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Chapter -4 Quality of service

By : Sarika Tuli Assistant Professor ECE Department, GRIET

Introduction
QOS of service is the performance level service offered by the network to the user. GOAL: Information carried by network can be better delivered and network resources can be better utilized. Network has to provide a set of service guarantees while transporting a flow.

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In ad-hoc wireless networks, the boundary between the service provider (network) and the user (host) is not defined clearly , thus making it essential to have better coordination among the hosts to achieve QoS. Characteristics of ad-hoc wireless networks such as lack of central coordination, mobility of hosts and limited availability of resources make QoS provisioning very challenging.

Real Time Traffic Support in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks


Real time applications can be classified as hard real time applications and soft real time applications. 1.Hard real time applications: It requires strict Qos guarantees. Its applications include nuclear reactor control,airtraffic control system and missile control system.

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In these applications, failure to meet the required delay constraints may lead to disastrous results. Soft real time applications: These can tolerate degradation in guaranteed Qos to a certain extent. Some of the soft real time applications are voice telephony, video on demand and video conferencing.

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In these applications loss of data and variation in delay jitter may degrade the service but do not produce hazardous results. The research community currently focusing on providing Qos support for applications that require soft real time guarantees.

QoS Parameters in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks


As different applications have different requirements and associated Qos parameters differ from application to application. For example : In case of multimedia applications , Bw , delay , jitter are the key Qos parameters In Ad-hoc wireless networks the Qos requirements are more influenced by resource constraints of the nodes. Like Battery charge, processing power and buffer space.

Issues & Challenges in providing Qos in Ad-hoc wireless networks


Factors effect QoS in ad-hoc Wireless network: Dynamically Varying network topology: Due to mobility ,network topology changes dynamically. Hence ,the admitted Qos sessions may suffer due to frequent path breaks, thereby requiring such sessions to be reestablished over new paths. Lack of central coordination: Like cellular networks, adhoc wireless networks do not have central controller to coordinate the activity of nodes. This further complicates Qos in d-hoc network.

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Error prone shared radio channel : During propagation through the wireless medium, radio waves suffer from attenuation, multipath propagation and interference. Insecure Medium: Due to broadcast nature of wireless medium , comm. through wireless channel is highly insecure. Adhoc networks are susceptible to attacks such as denial of service, message distortion so it is very difficult to provide secure comm. guarantee.

Design choice for providing Qos support


Hard Qos Versus Soft Qos approach: If Qos requirements of a connection are guaranteed to be met for the whole duration of the session, the Qos approach is termed a hard Qos approach. If Qos requirements are not guaranteed for the entire session is called Soft Qos approach. Keeping network dynamics of adhoc wireless

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Network in mind, it is very difficult to provide hard Qos guarantees to user applications. Thus ,Qos guarantees can be given only with in certain statistical bounds . Almost all QoS approaches available in the literature provide only soft Qos Guarantees.

Classification of Qos Solutions


Qos solution can be classified in two ways: 1.One classification is based on Qos approach employed. 2. while other one classifies Qos solutions based on layer at which they operate in network protocol stack.

1.Classification of Qos approaches

Classification of Qos approaches


Coupled Qos approach: In this routing protocol and Qos provisioning mechanism closely interact with each other for delivering Qos Guarantees. Decoupled Qos approach: Qos provisioning mechanism does not depend on any specific routing protocol to ensure Qos guarantees.

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Independent Qos approach : the network layer is not dependent on MAC layer for Qos provisioning. Dependent Qos approach : It requires the Mac layers to assist the routing protocol for Qos provisioning. Table driven approach : Each node in network maintains a routing table which aids in forwarding packets.

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On-Demand approach : No such routing table are maintained at node and hence the source node has to discover the route. Hybrid approach : It incorporates features of both table driven and on-demand approaches.

Layer Wise Classification of Existing Qos Solutions

MAC Layer Solutions


MAC layer protocol determines which node should transmit next on the broadcast channel when several nodes are competing for transmission on that channel Existing MAC protocols for ad-hoc wireless networks use channel sensing and random back-off scheme, making them suitable for best-effort data traffic

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Real time traffic (voice n video) requires bandwidth guarantees. Supporting real-time traffic in these networks is a very challenging task.

Cluster CDMA
Cluster CDMA is another MAC protocol that provides QOS support for applications in adhoc wireless networks. Supports Real time traffic in ad-hoc wireless networks. Dynamic Clustering scheme : 1 Nodes spilt into different groups 2 Each group has cluster head

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3. Every node in cluster is one hop away from cluster head. 4. clustering algorithms spilt the nodes into clusters so that they are interconnected and cover all the nodes. Three such algorithms are used : Lowest ID algorithm : A node becomes cluster head .if it has the lowest ID among all its neighbors.

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Highest degree algorithm: A node with a degree greater than degrees of all its neighbors becomes the cluster head. ( Degree Means no of neighbors are with in transmission range of node. Least cluster change: Cluster head change occurs only if a change in network causes two cluster heads to come in one cluster or one of the nodes moves out of the range of all cluster heads.

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TDMA Scheme : TDMA scheme is used with in a cluster for controlling access to the channel. Further it is possible for multiple sessions to share a given TDMA slot via CDMA. Across clusters different spreading codes can be used to reduce the effect of inter cluster interference.

Network Layer Solutions


The bandwidth reservation and real time traffic support capability of MAC protocols can ensure reservation at link level only, Hence the network layer support for end to end resource negotiation ,reservation is essential . 1. QoS Routing Protocols: These protocols search for routes with sufficient resources in order to satisfy the Qos requirements of a flow. The information regarding the availability of resources is managed by resource management

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Module which assist the Qos routing protocol in its search for Qos feasible paths. Qos routing protocol should find paths that consume minimum resources. To assist Qos routing ,the topology information can be maintained at the nodes of ad hoc wireless networks.

Ticket based Qos Routing protocol


It is a distributed Routing protocol for adhoc wireless networks. Features: Ticket based Qos 1. It can tolerate imprecise state information during Qos route computation and exhibits good performance even when the degree of imprecision is high. 2. It probes multiple paths in parallel for finding Qos feasible path. This increases

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The chance of finding such a path. The number of multipath searched is limited by the no of tickets issued in the probe packet by source node. An intelligent hop by hop selection mechanism is used for finding feasible path efficiently. 3. A low cost path that uses minimum resources is preferred when multiple feasible paths are available.

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4. A primary back up based fault tolerant tech is used to reduce service disruption during path breaks that occur quite frequently in adhoc wireless networks.

Qos Frameworks for Ad hoc wireless networks


A frame work for Qos is a complete system that attempts to provide required services to each user or application. The key component of any Qos framework is the Qos service model which defines the way user requirements are met. The other key components of the framework are Qos routing which is used to find feasible paths, Qos resource reservation signaling & packet scheduling.

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1. Routing Protocol : The routing protocol module in any Qos framework is used to find a path from source to destination and forward the data packet to next intermediate relay node. The performance of routing protocol ,in terms of control overhead ,affects the performance of Qos framework.

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Routing protocol should be able to track changes in the network topology with minimum control overhead. 2. Qos resource reservation Signaling: Once a path with the required Qos is found ,the next step is to reserve the required resources along that path. This is done by resource reservation signaling protocol

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3. Packet Scheduling: When multiple Qos connections are active at the same time through a link ,the decision on which Qos flow is to be served next is made by the scheduling scheme. The performance of scheduling scheme is reflected by the percentage of packets that meet their deadlines.