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ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

b1 1 0 x + b u , what values for b1 and b2 are 0 2 2

required so that the system is controllable? Solution: As stated in chapter 11.2, a system is controllable if and only if the determinant of the controllability matrix is non-zero. So we first get the controllability matrix from the given information, then select the right b1 and b2 to make the determinant of the controllability matrix to be non-zero. In this problem, n=2, controllability matrix Pc=[B AB],
b1 b1 1 0 b1 b1 AB= b = 2b , Pc= b 2b ; det( Pc) = 2b1b2 b1b2 = b1b2 ; 0 2 2 2 2 2

So for the system to be controllable, we require that b1 0 and b2 0 .

DP11.4 A high performance helicopter has a model as

d 2 d dx = 1 1 + n 2 dt dt dt d 2x d dx = g 2 2 + g . 2 dt dt dt The goal is to control the pitch angle by adjust the rotor angle , where x is the translation in the horizontal direction. Given: 1 =0.415 2 =0.0198 1 =1.43 2 =0.0111 n=6.27 g=9.8

Find a) the state variable representation of the system; b) the transfer function for ( s ) / ( s ) ;

c) using the state variable feedback to achieve adequate performance for the controlled system. The performance requirements are Ts<1.5s, overshoot <20%, and steady-state error less than 20% of the input magnitude.
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ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

Solution:

As stated in the problem, the input of the system is , the output of the system is . To be clear in notation, we use z instead x for the translation in the horizontal direction. Then the given system is d 2 d dz = 1 1 + n 2 dt dt dt d 2z d dz = g 2 2 + g 2 dt dt dt
& & & a) Set the state variable as x = & , x = & , y = = [1 0 0]x . && z & z

& = [0 1 0]x
& & & = 1& 1 z + n = [0 1 1 ]x + n ; && = g 2& 2 z + g = [g & z

2 ]x + g

so the state space representation is

0 & x = 0 g 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 x + n = 0 0.415 0.0111 x + 6.27 1 9.8 1.43 0.0198 g 9 .8 2

y = = [1 0 0]x

b) Find the transfer function: From Chapter 3 Eq 3.71, we knew that transfer function of a system is

G ( s) =

Y ( s) = C[ sI A]1 B . X ( s)

ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

s [ sI A]1 = 0 g

1 s + 1

0 1 s +2

( s + 1 )( s + 2 ) 1 2 s +2 1

(s + 1 ) g s ( s + 2 ) ( s 2 g ) 0 s( s + 1 )

1 g

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c) state variable feedback design: Let = [-k1 -k2

0 & x = 0 g 1 1 2

k3 ]x + k4 r , then the closed-loop system is

1 1 2 0 0 x + n [-k -k 1 2 1 g 2 0 k3 ]x + n k 4 r g

0 0 0 x + n = 0 1 g g 2 0

1 0 nk = 1 nk2 1 g gk1 2 gk2

1 0 nk 1 nk2 H = 1 g gk1 2 gk2

1 nk3 2 gk3 0

s nk det( sI H ) = det( 1 g + gk1

1 s + 1 + nk2 2 + gk2

1 + nk3 ) s + 2 + gk3 0

ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

= s( s + 1 + nk2 )( s + 2+ gk3 ) (a1 + nk3 )( gk1 g ) + nk1 ( s + 2 + gk3 )( gk2 + a2 ) = s 3 + ( gk3 + nk2 + 1 + 2 ) s 2 + ( 1 2 + n 2 k2 + g 1k3 + nk1 a1 gk2 a1a2 ) s +
a1 g a1 gk1 + gnk3 + 2 nk1 = ( s 2 + 2 n s + n )(s + 1) = 0
2

4

1
2

P.O= 100e

<20, i.e. > 0.4558 , pick = 0.46 ,

then n > 6.52 , pick n = 6.7 . According to the explanation in section 5.4, the real part of the third root should greater than 10 times of the real part of the dominant roots (the roots of the second order system). So | 1

| 10 | n |= 30
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Then ( s 2 + 2 n s + n )( s + 1 / ) = ( s 2 + 6s + 45)( s + 30) = s 3 + 36s 2 + 225s + 1350 Comparing coefficients yields

0 n n n 2 a1 g a1 g + 2 n 0 k1 36 1 2 a2 n + g 1 k2 = 225 + a1 + a2 k3 1350 a1 g gn g

so K=[ 53.1116 -28.6441 21.9555]. (the results may be a little bit different because different and n were picked up. It is OK as long as the performance requirements are achieved )
1 1 1 0 4 0 3 x + 0 u , & MP11.1 consider the system x = 1 6 8 10 y = [1 2 1]x .
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ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

Using the ctrb and obsv functions show that the system is controllable and observable.
Solution: the Matlab script is the following:

>> det_con = 118 the system is controllable. det_obs = -19 the systemis observable

MP11.2 Consider the system

1 0 0 & x= x + 1u 2 4.5
y = [1 0]x .

Determine if the system is controllable and observable. Compute the transfer function from u to

y.
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Solution: the Matlab script is the following.

>> det_con = -1 the system is controllable. det_obs = 1 the systemis observable Transfer function: 1 --------------s^2 + 4.5 s + 2

0 0 MP11.8 A system is described by a single-input state equation with A = x, B = 1 0

Using the method if section 11.4(eq 11.19) and a negative unity feedback, determine the optimal system when x T (0) = [1 0] .

0 1 .

ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

Solution: set the state variable feedback as u = k1 x1-k2 x2 = [-k1 -k2 ]x , where k1,k2>0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 & Then x = x + 1u = 1 0 x + 1[ k1 k2 ]x = 1 0 x + - k k x 1 0 2 1 1 0 = x ; 1 k1 k2 1 0 H = 1 k1 k2

to achieve a good feedback contol, we need to minimize the performance index J, i.e. to design the symmetric matrix P to keep H T P + PH = -I .
0 1 k1 p11 1 k2 p12 (1 k1 ) p12 p k p 11 2 12 p12 p11 + p22 p12 p12 0 p22 1 k 11 1 0 = k2 0 1

(1 k1 ) p22 1 0 = p12 k2 p22 0 1

2(1 k1 ) p12 p (1 + k ) p + k p 1 22 2 12 11

so p12 =

2 k2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 p11 = k2 p12 + (1 + k1) p22 = 2(1 + k1 )k2

p12 1 p k 2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 T . the performance index J = x 0 Px 0 = [1 0] 11 = p11 = 2 2(1 + k1 )k2 p12 p22 0 To minimize J as a function of k2, we take the derivative with repect to k2 and set it equal to zero. 2 2k (2(1 + k1 )k2 ) (k2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2)2(1 + k1 ) J 1 k 2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 = = 2 2 2 k2 [2(1 + k1 )k2 ]2 (1 + k1 ) 2(1 + k1 )k2 1 k +2 1 k +2 = 1 2 = 0 , i.e. = 1 2 2(1 + k1 ) 2k2 (1 + k1 ) k2

k 2 = (1 + k1 )(k1 + 2)
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ELG 4152 DGD Notes (Week 6)

k2 = (1 + k1 )(k1 + 2)

J =

2 2 k2 + k12 + 3k1 + 2 2k 2 k2 = = = 2(1 + k1 )k2 2(1 + k1 )k2 (1 + k1 )

(1 + k1 )(k1 + 2) = (1 + k1 )

k1 + 2 1 + k1

use Matlab to plot the relationship between k1 and k2, J and k1 to help us pick a proper set of [k1 k2]. The figure shows that as k1 increase, the performance index J decreases. However, we see that the rate of decrease slows considerably after k1>20. Also k2 increase as k1 increase. We want to keep both gains as small as possible, while still having a small J. A reasonable selection is k1=20 and k2=21.5.