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CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry

CEFCOPROCESS:EXPLANATIONOFAEROREACTORCHEMICAL REACTIONLISTING+PROCESSPARAMETERS+ MASSTRANSFERMECHANISM (April27,2010)

Fromthecompositionofthehydrocarbonfueled(includingallfossilsourced)fluegas,CEFCO,or Clean Energy Fuel Company identified four (4) main groups of contaminants based on their physical and chemicalproperties: (1) metalsand fine particulates; (2) sulfurous gases such as SOx;(3)nitrousgasessuchas NOx;and(4)carbonaceousgasessuchasCO2.TheCEFCOprocess isdesignedtotreatandcapturethesecontaminantsinseparateaerodynamicreactionchambers andextracttheminseparateaerodynamiccoalescersinasystemtobedescribedasaModule: A)MetalsReactorSystem(MRSModule1); B)SulfurReactorSystem(SRSModule2); C)NitrogenReactorSystem(NRSModule3);and D)CarbonReactorSystem(CRSModule4). Each aerodynamic reaction chamber and system (herein called a Module) has unique dimensionsandcharacteristicsthatareproprietaryknowhow.Thelogicisexplainedbelow. Exhibit 1: CEFCO Process Modules Diagram ( in a sample configuration )

A key concept in the CEFCO Process is that, at all times, the flue gases being treated move rapidlythroughtheaerodynamicsystem.In physics,thedwelltimeorresidencetimefor
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each selecttarget reaction is governed by the speed of the flue gas traveling through the respectivedistancesofthesequentialreactionzoneswithintheappropriatelydesignedreactor system.Exceptfortheresidencetimeofjustover1secondfortheverystablecarbondioxide 99% reaction, the reaction zone residencetimes for all other targeted contaminants are significantlyunder1second. All of the targeted reactions within the aerodynamic zones are governed by at least five (5) major and wellstudied parameters: Time, Velocity, Temperature, Pressure and pH, which will assistinthe"selectivereaction"and,therefore,selectiveremovalunderdesignedconditions. The Time or Velocity can be governed by regulating the speed and length of travel of the targeted flue gas component within the respective reaction zones. The same aerodynamic mechanismisusedtoremoveeachgroupoftargetedemissionsaswellasCarbonDioxide,by varying the targetselection parameters and the selectchemical reagents used. There is no needtoaddextracatalyst.Basedonempiricaldatafrompreviousworkofthephysicists,the reactionsoccurringatandimmediatelydownstreamofthefreejetnozzleswithinthereactors are extremely quick. With a typical and nominal flue gas at a postESP or postbaghouse Temperatureof300Fto400Fandtravelingatavelocitybetween50and80ft/sec.,thefluegas will enter and exit (via the stack) the entire CEFCO Process system including all four reactor systemsinlessthan6seconds. TheEwanaerodynamicmechanismusesmoderatesteam(between400Fto700F,between60 psito100psi)togeneratesupersonicshockwaves(intenseenergyandpressurewaves)tocause massiveandrepetitivecollisionsofthetargetedemissionsandtheCEFCOReagentsmolecules, whichthenaltogetherexitsintoasubsonicfreejetviaasubsonicnozzleinsidetheaerodynamic reactor resulting in a subatmospheric condition showing extreme pressure drop, rapid temperature drop, the various selectively intended reactions, the planned velocity of the moleculestravelingthroughthereactionzone,therapidmassdisplacement,theendothermic exothermic reactions of producing the intermediate and endproduct, and then the pressure and heat recovery through the aerodynamic coalescer, etc. In theory and practice, the Ewan technologyhasinducedasuddenandextremecollapseof(T)Temperatureand(P)Pressure, plunging down from the ultracritical range into the normal range within splitseconds. This plungelocksintheendproductofthereactionswithoutexpendingorconsuminganinordinate amount of energy, which is often called parasitic load in the energy industry. The Ewan aerodynamic mechanism is employing a branch of aerospace science, and not the traditional thermodynamicsmechanismandchemistryascommonlyusedintheenergyindustry. Thereactiontimespresentedinthefollowingtableweretakenfromthedataobservedbythe physicistsandinsomeoftheavailablereportsandrecentcalculations,andarerepresentativeof reactions occurring based on the Process Engineering provided designconditions of the Pilot Testfluegasmodelenteringthefirstreactor(MRS)inletat:approximately300F,13.5psiaand travelingat50to60ft./sec.(See:Table1,below).
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Table 1: CEFCO - Parameters for Targeted Reactions


Target Metals and Fine Particulates SOx Time Over 99% completed < 0.01 sec Over 99% completed < 0.2 sec Over 99% completed < 0.5 sec Over 90% completed 1.0 sec Temp F Zone Condition: 220F - 160F Zone Condition: 180F - 150F Zone Condition: 135F - 140F Zone Condition: Ambient to 150F pH 6.0 - 7.0 Module MRS Velocity-Distance Very short travel distance within System Short travel distance within System Longer travel distance within System Longest travel distance within System

7.5 - 8.5

SRS

NOx

9.0 - 11.0

NRS

CO2 COx

8.5 - 11.0

CRS

DuringthePilotTest,unexpectedchangestotheseparametersmayoccur.TheProcessEngineer will evaluate these actual conditions and adjust/modify as needed to obtain optimal results. Objectives: Will need to define the differential solubilities of the gases much more clearly in termsofabsorptionandreactiontimes,reactionrates,appropriatepHlevelsandtemperature ranges.Expectations:SomeCO2(tobemeasuredintheTest)willberemovedintheSRS,but thegreatmajoritywillberemovedintheNRSandCRS.
Table 2: Pressure and Temperature Expected to be Measured at Each Reactors System
KEY ITEMS: Press. Drop (inches of w.c.) 40% Pressure Recovery Net Pressure Drop: Net Press. Drop (psia): Exit Pressure (psia) Exit Temp (F) Net Temp. Drop (F) MRS 2.0" 0.8" 1.2" 0.043 13.45 180-200 100-120 SRS 1.9" 0.76" 1.14" 0.041 13.42 150-170 30 NRS 1.8" 0.72" 1.08" 0.039 13.38 140-160 10 CRS 1.7" 0.68" 1.02" 0.037 13.34 135-140 5-20 Total System 7.4" 2.96" 4.44" 0.123 13.34 135-140 160-165

Notes: 1. The net pressure drops were based on projections made by and later proven by Ewan. 2. The pressure drops indicated are representative of the pressure losses across the subsonic nozzle in each reactor. Other minor pressure losses will occur in the ductwork, on the order of less than 0.5 in. w.c. along each section of duct. These pressure losses are calculable. 3. The temperatures listed are based on historical empirical data and not based on calculation.

Observations:TheExitTemp(F)aftereachreactorsystemisslightlyhigherthantheZone Condition Temp (F) because of the occurrenceof 40%Pressure Recovery. We will explain the Temperature Recovery and Pressure Recovery within the system via the aerodynamic designs.

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The following steps are to be reviewed together with the Process Engineers Process Diagrams.

A)

MetalsandFineParticulatesRemovalDescriptionofMRSSteps

MetalRemovalandRecoveryReactions H2O2solutionisinjectedintotheMRSastheprimaryselectreagent. Asacontingency,KClsolutionisalsoavailable,aswellasCl2availablebutmaynotbeneeded. Mercury Compound Reactions with Peroxide [ Main Targeted Reactions] Hg HgO + + 2OH (reagent) H2O HgO Hg(OH)2 + H2O

Elemental Mercury Reactions with Chlorine (if used) Hg + Cl2 HgCl2 Hg + 2 Cl HgCl2

PerrysChemicalEngineersHandbookshowsthefollowingdata: Mercury has a melting point of 38.9C (about 40F) and a boiling point of 361C (681F). Elemental Mercury is expected to occur as a liquid microdroplet at the temperature range enteringintotheMRS. Mercury Chloride has a melting point of 277C (530F) and a boiling point of 304C (579F). HgCl2isexpectedtooccurasasolidatthetemperaturerangewithintheMRS. Mercury Chloride should also be encapsulated and removed with the liquids via the aero coalescer.ElementalMercuryisexpectedtobeencapsulated,grownlargerandremovedwith theotherliquidstreamsviatheaerocoalescer.Theaerodynamicmechanismandfunctionwill beproventohaveperformedthejobsuccessfully. TheProcessEngineerhasrecommendedtousetheexampleofBariummetalsforallMassand Chemical Balance calculations as representative of all other metals within the flue gas for the sake of simplicity and the trace quantities of too many metals within the Pilot Test. Barium, accordingtothePerrysChemicalEngineersHandbook,showsaMeltingPointof1,562F.We expect to capture and remove Barium and Barium Compounds as solids. Process Engineer precautions, showing Barium (to represent symbolically for all other metals) reacting with all three KCl, Cl2 and H2O2, are for insurancepurposes in a practical Pilot Plant exercise. The recommendedreagenttobeaddedisH2O2.
Table 3: Representative MRS Reactions
For H2O2 H2O2 (reagent) + Ba BaO + H2O Page4of15

CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry For KCl For Cl2 2 KCl + 2 H2O + Ba Cl2 + Ba BaCl2 BaCl2 + 2 KOH + H2

AsapossibleresultofthePilotTest,CEFCObelievesthatwewillfindthatitisunnecessaryto addanychlorineorchloridechemicaltotheMRStocapturemetals(suchasMercuryorBarium) or particulate matter (< 1 micron), all of which are either a solid or liquid, or possibly a condensablevapor.Weexpectthatover90%ofallmetalswillbeinthesolidphase(andwillbe capturedtogetherwiththeparticulatesinthecondensatedliquiddrops),andsomemetals(like Mercury) will be in the liquid phase (which also will be captured together in the condensed liquiddrops).Othertracemetalswillbecapturedintheoxideform.Allthreegroupswillbe capturedandremovedviatheaerocoalescerintheexitingliquidstream. [Separately, our patentcontent text covers Uranium and Selenium removal, but they are not withinthescopeofthisPilotTestandExplanation.]
Metal Extraction Chemical Reactions Metals + Inorganics + H2O2 Oxidized Metals + Insoluble Ash Metals + Inorganics + KCl Metal Chlorides + Insoluble Ash Metal Washing Treatment Reactions Metals + Inorganics + Water Metal Extract + Insoluble Ash Metals + Inorganics + HCl (if added) Metal Chlorides + Insoluble Ash

B)

SulfurOxideRemovalDescriptionofSRSSteps

Note1a: K2CO3(herethisisthereagentbeingregeneratedandrecirculatedfromthe externalregenerationtanks)

ReactionsinsidetheSOxAerodynamicReactorandAerodynamicCoalescer: SO2+H2O H2SO3 H2SO3+2KOH(reagent) K2SO3+2H2O(ReactionProducts) KHCO3(CarbonCapture) CO2+KOH(reagent) CO2+K2CO3(reagent)+H2O 2KHCO3(CarbonCapture) SO2+2K2CO3(reagent)+H2OK2SO3+2KHCO3(ReactionProducts)
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ConventionalReactionsafterleavingtheAerodynamicCoalescer: 2K2SO3+O2 (orH2O2) 2K2SO4 2 (Oxidation outsideofAeroModule) Heat+2KHCO3K2CO3(regenerated)+CO2(liberatedgas)+H2O


Note 1b: K2CO3 (here is being regenerated) regeneration process liberates CO2 as a gas and producesasupplyofrecoveredwaterformanysubsequentuses. Table 4: Theory of Ewan SRS Module Sequence of Chemical Reactions and Thermodynamics (to be measured and refined) by Process Engineer.
Seq. Reaction
Eq. 1 CO2 + KOH KHCO3 Eq. 2 CO2 + K2CO3 + H2O 2 KHCO3 Eq. 3 SO2 + H2O + 2 K2CO3 K2SO3 + 2 KHCO3 Eq. 4 SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Eq. 5 H2SO3 + 2 KOH K2SO3 + 2 H2O

Location
SOx Reactor SOx Reactor SOx Reactor SOx Reactor SOx Reactor

Notes
Rapid reaction in transitional condition. Rapid reaction in transitional condition. Rapid reaction in transitional condition. Rapid reaction absorbing heat. Rapid reaction in transitional condition.

Carbon Capture Inside of the Ewan Reactor with Reagent

SO2 Removal Inside of the Ewan Reactor with Reagent

End Products Outside of the Ewan Reactor, using the Cooper Chemistry Captured CO2 is liberated and stored. Eq. 6 Heat + 2 KHCO3 K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Decarbonator K2CO3 Reagent is regenerated. Eq. 7 2 K2SO3 + O2 2 K2SO4 Oxidizer Potassium Sulfate end product. Notes: 1. K2CO3 is a regenerative reagent with regeneration occurring in the decarbonator as the captured CO2 is stored. 2. KOH is added to the reagent mixture as a molar equivalent to the potassium removed as a reaction product.

C)

NitrogenOxideRemovalDescriptionofNRSSteps KNO2 + H2O2 KNO3 + H2O Eq. 8 KOH + HNO2 KNO2 + H2O Eq. 5 2 NO2 + H2O HNO2 + HNO3 Eq 4 2 NO2 + H2O2 2 HNO3 Eq 3 KOH + HNO3 H2O + KNO3 Eq 6 K2CO3 + HNO3 KHCO3 + KNO3 Eq 7 CO2 + KOH KHCO3 Eq 1 CO2 + K2CO3 + H2O 2 KHCO3 Eq 2 Heat + 2 KHCO3 K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Eq 9

Equations shown here are grouped by compound. Chronological sequencing shown by Eq. # and shown below.

Note1a:K2CO3(herethisisthereagentbeingregeneratedandrecirculatedfromtheexternal regenerationtanks)

ReactionsinsidetheNOx/CO2AerodynamicReactorsandAerodynamicCoalescers: 2NO2+H2O HNO2+HNO3 2NO2+H2O2(reagent) 2HNO3 KOH(reagent)+HNO3 KNO3+H2O(ReactionProduct) HNO3+K2CO3(reagent)KNO3+KHCO3 (ReactionProduct+CarbonCapture)


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PossibleSupplementalReactions(tobetestedandverified): KOH(reagent)+HNO2 KNO2+H2O KNO2+H2O2(reagent) KNO3+H2O(ReactionProduct) SeeNote2:Oxidation. ConventionalReactionsafterleavingtheAerodynamicCoalescer: KNO2(ifescapedunoxidized)+H2O2(reagent) KNO3+H2O 2 (Oxidation outsideofModule) Heat+2KHCO3K2CO3(regenerated)+CO2(liberatedgas)+H2O
Note1b:K2CO3(hereisbeingregenerated)whichregenerationprocessalsoliberatespureCO2 asagasandproducesasupplyofrecoveredwaterformanysubsequentuses.

Table 5: Theory of Ewan NRS Module Sequence of Chemical Reactions and Thermodynamics (to be measured and refined) by Process Engineer.
Seq. Reaction
Eq. 1 CO2 + KOH KHCO3 Eq. 2 CO2 + K2CO3 + H2O 2 KHCO3 Eq. 3 2 NO2 + H2O2 2 HNO3 Eq. 4 2 NO2 + H2O HNO2 + HNO3 Eq. 5 KOH + HNO2 KNO2 + H2O

Location
NOx Reactor NOx Reactor NOx Reactor NOx Reactor NOx Reactor

Notes
Rapid reaction in transitional condition. Rapid reaction in transitional condition. Rapid reaction absorbing heat. Rapid reaction absorbing heat.

Carbon Capture Inside of the Ewan Reactor with Reagent

NO2 Removal Inside of the Ewan Reactor with Reagent

Supplemental reaction. Rapid reaction releasing heat. Eq. 6 KOH + HNO3 H2O + KNO3 NOx Reactor Generates some end product. Rapid reaction releasing heat. Eq. 7 K2CO3 + HNO3 KHCO3 + KNO3 NOx Reactor Generates some end product. End Products Outside of the Ewan Reactor, using the Cooper Chemistry Eq. 8 KNO2 + H2O2 KNO3 + H2O Eq. 9 Heat + 2 KHCO3 K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Oxidizer Decarbonator Captured CO2 is liberated and stored. Potassium Nitrate end product. K2CO3 Reagent is regenerated.

Notes: 1. K2CO3 is a regenerative reagent with regeneration occurring in the decarbonator as the captured CO2 is stored. 2. KOH is added to the reagent mixture as a molar equivalent to the potassium removed as a reaction product.

D)

CarbonDioxideRemovalDescriptionofCRSSteps
ReactionsinsidetheAerodynamicReactorandAerodynamicCoalescer: CO2+KOH(reagent) KHCO3(CarbonCapture) CO2+K2CO3(reagent)+H2O 2KHCO3(CarbonCapture) PossibleTransientReactions(tobeverified): CO2+H2O H2CO3 KOH(reagent)+H2CO3 KHCO3+H2O(CarbonCapture)
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CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry

ConventionalReactionsafterleavingtheAerodynamicCoalescer: (Decarbonation3) Heat+2KHCO3K2CO3(regenerated)+CO2(liberatedgas)+H2O

Table 6: Reagent Parameters and Measurable Parameters (to be tested and refined) by Process Engineer: Module
Metals

Reagent
H2O2 HCl? KOH +Recirculationof K2CO3

MolaritiesRatiotoTarget Pollutant

pH

Testing+ Refinement

Remarks
Ratiomaybe overkill Isoptional Ratiomaybe overkill Rampingup overkillfrom RecirculationTank NOxprefershigher pHs NOisverysmall amount Rampingup (seeabove) Ratiomaybe overkill Rampingup (seeabove)

1.3:1.0forMercury/Metals 6.07.0 1.3:1.0forSO2 2.0:1.0forCO2 1.2:1.0forNO2 1.3:1.0forNO 2.0:1.0forCO2 1.2:1.0forCO2 2.0:1.0forCO2 6.0 8.0+ 11.0 9.5+ 7.0 11.0 9.5+ 11.0

SOx

NOx

KOH H2O2 +Recirculationof K2CO3 KOH +Recirculationof K2CO3

CO2


Table 7: Gas Composition (to be verified and refined by Process Engineer) for: No. 1 2 3 4 5 CoalType IllinoisBasinCoal PRBCoal NorthDakotaLignite TexasLignite Appalachian/Eastern Bituminous 6 AnthraciteCoal 150250 500700 1318 0.10.4 SO2 (ppm) 1,8002,200 200350 400600 5001,200 5001,500 NO2 (ppm) 500700 150250 100200 125250 400600 CO2 (%byVol.) 1315 1214 1115 1115 1316 Sulfur (%byWt.) 3.04.0 0.40.6 0.71.1 0.82.5 0.52.5

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CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry

EXPLANATION: CEFCOS MASS TRANSFER MECHANISM DIFFERENCE FROM CONVENTIONAL SCIENCE:


The Ewan (now CEFCO) aerodynamic process overcomes the known mass transfer barrier or resistanceinconventionalchemistryandthermodynamics.Ithasremovedtheconsiderationof fluid mechanics using Reynolds Number to a specialty within aerospaceaerodynamic science usingaspectsofMachNumberstodescribeextremeturbulentflowandBrownianmixing.The CEFCOproprietaryprocessisabreakthroughinnovation. At the entrance of each Ewan reactor, steam (or a compressible fluid) is propelled through specificallydesignednozzlesatadesignedrangeofsupersonicspeeds(aproprietaryknowhow) creating shock waves, which are developed at the outlet of the supersonic nozzle and extend acrosstheconicalcrosssectionalareaofasubsequentinlinesubsonicfreejetnozzlethrough which all flue gas passes into the reactor. All molecules of the flue gas will be collided with turbulentlyandrepeatedlybytheshockwavesandnomoleculecanescapeitseffect.Theflue gas molecules are accelerated by impact and momentum transfer to a high speed thereby causingmultiplechaincollisionssubsequently.Theshockwavesareverythinregionsofmassive energy expression within the reactor. The velocity, temperature, density and entropy are changedabruptlybytheshockwaveswhichmayactlikeasolidbody.

SupersonicShockWavesenablingunconventionalreactionsunderneath

Within each CEFCO reactor system designed for specific targetcapture, atomizing nozzles for injectingthereagentsarealliedwiththesupersonicshockwavestodirectsmallliquiddroplets of selectreagents into the supersonic shock wave region. When these droplets contact the supersonic shock waves they are shattered into extremely small droplets (sometimes initially oddlyshapedlikeribbons,andstrings,etc.untilthey envelopethemselveswithwhatever targetmoleculetheycontactandreformintosphericalshapesveryrapidly),andareaccelerated
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by impact and momentum transfer to a high speed to the inline subsonic nozzle forming an ejector pump which is forcing the flue gas and the fine liquid droplets to pass through the subsonic nozzle. For example, within the first reactor (the MRS), when the rapidly moving extremelysmalldropletsstrikethefineparticulatesormetalcompoundsoftheemissions,the particulateormetalcompoundswillbecomeencapsulatedbytheextremelysmalldroplets.In the event that the liquid droplets comprise the selectchemical reagent, the desired chemical reactionswilloccurbetweenthechemicalreagentandtheencapsulatedmetalmoleculeswith minimalresistance.Sincethedropletsareextremelysmall,theratiooftheirsurfaceareatothe mass of the droplet is very large, and therefore the chemical reaction will be initiated and completed very rapidly by the process of surface chemistry on a nearmolecular level, in contrasttotheordinarybulkconventionalchemicalreactionwithitsrelatedReynoldsNumber andthermodynamicconcerns(whichareusuallyatatmosphericpressurerequiringtheinputof energyandoftentheuseofcatalystwithcertainrequirementofdwelltimetoforceadequate contactforsuchreactiontooccur).Similardescriptionappliestothesituationwithinallother reactors.

FreeJetexitingSubsonicNozzlecreatingunconventionalreactionzone

When the flue gas exits the subsonic nozzle, a subsonic free jet is formed because the cross sectionalareaofthereactionchamberisseveraltimesgreaterthanthecrosssectionalareaof the subsonic nozzle, thus permitting the subsonic jet to exit and become unbounded and unconstrainedandthereforefree.Withinthisreactionzone,theentirebodyofthefluegas turbulently mixes and experiences a sudden drop in pressure together with a rapid cooling effect, partly from the rapid gas expansion and partly from some extraordinary observed phenomenon.Due tothesudden dropintemperature,watervaporcontainedinthemixture condenses rapidly on whatever nucleating sites that are available. Such sites include any particulate,contaminatecompounds,chemicalreactionproduct(ifachemicalreagentwasused in the reactor), or previously formed droplets. The rapid temperature drop enhances condensationorencapsulationintowaterdroplets.Duetotheturbulentconditionswithinthe freejet,thedropletscontainingthesubmicronicparticulatesandaerosolsrapidlygrowinsize
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frommultiplecollisions,impactionsandnucleations,aswellasfurthercondensation,untilthey reach a size that can be easily separated from the effluent gas stream. Thus the condition of rapidpressuredrop,temperaturedropandextraordinaryobservedphenomenonconditionsare obtained.Thedecreasedpressurealsodiminishestheboundarylayereffectsbetweenthegas andliquidphases(withorwithoutselectreagents),therebyenablingthemoreintimatecontact and mixing with each other and promoting the reactions to form the desired liquid reaction products.

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Summary of the Key Technical Points

A. Themechanismforenablingthecaptureofthetargetedemissionsiscausedbythesteam propelledsupersonicshockwaves(injectedbyasupersonicnozzle)whichtravelatarange of velocities exceeding Mach 1 (over 1,180 ft./sec.) inline aiming directly in the same directionastheflowofthefluegasthroughtheductworkandreactorunit.Theshockwaves arethemassivereleaseinenergyasaresultofmassiveandmultiplechaincollisions.Thus the flue gas is attacked and forced through the subsequently inline subsonic nozzle. The reactivecharacteristicsofthefluegasarealteredasaresultandanewreactioncondition existswithinthisfreejetzone. B. Underthefreejetreactionzone,thereexistarapidtemperaturedropandarapidpressure drop. The pressure inside drops into subatmospheric (below the normal one atmosphere). This is the sudden collapse (within microseconds) of temperature and pressure, and represents an adiabatic cooling condition which is unconventional, in which chemical reactions take place that are not expected under conventional science. [CEFCO invites interested scientists to help explain the phenomenon within this subatmospheric reaction zone involving Free Energy of Formation (F) or Gibbs Free Energy (G) and the HeatofFormation(H).WetheorizethattheEwanprocesscomestoachievethedesired chemicalreactionfromtheoppositeendofthespectrumorconventionalmeasuringscale from the opposite direction, because we start at the shock waveinduced high temperatureandhighpressureanddropdownwardrapidlytocrosspathwiththereaction mechanism known to conventional science. CEFCO begins with the reactions that are normally requiring very high negative (H) numbers and/or (F) numbers, then subsequently with the lower negative (H) numbers, and so on, and then followed by reactionsshowingpositive(H)numbersnearingtheendofthereactionzone.Thegraphic curvetobeplottedshowingthetemperaturedropisadramaticVshapehockeystick,with the uptick showing when temperature begins recovery (to be explained in Paragraph E, below). The graphic curve to be plotted showing the pressure drop is a similar dramatic hockeystick,withtheuptickshowingwhenpressurebeginsrecovery(tobeexplainedin ParagraphF,below).Ontheotherhand,conventionalchemistrybeginsattheoppositeend of the scale with the costly building up of temperature and pressure (often with the assistanceofexpensivecatalyst)toachievethedesiredreactions.] C. The mechanism for capturing the targeted compounds is governed partially by the surface areabetweenemissionsandthecapturemechanism.Byusingsteam,insteadofwater,the contact surface area is multiplied many times. For example, a single water drop (H2O), havingasurfaceareaof0.031sq.centimeterswhensubdividedintoasteamcolonyofone microndropletsasinsteam,willexperienceanincreaseinsurfaceareafrom0.031to31.0 sq.centimeters(i.e.,amultipleof1,000timestheoriginalsurfacearea).Furthermore,when thesteammicrodropletsisshatteredbytheshockwaves,thereformedsubmicrodroplets become even tinier, so that the ratio of the increase in surface area further increase by another thousand or more times to approach the nearmolecular level. Under this new reactioncondition,theintendedchemicalreactionsmaybecompletedinmilliseconds,and
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the primary process or mechanism becomes one of molecular surface chemistry, not conventional chemistry. The conventional mass transfer limitation will be overcome. [CEFCOinvitesinterestedscientiststohelpexplainthephenomenon].

D. Foranexample,thesuddendecreaseoftemperaturecausescondensationofthesteamor watervaporontonucleationsitesprovidedinthefirstreactorbythefinestparticulatesand the targetedreaction products. Due to the turbulence and multiple mixing within the subsonicfreejet,thedropletsencapsulatingtheparticulatesandthereactionproductsgrow by extremely rapid and repetitive impaction, interception, diffusion, reaction, nucleation and condensation. Subsequent continuing impaction, interception, diffusion, reaction and nucleationaredue,inpart,toBrownianmovementoftheverysmallparticlesandions.This processrepeatsitselfinrandomorderveryrapidlyandcausesthegrowthofeverlarger dropletsandtheencapsulationreencapsulationofevermorenucleatingsites.Thedroplets formintostreamlets,thenmergingintoaliquidstreamuntilitflowsoutsideofandbeyond thereactionzone.Thisliquidphaseisseparatedbytheaerocoalescerfromthegasphase ofthefluegaswithoutanycomminglingbetweenthetwo.Thehighertemperaturetravels withthegasatthetophalf,andthereactionproductstaysinsidethecoolerliquidflowing downward,whichexitstheaerocoalescerinastream. This is a proven result, and the very early version of the Ewan process was tested and reportedbytheEPAinEPA650/274028(publishedApril1974)stating: . . . the collection efficiency for the mass mean diameter for 1.0 micron was 99.90% at instant and 99.80% over a two days of testing. Measured fractional efficiency was about 90.0%for0.01micron...ThisexcerptisfoundintheCONCLUSIONSoftheabovecited EPAReport: Item1. EPA System Evaluation of the Steam Hydro by Joseph D, McCain and Wallace B. SmithforEPAProjectOfficer:DaleL.Harmon(April1974). Withnumeroussuccessfultestresultsoverthepast30years,theEPAhasadoptedtheEwan free jet collision scrubber system as one of the components of the Standards for the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT). The Department of Energys Nuclear Regulatory Commission has installed it and it has been in continuous use for the past 25 years for the capture and removal of Low Radiation Waste, Toxic and Acidic Waste Incineration Air Emissions at the US Nuclear Facilities, such as Savannah River, Oak Ridge, LosAlamos,PaducahandHanford. Bringingituptodate:InjoiningwithCEFCOscoinventors,TomEwanandtheCEFCOteam has now vastly improved upon the early Ewan invention in total efficacy and range of pollutantscaptureandproductsrecovery. E. The aerodynamic reactor chamber and the aerodynamiccoalescerare designedto provide temperaturerecoveryinitsownfashion.TheuniqueadvantageofCEFCOsswiftmovinggas flowreactiontechnology,whereineachreactorsystemhavingitsownfreejetreactionzone measuring in different inches of travel distance for the flue gas and different time spans
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CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry

fromthebeginningpointofthefreejetallowsseveralmolecularsurfacechemicalreactions to take place moving from one crosssectioned portion of the zone to another cross sectionedportionofthezonewithoutmuchinterferenceandcommingledsidereactionsto confusethedesiredresult(whichfrequentlyoccurinconventionalchemistryemployingbulk gasphasecontact,whichwouldseemincontextverysloworlackinginmassdisplacement from Point A to Point B, so that many nearcontemporaneous sidereactions take place in commingled spaces and time spans). However, inside the CEFCO equipment, each cross sectionedportionofthezoneislikeadifferentfloorofathreeflooredfactory,eachwithits ownroom(spatialvolume)fortheunconventionalchemicalreactionstotakeplacewithin. Many of the targetpollutant capture by Hydroxide ions take place very early in the beginningmicrosecondsormilliseconds(atthetopfloorofthefactory),whicharegenerally absorbing a great amount of inputted heat (endothermic) during the rapid plunge in the observedandmeasuredtemperatureandpressureinsidethestrongsubatmosphericzone. Then other transitional reactions occur (usually involving the swapping of the captured pollutants and carbonates negative ions between H and K ) in the middlefloor a few millisecondslaterinsidetheweakersubatmosphericcondition.Inaconditionasdescribed in Paragraph B (above), the CO2 is now captured into an ionic compound, trapped in an alkaline solution at a temperature significantly below its liberation temperature of approximately 178F, so it cannot rejoin the gas phase. This is the CEFCO breakthrough method for capturing CO2 that is not done in conventional chemistry. Then a few more milliseconds later, at the tailend of the free jet (where pressure begins to recover), the exothermicreactions(givingoffheat)occurinthebottomfloorofthefactoryinsidethevery weak subatmospheric condition, usually involving the conversion of the Carbonate reagent into a Bicarbonate IntermediateProduct or involving the forming of the Fertilizer IntermediateProduct or EndProduct and the forming of Water (all designed to be exiting thecoalescer).Thus,thetemperatureissignificantlyrecoveredbytheexothermicreactions at the end of the reactor and in the transitional ductwork leading to the aerodynamic coalescer, which is also designed with increasing conical crosssection. The conical expansion of spatial volume under plugflow condition (to be explained in Paragraph F, below) allows for the recovery of significant pressure and assists the preservation of the temperaturerecovery. F. The aerodynamic coalescer provides pressure recovery. The design of each aerodynamic coalescer is proprietary. This is a unique CEFCO advantage for both minimizing parasitic load in the system, as well as providing a gas/liquid separation device that does not interfere with or interrupt the swift flow of flue gas but contemporaneously causing the fallingliquidcarryingthecapturedpollutanttoflowout ofeachmoduleofthe systemvia the coalescer. The gas phase (of the flue gas) and the liquid phase (of the capturedladen liquid)areaerodynamicallyseparatedinachamberofincreasingconicalcrosssectionwhich removestheliquidflowingtowardsthebottomfromtherestoftheonwardmovinggaseous stream.Thegasflowsalongthetophalfoftheincreasingconicalcrosssection,expandsdue to increasing room and recovers significant pressure, and continues to flow upward and onwardtosubsequentreactors/aerocoalescers,andsoon.Thegradientofexpansionisa calculatedaerodynamicdesigntoenableacontrolledrecovery,andnotafreeexpansion whichhastheoppositeeffect.Thustheparasiticloadisminimized.
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CEFCOProcessExplanationCementIndustry

Moredetails:Asexplained(above),thereexistsasuddenandmajordropinpressureinside thereactionzonecreatedbythesubsonicfreejetthatwillbeevenlowerthanthetransport pressureofthefluegasflowingthroughtheentiresystem.Sincetherearemorethanone such reaction zones due to more than one identified emissions reactors, these drops nominallyrepresenttheparasiticloadtothehostfacility(theelectricpowergenerator). IntheCEFCOproprietarytechnology,thediameterofthefreejetnozzleswillbedesignedto provide a specific net delta pressure drop (net P) at each reactor. This (net P) will be limitedbytheparasiticloadthehostwillaccept,balancedbytheHPrequiredtoovercome the(netP)andconveythefluegastothestack.Generally,the(netP)acrosseachofthe reactorswillbesomewhereintherangeof:RX1=24in.w.c.,RX2=23in.w.c.,RX3=1.52 in.w.c.,RX4=11.75in.w.c.Ineachspecificdesign,thenozzlediameterswillbedesigned suchthatthenetpressuredrops(netPs)willdecreaseinmagnitudeateachsubsequent nozzle.Forexpectedrangeof(netPs)tobemeasured:seeTable2,(p.3,above).

G. Since each group of emissions targets are removed in sequence, the flue gas processed through the CEFCO system will emerge as a nearzero emission stack gas. Thus, the objectives of Carbon Capture and Air Quality Control System (AQCS) will be met in compliance with current and future governmental requirements. CEFCO could become recognized as the Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACT) for air emissions in the Power Industry and in all FossilFuel and Petroleumrelated Industries, surpassing all lower expectations and standards of the Best Available Control Technology (BACT).

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