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Magnets + Magnetic Fields A magnetic field is a region where a particle of charge or with magnetic properties will experience a force.

There are 2 types of magnetic; permanent and electromagnet Lines of force go from north to south The closer the lines of flux, the strong the force

Force lines are called lines of flux The strength of a magnetic field is called the flux density (B) and is measured in tesla (T) (vector quantity) Magnetic flux density is greatest when a given area is perpendicular to the lines of flux. In other words when the angle between the lines of flux and the area is given by sin 90 Flux is measured in weber (Wb) and is given by = B x A (flux density x area) Magnetic force effect of an electric current Whenever a current flows, a circular magnetic field is produced around the wire A force is produced whenever a current flows with a magnetic force around it in the presence of a permanent magnetic The force F on the wire depends on the lenth of the wire (L) and the current (I). The stronger the magnetic field, the larger the flux density (B) and therefore the large the force acting on the wire. Flux density can be defined as the force per meter of wire per unit of current. F = BIL If the field is at an angle, F = BILsin Electricity from magnetism

When a conductor moves through a magnetic field, the electrons within it experience a force and therefore move producing a current. This is called an induced e.m.f Faradays law The induced e.m.f in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of flux Lenzs law The direction of the induced emf is such that it opposes the change of flux. This explains why energy does not come from nowhere since work is done moving through the lines of flux e.m.f = -d(n )/dt D is the change in a property N is the number of turns in a solenoid is the flux T is the time for the change

Section 3 Particle Physics

The nucleus Consists of protons and neutrons (nucleons) Makes up approximately 1/10000th of the atom The size of the nucleus is determined by its mass number. (number of nucleons) The number of neutrons can vary depending on the isotope Protons/Neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks Quarks as well as electrons are fundamental particles Rutherford alpha scattering A beam of alpha particles were fired at thin metal foils Alpha particles were scattered and detected using a small zinc sulphide screen Each alpha particle that hit the screen produced a beam of light The foil scattered the particles at all possible angles to the incidence beam At each angle, the number of alpha particles hitting the screen was measured Most of the alpha particles passed straight through

What this tells us about the structure of an atom All of the atoms positive charge is concentrated in the centre Most of the atoms mass is concentrated in the nucleus The electrons surround the nucleus at very large distances

Deep inelastic scattering Deep inelastic scattering provides evidence for the existence of quarks

Electrons are accelerated to high energies and allowed to interact with protons High energy electrons have wavelengths smaller that the size of a proton The high energies disrupt the proton creating new particles called hadrons It is inelastic because the target has been changed in the process Jets of new particles are produced

Electrons as waves Electrons can act as both particles and waves De broglies wavelength can relate the wavelength of a particle to its momentum = h/p Where h is Plancks constant (6.63x10-34Js), is the wavelength and P is momentum Electron Gun Metal filament is heated up Electrons are excited to high energy levels and leave the surface of the metal (thermionic emission) Electrons can be affected by positively charged plates which will attract them A force is exerted on the electrons causing them to accelerate The electrons will travel through a series of tubes called a linear accelerator Once the electron has travelled through the tube, the charge of the tube behind the electron becomes negative and the next tube in front becomes positive Since the electrons increase in velocity the length of the tube must increase so that the time spent in each tube can remain constant A radio frequency controls the alternation of the P.D so that the tubes can change from positive to negative at the correct times

Cyclotrons and synchrotrons Linacs are very good at producing tightly collimated beams of electrons. However to excited electrons to such energy levels they must be several kilometres long. The next step to producing high energy electron or particle beams is to make them move in a circle. This is done using magnetism and Flemings left hand law for motion

To calculate the force exerted on a charge particle moving through and electric field we use F = BQV Where F = force, B = magnetic field strength, Q = charge of particle and V = Velocity

Cyclotron In a cyclotron, charged particles, such as protons, are produced at the centre of the instrument. These particles move in a circular path because of the confining magnetic field above and below. The particles are alternately pushed and pulled by the alternating electric current thereby acquiring more and more energy. As they move faster, they spiral outward. After about one hundred orbits they emerge from the instrument with great energy.
The motion of charges particles in a magnetic field is given by r=p/BQ Detectors Detectors fall into three main categories Ionisation to produce a current Ionisation to produce condensation Excitation to produce a photon (scintillation)

Detector 1 include spark counters, GM tubes, drift tubes and semi-conductor diodes Detector 2 Cloud chambers, bubble chambers Detector 3 Scintillation counters, photomultipliers Cloud chambers Used for charged particles Particles passing through are detected by leaving trails where they have ionised and caused alcohol in the super saturated air to condense.

Bubble chambers

Particles cause tracks where they have ionised other particles to form sites where bubbles can form. Magnetic and electric fields are used to cause deflections in the particles that are detected so that it is possible to deduce their charge, and their momentum (which is given by p = BQr) Producing new particles Particles can decay during the high energy interactions that take place in particle accelerators The energy from these collisions can be used to make new particles Matter and antimatter collisions cause annihilation to occur. In other words, the particles are completely destroyed and are turned into energy according to the equations, E=mc2 Energy Units The energy of particles is normally measured in electron-volts An electron volt is the energy released when an electron of charge 1.6 x 10-19As passes through a potential difference of 1V, thus the energy released is 1.6x10-19J according to the equation V=J/Q So an electron volt = 1.6x10-19J More non si units The relative atomic mass of a nucleon is 1/12 of that of an atom of Carbon 12 1u = 1.66x10-27 The mass of particle can also be measured using the unit eV/C2 which is a derivative of Einsteins formula E=mc2 Particle families Family 1 - lepton Not subject to the string force They are fermions (have half integer spin_ They are fundamental (cant be broken down) They have integer charge If a particle is a lepton, it has the lepton number, 1, if it is an anti-lepton, its lepton number is -1. If it is not a lepton, its lepton number is 0

Family 2 Hadrons

Subject to the strong force Are not fundamental Some are fermions, Others are bosons (have integer spin) Baryons (includes protons + neutrons) Fermions Heavier than 1 nucleon Composed of 3 quarks Can decay if not already a proton, into a proton (if that makes sense?) Family 3 Quarks Quarks are fundamental particle and have half integer spin (fermions) Quarks Up (u) Down (d) Charm (c) Strange (s) Bottom (b) Top (t) Charge +2/3 e -1/3 e +2/3 e -1/3 e +2/3 e -1/3 e Mesons Bosons Heavier than a electron, lighter than a nucleon Composed of 2 quarks one regular the other anti Can decay into a lepton, photon, pions

The up, charm and top quarks are heavier than their counter parts Baryons Proton (UUD) / Neutron (UDD) Mesons - - (anti-U D) / + (anti-D U) / o (Anti-U U)