Extra Light DME 2 Lb Dark Crystal Grain Malt ¼ Lb Roasted Barley Grain ¾ Oz East Kent Goldings, Flavor 25 (AA%=5%) ½ Oz English Mix, Flavor 20 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, Flavor 15 (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Mix, 1st Aroma (AA%=5.2%) ¼ Oz English Fuggles, 3rd Aroma (AA%=3.8%) 1 Meas Corn sugar for priming 1 Pk English Ale yeast, Ferment above 68EF. See special boiling instruction for Die Kletterrose on page 141. Hint 67: Always culture the yeast culture you use the most. You can save from 2 to 7 dollars per batch of beer. Hint 68: Always ferment at as cool a temperature as the yeast will permit. Always consult the yeast supplier for detailed information.

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Chapter XV
Table I General Hop Usage Information Hop Variety Brewers Gold Kent Goldings Cascades Chinook East Kent Goldings Fuggles Hersbrucker Mittelfrüh Northern Brewer Perle Pride of Ringwood Saaz Spalter Styrian Goldings Tettnanger Grown in Typically Used For

Tables and Charts

NA

NA, UK, G All Lagers & Ales Ales, Porters, Stouts NA Ales & Lagers NA Am Ales & Lagers UK Ales, Porters, Stouts NA, UK English Beers & Stouts G German Lagers & Ales G Lagers & German Ales NA, UK, G All Lagers & Ales NA, G Lagers, Pilsners, Wheats Aust Aust Lagers & Ales NA, Czech Pilsner, Lagers, Wheat G German Lagers Slovenia All Lagers & Ales NA, G All Wheats & Lagers

Note 1, Do not use any published Alpha Acid Percents. Check with your supplier for the AA% of the hops you buy. They change with each lot and year of harvest. Note: Each of the growing countries listed above has one hop harvest season. Sometimes the freshest hops available are one year old. Note 2, Do not limit your beers to these rough hop usage suggestions. Be creative in your schedules. Note 3, Although porters and stouts are ales, I have listed them separately to aid the novice. Abbreviations used in table: NA = North America, UK = England, G = Germany, Aust = Australia, Czech = Czechoslovakia

134

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Table II Hop Flavor Magnitude VS. CFU Range
+))))))))))))))))))0)))))))))))))))))))), * Magnitude * Extremely Low * Low * Mild * Average * Pronounced * Impressive * Intense * * * * * * * *

CFU Range UNDER 0.05

* * * * * * * *

/))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1

0.05 to 0.09 0.10 to 0.19 0.20 to 0.29 0.30 to 0.39 0.40 to 0.49 OVER 0.50

/))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 .))))))))))))))))))2))))))))))))))))))))-

TABLE III Hop Aroma (Nose) KFactor
+)))))))))))))0))))))))))), * Schedule *

KFactor 6.0 2.5 6.0 12.0 8.5

* * * * * *

/)))))))))))))3)))))))))))1 * 8 by 15 Kit * * Flavor 10 * 1st Aroma * 2nd Aroma * 3rd Aroma * * * * /)))))))))))))3)))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))))))))1 .)))))))))))))2)))))))))))-

CONCOCTION NOTES

Tables and Charts

135

Table IV Hop Aroma Magnitude VS. CAU Range
+)))))))))))))))))0)))))))))))))))))))), * * * * * * * *

Magnitude Extremely Low Low Mild Average Pronounced Impressive Intense

* * * * * * * *

CAU Range UNDER 0.05 0.05 to 0.09 0.10 to 0.19 0.20 to 0.29 0.30 to 0.39 0.40 to 0.49 OVER 0.50

* * * * * * * *

/)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 /)))))))))))))))))3))))))))))))))))))))1 .)))))))))))))))))2))))))))))))))))))))-

CONCOCTION NOTES

136

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Table V Hop Utilization
+))))))))0))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))), * BOIL * TIME * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* (Min.) *

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Total Hop Utilization * Bittering Utilization T Flavor T Aroma * Nominal T Pellet T Flower * Utilization* Utilization * (BU) * (BU) * (BU) * (FU) * (AU) * .000 * .000 * .000 * .03 * .01 * .042 * .047 * .037 * .03 * .03 * .042 * .047 * .037 * .03 * .05 * .042 * .047 * .037 * .03 * .10 * .042 * .048 * .037 * .03 * .14 * .042 * .048 * .037 * .03 * .18 * .043 * .048 * .037 * .04 * .20 * .043 * .048 * .038 * .04 * .20 * .043 * .049 * .038 * .06 * .20 * .044 * .050 * .039 * .07 * .19 * .045 * .051 * .039 * .10 * .16 * .046 * .052 * .040 * .13 * .11 * .048 * .054 * .042 * .16 * .07 * .049 * .056 * .043 * .20 * .04 * .052 * .058 * .045 * .25 * .02 * .054 * .061 * .047 * .30 * .01 * .057 * .064 * .050 * .34 * .00 * .061 * .068 * .053 * .37 * .00 * .065 * .073 * .057 * .39 * .00 * .070 * .078 * .061 * .40 * .00 * .075 * .084 * .065 * .40 * .00 * .080 * .090 * .070 * .40 * .00 * .087 * .097 * .076 * .40 * .00 * .093 * .105 * .081 * .39 * .00 * .100 * .113 * .088 * .38 * .00 * .107 * .121 * .094 * .35 * .00 * .115 * .129 * .101 * .32 * .00 * .123 * .138 * .107 * .28 * .00 * .131 * .147 * .114 * .24 * .00 * .139 * .156 * .122 * .20 * .00 * .147 * .165 * .129 * .16 * .00 * .155 * .175 * .136 * .13 * .00 * .163 * .184 * .143 * .10 * .00 * .171 * .193 * .150 * .07 * .00 * .179 * .202 * .157 * .05 * .00 * .187 * .210 * .163 * .04 * .00 * .194 * .219 * .170 * .03 * .00 * .201 * .227 * .176 * .02 * .00 * .208 * .234 * .182 * .01 * .00 * .215 * .242 * .188 * .01 * .00 * .221 * .249 * .194 * .00 * .00 * .227 * .256 * .199 * .00 * .00 * .233 * .262 * .204 * .00 * .00 * .238 * .268 * .208 * .00 * .00 * .243 * .274 * .213 * .00 * .00 * .248 * .279 * .217 * .00 * .00 *

Tables and Charts
* * * * * * * * *

137

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

* * * * * * * * *

.252 .257 .260 .264 .267 .270 .273 .275 .278

* * * * * * * * *

.284 .289 .293 .297 .301 .304 .307 .310 .313

* * * * * * * * *

.221 .224 .228 .231 .234 .236 .239 .241 .243

* * * * * * * * *

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

* * * * * * * * *

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

* * * * * * * * *

.))))))))2)))))))))2))))))))2)))))))))2))))))))))))2)))))))))))))-

All Boiling Times are in Minutes (Min.) Table V continues on next page.

138

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Table V Hop Utilization (Continued from previous page.)

BOIL TIME (Min) 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

Bittering Utilization Ave. Pellet Flower (BU) (BU) (BU) .280 .282 .284 .285 .287 .288 .289 .290 .291 .292 .293 .294 .294 .295 .295 .296 .296 .296 .297 .297 .298 .298 .298 .299 .299 .300 .300 .315 .317 .319 .321 .323 .324 .325 .327 .328 .329 .330 .330 .331 .332 .332 .333 .333 .334 .334 .334 .335 .335 .336 .336 .337 .337 .338 .245 .247 .248 .250 .251 .252 .253 .254 .255 .256 .256 .257 .258 .258 .258 .259 .259 .259 .260 .260 .260 .261 .261 .262 .262 .262 .263

BOIL TIME (Min) 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

Bittering Utilization Ave. Pellet Flower (BU) (BU) (BU) .300 .301 .301 .302 .302 .302 .303 .303 .304 .338 .338 .339 .339 .340 .340 .341 .341 .342 .263 .263 .264 .264 .264 .265 .265 .265 .266

Homebrew Boil Time Limit 95 100 105 110 115 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 .306 .308 .310 .312 .314 .316 .324 .332 .340 .348 .356 .364 .372 .380 .388 .344 .346 .348 .351 .353 .355 .364 .373 .382 .391 .400 .409 .418 .427 .436 .267 .269 .271 .273 .274 .276 .283 .290 .297 .304 .311 .318 .325 .332 .339

Tables and Charts

139

TABLE VI Bitterness Magnitude VS. IBU Range
+))))))))))))))))))0))))))))))))))))), *

Magnitude

* * * * * * * * *

IBU Range UNDER 3.00 3.00 to 4.99 5.00 to 9.99 10.0 to 14.9 15.0 to 19.9 20.0 to 34.9 35.0 to 49.9 OVER 49.9

* * * * * * * * *

/))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 * Extremely Low * Low * Mild * Low Average * High Average * Pronounced * Impressive * Intense /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 /))))))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))))1 .))))))))))))))))))2)))))))))))))))))-

140

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Table VII Summary of Standard Hop Schedules
+)))))))))))))0)))))))))))))))0)))))))))))))0))))))))))))0)))))))), * Scheduled * * * * FLAVOR 30 * FLAVOR 25 * FLAVOR 20 * FLAVOR 15 * FLAVOR 10 * KIT 8by15 * 1st AROMA * 2nd AROMA * 3rd AROMA * * * * *

Times

Bittering * FLAVOR * AROMA * AROMA * Utilization * Utilization * Utilization * KFactor * * Fl. T Ave T Pel.* * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

/)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 * .13 * .15 * .17 * * .09 * .1 * .11 *

0.24 0.38 0.38 0.21 0.06 0.10 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02

* * * * * * * * * * *

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.18 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.1

* * * * * 2.5 * 6.0 * 6.0 * 12.0 * 8.5 * 5.0 *

/)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 * .06 * .07 * .08 * * .04 * .05 * .06 * * .04 * .05 * .06 * * .1 * .11 * .12 * /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 * .04 * .05 * .06 * * .04 * .05 * .06 * * .04 * .05 * .06 * * .02 * .02 * .02 * * * * * /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 /)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1

Dry Hop w/Blanch True

/)))))))))))))3)))))3))))3))))3)))))))))))))3))))))))))))3))))))))1 * .00 * .00 * .00 * * * *

0.02

* *

0.1

* 5.0 *

* Dry Hopping *

.)))))))))))))2)))))2))))2))))2)))))))))))))2))))))))))))2))))))))-

CONCOCTION NOTES

Tables and Charts
TABLE VIII Beer Style VS. IBU Factor STYLE IBU FACTOR American Ales 3.0 to 4.2 American Beers 1.0 to 4.5 American Bocks 1.0 to 4.0 American IPAs 3.6 to 4.5 American Lights 1.3 to 1.7 American Malt Liquors 1.0 to 1.7 American Premium 1.6 to 2.6 American Wheats 1.7 to 2.2 Barley Wines 2.4 to 5.0 Bavarian Lagers 1.2 to 2.5 British Stouts 3.0 to 5.0 British Bitters 2.5 to 4.5 British Porters 1.2 to 3.5 German Dark Bock 1.2 to 2.5 German Light Bocks 1.5 to 2.0 German Northern Alts 2.5 to 3.8 German Southern Alts 1.6 to 3.0 German Weizen 1.0 to 1.2 German Porters 3.0 to 4.0 Irish Stouts 3.5 to 5.0` Scottish Ales 1.2 to 2.6 Belgian & Trappist Ales 1.5 to 1.9

141

CONCOCTION NOTES

142

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Table IX Degrees of Extract & Color INGREDIENT Extra Light Light Amber Dark Wheat (100%) Wheat (55%) Extra Light Light Amber Dark Extra Dark CRYSTAL MALTS: Light German Dark German Cara-Pils GRAIN MALTS: Ale Black Chocolate Lager Munich Roasted Barley Vienna Wheat ADJUNCTS: Brown Sugar Corn Sugar Cane Sugar Honey Maple Syrup Rice Solids Rice Syrup Oats DOE TDOE SRM

MALT EXTRACT SYRUP 33 6 1 34 8 5 35 9 10 36 10 20 32 4 3 33 5 3 DRY MALT EXTRACT (DME) 38 9 2 39 10 6 40 11 12 41 12 20 42 13 40 WHOLE GRAINS (MINI-MASHED) 17 19 16 30 15 16 30 30 15 30 30 38 38 42 35 31 44 34 15 12 14 11 11 13 14 11 11 13 11 6 3 65 2 3 525 475 3 8 315 3 3

0 125 t -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 6t -1 10 t 2 1 2 1 13 5 t Depends on type and quality

Tables and Charts

143

Table X Ethyl Alcohol
Specific Gravity of Mixture of Ethyl Alcohol and Water by Volume Weight, SG, & Ratio (U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

+))))))))))0))))))))0)))))))))))0)))))))), * Alcohol * Alcohol * * % by Vol * % by Wt * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Spec Grav 1.00000 0.99923 0.99849 0.99775 0.99701 0.99629 0.99557 0.99487 0.99417 0.99349 0.99281 0.99215 0.99149 0.99085 0.99021 0.98897 0.98777 0.98660 0.98546 0.98435 0.98326 0.98219 0.98114 0.97608

* Ratio * (W/V) * 1.000 * 0.800 * 0.790 * 0.793 * 0.795 * 0.796 * 0.797 * 0.800 * 0.800 * 0.800 * 0.800 * 0.800 * 0.800 * 0.802 * 0.802 * 0.803 * 0.803 * 0.804 * 0.805 * 0.806 * 0.807 * 0.808 * 0.809 * 0.813

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

/))))))))))3))))))))3)))))))))))3))))))))1

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

0.00 0.40 0.79 1.19 1.59 1.99 2.39 2.80 3.20 3.60 4.00 4.40 4.80 5.21 5.61 6.42 7.23 8.04 8.86 9.67 10.49 11.31 12.13 16.26

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

.))))))))))2))))))))2)))))))))))2))))))))-

To convert from Percent by Weight (PPW) to Percent by Volume (PPV) divide the PPW by the ratio. To convert from Percent by Volume (PPV) to Percent by Weight (PPW) multiply the PPV by the ratio.

CONCOCTION NOTES

144

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Table XI Priming Rate Correction for Altitude
+))))))))))))))0))))))))))))))), *

Altitude

*

AltFactor 1 .97 .94 .90 .87 .84 .81 .78 .74

* * * * * * * * * *

/))))))))))))))3)))))))))))))))1 * -500 to +500 * * * * * * * * *

501 1501 2501 3501 4501 5501 6501 7501

to to to to to to to to

1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500 8500

* * * * * * * *

.))))))))))))))2)))))))))))))))-

Table XII Priming Rates for DME, Speise, and Corn Sugar
+))))))))))))0))))))))))0))))))))))0)))))))))))), * PRIMING RATE* CornFactor* MaltFactor* SpeiseFactor* /))))))))))))3))))))))))3))))))))))3))))))))))))1 * LIGHT * LOW * NORMAL * HIGH* * EXTREME* * * * * *

* LOW NORMAL * * HIGH NORMAL* * VERY HIGH* *

.13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .19 .20 .21

* * * * * * * *

.21 .23 .24 .26 .28 .31 .32 .34

* * * * * * * *

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

* * * * * * * *

.))))))))))))2))))))))))2))))))))))2))))))))))))-

Pils & Pilsners beers should be carbonated above Normal Rates. This will insure the high head and carbonation expected in a pilsner beer. y CAUTION: Priming rates above high normal should not be used until you have some experience in brewing and your bottles are in the best of condition. Never prime a plastic keg or barrel with anything other than the manufacturers recommendations. For kegs and casks the priming rates are ½ those shown in table.

Tables and Charts

145

Table XIII Manufacturer's Recommended Temperatures For Rehydration of Dry Yeasts M&F Ale Red Star P. Arauner 105EF Doric Ale 105EF 95EF Yeast Lab 105EF 95EF Lallemand 105EF All other dry yeasts 98EF (Body Temperature)

Table XIV Comparison of Dry & Liquid Yeasts Property Dry Form Liquid Form

Shelf Life 1 to 3 years 3 to 6 months Preparation time 15 minutes 2-5 days Purity Good Excellent Varieties Many Many Availability High High (1) Storage Temperature 35EF to115EF 35EF to 45EF. Cost $0.15 to $3.50 $.50 to $7.50 Failure Rate Low Low Viability High High (2) Condition Good (3) Purity Good Excellent Off-flavors Protection Good Excellent Lag Times (4) 1 to 3 hours 1 to 4 days Lager Yeast Ideal Range 60EF ± 5EF 50EF ± 3EF Ale Yeast Ideal Range 68EF ± 3EF 68EF ± 3EF Extended Range (5) 63EF to 95EF 63EF to 95EF Notes: (1) Not all liquid yeasts are stocked. Order ahead. (2) Follow detailed starting procedures on package. (3) Condition is unknown, possible shipping damage. (4) Dry yeast require rehydration and are added to an aerated warm wort. (5) Fermentation above 75EF is possible but should be left for emergencies (like running out of beer).

146

Hop Chartacteristics

Table XV - Recipe Selection Chart
Starting Gravities 1.029 thru 1.046

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Specific Gravity

Tables and Charts

147

148

Hop Chartacteristics

Table XV - Recipe Selection Chart continued
Starting Gravities 1.046 cont. thru 1.053

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Specific Gravity

Hop Chartacteristics

Table XV - Recipe Selection Chart continued
Starting Gravities 1.054 thru 1.069

Specific Gravity

Tables and Charts 149

150

Hop Chartacteristics

Starting Gravities 1.070 thru END

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Specific Gravity

1.020

1.078

Tables and Charts

151

Table XVI Temperature Corrections for SG Liquid Temperature 45EF 50EF 55EF 60EF 65EF 70EF 80EF Specific Gravity Correction -0.0006 -0.0005 +0.0001 +0.0000 +0.0006 +0.0016 +0.0022 Liquid Temperature 85EF 90EF 95EF 100EF 105EF 110EF 115EF Specific Gravity Correction +0.0029 +0.0036 +0.0044 +0.0061 +0.0071 +0.0082 +0.0093

TABLE XVII U.S. Fluid Ounce Conversion Factors Multiply Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces Ounces By 29.57 8 6 2 .25 0.1805 0.00104 0.125 0.0625 0.0312 0.0078 1.0408 0.0520 0.0268 0.0065 0.0217 To Obtain Cubic Centimeter Drams Teaspoons Tablespoons Gills Cubic Inches Cubic Feet Cups Pints Quarts Gallons Ounces - Imperial Pints - Imperial Quarts - Imperial Gallons - Imperial Liters

152

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
TABLE XVIII U.S. Gallon Conversion Factors Multiply Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons By 256 133.23 128 102 768 32 23.099 16 8 6.662 4 3.331 3.7845 0.8327 0.1336 0.003784 To Obtain Tablespoons Ounces - Imperial Fluid Ounces - US Dram - US Teaspoon - US Gills - US Cubic Inches Cups - US Pints - US Pints - Imperial Quarts - US Quarts - Imperial Liters - Metric Gallons - Imperial Cubic Feet Cubic Meters

CONCOCTION NOTES

Tables and Charts
Table XIX Foreign to U.S. Liquid Conversions Multiply Imp Gallons Imp Gallons Imp Gallons Imp Gallons Imp Gallons Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters By 53.697 19.2144 9.6072 4.8036 1.2009 202.88 67.63 61.024 33.814 8.4536 4.2268 2.1134 1.0567 0.26417 To Obtain Fluid Ounces - US Cups - US Pints - US Quarts - US Gallons - US Teaspoons - US Tablespoons - US Cubic Inches Fluid Ounces - US Gills - US Cups - US Pints - US Quarts - US Gallons - US

153

Table XX U.S. Ounce Weight Conversion Factors Multiply By To Obtain Ounces 0.0062 Pounds Ounces 28.349 Grams Ounces 0.0284 Kilograms Ounces 0.171 Cups Dry Malt y Ounces 0.163 Cups Malted Grain Ounces 0.15 Cups Corn Sugar Ounces 0.125 Cups Cane Sugar Ounces 0.00749 Gallons of water Ounces 0.00943 Gallons of Alcohol y Based on approximate density of 0.375 pounds of DME per cup. Table XXI U.S. Pound Weight Conversion Factors Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds 453.59 16 .45359 0.0005 Grams Ounces Kilograms Tons Table XXII Large U.S. Conversion Factors Multiply Tun Pipe By 252 128 To Obtain Gallons - US Gallons - US

154

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Puncheon Hogshead Tierce Barrels Hectoliter ½ Keg ¼ Keg 84 63 42 31.5 26.42 15.5 7.75 Gallons - US Gallons - US Gallons - US Gallons - US Gallons - US Gallons - US Gallons - US

Table XXIII Effective Bitterness Units Hopped Extracts Type Wheat Light Amber Dark EBU 10 16 18 20 Beer Kits Style EBU American Lite 13 Pilsners 14 Bitters 15 Lagers 16 Ales 17 Stouts 20

Table XXIV Manufacturers' EBU Correction Factors MANUFACTURER Telfords IronMaster/Lancers Edme GlenBrew All Australian Munton & Fison MCF 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 MANUFACTURER Brewmart John Bull Edme Gold Irish Kits Brewcraft Arkells MCF 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

TABLE XXV Alcohol Content VS. Alcohol Indication Alcohol Indication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.52 1.07 1.59 2.15 2.72 3.28 3.88 Alcohol Content (% by Wt.) 8 9 10 4.48 5.13 5.77

Alcohol Indication 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Alcohol Content (% by Wt.) 6.40 7.07 7.76 8.45 9.19 9.92 10.68 11.45 12.23 13.03 Table XXVI Total SRM VS. Color

Total SRM 0 1 to 2.5 2.51 to 3.5 3.51 to 5.5 5.51 to 10 10.1 to 18 18.1 to 26 26.1 to 40 40.1 & up

Color of Beer Water Light Straw Pale Straw Dark Straw Light Amber or Light Copper Pale Amber or Copper/Red Dark Amber or Dark Copper Brown or Very Dark Amber Black (1 degree EBC = 2.6 i degree SRM - 1.2)

CONCOCTION NOTES

156

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
156

Appendix A

Hydrometer Readings
How to Use Your Hydrometer

1st. Measure the temperature of the liquid. 2nd . Fill the plastic test tube with liquid. 3rd . Gently lower hydrometer into the tube. When it is floating, spin the hydrometer to remove any air bubbles. 4th . Hold the test tube at eye level. Take the reading at the flat portion of the liquid.

Fig. 12: Reading the Hydrometer The hydrometer is read at the main liquid surface level, not the point at the top of the liquid meniscus. See picture above. The SG reading shown above is 1.0575 and not 1.060. Correct any reading if the liquid temperature is more than 5EF. from 60EF. Table XVI, Temperature Corrections for SG and Graph 13, Temperature VS. SG Correction will provide you with the correction factors for water SG. Due to the complex nature of a beer wort, you can only correct the SG for a water temperature. This will be consistent with the brewing books and brewing industry. A SG reading can be altered to your preference. To raise the specific gravity and potential alcohol, add sugar for wine or malt for beer. SG and potential alcohol can be lowered by adding water.

Hint 69: Do not put any hydrometer into any liquid above 120EF, until you have conditioned it to the higher temperatures. Condition it by slowly raising the temperature of the glass to the test liquid temperature.

Hydrometer Temperature Correction
Graph 13, Temperature VS. SG Correction below provides the specific gravity corrections for all temperatures between 45EF and 211EF. Examples 1: A Specific Gravity of 1.054 @ 95EF, the correction given in the table is +0.0044. Add this correction to the measured SG and obtain the true Specific Gravity. The resulting corrected reading will be (1.0540 plus +0.0044) 1.0584. Example 2: A Specific Gravity of 1.038 @ 50EF, the correction given in the table is -0.0005. Add the correction, -0.0005, to the Specific Gravity, 1.038. The resulting corrected reading is (1.038 plus -0.001) 1.0375.

Fig. 13: Temperature VS. SG Correction

158

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
158

Appendix B

Effective Bittering Units

The bitterness of a beer made with hopped extracts and beer kits can only be approximated. The hop bitterness of beer kits and hopped extracts are not guaranteed by the manufacturer and are subject to any manufacturing tolerances, controls, and/or lack thereof. It is presented in order to give the concoctor a guide when using kits and hopped extracts. Table XXIII, Effective Bitterness Units, in the Table Section of this manual, presents the Effective Bitterness Units (EBU) for some of the products currently available to the homebrewer. These average EBUs will provide a reference point for the brewers who use extracts and beer kits. Table XXIV, Manufacturers' EBU Correction Factor, in the Table Section of this manual, provides the Manufacturers' Correction Factor (MCF) for EBU. The MCF provides a relative analysis of the bittering levels for several manufacturers. This factor is used to correct for the fact that each manufacturer bitters their own kits differently than all others. Use 0.75 for all manufacturers not listed. This will give you a rough approximation. Kit IBU Equation: E-12

Hopped Malt Extract IBU Equation: E-13

Use Tables XXIII and XXIV to approximate the IBU for any kit or extract beer. Example: Recipe is for 5.5 U.S. Gallons (Volume = 5.5), made with a 3.3 pound M&F ale kit (Weight of Kit = 3.3) and 2.2 pounds of M&F Hopped Amber Dry Malt Extract (Weight of DME = 2.2). 1st, 2nd , 3rd , 4th , From Table XXIV the Manufacturers Correction Factor (MCF) for M&F is 1.0. From Table XXIII, the Effective Bittering Units (EBU) of an ale is 17. Again, from Table XXIII, the EBU of Hopped Amber Malt is 18. Compute IBU contribution of the ale kit using Equation E-12:

5th , Compute IBU contribution of the Hopped Amber malt extract using Equation E-13:

6th , Adding up the IBU contributions of the Kit and the hopped dry malt we get the Total IBU of the beer in the example recipe:

The 17.4 value of IBU is High Average by Table VI, Bitterness Magnitude VS. IBU. Hint 70: Boiling of these products will alter the EBU of the ingredients. Never boil a beer kit. Some manufacturers bitter with hop extracts. All hop extracts should be considered unstable at high temperatures. Other manufacturers bitter with real hops and boiling will increase the bittering and reduce the hop flavor. Hint 71: A good 60 minute boil of a M&F kit and hopped malt extract will remove any English flavors that might get in the way of your German Hopping Schedules.

160

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
160

Appendix C

Determination of Alcohol Content

The total alcohol content of a beer cannot be measured with the wine maker's instruments. The Proof and Tralle hydrometer, ebullioscope, and vinometer are not suitable for beer. The Boil method works very well for all beers. This method requires the following equipment: 1st, an accurate hydrometer; 2nd , a one pint measuring cup; 3rd , an enameled, glass or stainless steel sauce pan; 4th, a stove or other heat source. 5th , several marbles or small stones. The Boil method is performed as follows: 1st. Measure specific gravity of test liquid and record the specific gravity as measurement "A". 2nd . Measure exactly one pint of liquid to be tested for alcohol into the heating pan. 3rd Place the marbles or stones into the pan. This will retard boiling over. Heat the measured liquid until boiling. 4th . Continue boiling until ½ of liquid is boiled off as steam. This will eliminate all the alcohol in liquids under 100 proof. 5th . Cool the liquid. Carefully pour it into the one pint measuring cup. Add about three-quarters of a pint of distilled water to the sauce pan. Swirl to rinse the pot and marbles or stones. 6th . Carefully pour enough rinse water from the pot into the measuring cup to obtain the exact amount of liquid you started with. Use extra distilled water if there was not enough rinse water. 7th . Measure the specific gravity of the reconstituted liquid and record as measurement "B". 8th . Subtract the initial specific gravity "A" from the final specific gravity "B" and record the difference as "C". (C = B minus A) 9th . Multiply the difference "C" by 1000 and record the product as the Alcohol Indicator. Alcohol Indicator = C i 1000. 10th . Read the alcohol content from Table XXV, Alcohol Content vs Alcohol Indicator, in the Table Section of this manual. The Alcohol Content is given in percent by weight. % by Wt. is the U.S.A. standard for beer.

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Appendix D
Tools required to installing a spigot: 1, Electric drill 2, One (1) inch hole saw w/arbor. 3, Fine grit Sand Paper or emery cloth 4, The spigot and one rubber washer

Installing a Bottling Spigot

Fig.14: Installing the Spigot

Procedure: 1st. Locate the hole center one (1) inch from the inside bottom of the fermenter. 2nd . Debur (remove any ragged edges) the hole with fine grit sand paper or emery cloth. 3rd . Install washer on spigot shank 4th. Insert the spigot through the hole 5th. Screw nut onto spigot shank 6th. Hand tighten. Hint 72: To clean the spigot prior to brewing or bottling it must be disassembled to sanitize the sediment between the rotating spout housing and the spigot housing and threads. To do this cleaning soak the spigot in very hot water and then pull the rotating spout housing out from the spigot housing. Clean it with your normal sanitizer. Re-soak the parts in very hot water to reassemble.

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Appendix E
Sanitation

Care and Handling of Bottles and Kegs

Initial Cleaning from the used bottle supplies and kegs: 1st . For bottles: Soak the bottles in a solution of any good brewing cleaner. I use an environmentally safe product because it will soak off labels, sanitize, does not need rinsing, and will protect my septic system all at the same time. I soak all old bottles for about a week. This step is skipped with kegs. Never leave a sanitizer in any keg for more than fifteen minutes. 2nd . Clean out the inside and outside as best you can. Any bottles with very difficult deposits in the bottoms should be discarded unless it has some sentimental value for you. Here you are not sanitizing, you are just getting all the dirt and glue off. Rinse well after cleaning and Do Not Use Soap in the cleaning process. 3rd . For bottles: Place as many bottles as you can cram into your oven and set the temperature at 250EF. After about ½ hour turn heat up to 300EF. Let the bottles bake for another ½ hour then turn the heat off. The bottles will cool naturally in the oven. Be sure not to do this to any plastic swing tops or rubber gaskets. For kegs: Fill with about one gallon of water and place on a stove or other heat source. Allow to boil (open to atmosphere) for about ½ hour. Allow to cool and seal for use later. Between Use Cleaning: 1st . For bottles: Rinse out with water to remove any remains of the brew. The Carboy and Bottle Washers available at your brewing supplier are great for this. For kegs: Rinse out with hose and water. 2nd . For bottles: Sanitize your bottles with a good sanitizer from your brewing supplier. Rinse with the Carboy and Bottle Washer. A real time saver, in this step, is to use one of the spring pump bottle washers. It saves time, sanitizer, and the environment. For kegs: Mix up about 2 quarts of sanitizer and pour it into the keg. Roll the keg to get all surfaces wet with the sanitizer and let the keg sit for ten minutes. Pump the cleaner out through the draw tube. Repeat process with clean water. rd 3 . For bottles: Seal the clean bottles with plastic wrap and rubber bands until ready for use. For kegs: Let the keg remain open to dry. A piece of plastic window screen stuffed into the opening will keep out the little furry beasts. Kegs are a favorite nesting and storage facility for rodents. Store opening down to keep the dust out. Sanitizing before filling: 1st. For bottles: Method A: remove plastic wrap and re-sanitize your bottles with a good sanitizer from your brewing supplier. Rinse with the Carboy and Bottle Washer and use. Completely dry bottles are not necessary but if you want to let them drip dry there are several bottle trees available at your supplier to perform this task. Method B: remove plastic wrap and place bottles in the oven again. Heat to 250EF and let them sit for 1 hour. Allow to cool and use. nd 2 . For Kegs: Method A: remove mouse trap and re-sanitize with a good sanitizer from your brewing supplier. Rinse with a hose and drip dry. Method B: add one gallon of water to the keg, place draw tube in the opening but do not engage locking lug(s), and apply heat. Boil the keg for about fifteen minutes. Drip dry and use. Some brewers use a mixture of household bleach and water (2 tablespoons per gallon of water). This is a good sanitizer but smells and a lot of water is wasted getting rid of the chlorine odor. Every brewing store has a sanitizer that is a better choice than chlorine.

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165

Labeling
Beer labels are available from your local brew supply shop. They come gummed and plain. I prefer either to make my own on plain paper or use the plain paper ones. Labels look nice but are a real pain to remove from bottles. Plain paper labels can be applied with milk. Simply let the label set in a shallow bowl of milk for five to ten seconds then apply to the bottle. Pat dry with a paper towel. Make your own beer labels by buying a clip art book from the local artist supply shop. Dover Publications has hundreds of clip art books and CD ROM disks with thousand of free clip are pictures to choose from. They are available in many styles and colors. A few minutes with a computer or pair of scissors and you can have a fantastic original label for your best brews. Use a local copy shop to manufacture your labels in color or black and white. I am not an artist but I will give you a few of the labels I use on the following pages.

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Go m e s Ad d am s
Winter Lager

H a u s g e b ra u t n a c h d e m R e in h e its g e b o t v o n 1516 a u s M a lz , H o p f e n , H e f e , u n d W a s s e r.
Alkohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

Old Dog Ale

Homebrewed per the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 with only malt, hops, yeast, and water. Alcohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

Secret Brew

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167

Homebrewed per the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 with only malt, hops, yeast, and water. Alcohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

Bock This

Homebrewed per the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 with only malt, hops, yeast, and water. Alcohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

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Captain's Choice

H a u s g e b ra u t n a c h d e m R e in h e its g e b o t v o n 1516 a u s M a lz , H o p f e n , H e f e , u n d W a s s e r
Alkohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

Rue Brew
Australian Lager

Hausgebraut nach dem Reinheitsgebot von 1516 aus Malz, Hopfen, Hefe, und Wasser. Alkohol: % vol Gebraut seit: / /

Bottling Tips
1. Do not boil bottle caps. Sanitize them in a good sanitizer and use immediately.

2. Inspect all bottles for chips, dings, and cracks. If you find any bottles that show signs of damage or fatigue, do not use them. 3. Swing ceramic and plastic top bottle sealing rubbers require sterilization. This is done by boiling a pot of water and removing from the heat. Place the rubbers immediately into the water and cover. Allow to set

there covered until you are ready to use them. 4. Dishwasher racks are a great replacement for bottle trees.

5. Never wash bottles in a dishwasher. The bottle holes are too small to allow good cleaning action inside the bottles. 6. A bottling bucket and bottle filler will save you an enormous amount of time and energy. Always get a bottling bucket that is at least 6½ gallons. Then you will be able to rotate it with your other fermenter(s). Most of the time a five gallon bucket will not hold five gallons of beer and the priming solution. 7. Always use brown bottles (even dark green isn't very good) if your beer will spend any extended time in lighted areas. Light ruins beer. 8. An old milk crate is a nice bottle carrier. It is very rugged and they stack well. I stack them 5 cases high without any problems. 9. Kegging in Sankey kegs is easier.

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The following section is presented for your personal use only. Oh well! I guess you can share them with a friend. You are free to copy any of the following sheets. They are scaled so that you may photocopy them at 135% (times 1.5) to get the full size sheet for your note books with plenty of binding space for the ring binder holes.

CEI Publishing, 217 Magnolia Street 5830 West Turkey Lane Kennett Square, PA 19348 Tucson, AZ 85742 (860) 627 - 5544

Appendix F
Batch No.:__________ Date of Boil:____________ Beer Style:________________________

Concoction Log
Volume:_______ [ ] Gal [ ] liters. Sub Style:______________________________

Yeast
Yeast Type: [ ] Rehydrated Dry [ ] Culture Starter Used?: [Y] [N ] Yeast strain:_______________________ Starter Inoculation Date:____________

Ingredients
Description _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Brand _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Amount Method Time Temperature ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________ ______ _______ ______ ____________

Hop Schedule
Bittering Hop (1):_______________ AA%:______ Time:_____Minutes Bittering Hop (2):_______________ AA%:______ Schedule:_____ Time:_____ Minutes Flavor Hop (1):_________________ AA%:______ Schedule:_____ Time:_____Minutes Flavor Hop (2):_________________ AA%:______ Schedule:_____ Time:_____Minutes Flavor Hop (3):_________________ AA%:______ Schedule:_____ Time:_____Minutes Aroma Hop (1):________________ AA%:______ Schedule:_____ Time:_____Minutes Aroma Hop (2):_________________ AA%:______ Blanch [ ] Dry [ ] Schedule:______ Aroma Hop (3):_________________ AA%:_______ Schedule:_________

Fermentation
Wort Inoculation Date:__________________ Secondary Racking Date:__________________ Final Racking Date:_______________________ Fermentation Temperature Range: _________E [ F] [ C] to _________E [ F] [ C] Starting Specific Gravity:_______________ Specific Gravity:______________ Final Specific Gravity:______________

Putting Away
[ ] Bottled [ ] Kegged [ ] Casked Date of Bottle/Keg:__________________ SG of Speise or DME _______________ Primed with: [ ] Speise, [ ] DME, [ ] CornSugar Amount of Priming Material:________ ______ Initial Thoughts: [ ] Good [ ] Great [ ] Excellent

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Appendix G
Batch No.: Evaluation in months One Appearance (6): Color (2) Clarity (2) Head (2) Aroma (10): Malt (3) Hop (3) Other (4) Flavor (19): Malt (3) Hop (3) Carbonation(2) Aftertaste (3) Balance (4) Other (4) Body (5): Body(5) Enjoyment(10): Enjoyment (10) Two Three Four Five Six

Brew Evaluation Sheet
Batch Name:

Total:
General Descriptions and Observations: Smells: Apple: [] [] Fruity: [] [] Cabbage:[1] [] [] Skunky:[2] [] [] Sulfur: [3] [] [] Tastes: Alcohol: [] [] Astringent: [] [] Grain: [] [] Butter:[4] [] [] Medicine:[5] [] [] Metallic:[6] [] [] Stale:[7] [] [] Hoppy: [] [] Sour:[8] [] [] Bitter:[9] [] []

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

[1], Caused by long lag times in fermentation start-up; [2], Type of Hop or Exposure to Light; [3], Also Rotten Eggs, Will age out, Caused by Yeast; [4], Possible causes Short Fermentation or Bacteria; [5], Also plastic, Possible causes, Wild Yeasts, Bacteria, Over Sparging, Boiling Grain; [6], Possible causes Aluminum Boil Pots, Metal Utensils, Bad Caps; [7], Also Cardboard, paper, sherry, Possible causes High Temperature aging or exposure to air during bottling and ageing; [8], Also Vinegar, Caused by Bacteria or Addition of acids to wort; [9], Not Hops, Caused by Grain Husks.

Appendix H
1st, Yeast Preparation: [] Rehydrate Yeast. [] Warm yeast starter to 90EF [] Sterilize Starter Cover [] Sanitize Airlock&Grommet

Dry Yeast Brewing Checklist
[] [] [] Inoculate the Starter Cover & activate airlock Wait for active fermentation. (about 2 to 4 Hours)

2n d , Clean/Sanitize all your stuff: [] Fermenter, Lid, & Spigot [] Airlock & Grommet [] Malt Cans [] Brew Pot (degrease) [] Wort Chiller 3rd , Prepare the ingredients: [] Mini-Mash grains. [] Soak Cans in Hot Water.

[] [] [] [] []

Thermometer Stirring Tool Can Opener Strainer/Lauter Tun Hoses

[] []

Add malts to Mini-Mash Liquid. Fill brew pot to capacity leaving an appropriate headspace.

4th ,

Boiling the wort: [] Boil wort for 15 minutes. [] Boil to Hop Schedule. Fermentation: [] Aerate the wort. [] Cool wort [] Measure SG [] Inoculate wort with yeast. [] Cover Fermenter. [] Place fermenter in the fermentation location. [] Activate Airlock [] Wait for end of Primary [] Prepare 2n d Aroma Hops. Bottling [] Sanitize bottling equipment: [] Bottling Bucket & Spigot [] Transfer Hose & Filler [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

[] []

Cool wort quickly. Add wort to fermenter.

5th ,

[]

[] [] [] []

Sanitize for secondary: [] secondary fermenter, [] spigot & hose [] lid/stopper/grommet [] airlock Transfer to secondary fermenter. Add 2n d Aroma Hops. Allow to ferment out (about 7 to 10 days). Measure SG.

6 ,

th

[] Stirring paddle [] Bottles & Caps

Prepare priming solution (boiled DME, boiled sugar, Speise, or other) Transfer beer into bottling bucket. Add 3rd Aroma Add Priming Solution and stir gently. Flush lines to insure even mix. Fill bottles and cover with caps Wait five minutes. Cap bottles Clean up

7th ,

Enjoy life and have a brew.

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Appendix I
1st, Yeast Preparation: [] Warm Culture to 75EF [] Warm yeast starter to 75EF [] Sterilize Starter Cover [] Sanitize Airlock & Grommet [] [] []

Yeast Culture Brewing Checklist
Inoculate the Starter Cover & activate airlock Wait for active fermentation. (about 1 to 4 days)

2n d , Clean/Sanitize all your stuff: [] Fermenter, Lid, & Spigot [] Airlock & Grommet [] Malt Cans [] Brew Pot (degrease from cooking) [] Wort Chiller 3rd , Prepare the ingredients: [] Mini-Mash grains. [] Soak Malt Cans in Hot Water.

[] [] [] [] []

Thermometer Stirring Tool Can Opener Strainer/Lauter Tun Hoses

[] []

Add Malts to Mini-Mash Liquid. Fill brew pot to capacity leaving an appropriate headspace.

4th ,

Boiling the wort: [] Boil wort for 15 minutes. [] Continue Boiling schedule. Fermentation: [] Aerate the wort. [] Cool wort [] Measure SG [] Inoculate the wort with yeast. [] Cover Fermenter. [] Place fermenter in the fermentation location. [] Activate Airlock [] Wait for end of Primary Fermentation. [] Prepare 2n d Aroma Hops. Bottling [] Sanitize bottling equipment: [] Bottling Bucket & Spigot [] Transfer Hose & Filler

[] []

Cool wort quickly. Add wort to fermenter.

5th ,

[]

[] [] [] []

Sanitize for secondary: [] secondary fermenter, [] spigot [] hose [] lid/stopper/grommet [] airlock Transfer into secondary fermenter. Add 2n d Aroma Hops. Allow to ferment out (about 7 to 10 days). Measure SG.

6th ,

[] Stirring paddle [] Bottles & Caps

7th ,

[] Prepare priming solution (boiled DME, boiled sugar, Speise, or other) [] Transfer beer into bottling bucket. [] Add 3rd Aroma [] Add Priming Solution and stir gently. [] Flush lines to insure even mix. [] Fill bottles and cover with caps [] Wait five minutes. [] Cap bottles [] Clean up Enjoy life and have a brew.

Appendix J

Brewing Water

Beer is over four-fifths water. Your brewing water, while the least expensive ingredient (by the pound), is the most critical ingredient in a World Class beer. Because water is so plentiful in the U.S.A. we tend to take it for granted. Brewers cannot be lulled into thinking that their brewing water is unimportant. Beer has very subtle flavors which can be overpowered by the tastes and smells of your local drinking water. Like the bacteria on the hops, off flavor or smelly waters, while not harming a beer, can ruin the taste. I do not want to go into the chemical significance of the numerous chemical properties of water in this appendix. I do, however, want to stress two points: First, your brewing water must taste good to you. This does not equate to you have become used to the taste. The water must be really good tasting. Second, your brewing water should be on the hard (high mineral content) side.

Taste & Smell
Chlorine taste and smell can be removed from the brew water by boiling the water for about 15 minutes. Some other smells and off-tastes can be removed by filtering. You should see your local water filtration experts for advice on your local conditions. Bottled water may be your only hope for good beer in some parts of this continent. There are places I been to where I could not get near the water for the smell. I never dared to taste it. If you use bottled water, the water supplier should be able to tell you the hardness of the water. Most local water companies can provide you with information on the hardness of your city water by phone. It

Hardness
Most German waters run between 50 and 350 part per million (ppm) combined calcium and magnesium with calcium contents about 10 times the magnesium content. Pilsners run between 5 and 15 ppm with the same ratio of mineral contents. What is hard water? If you can not get your soap to lather up, you have Brewing Water 175 hard water and very little mineral treatment is necessary. If you have soft water, adding ¼ to ¾ teaspoon of gypsum or water crystals for each gallon of brew water will usually do the trick. One-eight (c) teaspoon per gallon of either gypsum or water crystals will raise the total mineral content of a gallon of water by about 7 ppm. Gypsum is Calcium Sulfate ( NaSO4). Water crystals are 10 parts Gypsum and 1 part Epsom Salt (Magnesium Sulfate MgSO4).

Caution: Burton water salts should be avoided by brewers who are sensitive to Papain. Burton water salts are for d e r En g län d e r.

In Closing, most world breweries had little control over the water they brewed with. What was there was used. These old breweries made great beers with what they had. Your beer should be your concoction. The importance of exact water formulations is not as important as the love you put into your beer. This will make more of a difference than being within twenty five percent of your ideal mineral content. On the other hand, smell and taste are important. No one should brew with foul water; you can drink it but never brew with it.

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GLOSSARY
Adjunct. An unmalted additive to beer. Roasted Barley, Flaked Barley, Barley, Corn, Oats, Wheat, Rye, Honey, Molasses, and Corn Sugar are examples of adjuncts and are not permitted in any all malt or Deutschbier (German bier). Aeration. The vigorous stirring of the wort to achieve a high oxygen content for the first stage in the yeast life cycle. Agar-agar. (a.k.a. Agar)The gelatinous extract of seaweed used in the culture of microorganisms. It is available in two forms, powder and flakes. If using the flake form double the amount called for in the powder form. Aging. The process by which a beer develops. A good rule of thumb is one (1) week for each point of a beer's final gravity. Airlock. (a.k.a. Fermentation Lock) Any device that allows the gases produced by fermentation to exit the fermenter while keeping insects and other contaminants from entering. Airspace. (a.k.a. Headspace or Ullage) The space between the liquid beer and the top of its container. Ale. The general term for any beer fermented using an Ale Yeast. See Ale Yeast. Ale Yeast. A brewing yeast that requires temperatures above 63EF to ferment. During warm fermentation the yeast is very active and thus the name, top fermenting yeast. All Extract. A descriptive term for any beer made from only malt extracts, either syrups or dry, without the addition of any aromatic, flavor, or coloring grains. All Grain. A descriptive term for any beer made from malted grains without the addition of any malt extracts, either syrups or dry. All Malt. A descriptive term for any beer made from only malted barley or wheat, without the addition of any sugars or adjuncts.

Glossary
Alpha Acid. A bitter hop resin that supplies most of the bitterness to a beer. This number changes every year and every lot of hops within the year. Alpha Acid Unit (a.k.a. AAU or Alpha Acid Content). The amount of bittering a hop possesses. It is the percentage of alpha acid resin in the hop. AltFactor. The correction for drinking altitude used in the beer priming equation. The name comes from the combination of "Altitude Correction" and "Factor." Apparent Gravity. The specific gravity of a beer after all processing is complete. The alcohol content affects apparent gravity because the SG of alcohol is significantly less than the SG of beer. This lower SG reduces the apparent gravity. Aroma Hop. A hop used to give a hop nose to beer. Aroma hops are not a special category of hops as any hop can be used to impart a hop aroma to a beer. Frequently, aroma hop is a designation given to any hop(s) placed in the last part of the boil. Aroma Utilization. The measure of the retention of the aromatic hop oils in a boil. Dry hopping is not recognized as having a specific aroma utilization by the author. Attenuation. The change in the specific gravity of a beer during fermentation expressed in percent. It is caused by the conversion of heavy sugars into alcohol. Balling. A unit of measure of the specific gravity of a liquid that is calibrated into percent by weight of the liquids sugar content. A reading of ten Balling is equivalent to having ten grams of sugar in a one-hundred gram sample. Bittering Hop. A hop used to bitter the beer by boiling the hop for some period of time (usually over 45 minutes). Bittering Utilization. One of the three hop utilizations given in this manual. The bittering prefix is required to distinguish it from Flavor and Aroma Utilization. See Utilization. Blow-by (a.k.a. Blow-off). During the primary stage of fermentation the violent yeast activity causes the wort to foam up. When the size of the fermentation vessel is small in relationship to the volume of wort, the wort will exit the fermentation vessel. This is usually caused by brewing five-gallons of beer in a five-gallon carboy. In order to obtain some English types of beer this is very desirable. Usually the process requires a hose or tube, tightly inserted into the top of the carboy, to allow this blow-by to exit into a pail and not mess up the fermentation area. Usually this blow-by hose is placed into a bucket of clean water to act as the airlock does. Body. The feel of the beer in the mouth. Body depends on the alcohol content, carbonation, and bottle extract. It is a pure empirical measurement. Bottle Extract. The specific gravity of a beer after bottled and aged. Brewers Gravity. An English brewers term for specific gravity with the decimal point removed. Never use Brewers Gravity for any calculations. It has no mathematical use but is a very convenient way of representing specific gravity in conversations. Carbonation. The dissolving of Carbon Dioxide Gas into any liquid. Carboy. Any large glass bottle, usually enclosed in a basketwork or wooden crate. Carboys are used in industry as containers for corrosive liquids.

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Chill Haze. A loss of a beers clarity when chilled below the point the tannin and proteins of secondary fermentation become visible. Combined Aroma Units (CAU). The measure of the hop aroma added to a beer by an aromatic hop. CAU is the KFactor times the hop weight times the aroma utilization divided by the total volume. Combined Flavor Units (CFU) is the measure of the hop flavor added to a beer by a flavor hop. CFU is 5.5 times hop weight times the flavor utilization divided by the volume. Concoction. A beer that is invented without a recipe by using the information in this manual to design a beer to your exact specifications. Conditioning. The time allowed for a beer to mature with its carbonation in a bottle or barrel. Conditioning time is a prime factor in head stiffness, texture, and quality. CornFactor. The number from Table XII used to compute the number of cups of corn sugar needed to prime a beer. Crushed Grain. The cracking open of a whole grain in preparation for mashing. Grains are always at their best when freshly crushed. Rolled grain is easier to sparge than ground grain but tradeoffs (compromises) must be made when cost is considered. Decimal Alpha Acid Percent (DAAP). The alpha acid percent expressed in decimal format. Degree of Extract (DOE). The gravity reading of 1 pound of a brewing ingredient mixed with enough water to make one U.S. Gallon. Use DOE to predict the Initial or Starting Gravity of a beer. The DOE and TDOE in this manual are in U.S. units. Dry Hopping. The placing of a quantity of whole hop flowers into the fermenting wort after the violent primary fermentation has stopped (usually two days after inoculation). This process while adding a unique aroma and flavor to a beer has become very dangerous because of the human waste contaminants in the unsterile flowers. Everyone agrees that these bacteria will not harm the beer. But, they may just kill you. Hop pellets cannot be used for dry hopping because they have been heated during processing. Dry Malt Extract (DME). The English sometimes refer to it as spray dried or Spraymalt. EBU Correction Factor. The EBU Correction factor is the equalizer for the correction of the EBU by manufacturer. Effective Bittering Units (EBU). EBU represents the average bittering of most standard Hopped extracts and beer kits. No exact calculations are possible because of manufacturing variations but these units can get you in the ball park for a quick beer. Effective Start Weight. The Starting Gravity of a beer corrected for the priming malt, speise, or sugar. Effective Finish Weight. The Terminal Gravity of a beer corrected for the effect of the priming malt or sugar. Fermentation Lock. See Airlock.

Glossary
Flavor Utilization. Flavor Utilization is the measure of the retention of the hop's distinctive flavor in the boiling process. Gravity. The measure of the density of a liquid in relationship to water. Pure water at 60EF has a gravity of 0.0. This is the same as a specific Gravity of 1.0000. A very good way to check the accuracy of any hydrometer is to place it in pure water at 60o F and make sure it reads 1.000. Headspace. See Airspace Hop Nose. The official term for the aromatic sensation of the aroma hop in the beer. I call it Hop Aroma since this manual tries to be less formal and more fun. International Bittering Units (IBU). A chemically measured parameter of a beer. It is the number of milligrams of isohumulones per liter of beer. IBU Factor. The IBU Factor is the number from Table VIII that allows the brewer to determine what bitterness is appropriate for a style of beer. Isinglass. A gelatin prepared from the bladders of fish, originally sturgeon. It is sometimes used as a fining agent in beer and wine. This product has never been approved by the FDA for human consumption. Kraeusen. (possibly from the German Die Krause for frilly or ruffled). The period of fermentation when the rich foam head appears on the beer. This is the fermentation stage when the yeast is best for harvest. The term Kraeusen also applies to the foam head itself. Kraeusening. The inoculation of a larger volume of wort with live yeast from a beer in the Kraeusen period of fermentation. Usually one or two cups will easily start the next batch of beer (see Kraeusen).

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Lager. Any beer fermented using a lager yeast at the appropriate temperature for that yeast. Usually a liquid lager yeast is used between 48o F and 52o F. See lager yeast. Also the practice of storing and aging a beer at near the freezing point of water to settle all the yeast from the beer to mellow and improve taste. Das Lager is the German word for stock or storage, i.e. Das Lagerbier). Lager Yeast. A brewing yeast that was discovered and subsequently developed in Germany a century ago. It works at lower temperatures than an ale yeast. Temperatures for lagering are in the 48EF to 52EF. Lauter Tun (from the German noun Die Läuterung for the purification or the clarification and the German verb transitive, tun that translates as do or perform). The instrument that is used to separate the grain hulls from the mash liquid. Liquefication. The bio-chemical action of the alpha-amylase enzymes on the grain starches that produce the malt sugars. Malting. The process of sprouting and drying of a grain. Magnitude. The grouping of a range of CAU, CFU, or IBU that describes the impact of the range. The groups are Extremely Low, Low, Mild, Average, Pronounced, Impressive, and Intense. MaltFactor. The number from Table XII used to compute the number of cups of DME needed to prime a beer. Mashing. A process where enzymes, operating at controlled elevated temperatures, convert grain starches into fermentable and nonfermentable sugars. Malt Extract Syrup (MES). The product obtained from the malting and mashing of wheat and/or barley grains. Mini-Mash (or Mini-Mashing). A process for the addition of small amounts of specialty grain to an extract or kit beer. The purpose is to add grain aroma, flavor, and sugars without the time and energy of a full mash.

Glossary
Modification. The level that the barley or wheat kernel is allowed to germinate. The modification is controlled by how long the maltster allows the whiskers (acrospire) on the grain to grow. Original Gravity. The gravity reading of a beer before fermentation. Original Weight. The product of the number of pounds of an ingredient used times its DOE. pH. A term introduced in 1909 by Sorensen from the German potenz and the chemical symbol for hydrogen H. The pH is a logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydromium-ion concentration. Neutral solutions have a pH of 7; acids have a pH lower than 7; bases have a pH higher than 7. The full range of pH is 1 to 14. Plato. An improved measuring system for the determination of sugar content developed by Dr. Plato. Some American hydrometers are calibrated in Plato even when they say Balling or Brix. PPV. The abbreviation of alcohol in percent by volume. PPW. The abbreviation of alcohol in percent by weight. Primary Fermentation. This is the part of the fermentation cycle where most of the sugars in the wort are converted to alcohol. This is often associated with the violent activity of a virulent yeast colony starting to grow. Priming. The addition of a fermentable product to a beer at bottling time for the purpose of producing carbonation. Live yeast must be present for the natural process of priming. Racking. The process of transferring beer from one fermenter to another thus leaving the sediment behind. This is usually performed after primary fermentation and again prior to ageing or bottling. Real Gravity. The gravity of a finished beer with the alcohol removed. Alcohol is lighter than water and as such will make the beer lighter than if it is removed. If is sometimes easy to observe its effect more easily with wine. In wine the final gravity will usually be below the 1.000 specific gravity of pure water. this is due to the weight attenuation caused by the alcohol.

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Reinheitsgebot. (From the German Reinheit nf. translated as Purity or Cleanliness and the German Das Gebot n. translated as commandment). The Reinheitsgebot of 1516, is a German brewing rule ( or order) that permits nothing but malt, hops, and water to be used in the German brewing process. This rule was modified, after the discovery of yeast, to include yeast in the formula. Setting this fact aside, all German breweries claim that the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 includes Hefe (yeast). Saccharification. The natural process in which grain starches are converted into sugars. Temperature and enzyme concentrations effect the quantity and types of sugars converted. Saccharometer. An instrument that measures the specific gravity of a liquid and is calibrated in units of sugar concentrations. Schedule. A predetermined timed series of events. Secondary Fermentation. The very slow fermentation that takes place over several months. It usually takes place in the bottles or casks. This is sometimes referred to as the time when a beer is transferred to a secondary fermentation vessel but the two stages, unlike the name, are not the same. Sigma or in the equations of this book stands for summation of all the parts that follow. It is just an abreviation and should not be of any concern to the novice concoctor. Sparging. The spraying (rinsing) of the mashed grain with hot water to remove as much fermentable sugars as possible before the grain is discarded. Specific Gravity (SG). The ratio of the weight of any item to a weight of an equal volume of water. A specified temperature is always given for a SG reading. In engineering and brewing, the specified temperature is at 60EF. Appendix A gives temperature corrections for SG in the temperature range of 35EF to 200EF. Specific Gravity Derating Factor (SGDF). The bittering utilization correction for the specific gravity of a boiling wort.

E

Glossary
Speise. From the German Die Speise meaning food or nourishment, it is the unfermented wort that is added to the beer for carbonation in the bottle or cask. SpeiseFactor. The number from Table XII used to compute the number of quarts of speise needed to prime a beer. Die Speise is the German word for the food. See section on Yeast Starters in the Culturing Yeast Chapter. Starter. The yeast rich liquid, usually drawn from an actively fermenting wort, that is used to bring a yeast barren wort to life (see Yeast Starter and Kraeusening). Terminal Degree of Extract (TDOE). The gravity reading after complete fermentation of 1 pound of a brewing ingredient mixed with enough water to make one U.S. Gallon. Use TDOE for the prediction of the terminal or bottle gravity of a beer. Terminal Gravity. The gravity of a finished beer. It is the resultant of Terminal Weight divided by Volume. Terminal Weight. The product of the number of pounds of an ingredient used times its TDOE. It is used for the prediction of a beers bottle parameters. Trub. From the German word Die Trüb meaning turbidity or muddiness, is the precipitated proteins, hop particles, and tannin during the wort boiling and after the wort cools down. Ullage. See Airspace Utilization. The percentage of the hop alpha bittering resin remaining in the beer at the end of all processing. Utilization is a function of boiling time, hop form, wort thickness, ageing, and other factors. Wort. An aqueous solution of malt sugars, grain byproducts, and adjuncts produced by mashing, malt extracts, and/or Mini-Mashing in order to make beer. Yeast. A living microorganism that nourishes itself on malt and produces the alcohol for our concoctions.

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer
Yeast Starter. A small portion of wort that is inoculated by a live yeast culture and allowed to become fully active in a sterile, aerated medium. The wort is often times water, DME or sugar, acid blend, and yeast nutrients.

Concoction Notes

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187

About The Author
Jim was born in New York City during the Second World War. He attended St. Mary's Elementary School and Chaminade High School in New York. Following that, he received a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (BEE) Degree from Villanova University in Pennsylvania. After graduation, Jim began work as an electrical engineer in Connecticut. He was soon introduced to and married his wife Judy. Jim still works as a consultant at several local aerospace companies. His engineering expertise is in Process Control, Electronic Systems Development, and Software Engineering. Jim's brewing all started about the same time Elvis showed up on TV. He has been concocting ever since. The King might have died but Jim keeps on ticking (brewing). By combining his knowledge of Process Control with over 30 years experience in brewing, he has simplified and defined the most important aspects of the home brewing process. Because of the combination his brewing and engineering talents, his colleagues began calling him The Beer Engineer in 1981. Jim's personal preferences for all malt beers, brewed in the German style, is unmistakable throughout this manual and its more than seventy–five original World Class recipes. Yes, he also included a few of his other (non–German) brews in for those who just cannot break away Cold Turkey. Sometimes he just goes wild and lets a little of his Irish heritage slip out from under his German roots. Other books & products from the Beer Engineer, CEI Publishing, and Crossfire Engineering Inc. that are available from your local brewing supplier:

Concoction of a Beer Engineer is the first book to give the Hop Scheduling and Mini-Mash secrets
of the Beer Engineer. This classic book is now in its fifth printing. 98pp and 45 original World Class recipes. ISBN: 0-9632514-0-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12.95

In Search of a Good 5¢ Yeast shows, in simple, easy to follow steps, the method to "clone" (culture)
your own special yeasts. Detailed recipes for culturing and starting mediums plus complete equipment sources are given in this handbook. ISBN: 0-9632514-3-0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6.95

188

More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

Brewing by the Numbers is the perfect first book for the beginning brewer. It gives modern, up to date,
information on every aspect of brewing the novice should know. 42pp with 10 World Class recipes. ISBN: 0-9632514-4-9 Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4.25 ISBN: 0-9632514-4-9 B&W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.50

The Hard Cider Handbook provides the simple "Ins & Outs" of turning sweet cider into World Class
hard cider. Over twenty recipes and step by step instructions for making delicious hard cider your very first time. ISBN: 0-9632514-4-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6.95

This Crud's for You. . . or Chemicals and how to use them provides an abridged look at all the chemicals
and products used in home beer and winemaking. ISBN: 0-9632514-2-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.49

Master Brewer is a menu driven brewing program for all IBM™ Personal Computers and compatibles.
It does all the brewing calculations. It is the perfect brewer's companion. ISBN: 0–9632514–8–1 Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $49.95

KegMan, a marvelous "snap ring" device that will allow you to open and close all single valve beer kegs
(having the spring type anti%tamper device) in seconds. Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8.95

KegMan II, a tool to remove the odd Sankey keg connectors which are not held in by the "slinky" type
retainer. This tool will fit the keg and allow you to unscrew the ball fitting. Hardware.. . . . . . . . . . $23.50

Counterflow Wort Chillers, all wort chillers come with hose fittings for the water jacket and plain tube
terminations for attaching to your boiling pot. The wort chillers come in four models: ¾ ¼ inch 12 foot copper beer line.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $65.95 ¾ d inch 12 foot copper beer line... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $85.95 ¾ d inch 12 foot stainless steel beer line.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $135.95 All Crossfire Engineering Inc. products are manufactured with the highest standards, in the U.S.A., to give you years of trouble free service. Custom designed products and wort chillers are available to meet every brewing need. Have your brewing supplier contact us with your exact needs. CEI Publishing can publish your book or manuscript at very reasonable prices. No job is too large or too small. We can work with you and provide just the right services to meet your needs. Digitizing, editing, artwork, typesetting, printing, copyrighting, and many other services. You pick and choose just the ones that you wnat. Our standard costs are low. Below is a list of our standard publishing services and fees.

Publishing Services and Fees
Digitizing raw handwritten manuscripts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.75/1000 ASCII characters Digitizing from raw typed manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.07/1000 ASCII characters Proofreading prior to digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12.00 per raw manuscript page Page formatting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2.50 per page Typesetting@ 600 DPI.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2.50 per page Consultation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35.00 per hour Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35.00 per hour Corrections of any of our typesetting errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Basic Cover Designs and Illustrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35.00 per hour Original Art-work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $100.00 per hour Copyright. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $55.00 per application

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189

Library of Congress Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $55.00 per application International Standard Book Numbering System Numbers for your work: (ISBN) Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $75.00 per book format. ISBN/Bookland bar code.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $75.00 Printing and binding are quoted by quantity, type of paper, type of binding, and type of cover material.

Ge b e t s tarke s Ge trän k d e n e n , d ie u m ko m m e n s o lle n , u n d B ie r d e m b e trü b te n Se e le n , Daß s ie trin ke n , u n d ih re s Ele n d v e rg e s s e n , u n d ih re s Un g lü c ks n ic h t m e h r g e d e n ke n .
Prov. 31, 6.7

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INDEX
Adjuncts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 3, 150 Aeration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 9, 81, 86, 128, 133 Aging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 3, 4, 8-10, 31, 38, 98, 101, 104-142, 179 Alcohol.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 3, 10, 11, 36, 50, 59, 61, 63-66, 84, 86, 89, 91, 101, 104-142, 151, 160, 162, 163, 167, 173, 174, 179 Alcohol Content.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 11, 36, 59, 61, 63-65, 101, 162, 167 Alpha Acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 37, 38, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 69, 70, 101-103, 115, 143 Alpha Acid Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 46 AltFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75, 78-80, 152 Aroma Magnitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 70, 145 Aroma Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 32, 40, 44, 69 Aroma Utilization (AU).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-33, 146 Bittering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 13, 19, 20, 36-44, 47, 54, 67, 69-72, 102, 146-148, 165, 166, 178 Body.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 4, 13, 15, 50, 55, 58, 85, 122, 153, 179 Boil Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 167 Bottles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9, 77, 81, 89, 93, 95, 114, 152, 171, 172, 176, 180, 181 Bottling Spigot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 169 Bittering Utilization (bu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39, 44, 70, 71, 146, 147 Carbonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 15, 75, 76, 78-81, 96, 98, 99, 152, 179 Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96, 97, 110, 169, 171, 176 Cold Break. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 121 Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 15, 49, 50, 53-57, 60, 61, 66, 101, 104-142, 150, 162, 172, 179 Combined Aroma Units (CAU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-34, 67. 69.104-127,145 Combined Flavor Units (CFU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-26, 67, 68, 70, 104-127, 144 Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 83, 99 Contamination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 26, 34, 58, 90 Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 38, 52, 53, 56, 64-66, 102, 158-161 Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 158-161 CornFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 80, 152 Decimal Alpha Acid Percent (daap). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 69, 70 Degree of Extract (DOE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-62, 66,78, 79

The Beer Engineer
Dry Malt Extract (DME). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 11, 61, 62, 75-81, 89, 90, 92, 98, 99, 102, 104-127, 129-131, 133, 134, 136, 138, 140-142, 150, 152, 160, 165, 178, 180, 181 Dry Hopping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 34-36 Effective Bittering Units (EBU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161, 165, 166 Effective Finish Weight (EFW).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 English Blend.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Enzymes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 116 Effective Start Weight (EFW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Effective Finish WEight (EFW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Fermentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 6-8, 13, 26, 30, 31, 35, 55, 57, 63, 76, 77, 83-86, 93, 101, 102, 107, 119, 128, 133, 141, 153, 178-181 Flavor Utilization (FU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix, 21-25, 187, 146 German Blend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 9, 10, 38-40, 47, 59-64, 66-68, 78, 84, 87, 95, 101, 151, 158, 163, 164, 167, 178 Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 2, 4, 9, 15, 50, 55, 56, 112, 152, 179 Head Retention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 55 Hop Aroma.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19, 24, 29-31, 33-36, 69, 70, 101, 104-142, 144, 145 Hop Aroma Magnitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 70, 145 Hop Aroma Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 69 Hop Bittering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 37 Hop Blend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hop Flavor Magnitude.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 68, 144 Hop Flavor Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Hot Break. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 121 International Bittering Units (IBU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38, 41, 43-46, 66-71, 101, 104-127, 147, 149, 165, 166 IBU Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 68, 149 Iodine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 53 KegMan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 35, 95-98 Kegs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 95-97, 99, 133, 152, 171, 172, 176 KFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34, 144, 148 Lagering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 7, 86, 102, 137, 141 MaltFactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 79, 152 Malt Extract Syrup(MES). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 11, 56, 60, 61, 78, 102-107, 111-118, 120-137, 139, 140 Mini-Mash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 3, 13, 30, 49-58, 101, 102, 180, 181 Nose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 13, 15, 29-31, 90, 101, 144 Percent by Volume (PPV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Percent by Weight (PPW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

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Priming.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 25, 42, 44, 61-63, 75-81, 92, 93, 95, 97-99, 101-142, 152, 176, 178, 180, 181 Priming Rates.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75, 76, 78-80, 98, 99, 152 Racking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 13, 38, 50, 107, 178 Recipe Selection Chart.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table XV Recipes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5, 22, 34, 55-57, 68, 83, 101-103, 113, 121, 141 Reinheitsgebot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 56, 57, 81, 124 Required IBU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 71 Required Utilization.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Sanitizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 90-93, 127, 171, 172 Soap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 98, 171, 182 Specific Gravity Derating Factor (SGDF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39, 44, 69 SpeiseFactor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 78, 152 Standard Reference Method (SRM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66, 150, 162 Standard Hop Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25, 26, 31-33, 40, 41, 44, 72, 148 Starting Gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 101 Sugar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 3, 9, 10, 49, 57, 63, 75-81, 98, 99, 125, 126, 128-133, 135-142, 150, 152, 160, 163, 180, 181 Target IBU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx, 67, 71 Terminal Degree of Extract (TDOE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 150 Terminal Gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 61, 62, 66-68 Terminal Weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-63 Total IBU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 45, 67, 71, 166 Yeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, 5-7, 10, 14, 30, 31, 36, 76, 77, 83-87, 89-93, 95, 102-142, 153, 173, 174, 178-181 Yeast Culturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89 Yeast Inoculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Yeast Rehydration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 85 Yeast Starter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86, 92, 93, 125, 126, 180, 181

If there are any additions to this index that you would find useful please let us know. We are always open to suggestions.

The Beer Engineer
Hint 73: Some of my special recipes (not in this book) require the addition of ¾ pound of hops. These specialty beers must be consumed with care. Hops add a natural high to a beer. A couple of super hopped beers can effect your physical and emotional response system before you know what is happening. Hint 74: Also available from Crossfire Engineering Inc. and The Beer Engineer for improving your brewing skills and enjoyment.

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Hint 75: Homebrew is all natural but it can be very strong. Always use care with any alcoholic beverage. Remember, if you drink, do not drive. After the good times start to roll it is usually too late to find a designated driver. Appoint a friend as designated driver before the party starts. Hint 76: Get the book, Brewing by the Numbers to learn all about the available chemicals and equipment for homebrewing. There is no other book like it on the market today.

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Concoction Notes

The Beer Engineer

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Concoction Notes

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More Concoctions from the Beer Engineer

B ie r g u t, a lle s g u t!

The Beer Engineer

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