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2011

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Dept. of ECE, Chaithanya Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India Dept. of ECE, Regency Institute of Technology, YANAM, UT of Pudecherry, India

minimize the pulse width. However, this will reduce the average transmitted power and increase the operating bandwidth. Achieving fine range resolution while maintaining adequate average transmitted power can be accomplished by using pulse compression techniques. B. Radar Pulse Compression Pulse compression allows us to achieve the average transmitted power of a relatively long pulse, while obtaining the range resolution corresponding to a short pulse. Now, we will analyze analog and digital pulse compression techniques. The first technique is known as correlation processing which is dominantly used for narrow band and some medium band radar operations. The second technique is called stretch processing and is normally used for extremely wide band radar operations. C. Radar Equation with Pulse Compression The radar equation for pulsed radar can be written as

Abstract Range resolution for a given radar can be significantly improved by using very short pulses. Unfortunately, utilizing short pulses decreases the average transmitted power, which can hinder the radars normal modes of operation, particularly for multi-function and surveillance radars. Since the average transmitted power is directly linked to the receiver SNR, it is often desirable to increase the pulse width while simultaneously maintaining adequate range resolution. This can be made possible by using pulse compression techniques. Pulse compression allows us to achieve the average transmitted power of a relatively long pulse, while obtaining the range resolution corresponding to a short pulse. In this paper, we shall implement two digital pulse compression techniques. The first technique is known as correlation processing which is predominantly used for narrow band and some medium band radar operations. The second technique is called stretch processing and is normally used for extremely wide band radar operations. Keywords Range resolution, Pulse compression, Stretch correlation processing. I. Introduction The word radar is an abbreviation for Radio Detection and Ranging. In general, radar systems use modulated waveforms and directive antennas to transmit electromagnetic energy into a specific volume in space to search for targets. Objects (targets) within a search volume will reflect portions of this energy (radar returns or echoes) back to the radar. These echoes are then processed by the radar receiver to extract target information such as range, velocity, and other target identifying characteristics. A. Pulse Compression and Range Resolution Range resolution, denoted as R , is radar metric that describes its ability to detect targets in close proximity to each other as distinct objects. Radar systems are normally designed to operate between a minimum range Rmin and maximum range The distance between Rmin and Rmax is divided into M range bins (gates), each of width R , M = Rmax Rmin R Rmax .

(4 ) R 4 kTe FL (2) where is pt peak power, is pulse width , G is antenna gain, is target RCS, R is range, k is Boltzmans constant, Te is effective noise temperature, F is noise figure, and L is total radar losses. Pulse compression radars transmit relatively long pulses (with modulation) and process the radar echo into very short pulses (compressed). One can view the transmitted pulse to be composed of a series of very short subpulses (duty is 100%), where the width of each sub pulse is equal to the desired compressed pulse width. Denote the compressed pulse width as c . The SNR for the uncompressed pulse is given as

3

SNR =

P G 2 2 t

(3) where n is the number of subpulses. Eq (3) is denoted as the radar equation with pulse compression. For a given set of radar parameters, and as long as the transmitted pulse remains unchanged, then the SNR is also unchanged regardless of the signal bandwidth. More precisely, when pulse compression is used, the detection range is maintained while the range resolution is drastically improved by keeping the pulse width unchanged and by increasing the bandwidth. Remember that range resolution is proportional to the inverse of the signal bandwidth, R = c 2 B (4)

SNR =

P ( = n c )G 2 2 t

(4 )

R 4 kTe FL

(1)

Targets separated by at least R will be completely resolved in range. Targets within the same range bin can be resolved in cross range (azimuth) utilizing signal processing techniques. Consider two targets located at ranges R1 and R2 , corresponding to time delays t1 and t2 , respectively. In general, radar users and designers alike seek to minimize R in order to enhance the radar performance. As suggested by Eq (1), in order to achieve fine range resolution one must

D. LFM Pulse Compression Linear FM pulse compression is accomplished by adding frequency modulation to a long pulse at transmission, and by using a matched filter receiver in order to compress the received signal. As a result, the matched filter output is compressed by a factor = B , where is the pulsewidth and B is the bandwidth. Thus, by using long pulses and wideband LFM modulation large compression ratios can be achieved. Figure

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1 shows an ideal LFM pulse compression process. Part (a) shows the envelope for a wide pulse B = f 2 f1 , part (b) shows the frequency modulation with bandwidth. Part (c) shows the matched filter time-delay characteristic, while part (d) shows the compressed pulse envelope. Finally part (e) shows the Matched filter input/output Waveforms.

Fig. 1: Ideal LFM pulse compression II. Correlation Processor Radar operations (search, track, etc.) are usually carried out over a specified range window, referred to as the receive window and defined by the difference between the radar maximum and minimum range. Returns from all targets within the receive window are collected and passed through a matched filter circuitry to perform pulse compression. One implementation of such analog processors is the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices. Because of the recent advances in digital computer development, the correlation processor is often performed digitally using the FFT. This digital implementation is called Fast Convolution Processing (FCP) and can be implemented at baseband. Since the matched filter is a linear time invariant system, its output can be described as the convolution between its input and its impulse response. When using pulse compression, it is desirable to use modulation schemes that can accomplish a maximum pulse compression ratio, and can significantly reduce the side lobe levels of the compressed waveform. For the LFM case the first side lobe is approximately 13.5 dB below the main peak, and for most radar applications this may not be sufficient. In practice, high side lobe levels are not preferable because noise and/or jammers located at the side lobes may interfere with target returns in the main lobe. Weighting functions (windows) can be used on the compressed pulse spectrum in order to reduce the side lobe levels. However, this approach is rarely used, since amplitude modulating the transmitted waveform introduces extra burdens on the transmitter. III. Stretch Processor Stretch processing, also known as active correlation, is normally used to process extremely high and width LFM waveforms. This processing technique consists of the following steps: First, the radar returns are mixed with a replica (reference signal) of the transmitted waveform. This is followed by Low Pass Filtering (LPF) and coherent detection. Next, Analog to Digital (A/D) conversion is performed; and finally, a bank of Narrow Band Filters (NBFs) is used in order to extract the tones that are proportional to target range, since stretch processing effectively

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converts time delay into frequency. All returns from the same range bin produce the same constant frequency. The reference signal is an LFM waveform that has the same LFM slope as the transmitted LFM signal. It exists over the duration of the radar receive-window, which is computed from the difference between the radar maximum and minimum range. Denote the start frequency of the reference chirp as f r . Consider the case when the radar receives returns from a few close (in time or range) targets. Mixing with the reference signal and performing low pass filtering are effectively equivalent to subtracting the return frequency chirp from the reference signal. And hence, target returns appear at constant frequency tones that can be resolved using the FFT. Consequently, determining the proper sampling rate and FFT size is very critical. The rest of this section presents a methodology for computing the proper FFT parameters required for stretch processing. Assume a radar system using a stretch processor receiver. The pulse width is and the chirp bandwidth is B . Since stretch processing is normally used in extreme bandwidth cases (i.e., very large), the receive window over which radar returns will be processed is typically limited to few meters to possibly less than 100 meters. Declare the FFT size by N and its frequency resolution by f . The frequency resolution can be computed using the following procedure: consider two adjacent point scatterers at range R1 & R2 . The minimum frequency separation, between those scatterers so that they are resolved can be computed. More precisely, the maximum resolvable frequency by the FFT is limited to the region N f 2 . Thus, the maximum resolvable frequency is N f 2 B (Rmax Rmin ) 2 BRrec > = 2 c c Collecting terms from Eq (5) yields N > 2 BTrec (5)

(6) For better implementation of the FFT, choose an FFT of size (7) m is a nonzero positive integer. The sampling interval is then given by f = 1 1 Ts = Ts N FFT fN FFT (8) N FFT N = 2m

IV. Implementation And Results The implementation of the paper is carried out in three phases. In the first phase the suitability of various waveforms for pulse compression is evaluated by computing and plotting the ambiguity function of various waveforms viz Rectangular Pulse, Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM), Pulse Train, Barker Sequence. In the second phase, system level implementation of Correlation Processor used in low bandwidth radar receiver applications is done using MATLAB and results are obtained for various target configurations. In the third phase, system level implementation of Stretch Processor using for wide bandwidth radar receiver applications is done using MATLAB and results are obtained for various target configurations.

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Software designing for the above processors implemented and performance of the system can be evaluated. VI. Future Scope of the Work Evaluation of more complex codes such as Polyphase, Quadriphase, and orthogonal codes which have better waveform/correlation properties. Implementation of new complex digital receivers and performance comparison with the present day receivers. Implementation of this MATLAB code practically by using a DSP processor. References 1 Barton, D. K., Modern Radar System Analysis, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 19 88. 2 Blake, L. V., A Guide to Basic Pulse-Radar Maximum Range Calculation Part- I Equations, Definitions, and Aids to Calculation, Naval Res. Lab. Report 5868, 1969. 3 Carpentier, M. H., Principles of Modern Radar Systems, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1988 4 Costas, J. P., A Study of a Class of Detection Waveforms Having Nearly Ideal Range-Doppler Ambiguity Properties, Proc. IEEE 72, 1984, pp. 996- 1009. 5 Mahafza, B. R., Sajjadi, M., Three-Dimensional SAR Imaging Using a Linear Array in Transverse Motion, IEEE - AES Trans., Vol. 32, No. 1, January 1996, pp. 499-510. 6 Mahafza, B. R., Introduction to Radar Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998. 7 Rihaczek, A. W., Principles of High Resolution Radars, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. 8 Kerdock,A.M.,R.Mayer, D.Bass longest binary pulse compression codes with given peak sidelobe levelsProc. IEEE 74 . 9 Kerdock,A.M.,R.Mayer, D.Bass longest binary pulse compression codes with given peak sidelobe levelsProc. IEEE 74 . 10 levenon .N, A .Freedman .ambiguity function of Quadriphase coded Radar pulse . IEEE Trans IT-9 (JAN1963 11 Martin .T.A low side lobe IMCON pulse compression Proc.1976 ieee Ultrasonic Symposium. 12 Mac Williams, F.J., N.J.A.Sloan pseudo random sequences and arrays Proc.IEEE.64, Dec -1976

Fig. 5: Barkar code V. Conclusion Two LFM pulse compression techniques are dealt with in this project. The first technique is known as correlation processing. which is predominantly used for narrow band and some medium band radar operations. The second technique is called stretch processing and is normally used for extremely wide band radar operations. This paper involves system level implementation of two popular pulse compression techniques in MATLAB (correlation processing and stretch processing) to facilitate simulation and design of the system in software. System level simulation and design helps in evaluating the performance of the system before implementing the hardware prototype. The range resolution of the target is enhanced by using both the techniques. The correlation processor is best suited for narrow band applications and is observed during simulation. The stretch processor is suited for extreme wide band applications of radar and is also studied in the simulation. The characteristics of both the processors are being studied.

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Vamsi Krishna Mothiki is at present pursuing his M.Tech in the field of Digital Electronics and Communication Systems at Chaitanya Engineering College, Visakhapatnam. He worked as Assistant Professor, ECE in Adam's Engineering College, Paloncha from 2004-2009. He also published a textbook along with his father Suryaprakash Rao Mothiki with the tile "Pulse and Digital Circuits in 2011 for Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Ltd, India. His areas of interest are Digital Signal Processing, Digital Image Processing, Antennas and Radar Systems." K. Ravi Kumar, received his M.Tech from JNTUK, Kainada, A.P. India Currently, he is working as Assistant Professor in the Department of ECE, Regency Institute of Technology, Yanam, U.T of Puducherry. His area of interest is Digital Image processing, Radar Signal Processing and wireless networking. K Suresh, received his M.Tech from Andhra University College of Engineering. Currently, he is working as Associate Professor in the Department of ECE, Chaitanya Engineering College. His areas of interests are Radar signal Processing, Electromagnetics, Radar Cross-Section studies, Antennas and Image Processing V.Rajesh graduated in Electronics Engineering from the Institution of Engineers (India)and post graduated in Instrumentation from SRTM and currently submitted his PhD Thesis from ECE dept, Andhra University and research interests includes measuring and processing of Bio Electric Signals, Virtual Instrumentation and Image processing.

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