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ANALYSIS OF HAZARD CAUSED BY LIGHTNING CLOUD TO GROUND DISCHARGES FOR LOCAL COMPUTER NETWORKS

Konrad SOBOLEWSKI Warsaw University of Technology

Summary: In this paper are described measured voltages induced in working local computer network due voltage surges simulating cloud to ground lightning (CG) discharges. The measured voltages were depending on positioning to transmission cable type of examined network to direction of discharge channel Also were tested various kinds SPDs designed to protect devices connected to network. The results have been discussed and adequate conclusions have been formulated. Keywords: induced voltages, computer network, surge protective devices. 1. Introduction Damages of electrical and electronic equipment, used also for data transmission systems, caused by lightning cloud to ground discharges (CG) are observed in increasing year by year number of cases in Poland and in European countries. In many of observed cases damages took place despite of installation of some kinds of lightning protection systems. The reason of such damages could be lack improper compatibility between protection system level and immunity level of protected devices or installations. As the direct lightning strikes to the structure are dangerous for sensitive low voltage electrical and electronic equipment it was find that nearby lightning strikes to the structures with this kind of equipment can cause more severe hazard. In such cases the external lightning protection systems (LPS) of structure is not sufficient and effective because objects (i.e. buildings) could be still penetrated by impulsive magnetic field caused by CG discharges, inducing overvoltages in system installation with higher values than immunity level connected with them devices like computer and informatics infrastructure. Therefore other methods of lightning caused overvoltage protection are necessary i.e. screened cable installation, equipotentialization and special shielding correlated with Lightning Protection Zone concept, based on new series of IEC 62305 standards.

This paper deals with relations between configuration of computer network and values of expected overvoltages due CG discharges position and described experimental test results of SPDs designed for computer networks made by different manufacturers. Also have been proposed measuring set-up configuration including various types of transmission cables (twisted pair, coaxial) and system geometry (parallel or perpendicular to magnetic field lines). Investigations have been done for live networks with two communicating computers. Finally test results have been analyzed, compared to working signal level and practical conclusions were taken. 2. Plan of experiment Whole experimental work was divided by two parts. First part was related to measurements of induced voltages in working computer network and depending on position to impulse magnetic field lines and also on type of transmission cable. Second step was to compare obtained results for different often used for data transmission line protection SPDs. In this part were measured characteristics of various kind SPDs. Finally were compared obtained results with immunity level connected to the network devices. 3. Brief foredesign of computer data networks Practical realizations of computer networks should be projected in accordance with three aspects: network topology and physical organization, ie. standard IEEE 802.3-2005 [1] defined structural wiring system, ie. standard PNEN 50173:1-2004 [2] defined solutions of lightning protection system for made installation, ie. PN-EN 61663:2-2002 [3] In first case usually is used one of two topology bus or star topology. Both of them are shown on Fig. 1.

a)

b)

Fig. 1. The most often used network topology: a) star, b) bus. The main difference between this two topologies relies on used communication cable. For star topology it is twisted pair cable, and for bus topology it is coaxial cable. For material reasons expected values of induced voltages, as also conducted overvoltages, are different for each of cable types. The second criteria was defined for organization reasons for growing computer networks, which with no uniform wiring system started to be named spaghetti cabling. The main aim of structural wiring system is to provide each user access to computer network (LAN) and to telecommunication services. The basic elements of this system is shown on Fig. 2.

Fig. 3. Measurement setups for induced voltages: a) parallel position, top view, b) parallel position, side view, c) orthogonal position, top view, d) orthogonal position, side view. To generation of impulse magnetic field was used Schaeffner BEST EMC generator equipped with square antenna. The shape of this field is shown on Fig. 4. Additional antenna was used to synchronize moment generating impulse and trigger oscilloscope.
dX: 6.67 us X: -12.2 us

Fig. 2. The basic elements and structure of structural wiring system. Various elements creates loops, which might coupling with lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) and leads to disturb network on effect induced voltages. In other case also overvoltages might get inside building by external lines like interbuilding connections. 4. Measurements of induced voltages Induced voltages were measured in two configurations depending on position of communication cable to square antenna generating impulse magnetic field. There were two positions: parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Measures were done for two types of cable: Twisted four pair wires cable AMP Systems Cable 24AWG Shielded Cat 5 coaxial cable MIL-C-17F RG58C/U - 50 ohm Picture below (fig. 3) present measurement set ups for this configurations.

1>

1) Ch 1:

1 Volt 10 us

Fig. 4. The shape of generated impulse magnetic field 6.4/16 s. During normal data exchanging process between tested two computers, without any disturbances, tested network sends data with work voltage about 5.5V and frequency about 10MHz. Exemplary record of this signal is shown on Fig. 5. Exchanged data are grouped in two parts firstly synchronization data are sending, than user data. Each of these block has various work voltage 5V for synchronization block and 5.5V for user data block.

a)

4 2 U [V] 0 -2 -4

b)

4 2 U [V] 0 -2 -4

4 t [s]

8 x 10
-5

4 t [s]

8 x 10
-7

c)

4 2 U [V] 0 -2 -4

For twisted pairs cable was done additional test relayed on measuring induced voltages in every color pairs. As expected, results are different. The smallest values of induced voltages were measured for orange color pair (about 0.6 V), and the biggest for brown and blue color pairs (over 6 V) the magnetic field strength was in both cases equal to 2000 A/m. On Fig. 7 are shown observed signals. a)
3 2

7.6

7.8

8 t [s]

8.2

8.4 x 10
-6

Fig. 5. Example of working signal: a) whole data packet, b) zoomed synchronization block, c) zoomed data block. Measured values of induced voltages for both configurations for twisted pairs cable are collect in table 1.
Table 1. Results of measurements induced voltage for twisted pairs cable. Ui induced voltage without working signal, Ur working signal with induced voltage H [A/m] 500 750 1000 Parallel position Ui [V] 1,12 1,67 2,65 Ur [V] 5,77 5,86 6,46 Orthogonal position Ui [V] 1,15 1,41 2,79 Ur [V] 5,84 6,16
U [V]

0 U [V] -1 -2 -3 -4

0.5

1 t [s]

1.5

2 x 10
-6

b)
8 6 4 2

6,96

0 -2

Measured values of induced voltages are very small and can only disturb part of transmission, but it might be correct by network hardware. No physical damage were observed during this part of experiment. On fig. 6 are shown exemplary records of measured induced voltages. a)
1 0.8

-4 -6 -8

0.5

1 t [s]

1.5

2 x 10
-6

c)
8 6 4 2 U [V] 0 -2 -4

0.6 0.4 0.2 U [V] 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1

-6 -8

0.5

1 t [s]

1.5

2 x 10
-6

d)
0 5 10 t [s] 15 20 x 10
-7

0.6

b)
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 U [V] -0.1
U [V]

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 -0.6 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 t [s] 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 x 10
-5

-0.8

10 t [s]

12

14

16

18

20 x 10
-7

Fig. 6. Exemplary records (oscillograms) of measured induced voltages. H=600 A/m, a) parallel position, b) orthogonal position.

Fig. 7. Observed signals in each colored pair twisted cable (H=2000A/m): a) green, b) brown, c) blue, d) orange. For coaxial cable measured values were much smaller than for twisted pair, table 2.

Table 2. Measured values of induced voltages in coaxial cable. H [A/m] Ui [mV] 300 65,4 500 121,4 700 150,5 1000 212,5

In this case probability of physical damage is much smaller than in case of twisted pairs cable. Fig. 8 presents examples of observed signals for this type cable. a)
0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 Ui [V] 0 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -2

Fig. 9. Measurement setup for SPDs test. The value of surge current was measured using shunt, and value of reduced voltage using Tektronix probe 1:100. Both signals were measured by Tektronix TDS3400 oscilloscope. For each tested SPD has been done four tests for different current values. Measured value of voltage reduced by SPD with connected protected device are shown in table 3.
Table 3. Measurement results for tested SPDs. DC No SPD [A] 1 2 3 4 5 6 190 71 81 83 58 82 22 290 89 90 99 78 114 30 390 122 121 118 106 148 42 490 160 140 143 136 182 71
200

8 t [us]

10

12

14

16

18 x 10
-7

b)
0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 Ui [V] 0 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -2

7 31 40 52 64

8 47 135 170 176

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40


0 2 4 6 8 t [us] 10 12 14 16 18 x 10
-7

SPD1 SPD2 SPD3 SPD4 SPD5 SPD6 SPD7 SPD8

20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Fig. 8. Observed signals for coaxial cable for two different field strength: a) H=500 A/m, b) H=1000 A/m. 5. Measurements of SPDs parameters The second part of experiment is addressed to SPDs tests designed for protection of devices connected with network using twisted pair cables or coaxial cables. Because measured induced voltages in previous part were quite low, so this time was used high voltage generator configured as surge current generator with shape 8/20 s. Overvoltages were conduction coupled to the computer network. Following SPDs have been tested: OBO RJ45S-E100/4-B (SPD1) OBO RJ45S-E100/4-C (SPD2) OBO RJ45S-E100/4-F (SPD3) DEHN UGKF RJ45 TP (SPD4) Phoenix Contact DataTrab DLAN Cat.5e (SPD5) OBO KoaxB-E2/FF-B (SPD6) OBO KoaxB-E2/MF-C (SPD7) OBO KoaxB-E2/MF-F (SPD8) Measurement setup is shown on Fig. 9.

Fig. 10. Comparison of obtained results for different SPDs. Horizontal axe is current in Amps, vertical axe is value of reduced voltage in Volts.

Examples of measured signals are presented on Fig. 11. a)


900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 10
-5

b)

300

120

250

100

200

80

150

60

100 40

50 20

0 0 -50 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 10
-5

-2

-1

7 x 10
-5

c)
300 250

h)
250

200

200

150 150

100

50 100 0

-50 50 -100

-150 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 10
-5

-2

-1

7 x 10
-5

d)
100

80

Fig. 11. Examples of observed signals on tested SPDs, Iu=390A: a) SPD1, b) SPD2, c) SPD3, d) SPD4, e) SPD5, f) SPD6, g) SPD7, h) SPD8. X axe time [s], Y axe SPD voltage.

60

40

20

-20

-40

-60 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 10
-5

e)
140

Difference is in impulse shape, as also in value of reduced voltage especially between pair and coaxial SPDs. The highest value reduced voltage was measured for SPD5, the lowest for SPD6. In most cases were observed high voltage impulses on start they can reach values over 1kV (SPD1), but in rest cases were much smaller (about 250350 V). With increasing value of discharge current also has increased values of reduced voltage, what is shown on fig. 10. 6. Summarization of results Results from first part of experiment were very interested, because they values were not higher as expected, even if magnetic field strength has big value. One of the reasons might be geometrical aspect tested network. Transmission line had only 6 meter long and loop surface was very small. Real installations are much longer and have more complicated configuration so loops are bigger. Also used types of cables screening and well manufactured it might effect on registered values of induced voltages. Some practical information might be used from measuring induced voltages in all colored pairs twisted pair cable. The values are different, and reason might be fact of using some of them to transmission signals and not connected others. The level of transmission signal is about 5V so to disturb transmission are not necessary high voltage impulses, there are enough measured in this experiment. Results from second part of experiment shown characteristics tested SPDs designed to protect devices connected to network. Eight various construction were taken to test, and each of them was different to others in the way of shape and values reduced voltage.

120

100

80

60

40

20

-20

-2

-1

7 x 10
-5

f)
80

60

40

20

-20

-2

-1

7 x 10
-5

g)

7. Conclusions 1. 2. The values of induced voltages in tested network cables were smaller then expected. In the case of twisted pair cable important is to connect colored pair in accompliance with a standards. They are differences between characteristics measured SPDs in impulse shape, value of reduced voltage and high voltage peaks in front of signal pulse. They are very dependence between values of reduced voltage and discharge current with two times bigger value of this current obtained two times bigger value of reduced voltage. Tested SPDs were (probably) delicate during probe with discharge current about 600 A one of them crash down. Immunity level devices connected directly to network is more than measured values in this experiment, but in some cases might be insufficient. 7. Bibliography 1. IEEE 802.3-2005 IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systemsLocal and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) PN-EN 50173-1:2004: Information technology - Generic cabling systems - Part 1: General requirements and office areas. PN-EN 61663-2:2002 Ochrona odgromowa. Linie telekomunikacyjne. Cz 2. Linie wykonywane przewodami metalowymi. D.Krasowski, M.oboda, K.Sobolewski Badania udarowej wytrzymaoci elektrycznej elementw sieci systemu przesyu danych informatycznych i sygnaowych, Krakw 2005, IV International Conference Science and Technical. Konrad Sobolewski, Marek oboda Voltages induced by lightning magnetic field impulses in short section of cables, acut 2002, IEC 61000-4-9:1995: EMC Part 4 Testing and measurement techniques Section 9: Pulse magnetic field immunity test. Basic EMC Publication. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge to Polish State Committee for Scientific Research the contribution of this work financed as part of granted research project No. 4T0A00925 in years 2003 -2006.

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