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COMPARISON OF ANSI/AISC 360-05 TO 1999 LRFD SPECIFICATION (prepared by Matthew Fadden and Jill Rajek) This document summarizes

the revisions made to the LRFD provisions contained in the 2005 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05) compared to the 1999 Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. CHAPTER A-GENERAL PROVISIONS A1. SCOPE The scope has been expanded to include other structures and no longer refers to Allowable Stress Design (ASD) because it is included in this specification. The specifications for single angles and hollow structural sections (HSS) have been combined in this specification and no longer needs to comply with the Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members (LRFD) and Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections. A1.1. Low-Seismic Applications has been added to clarify the seismic response modification coefficient, R, and qualifies the building to the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. The cutoff for the seismic response modification coefficient is three, which determines Low-Seismic Applications or High-Seismic Applications. A1.2. High-Seismic Applications has been added to clarify the seismic response modification coefficient, R, and qualifies the building to the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. The cutoff for the seismic response modification coefficient is three, which determines Low-Seismic Applications or High-Seismic Applications. A1.3 Nuclear Applications has been added to give the proper reference to specifications for nuclear facilities. REFERENCED SPECIFICATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS This section has been renamed and moved from old Section A6. Titles of ASTM and AWS standards are now included. MATERIAL A3.1. Structural Steel Materials adds that material testing reports shall be provided to show the furnished structural steel meets the specific grade requirements. A3.1a. ASTM Designations are now separated into categories of hotrolled structural shapes, structural tubing, pipe, plates, bars, and sheets. Material testing reports have been removed and placed in A3.1.

A2.

A3.

A3.1b. A3.1c. A3.1d. A3.2. A3.3.

A3.4. A3.5. A3.6.

Unidentified Steel remains unchanged except for the removal of surface condition requirements. Rolled Heavy Shapes has been split into Rolled Heavy Shapes and Built-Up Heavy Shapes. The Charpy V-notch impact test exceptions were removed. Built-Up Heavy Shapes has been renamed and moved from old Section A3.1c. The section has been condensed to omit repetition. Steel Castings and Forgings now conform to ASTM A216/A21M, Gr. WCB with Supplementary Requirement S11, and Steel Forgings ASTM A668/A668M. Bolts, Washers, and Nuts is now separated into categories of Bolts, Nuts, Washers, and Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators. The permitted use of A449 bolts under certain conditions has been removed from this section. Anchor Rods and Threaded Rods has been simplified and reorganized. A User Note has been added stating that F1554 is the preferred material specification for anchor rods. Filler Metal and Flux for Welding has been simplified and reorganized. Stud Shear Connectors has been simplified and reorganized. A User Note has been added specifying the material for aluminum stud shear connectors.

A4.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS This section has been moved from old Section A7 and states that drawings and specs shall meet the requirements of the Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges (COSP). The COSP is referenced directly rather than repeating the design requirements.

CHAPTER B-DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification which states the design must be consistent with the intended behavior of the framing system and the assumptions made in the structural analysis. Lateral load resistance and stability may be provided by any combination of members and connections unless restricted by the applicable building code. LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS This section has been moved from old Section A4. A User Note has been added to clarify that SEI/ASCE 7 and Section 2.3 applies for LRFD design. DESIGN BASIS This section has been moved from old Section A5.

B2.

B3.

B3.1.

B3.2. B3.3.

B3.4.

B3.5. B3.6. B3.6a.

B3.6b. B3.7. B3.8.

B3.9. B3.10. B3.11. B3.12. B3.13a.

Required Strength has been moved from old Section A5.1. Provisions for designing using inelastic or plastic analysis are now stipulated in Appendix 1.1. Plastic analysis design for steels with specified minimum yield stresses is now in Appendix 1.2. Moment redistribution is now in Appendix 1.3. Limit States has been moved from old Section A5.2 and been shortened to say neither strength nor serviceability limit states can be exceeded. Design for Strength Using Load and Resistance Factor Design has been moved from Section A5.3 and has changed to explain the relationship between required strength and design strength in equation form for LRFD. Design for Strength Using Allowable Strength Design is not included in the 1999 Specification. This Section explains the relationship between required strength and design strength in equation form for ASD. Design for Stability has moved from old Section B4 and now refers to Chapter C. Design of Connections has been partially taken from old Section A2. A User Note has been added making reference to the COSP for the communication necessary for connection design. Simple Connections terminology has changed from simple framing to simple connections. Simple connections are defined as connections that transmit negligible moment across the connection. Simple framing is defined as when connection restraint is ignored. Moment Connections fully explains restrained and partially restrained moment connections expanding on the definitions. Design for Serviceability has been moved from old Section A5.4. Design for Ponding has been moved from old Section K2 and now references Appendix 2. A specific roof slope is now given stating the roof system must be analyzed unless the roof slope is a inch per foot or greater. Design for Fatigue has been moved from old Section K3 and the sentence which considers the fatigue due to cranes and machinery support has been removed. Design for Fire Conditions is a new section in the 2005 Specification. Design for Corrosive Effects has been moved from old Section L5. Design Wall Thickness for HSS is taken from the LRFD for Hollow Structural Steel Sections. The advantage of using submerged-arc-welded HSS has also been noted. Gross Area has been moved from old Section B1 and is simplified by stating the gross area of a member is the total cross-sectional area.

B3.13b. B4.

Net Area has been moved from old Section B2 and added how to determine the net area for a slotted HSS welded to a gusset plate.

CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS FOR LOCAL BUCKLING This section has been renamed and moved from old Section B5. B4.1. Unstiffened Elements has been excerpted from old Section B5 and makes reference to Table B4.1 for graphical representations. B4.2. Stiffened Elements has been excerpted from old Section B5 and makes reference to Table B4.1 for graphical representations. Table B4.1. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements has been moved from old Table B5.1. Case numbers have been included in the table and graphical representations have been added. For Unstiffened Elements, Case 6 for flexure in legs of single angles has been changed from stems of tees and in Case 1, the equation for limiting width-thickness ratio for a noncompact section has been revised. For Stiffened Elements, descriptions and equations have been revised. FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL This is a new section in the 2005 Specification making reference to Chapter M, Fabrication, Erection, and Quality Control. EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES This is a new section in the 2005 Specification making reference to new Appendix 5, old Chapter N.

B5.

B6.

CHAPTER C STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN C1. STABILITY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS C1.1. General Requirements has been moved from old Section B4 and is expanded. The acceptable stability design methods are now included. The Direct Analysis Method which is introduced in Appendix 7 will satisfy these requirements. Elastic Design is permitted based on Section C2.2 and the connection design requirements. Inelastic (Plastic) Design must follow Appendix 1. C1.2. Member Stability Design Requirements have been moved from old Section C3.1. They have been changed to state the member stability meets requirements if Chapters E, F, G, H, and I are satisfied. If elements are to function as braces they must meet requirements found in Appendix 6 (Old Sections C3.3 and C3.4 have been moved there). C1.3. System Stability Design Requirements is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that lateral stability shall be provided by a lateral load resisting system. Effects of overturning drift, gravity loads, force sharing and force are considered.

C1.3a.

C1.3b.

C1.3c.

C1.3d.

Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems is taken from old Section C2.1 and reworded. This section maintains that K=1 barring more in depth analysis. Plastic analysis has been moved to Appendix 1 from old Section C2.1a. Moment-Frame Systems has been renamed and has been moved from old Section C2.2. The section states that moment frames must meet requirements of C2. Plastic analysis has been moved to Appendix 1 from old Section C2.2a. Gravity Framing Systems is a new section in the 2005 Specification. This section states that analysis of gravity framing should be based on actual lengths and second order effects should be transferred to the lateral load resisting system. Combined Systems is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that combined systems shall meet the requirements of their respective systems.

C2.

CALCULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS C2.1. Methods of Second-Order Analysis states that second-order analysis must conform to this section. C2.1a. General Second-Order Elastic Analysis is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that any second-order elastic analysis that considers P- and P- effects is acceptable. C2.1b. Second-Order Analysis by Amplified First-Order Elastic Analysis has been moved from old Section C1.2. User Notes have been added to better define variables. This section has been expanded for use in systems where axial load is predominant. C2.2. Design Requirements is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that if the first-order drift over second-order drift is less than 1.5, then first-order and second-order analysis are applicable. If the ratio is larger, then Direct Analysis Method must be used. C2.2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis is a new section in the 2005 Specification and further explains and sets requirements for Section C2.1. C2.2b. Design by First-Order Analysis is acceptable if the structure satisfies the limitations in this section.

CHAPTER D-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION D1. SLENDERNESS LIMITATIONS This section has been renamed and moved from old Section B7. The section has been reduced to only include members designed in tension. TENSILE STRENGTH This section has been renamed and moved from old Section D1. The limit state of fracture has been changed to tensile rupture in D2.(b).

D2.

D3.

AREA DETERMINATION D3.1. Gross Area has been moved from old Section B1 and is simplified by stating the gross area of a member is the total cross-sectional area. D3.2. Net Area has been moved from old Section B2 and now includes how to determine the net area for a slotted HSS welded to a gusset plate. A User Note has been added specifying the maximum net area for splice plates with holes and makes reference to Section J4.1(b). D3.3. Effective Net Area has been moved from old Section B3 and is simplified. The section refers to Table D3.1 to determine the shear lag factor when calculating the effective area of tension members. Table D3.1. Shear Lag Factors for Connections to Tension Members is a new table in the 2005 Specification with content from old Section B3. The table has element descriptions, shear lag equations, and graphical representations. Additional elements which have been added include round HSS members with a single concentric gusset plate, rectangular HSS members, and single angles. BUILT-UP MEMBERS This section has been moved from old Section D2 and the content has not been changed. PIN-CONNECTED MEMBERS D5.1. Tensile Strength has been moved from old Section D3.1a and lists the limit states of tensile rupture, shear rupture, bearing making reference to Section J7, and yielding making reference to Equation D2-1. D5.2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old Section D3.1b. The content has not been changed. EYEBARS D6.1. D6.2. Tensile Strength has been moved from old Section D3.2a and the available tensile strength of eyebars shall be determined in accordance with Section D2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old Section D3.2b. The content has not been changed.

D4.

D5.

D6.

CHAPTER E-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION E1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states the design compressive strength shall be the lowest value obtained from the limit states of flexural

buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The resistance factor has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90. E2. SLENDERNESS LIMITATIONS AND EFFECTIVE LENGTH This section has been moved from old Section E1.1 and the effective length factor shall be determined in accordance with Chapter C. A User Note was added stating the slenderness ratio from members designed in compression should preferably not exceed 200 which comes from old Section B7. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR FLEXURAL BUCKLING OF MEMBERS WITHOUT SLENDER ELEMENTS This section has been renamed and moved from old Section E2. Limits to determine the flexural buckling stress have been modified for determining which equation is appropriate to use. User Notes have been added for clarification. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR TORSIONAL AND FLEXURALTORSIONAL BUCKLING OF MEMBERS WITHOUT SLENDER ELEMENTS E4.(a). This section has been moved from old Section E3 and the content has not been changed. E4.(b). The section has been moved from old Appendix E. A User Note has been added specifying an equation for the warping constant for doubly symmetric I-shaped sections. Also, the User Note specifies to omit the warping constant when computing Fez for tees and double angles. SINGLE ANGLE COMPRESSION MEMBERS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. For further reference, see the 2000 LRFD Single Angle Specification. BUILT-UP MEMBERS E6.1. Compressive Strength has been renamed and moved from old Section E4.1. The section now has two intermediate sections, shapes that are interconnected by bolts or welds and shapes that are at least one open side interconnected by perforated cover plates or lacing with tie plates. E6.2. Dimensional Requirements has been renamed and moved from old Section E4.2. User Notes were added to this section for clarifications concerning the design of a bolted end connection for a built-up compression member and that the limiting width/thickness ratio for Case 14 in Table B4.1 is conservative. MEMBERS WITH SLENDER ELEMENTS This section has been moved from old Appendix E3 and now references equations for calculating Fe rather than repeating the equations. E7.1. Slender Unstiffened Elements has been moved from old Appendix B5.3a.

E3.

E4.

E5.

E6.

E7.

E7.2.

Slender Stiffened Elements has been moved from old Appendices B5.3b and B5.3c. The constant in the reduced effective width equation, be, has been increased from 1.91 to 1.92. The reduced effective width cannot exceed the actual width when using the equations. A User Note has been added specifying the computed elastic compressive stress, f, can be taken equal to yield stress, Fy, for a conservative estimate of column capacity.

CHAPTER F DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE This chapter has been reorganized and the introduction has been expanded to show the chapter organization. In addition, Table User Note F1.1 has been added that references the section in the new chapter that deals with each different member design for flexure. F1. GENERAL PROVISIONS The 1999 LRFD Specification referenced each limit state in old Section F1 and had special cases for different sections. In the 2005 Specification each section references every limit state for various section types. The general provisions now list the load reduction factor as well as defining other variables used throughout this chapter. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC COMPACT I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND CHANNELS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS F2.1. Yielding has been moved from old Section F1.1. F2.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is now explained specifically this member type. These equations, although presented in a different form, are identical to the corresponding equations in Section F1 of the 1999 LRFD Specification. The only exception is that the interface between inelastic and elastic buckling has been changed from Fy-Fr to 0.7 Fy. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT WEBS AND NONCOMPACT OR SLENDER FLANGES BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS F3.1. Lateral-Torsional Buckling uses the same provisions as F2.2. F3.2. Compression Flange Local Buckling has been moved from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1 under flange local buckling of channels and doubly and singly symmetric I-shaped beams (including hybrid beams) bent about their major axis. OTHER I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT OR NONCOMPACT WEBS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS F4.1. Compression Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F4.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is derived from Appendix F1, Table AF1.1 with many changes to the specification.

F2.

F3.

F4.

F4.3.

F4.4. F5.

Compression Flange Local Buckling comes from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1 under flange local buckling of channels and doubly and singly symmetric I-shaped beams (including hybrid beams) bent about the major axis. Tension Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

DOUBLY SYMMETRIC AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH SLENDER WEBS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS F5.1. Compression Flange Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F5.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling has been rearranged with similar equations to those found in old Appendix G3. Rather than calculating only Fcr, the nominal flexural strength is calculated. F5.3. Compression Flange Local Buckling comes from old Appendix G2. The hybrid girder factor has been removed. The Fcr equation has been rearranged. F5.4. Tension flange yielding is derived from old Appendix G2. The hybrid girder factor has been removed. I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND CHANNELS BENT ABOUT THEIR MINOR AXIS F6.1. Yielding has been moved from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. F6.2. Flange Local Buckling comes for old Appendix F1 and Table AF1.1. A User Note has been added stating shapes with compact flanges. SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR HSS AND BOX-SHAPED MEMBERS Note: Much of this section can be found in the 2000 HSS Specification. F7.1. Yielding is included in old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. F7.2. Flange Local Buckling has been rewritten from the 1999 LRFD Specification. F7.3. Web Local Buckling has been rewritten from the 1999 LRFD Specification. ROUND HSS Note: Much of this section can be found in the 2000 HSS Specification. F8.1. Yielding is included in old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. F8.2. Local Buckling is the only limit state outside of yielding to be checked. This check comes directly from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. TEES AND DOUBLE ANGLES LOADED IN THE PLANE OF SYMMETRY F9.1. Yielding is included in old Chapter F. The limit for stems in tension has increased from 1.5My to 1.6My. F9.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling comes directly from old Section F1.2c.

F6.

F7.

F8.

F9.

F9.3. F10.

Flange Local Buckling of Tees is new to the 2005 Specification and applies for noncompact or slender sections.

SINGLE ANGLES Note: Much of this section can be referenced in the 2000 LRFD Single Angle Specification. F10.1. Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F10.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F10.3. Leg Local Buckling is a new section in the 2005 Specification. RECTANGULAR BARS AND ROUNDS F11.1. Yielding is derived from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. The calculation is equivalent although the section has been rewritten removing variables. F11.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is derived from old Appendix F1, Table A-F1.1. The equations have been rearranged but are identical in value. For rounds or rectangular bars bent about the minor axis this step is not required. UNSYMMETRICAL SHAPES Note: This section is for any shape not falling into the specification of the previously described shapes. F12.1. Yielding is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F12.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling is a new section in the 2005 Specification. F12.3. Local Buckling is a new in the 2005 Specification. PROPORTIONS OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS F13.1. Hole Reductions contain the same limiting equation. The Yt factor has been added which has been reduced from the 1999 LRFD Specification. In addition, a calculation for the maximum moment in the tension flange has been added. F13.2. Proportioning Limits for I-Shaped Members has been taken directly from old Appendix G1. A requirement for singly symmetric I-shaped members has been added. F13.3. Cover Plates is taken directly from old Section B10. There are two added paragraphs discussing the use of high strength bolts or welds in the connection of built up elements. Limits are applied to the amount of longitudinal spacing allowed in the beam. F13.4. Built-Up Beams is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

F11.

F12.

F13.

CHAPTER G-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR

G1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS This section has been renamed and moved from old Section F2. The resistance factor is given for the entire chapter in this section. MEMBERS WITH UNSTIFFENED OR STIFFENED WEBS G2.1. Nominal Shear Strength has been moved from old Section F2, Appendix F2, and Appendix G3. In part (a), shear for webs of rolled I-shaped members has been added and the resistance factor has been increased from 0.90 to 1.0. G2.2. Transverse Stiffeners has been moved from Appendix F2.3. The constant in the equation specifying when transverse stiffeners are not required has been increased from 2.45 to 2.46. TENSION FIELD ACTION G3.1. Limits on the Use of Tension Field Action has been moved from Appendix G3. Parts (c) and (d) are new criteria for when tension field action consideration are not permitted. For these cases, nominal shear strength shall be determined by using Section G2. G3.2. Nominal Shear Strength with Tension Field Action has been moved from Appendix G3 and the content has not been changed. G3.3. Transverse Stiffeners have been moved from Appendix G4. A new limitation for transverse stiffeners subject to tension field action has been added. SINGLE ANGLES This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. For further reference, see the 2000 LRFD Single Angle Specification. RECTANGULAR HSS AND BOX MEMBERS This section has been moved from old Section F2 and the area calculation for determining the nominal shear strength has been changed to be rectangular HSS and box member specific. ROUND HSS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. WEAK AXIS SHEAR IN SINGLY AND DOUBLY SYMMETRIC SHAPES This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. BEAMS AND GIRDERS WITH WEB OPENINGS This section has been moved from old Section F4 and the content has not been changed.

G2.

G3.

G4.

G5.

G6. G7. G8.

CHAPTER H-DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION

H1.

DOUBLY AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE AND AXIAL FORCE H1.1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force has been moved from old Section H1.2 and the interaction equations have been rewritten in a general format with general variable descriptions. Specific variable descriptions for LRFD and ASD have been added. The resistance factor for compression, c , for LRFD has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90. H1.2. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members in Flexure and Tension has been moved from old Section H1.1 and the general interaction equations have been removed. Specific variable descriptions have been added for LRFD and ASD. The Cb value for doubly symmetric members may now be increased for axial tension that acts concurrently with flexure. H1.3. Doubly Symmetric Members in Single Axis Flexure and Compression is a new section in the 2005 Specification. UNSYMMETRIC AND OTHER MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE AND AXIAL FORCE This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. MEMBERS UNDER TORSION AND COMBINED TORSION, FLEXURE, SHEAR AND/OR AXIAL FORCE H3.1. Torsional Strength of Round and Rectangular HSS is a new section in the 2005 Specification. H3.2. HSS Subject to Combined Torsion, Shear, Flexure and Axial Force is a new section in the 2005 Specification. H3.3. Strength of Non-HSS Members under Torsion and Combined Stress has been renamed and moved from old Section H2. The equations have been modified to account for LRFD and ASD. The resistance factor for the limit state of buckling has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90.

H2.

H3.

CHAPTER I-DESIGN OF COMPOSITE MEMBERS I1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I1.1. Nominal Strength of Composite Sections is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I1.1a. Plastic Stress Distribution Method is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I1.1b. Strain-Compatibility Method is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I1.2. Material Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The specified concrete compressive strength for normal weight

I1.3.

concrete has been increased from nor more than 8 ksi to nor more than 10 ksi. For lightweight concrete, the specified compressive strength has been increased from 4 ksi to 6 ksi. The specified minimum yield stress of structural steel and reinforcing bars for calculating the strength of a composite column has been increased from 60 ksi to 75 ksi. Shear Connectors have been moved from old Section I5.1. The aggregate requirements and the concrete unit weight requirement have been removed.

I2.

AXIAL MEMBERS I2.1. Encased Composite Columns I2.1a. Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The requirement for the cross-sectional area of the steel core has been decreased from 4 percent to 1 percent. The minimum transverse reinforcement requirement has been increased from 0.007 to 0.009 inches squared per inch of tie spacing. A minimum reinforcement ratio for continuous longitudinal reinforcing has been added and shall be 0.004. I2.1b. Compressive Strength has been renamed and moved from old Section I2.2. The resistance factor has been decreased from 0.85 to 0.75. The equations are now listed and have been modified to be more general rather than shape specific. I2.1c. Tensile Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I2.1d. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I2.1e. Load Transfer has been moved from old Section I2.4. The maximum connector spacing and how the connectors shall be placed in a symmetrical configuration has been removed and placed in Section I2.1f. I2.1f. Detailing Requirements has been moved from old Sections I2.1, I2.3, I2.4, and I5.6. There must be at least four continuous longitudinal reinforcing bars in composite columns and the transverse reinforcement requirements changed from not greater than 2/3 of the least dimension of the composite cross-section to the smallest of 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie bar diameters or 0.5 times the least dimension. Shear connectors must now be distributed along the length of the member at a distance of at least 2.5 times the depth of the encased composite column above and below the load transfer region. I2.1g. Strength of Stud Shear Connectors has been moved from old Section I5.3. This section has been generalized to a shear connector imbedded in solid concrete from a shear connector embedded in a solid concrete slab. I2.2. Filled Composite Columns I2.2a. Limitations has been moved from old Section I2.1. The requirement for the cross-sectional area of the steel HSS has been

decreased from 4 percent to 1 percent. A maximum b/t ratio for a rectangular HSS has been added and shall be equal to 2.26 E / Fy . A maximum D/t ratio for a round HSS has been added and shall be 0.15( E / Fy ) . Compressive Strength has been moved from old Section I2.2. The resistance factor has been decreased from 0.85 to 0.75. The C2 value has been increased for circular sections from 0.85 to 0.95. The C3 value has been changed from a constant into a general equation for rectangular and circular HSS members. Tensile Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification. Load Transfer has been moved from old Section I2.4. Force transfer mechanisms including direct bond interaction, shear connection, or direct bearing that provides the largest nominal strength may be used to transfer an external force applied to either the steel or concrete core. Detailing Requirements has been moved from old Section I2.4. Shear connectors shall be distributed along the length of the member transferring the required shear force at a distance of at least 2.5 times the width of a rectangular HSS or 2.5 times the diameter of a round HSS above and below the load transfer region.

I2.2b.

I2.2c. I2.2d. I2.2e.

I2.2f.

I3.

FLEXURAL MEMBERS I3.1. General I3.1a. Effective Width has been moved from old Section I3.1 and the content has not been changed. I3.1b. Shear Strength is a new section in the 2005 Specification. I3.1c. Strength during Construction has been moved from old Section I3.4 and the content has not been changed. I3.2. Strength of Composite Beams with Shear Connectors I3.2a. Positive Flexural Strength has been renamed and moved from old Section I3.2. The resistance factor has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90 when Mn shall be determined from the plastic stress distribution on the composite section. I3.2b. Negative Flexural Strength has been renamed and moved from old Section I3.2. The resistance factor has been increased from 0.85 to 0.90. I3.2c. Strength of Composite Beams with Formed Steel Deck has been moved from old Sections I3.5, I3.5b, and I3.5c. The stud shear connectors shall have at least inch concrete cover above the top of the connectors. The steel deck shall be anchored to the supporting members at a spacing not less than 18 inches. I3.2d. Shear Connectors has been moved from old Sections I5.2, I5.3, I5.4, and I5.6. The Strength of Shear Connectors section has a revised upper limit for the nominal strength for one shear stud. A

I3.3. I4.

User Note has been added for the new values in the upper limit for several cases. Flexural Strength of Concrete-Encased and Filled Members has not been moved and the content has not been changed.

COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND FLEXURE This section has been renamed and the nominal strength of a composite member of the cross section shall be determined using the plastic stress distribution method or the strain-compatibility method. Length effects on the axial strength shall be determined using Section I2. The resistance factor for compression has been increased from 0.75 to 0.85 and the resistance factor for flexure is now 0.90. SPECIAL CASES This section has moved from old Section I6 and the content has not been changed.

I5.

CHAPTER J DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS J1. GENERAL PROVISIONS J1.1. Design Basis has been reworded and a statement about the effects of connection eccentricity has been added. J1.2. Simple Connections contents has not been changed. J1.3. Moment Connections contents remains unchanged and a User Note has been added. J1.4. Compression Members with Bearing Joints has been reorganized such that splices need to be the less of 50 percent of the required compressive strength or the moment and shear resulting from a transverse load is equal to 2 percent of the required compressive strength. J1.5. Splices in Heavy Sections has been rewritten. Mandates for backing bars and weld tab removal have been deleted. The reference to ASTM A6/A6M Group 4 and 5 has been removed since they can now be referenced in the manual. The section no longer covers the use of built up sections. J1.6. Beam Copes and Weld Access Holes has been expanded. Special attention has been given to the production of notches made by the access holes and rules about the slope have been made. J1.7. Placement of Welds and Bolts has been moved directly from old Section J1.8. J1.8. Bolts in Combination with Welds removes the use of A307 bolts. For the case of bolts in a slip critical connection in conjunction with welds when only half of the sharing of the load can be distributed to the weld has been revised. J1.9. High-Strength Bolts in Combination with Rivets has been moved from old Section J1.10 and the content has not been changed.

J1.10.

Limitations on Bolted and Welded Connections has been moved from old Section J1.11. The height of columns requiring pretension or slip critical joints or welds has been reduced to 125 feet. The statements about column splices for buildings 100-200 feet tall and tier buildings over 125 feet have been removed. The paragraph defining the height of a tier has been removed. Groove Welds Effective Area remains the same as the previous edition except the effective length of a groove weld has been removed. Limitations has been rewritten and the minimum weld size is now determined by the thickness of the thinner plate and Table J2.3. Fillet Welds Effective Area has changed its definition and no longer refers to AWS. A statement about using increased throat thickness after testing has been performed has been added. Limitations has been slightly rewritten. The statement about flange-web and similar welds and their use of Table J2.4 has been removed. The limitation in fillet weld terminations under cyclic forces has been removed. Plug and Slot Welds Effective Area contents has not been changed. Limitations contents has not been changed. Strength has expanded significantly. The design strength equations are a new addition to this section. The loading of welds in different configurations such as through the center of gravity, eccentrically, and on both transverse and longitudinal welds has been moved from old Appendix J2.4. Combination of Welds contents has not been changed. Filler Metal Requirements has been renamed and the content has not been changed. A User Note has been added summarizing AWS D1.1. Mixed Weld Metal contents has not been changed.

J2.

WELDS J2.1. J2.1a. J2.1b. J2.2. J2.2a. J2.2b.

J2.3. J2.3a. J2.3b. J2.4.

J2.5. J2.6. J2.7. J3.

BOLTS AND THREADED PARTS J3.1. High-Strength Bolts has been reworded for clarity. Clarification has been added for the use of non-standard bolts. The use of bolts other than ASTM A325 or A490 in slip critical connections will require matching proportions. J3.2. Size and Use of Holes contents has not been changed. J3.3. Minimum Spacing contents has not been changed. J3.4. Minimum Edge Distance adds a User Note to remind the Engineer that J3.10 and J4 must be satisfied. J3.5. Maximum Spacing and Edge Distance contents has not been changed.

J3.6. J3.7. J3.8.

J3.9. J3.10. J3.11. J3.12. J4.

Tension and Shear Strength of Bolts and Threaded Parts has been reworded and the equation will yield the same result. Combined Tension and Shear in Bearing-Type Connections has been rewritten such that the equation is in more general form than in the old Table A-J3.1. High-Strength Bolts in Slip-Critical Connections has been expanded. The limit state of slip is now considered a serviceability limit state. The old Section J3.8a has been combined with this section. The design strength has changed. A factor, Du, has been added to reflect the mean over the specified value of pretension. A hole size factor, hsc, has also been added. Combined Tension and Shear in Slip-Critical Connections has been reworded but the reduction factor remains the same. Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes contents has not been changed. Special Fasteners is a new section in the 2005 Specification. Tension Fasteners is a new section in the 2005 Specification.

AFFECTED ELEMENTS OF MEMBERS AND CONNECTING ELEMENTS J4.1. Strength of Elements in Tension is a new section with excerpts from old Sections J4.2 and J5.2. The calculated design strength will remain unchanged using either edition. J4.2. Strength of Elements in Shear is a new section with excerpts from old Sections J4.1 and J5.3. The calculated design strength will remain unchanged using either edition. J4.3. Block Shear Strength has been rewritten and includes an additional factor to account for uniform stresses. J4.4. Strength of Elements in Compression is a new section in the 2005 Specification. FILLERS This section has been moved from old Section J6 and the content has not been changed. SPLICES This section has been moved from old Section J7 and the content has not been changed. BEARING STRENGTH This section has been moved from old Section J8 and the content has not been changed. COLUMN BASES AND BEARING ON CONCRETE This section has been moved from old Section J9 and the content remain has not been changed. ANCHOR RODS AND EMBEDMENTS

J5.

J6.

J7.

J8.

J9.

This section has been modified from old Section J10 and expanded. The use of oversized holes and horizontal forces in the base plates are now discussed. J10. FLANGES AND WEBS WITH CONCENTRATED FORCES J10.1. Flange Local Buckling has been moved from old Section K1.2 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse stiffeners has been omitted. J10.2. Web Local Yielding has been moved from old Section K1.3 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted. J10.3. Web Crippling has been moved from old Section K1.4 and reworded. The method of attaching the transverse stiffeners or doubler plates has been omitted. J10.4. Web Sidesway Buckling has been moved from old Section K1.5 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted. A User Note has been added referring to Appendix 6 for adequate restraint determination. J10.5. Web Compression Buckling has been moved from old Section K1.6 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the transverse stiffeners or doubler plates is omitted. J10.6. Web Panel Zone Shear has been moved from old Section K1.7 and reworded. The placement and method of attaching the diagonal stiffeners or doubler plates has been omitted. J10.7. Unframed Ends of Beams and Girders has been moved from old Section K1.8. The content has not been changed. J10.8. Additional Stiffener Requirements for Concentrated Forces are derived from old Section K1.9 and includes much of the sizing and connecting criteria that has been omitted in the previous sections. Stiffeners for tensile forces now must comply with Chapter D and stiffeners under compressive forces shall meet requirements of Sections E6.2 and J4.4. An additional requirement for the length of transverse stiffeners has been added. J10.9. Additional Doubler Plate Requirements for Concentrated Forces comes from old Section K1.10 and includes much of the sizing and connecting criteria that has been omitted in the previous sections. Stiffeners for tensile, compression and shear forces should meet requirements in Chapters E, D, and G respectively.

CHAPTER K-DESIGN OF HSS AND BOX MEMBER CONNECTIONS This Chapter is new to the 2005 Specification and outlines the design of HSS and box member connections. For further reference, see the 2000 HSS Specification. CHAPTER L-DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY

L1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS This section has been moved from the old Chapter L Introduction. A User Note has been added stating additional information on serviceability limit states can be found in ASCE 7, Appendix B, and the Commentary. CAMBER This section has been moved from old Section L1. The material has been shortened and generalized. A User Note has been added making reference to the Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges for camber recommendations. DEFLECTIONS This section has been moved from old Section L3.1. A User Note has been added stating conditions that need to be considered and additional considerations for composite members. DRIFT This section has moved from old Section L3.3. Drift is evaluated using the service loads and includes the integrity of interior partitions and exterior cladding. VIBRATION This section has been renamed and moved from old Section L3.2. The material has been generalized and sources of vibrations that need to be considered are now included. WIND-INDUCED MOTION This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION This section has been moved from old Section L2 and now expands on if the exterior cladding is damaged due to expansion and contraction where water can penetrate and lead to corrosion. CONNECTION SLIP This section has been moved from old Section L4. The effects of connection slip have been included relating to the serviceability of the structure. A User Note has been added referencing the RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts.

L2.

L3.

L4.

L5.

L6. L7.

L8.

CHAPTER M-FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL M1. SHOP AND ERECTION DRAWINGS This section has been renamed and now includes information on erection drawings as in when they need to be prepared and what information is needed.

M2.

FABRICATION M2.1. Cambering, Curving and Straightening contents has not been changed. M2.2. Thermal Cutting information has been expanded to be more specific to include beam copes that are to be galvanized, beam flanges not exceeding 2 inches, curved parts of access holes, and material that needs to be inspected for cracking. M2.3. Planing of Edges contents has not been changed. M2.4. Welded Construction contents has not been changed. M2.5. Bolted Construction states bolt holes shall now comply with the provisions of the RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, Section 3.3 and thermally cut holes shall be permitted with a surface roughness profile not greater than 1,000 in. M2.6. Compression Joint contents has not been changed. M2.7. Dimensional Tolerances contents has not been changed. M2.8. Finish of Column Bases contents has not been changed. M2.9. Holes for Anchor Rods is a new section in the 2005 Specification. M2.10. Drain Holes is a new section in the 2005 Specification. M2.11. Requirements for Galvanized Members is a new section in the 2005 Specification. SHOP PAINTING M3.1. General Requirements contents has not been changed. M3.2. Inaccessible Surfaces contents has not been changed. M3.3. Contact Surfaces contents has not been changed. M3.4. Finished Surfaces contents has not been changed. M3.5. Surfaces Adjacent to Field Welds contents has not been changed. ERECTION M4.1. M4.2. M4.3. M4.4. M4.5. M4.6. M4.7. Alignment of Column Bases contents has not been changed. Bracing contents has not been changed. Alignment has not moved and the content has not been changed. Fit of Column Compression Joints and Base Plates contents has not been changed. Field Welding contents has not been changed. Field Painting contents has not been changed. Field Connections contents has not been changed.

M3.

M4.

M5.

QUALITY CONTROL M5.1. Cooperation contents has not been changed. M5.2. Rejections contents has not been changed. M5.3. Inspection of Welding contents has not been changed. M5.4. Inspection of Slip-Critical High-Strength Bolted Connections contents has not been changed.

M5.5.

Identification of Steel section now omits the capability of the identification method such as material specification designation, heat number, and material test reports.

APPENDIX 1-INEALSTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 1.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This is a new section to the 2005 Specification which discusses the permitted use of Inelastic (Plastic) analysis. MATERIALS This is a new section to the 2005 Specification which states that the minimum specified yield stress shall not exceed 65 ksi. MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION This is a new section to the 2005 Specification although; the principals of this section have been in the elastic design portions of the specification. LOCAL BUCKLING This section is taken in part from old Section B5.2. In addition the equations to check lateral torsional buckling are presented here. STABILITY AND SECOND-ORDER EFFECTS This section is newly written for the 2005 Specification, but maintains the old Section C1.1 requirement that second-order inelastic analysis must be performed. 1.5.1. Braced Frames is a new section in the 2005 Specification. 1.5.2. Moment Frames is a new section in the 2005 Specification. COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS Has been taken from old Chapter F1.3 and rewritten. The provisions remain the same. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification. CONNECTIONS This section is a new section in the 2005 Specification and states that connections must have sufficient strength and ductility.

1.2.

1.3.

1.4.

1.5.

1.6. 1.7.

1.8. 1.9.

APPENDIX 2-DESIGN FOR PONDING

2.1.

SIMPLIFIED DESIGN FOR PONDING This section has been moved from old Section K2 and rewritten but, the equations and requirements remain unchanged. IMPROVED DESIGN FOR PONDING This section is has been moved from old Appendix K2 and rewritten. The procedure remains the same.

2.2.

APPENDIX 3-DESIGN FOR FATIGUE 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. GENERAL This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.1. CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM STRESSES AND STRESS RANGES This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.2. DESIGN STRESS RANGE This section is taken from old Appendix K3.3. The slight reorganization includes metric reduction factors that were not included in the 1999 Specification. BOLTS AND THREADED PARTS This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.4. SPECIAL FABRICATION AND ERECTION REQUIREMENTS This section is taken directly from old Appendix K3.5.

3.4. 3.5.

APPENDIX 4-STRUCTURAL DESIGN FOR FIRE CONDITIONS This section is new to the 2005 Specification and provides criteria for the design and evaluation of structural steel component, systems and frames for fire conditions. APPENDIX 5-EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES 5.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This section has been moved from old Section N1 and the content has not been changed. MATERIAL PROPERTIES 5.2.1. Determination of Required Tests has been moved from old Section N2.1 and the content has not been changed. 5.2.2. Tensile Properties has been moved from old Section N2.2 and the content has not been changed. 5.2.3. Chemical Composition has been moved from old Section N2.3 and the content has not been changed.

5.2.

5.2.4. 5.2.5. 5.2.6. 5.3.

Base Metal Notch Toughness has been moved from old Section N2.4 and the content has not been changed. Weld Metal has been moved from old Section N2.5 and the content has not been changed. Bolts and Rivets has been moved from old Section N2.6 and the content has not been changed.

EVALUATION BY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 5.3.1. Dimensional Data has been moved from old Section N3.1 and the content has not been changed. 5.3.2. Strength Evaluation has been moved from old Section N3.2 and the content has not been changed. 5.3.3. Serviceability Evaluation has been moved from old Section N3.3 and the content has not been changed. EVALUATION BY LOAD TESTS 5.4.1. Determination of Load Rating by Testing has been moved from old Section N4.1 and the content has not been changed. 5.4.2. Serviceability Evaluation has been moved from old Section N4.2 and the content has not been changed. EVALUATION REPORT This section has been moved from old Section N5 and the content has not been changed.

5.4.

5.5.

APPENDIX 6-STABILITY BRACING FOR COLUMNS AND BEAMS 6.1. GENERAL PROVISIONS This section has been renamed and moved from old Section C3.1. The content has not been changed. COLUMNS This section has been moved from old Section C3.3 and the content has not been changed. 6.2.1. Relative Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.3a and the equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both LRFD and ASD. 6.2.2. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.3b and the equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both LRFD and ASD. BEAMS This section has been moved from old Section C3.4 and the content has not been changed.

6.2.

6.3.

6.3.1. 6.3.1a. 6.3.1b. 6.3.2. 6.3.2a. 6.3.2b.

Lateral Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a and the content has not been changed. Relative Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a.(a) and the equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both LRFD and ASD. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4a.(b) and the equations have been rewritten in a general form to account for both LRFD and ASD. Torsional Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4b and the content has not been changed. Nodal Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4b.(a) and the equations have be rewritten in a general form to account for both LRFD and ASD. Continuous Torsional Bracing has been moved from old Section C3.4b.(b) and the content has not been changed.

APPENDIX 7-DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. NOTIONAL LOADS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification. DESIGN-ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS This is a new section in the 2005 Specification.