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Volume 1 | Number 1| June 2012

Table of Contents
Volume 1 | Number 1| June 2012.......................................................................................................................... 2 Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................................... 2 Forward | June 2012 .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Anxiety and Performance | OTHER..................................................................................................................... 5 Dehydration and Metabolism | NUTRITION....................................................................................................... 6 Hyperoxic Recovery and Power Output | PHYSIOLOGY ...................................................................................... 8 Load-Load Ischemic Resistance to Failure and Endurance Capacity| RESISTANCE TRAINING ..........................10 MSTN and CKM Genes and Elite Endurance Performance | OTHER | GENETICS .............................................. 13 Effects of Kettlebell Training | RESISTANCE TRAINING...................................................................................... 14 Resistance Training for Adolescents: Research Review| RESISTANCE TRAINING ............................................... 15 Contralateral Training Effects | RESISTANCE TRAINING..................................................................................... 17 Warm-Up Intensity and Metabolism/Performance | NUTRITION .................................................................... 18 Warm-Up Intensity and Metabolism/Performance | NUTRITION .................................................................... 19 High Intensity/Short Rest Training and Hormonal Responses | PHYSIOLOGY ................................................... 20 Caffeinated Energy Drinks and Muscle Performance | NUTRITION .................................................................. 21 Cortisone Injections and Shoulder Impingement Treatment | REHABILITATION ............................................. 23 Accuracy of Orthopedic SLAP Tests | REHABILITATION .................................................................................... 25 Neuromuscular Fatigue | PHYSIOLOGY............................................................................................................. 27 Neck Pain and Neck Strength/ROM | REHABILITATION.................................................................................... 29 Integration Core Exercises and Muscle Activation | RESISTANCE TRAINING ..................................................... 30 Overtraining, Muscle Growth, and Gene Expression | PHYSIOLOGY ................................................................ 31 Overtraining, Muscle Growth, and Gene Expression | PHYSIOLOGY ................................................................ 32 Post Activation Potentiation and Sprint Ability| RESISTANCE TRAINING ........................................................... 33 Breathing Training and Spinal Curvature | REHABILITATION............................................................................. 35 Resistance Training for Swimmers: Research Review | RESISTANCE TRAINING ................................................ 37 Hip Muscle Exercises and Knee Pain | REHABILITATION................................................................................... 39 Kettlebell Swings and Explosive Strength | RESISTANCE TRAINING .................................................................. 41 Loaded Eccentric Training and Shoulder Impingement | REHABILITATION ....................................................... 42 Self Myofascial Release Improves ROM | REHABILITATION.............................................................................. 44

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Stroking Parameters and Lactate Changes | BIOMECHANICS........................................................................... 45 V02 Kinetics and Middle Distance Swimming | PHYSIOLOGY........................................................................... 47 Stroking Parameters and Lactate Changes | BIOMECHANICS........................................................................... 48 Long-sprint regimens and sprint performance | PHYSIOLOGY .......................................................................... 49 Trapezius Muscle Behavior and Neck Pain | BIOMECHANICS ........................................................................... 50 Blood lactate and exercise programming | PHYSIOLOGY .................................................................................. 51 Capsaicin (Spicy Foods) and Repeated Sprinting | NUTRITION ......................................................................... 52 Unilateral Shoulder Pain and preferred sleeping position | REHABILITATION ................................................... 53 Baking Soda Buffering and Performance | PHYSIOLOGY ................................................................................... 54 Nitric Oxide Supplementation and Performance | NUTRITION......................................................................... 55 Cytokine Production in Intensive Training | PHYSIOLOGY................................................................................. 57 Appendix/Suggested Further Reading.................................................................................................................. 58

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Forward | June 2012

Welcome to the first edition of the Swimming Science Research Review! In this edition you will find a detailed review of current scientific research in various topics pertaining to the sport of swimming from May 2012. Each analysis provides a background, what was done, results, conclusion, and practical implications. The goal of each review is to confirm, challenge, question, and encourage the current views of the sport with the goal of improvement. If you enjoy this review, please refer a friend, with the goal of improving the sport as a whole. Some of my academic colleagues may feel this review diminishes the quality of research. I argue this review will bridge a wide and expanding gap between quality research and practice. This is entitled a review for a reason, if any of these subjects spark any interest to you, click on the abstract and review the document for full understanding. Thank you for your purchase. Please feel free to email our team if you have questions, concerns, comments, or a desire to contribute to future editions! Thank you, G. John Mullen info@swimmingscience.net
Swimming Science is a forum for coaches to discover, discuss, and disseminate knowledge about the art and science of swimming. It is our hope that through fostering constructive discussion about the many facets of swim training, our endeavors will improve the quality of swim programs around the world.

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Chief Editor/Writer G. John Mullen, DPT Contributors/Editors Allan Phillips Cameron Yick Graphics and Layout Cameron Yick

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Anxiety and Performance | OTHER Lundqvist C, Kentt G, Raglin JS. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):853-62. Background One of the most studied topics in sports psychology is the relationship between anxiety and performance. Anxiety is believed to be a deterrent in sports. Oftentimes elite athletes are believed to thrive under the pressure of competition, whereas sub-elite athletes are unable control anxiety, leading to poor performance. Significant differences in the total score of directional dimension of perceived anxiety symptoms, despite a general lack of significant differences in total anxiety intensity scores, have been displayed among samples differing in goal attainment expectancies, competitiveness and as a function of sport type and coping responses. Despite all the literature on psychology in sport, there is minimal research about the effects of anxiety in sport, as no study has looked at relationship between the intensity of anxiety and changes in performance. This is partly due to imprecision of tools that measure anxiety. Lundqvist et al. looked to examine differences between elite and sub-elite athletes' anxiety symptoms when the relationship between intensity and direction scores is taken into account, and also to contrast response patterns of anxiety direction scores with actual performance data. What was done Lundqvist took Swedish high school athlete's (swimmers and skiers) during an important competition (rated on average 5.51 on scale 1 7 with 7 being extremely important) and had them complete a anxiety questionnaires 45 minutes prior to the event (CSAI-2R) assessing cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence at a large competition. Previous research suggests anxiety levels are significantly elevated when assessed 1 hour prior to the competition. Results Elite athletes were more likely to rate similar intensity levels of anxiety symptoms as facilitative to performance compared to their less skilled counterparts. Elite athletes showing a higher degree of facilitative ratings on various intensity levels of anxiety than sub-elite athletes was partially supported. Conclusion Elite athletes have less anxiety prior to their competition compared to their sub-elite peers. These athletes also use more facilitative use of anxiety compared to their peers using a dehabilitative approach. Practical Implication It is essential to teach swimmers calming and motivating factors for anxiety in the sport, since elite athletes still undergo stress, but use it to facilitate performance. Swimming Science Research Review | Volume 1 | Number 1 | June 2012 | 5

Dehydration and Metabolism | NUTRITION Logan-Sprenger HM, Heigenhauser GJ, Killian KJ, Spriet LL. The effects of dehydration during cycling on skeletal muscle metabolism in females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Apr 24. Background Dehydration is a common problem with swimmers, as the myth that swimmers do not sweat persists. Moreover, many swim programs do not advocate drinking liquids on deck, potentially leading to dehydration and fatigue. Dehydration is believed to increase heart rate, core temperature, rate of perceived exertion, and plasma osmolality. However, minimal research has been performed on whole body substrate utilization and skeletal muscle metabolism during dehydration. A few studies have looked at substrate use during dehydration and the results suggest progressive dehydration increases carbohydrate oxidation, muscle glycogen use, muscle lactate accumulation, and net lactate release across the contracting leg compared to being euhydrated (normal state of body water content, homeostasis). The negative results of dehydrate are clear, but if substrate use is different in the hydrated state, then different post-exercise nutritional programs may be necessary to prevent muscle loss and damage. Moreover, using fat vs. glucose in sports is often suggested in aerobic, not anaerobic (many swimming races) events. It is believed women have less effective thermoregulation due to higher core temperatures during the same load compared to males. Logan-Sprenger et al. looked to determine the results of mild dehydration on muscle metabolism, specifically, the effects of progressive exercise-induced dehydration in hydrated females to determine the time course of changes to physiological responses and skeletal muscle metabolism. They hypothesized there would be a greater reliance on whole body carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glycogenolysis during prolonged exercise. What was done The researchers took nine recreationally active females 21 years of age, who exercised 2-3 days/week and reportedly took oral contraceptives. These women reported to the laboratory three times, first to perform an incremental cycle test to exhaustion, second cycled at approximately 65% VO2peak for 120 minutes without fluid (DEH) or with fluid (HYD) to replace sweat loss. Two hours prior to the practice rides, subjects ingested a meal provided for them (790 kcal; 144 g carbohydrate, 35 g fat, 19 g protein) and 250 mL of fluid. Subjects also drank 300 mL of water 90 and 45 min before each trial to ensure they were well hydrated before the cycling trial. During each of these trials, heart rate, muscle biopsy was taken on the vastus lateralis (quadriceps) muscle, venous blood was drawn, core temperature, and rate of perceived exertion were taken. In the hydration trial, subjects were given fluids every 15 minutes to match sweat loss. Swimming Science Research Review | Volume 1 | Number 1 | June 2012 | 6

Dehydration and Metabolism | NUTRITION Results No significant pre-trial differences existed between the HYD and DEH trials for laboratory temperature relative humidity, pre-trial BM, or hydration state. Body mass was maintained during the hydration trial. In the dehydration trial, body mass was significantly lower at 60 and 120 minutes of cycling by 0.9% and 2.0%. No differences in sweat loss between trials. Mean VO2 increased in both trials with exercise time and was significantly greater than 20 min at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min in both trials. There was no difference in VO2 between trials. Carbohydrate oxidation was greater in the dehydration group and fat oxidation was lower in the dehydration group. Heart rates significantly increased over time in both trials, subjects had a higher heart rate from 30 120 minutes in the dehydration group. Core temperature was higher in the dehydration trial from 30 120 minutes. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was greater in the dehydration trial from 60 120 minutes. Hemoglobin was greater in the dehydration trial. Hematocrit was higher in the dehydration trial. Blood lactate was higher in the dehydration group. Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine, plasma free fatty acids, ADP, AMP increase in both trials, but was not significantly different. Muscle lactate concentration was greater in the dehydration trial, yet no differences were noted in muscle glycogen. Conclusion Mild dehydration has severe effects of cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychology in females performing extended moderate intensity exercise. Similar to distance (specifically open water events) or many swim practices, proper hydration is difficult to maintain, but does appear to impair performance. Practical Implication Ensure your swimmers are properly hydrated during practice and long races. Proper hydration means consuming 16 ounces of fluid two hours before practice, then 8 ounces directly before, and every 20 minutes during workout.

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Hyperoxic Recovery and Power Output | PHYSIOLOGY Sperlich B, Zinner C, Krueger M, Wegrzyk J, Mester J, Holmberg HC. Ergogenic effect of hyperoxic recovery in elite swimmers performing high-intensity intervals. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e421-9 Background Oxygen is essential for recovery and breathing more frequently is believed to improve endurance capacity. In swimming, repeated exercise bouts are typical performed in meets and practice requiring a lot of oxygen for recovery. Hyperoxia (respiration of air containing a higher partial pressure of oxygen than regular air) enhances the level of arterial hemoglobin saturation as well as the amount of oxygen dissolved in the plasma. Hyperoxic breathing is also known to augment delivery of oxygen to working skeletal muscle cells, as well as the diffusion of oxygen into the mitochondria. Previous studies suggest that breathing of supplemental oxygen in exercise consisting of short-term high-intensity intervals neither improves recovery nor delays hydrogen ion or lactate accumulation. Hyperoxia may also influence power output during repeated high-intensity exercise, potentially due to neuromuscular fatigue. Sperlich et al. looked to see if supplemental oxygen improves peak and mean power outputs and reduce fatigue as aerobic metabolism plays a significant role in repeated sprints. What was done Twelve elite male swimmers performed the following procedures three times with at least 72 hours between trials. The first visit was to familiarize them with the equipment, then the two subsequent visits the swimmers inhaled either hyperoxic or normoxic air a 6 minute recovery period between five repetitions of high-intensity swim bench, involved 40 maximal arm strokes (approximately 50 seconds). Results Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide was higher in hyperoxic recovery in the third, fourth, and fifth intervals. Hyperoxide also produced higher electromyography during the third, fourth, and fifth intervals. No difference between trials was seen in blood lactate, pH, or base excess and ROS production. Conclusion These results suggest that the peak and mean power of elite swimmers performing highintensity intervals can be improved by exposure to oxygen-enriched air during recovery. Practical Implication Exposing athletes to hyperoxide conditions (oxygen enriched air) during recovery from highintensity exercises enhances peak and mean power output. This suggests that elite swimmers might benefit from hyperoxide recovery during practice or meets with repeated sprint efforts. However, it should be noted that the link between findings from studies Swimming Science Research Review | Volume 1 | Number 1 | June 2012 | 8

Hyperoxic Recovery and Power Output| PHYSIOLOGY performed using swim benches and their application to real swimming is unproven and should be investigated further.

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Load-Load Ischemic Resistance to Failure and Endurance Capacity

| RESISTANCE TRAINING

Kacin A, Strazar K. Frequent low-load ischemic resistance exercise to failure enhances muscle oxygen delivery and endurance capacity. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e231-41. Background Blood flow resistance training or ischemic resistance exercise has gained popularity as similar strength, and hypertrophy gains have been noted with low-loads compared to typical high-load hypertrophy programs. However, effects of ischemic resistance training on muscle endurance performance have been rarely investigated. The mechanisms for improvement in past studies may be due to an increase in serum anabolic hormones and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but this exact mechanism has yet to be established. Yet, reduced oxygen has been suggested to increase VEGF release. Another proposed mechanism is the influence of hypoxia and metabolites on hormone regulation of muscle plasticity, it has been proposed that an augmented recruitment of type II muscle fibers occurs during ischemic exercise due to premature fatigue of type I muscle fibers. This study investigated the effects of frequent low-load ischemic resistance exercise performed to failure on quadriceps on size and performance, muscle activation, oxygen kinetics, and cardiovascular response. What was done Ten healthy males performed single leg knee-extension exercise to volitional failure for four weeks (four sessions/week) at 15% maximal voluntary muscle contraction. One leg was trained with free blood flow while the other leg ischemia was induced by an inflatable cuff, >230 mmHg. To exclude the influence of leg dominance, subjects were paired according to their initial difference in maximal contraction force between right and left. Results Quadriceps increased in size by 3.4% with a smaller increase in muscle size at the cuff level for the ischemic leg. Maximal voluntary muscle contraction did not change in either leg, however repetitions to failure increased by 63% in the ischemic leg and 36% in the control leg. Decrease in muscle oxygenated hemoglobin concentration was attenuated by 56% in the ischemic leg and 21% in the control leg. Electromyographic amplitude was 45% lower in the ischemic leg during exercise. A 9% increase in pre-exercise diastolic pressure was observed in the ischemic group. Conclusion Large gains in muscle endurance capacity were induced, which were associated with enhanced oxygen delivery. Despite previous studies, a smaller increase in size was noted, potentially due to the shorter training period and higher frequency of exercise. However, the potential negative effects of ischemic exercise with high cuff pressure on muscle and nerve and on arterial pressure regulation need further investigation, especially with the increase in diastolic pressure pre-exercise.

Load-Load Ischemic Resistance to Failure and Endurance Capacity

| RESISTANCE TRAINING

Practical ImplicationThe practice of ischemic resistance exercise is still young with minimal long-term studies, but this form of resistance appears positive for single joint resistance training. More studies on safety, dynamic exercise (swimming, running, etc.), exact amount of ischemic resistance, or multi-joint movements need to be determined. The believed improvements are thought to be secondary to enhanced oxygen delivery elicited by an increase in exercise hyperemia plays an important role in enhancing muscle endurance.

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MSTN and CKM Genes and Elite Endurance Performance | OTHER | GENETICS Dring F, Onur S, Krbitz C, Boulay MR, Prusse L, Rankinen T, Rauramaa R, Wolfarth B, Bouchard C. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin (MSTN) and muscle creatine kinase (CKM) genes are not associated with elite endurance performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):841-5. Background Elite aerobic athletes typically utilize extensive exercise training, expert coaching, proper nutrition, motivation, genetics, and many other factors. Genes have been have been associated with athletic success in sprint events, but little is known about the contribution of specific genes and sequence variants as indicators of endurance performance. Myostatin (MSTN) and muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) are related to skeletal muscle integrity and performance and aerobic fitness response to physical training. The CKM single nucleotide ploymorphism (SNP) within the 3'-flanking gene region has been associated with VO2max change after endurance training, but failed to show any significant association with top-level endurance capacity. MSTN acts to control the differentiation and proliferation of skeletal muscle. MSTN is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. MSTN 2379 A>G was associated with baseline muscle strength in African Americans. Two MSTN cDNA-coding polymorphisms (Ala55Thr, Lys153Arg) have shown significant allele frequency differences in human populations. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is one of the most important determinants of elite endurance performance. This studied looked to see if SNPs in myostatin and creatine kinase genes are thought to influence VO2max and skeletal muscle performance. What was done Common MSTN (rs3791783, rs11681628 and rs7570532) and CKM (rs344816, rs10410448, rs432979, rs1133190, rs7260359, rs7260463 and rs4884) SNPs, selected from HapMap CEU data from 316 Caucasian elite endurance athletes and 304 sedentary controls. Association between SNPs and exercise performance was determined and a statistically significant difference was set at <0.01. Results None of the SNPs showed a significant association with elite endurance status. Conclusion Common variants of myostatin and creatine kinase genes do not play a role in high-level endurance performance in Caucasians. Even though this is the largest sample size to date, it is relatively small for genetic studies. Practical Implication As gene testing and potentially gene doping come into question, understanding the exact genes and SNPs for athletic performance is important to understand. To reiterate, these genes are only a fraction of athletic success and many more gene combinations and interactions need to be studied to evaluate the potential of genes and success. Whole genome associations will need to be performed in larger populations to determine any new genes for endurance performance. Swimming Science Research Review | Volume 1 | Number 1 | June 2012 | 12

Improving the Transparency of Swimming Science

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