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# Tyas Ajeng Puspitasari, S.

## Physics Grade/ Semester : VII/2 Standard Competency

: Comprehending states of matter and its change : Describe role of heat in changes states of matter and temperatures substance also its application in daily life

Basic Competency

Content
What is HEAT ?

## The Blacks Principle

Are heat energy and temperature just the same thing? No! Let's get this clear: Heat is the energy stored inside something. Temperature is a measurement of how hot or cold something is. An object's temperature doesn't tell us how much heat energy it has.

Before the 9th century, many scientist believed that heat was a fluid. Heat as fluid firstly stated by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, He said that when a hotter object was in contact with the colder object, then the fluid would flow Some scientist disagreed with the concept of Heat as fluid. Those scientist proved that Heat was not a fluid, but a form of Energy

Antoine Lavoiser

What is heat?

## Heat energy is the total energy of particles composing a

matter. Heat is one form of energy which is flowing from an object with higher temperature to another object with lower temperature

## The unit of Heat is Joule (J)

Heat is also expressed in units of calories. One calorie defined as the amount of heat needed to heat 1 gram of water until its temperature increasing 1 C . 1 calorie = 4.2 joules 1 joule = 0.24 calories

## Heat and the change of temperature

Not all substances have the same ability in absorbing heat. The ability to absorb heat determined by the nature of a substance called specific het capacity.

## Specific Heat Capacity (c)

The specific heat capacity of a substance is defined as the heat required to raising the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1C.
The unit of specific heat capacity is joule per kilogram per Celsius degree (J/kg C)

This proved that heat needed to raise the temperature of 1C alcohol is smaller than the heat needed to raise water temperature at 1C. That is, alcohol heat faster than water.

The amount of heat (Q) required by an object is proportional to the mass of the object (m), depending on the specific heat capacity (c), and comparable to the increase in temperature(T). The change of heat (received heat or released heat) of a substance cannot be measured directly, but it can be calculated using the following equation.

Q = m x c x T
Notes: Q = heat received or released (Joules) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat capacity (J/kg C) T = changes of temperature (C)

Example
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Calculate heat needed to increasing temperature of 500 g water from 20 C to 100 C,if the specific heat of water is 4200 J/ kg C? Given: m= 500 g =0.5kg c = 4200 J/kg C T = 100C - 20C = 80 C Question: Q = ? Answer: Q = m x c x T = 0.5 kg x 4200 J/kgC x 80 C = 168,000 J So the heat received by the water is 168,000 J

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## The heat capacity of a substance is defined as

the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1 C
Unit of Heat capacity is Joules per Celsius degree (J/C )
Heat capacity can be calculated using the following equations.

C = mc Q C= T

Notes:
C = Heat capacity (J/C) m = mass (kg) Q = heat received or released (Joules) c = specific heat capacity (J/kg C) T = changes of temperature (C)

## Problems of Heat and the change of temperature

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Answer these following questions! 1. Two containers of the same size are filled with water and sand respectively. If they are exposed to the sun heat, which one gets hotter more quickly? Why? 2. Youre heating a 3.0 kg glass block, specific heat capacity of 840 J/(kg.C ), raising its temperature by 60C. What heat do you have to apply? 3. 2 kg of iron is heated from 15 C to 30C. If the heat required is 13,500 J, what is specific heat capacity of iron? 4. 42 kilojoules of heat released from the 2 kg of ice at temperatures 15 C. What is the temperature finally, if the specific heat of ice is 2100 J/kg. C 5. To raise the temperature of an object from 10C to 40C, it required heat 60,000 J. Calculate the heat capacity of its object!

When a matter change its state, the temperature does not increase although the heat is continuously given. The heat is used to changing the state of matter. The heat used for changing the state of matter is called Latent heat.

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## Melting and Freezing

Melting point is the temperature

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## when a matter is starting to melt.

Example: melting point of ice is 0C Freezing point is the temperature

## when a matter is starting to freeze.

Example: freezing point of water is 0C Melting point = Freezing point

Melting point

## Melting heat and Freezing heat

The amount of heat absorbed by every 1 kg of matter for melting at its melting point is called Melting heat (L).

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The amount of heat released by 1 kg of matter for freezing at its freezing point is called Freezing heat (L).
SI Unit of Melting Heat and Freezing Heat: J/kg

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## AMOUNT OF HEAT (Q) RECEIVED OR RELEASED BY A MATTER

WHEN IT MELTS OR FREEZES

Where: Q = amount of Heat received or released (J) m = mass of matter (kg) L = Melting heat or Freezing Heat (J/kg)

## boiling and condensation Point

Boiling point is the temperature when a matter is

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starting to boils.
Example: boiling point of water is 100C Condensation point is the temperature when a

## matter is starting to condenses.

Boling point = Condensation point
Boiling point of a liquid is affected by air pressure The greater the air pressure the greater the boiling point of liquid On the sea level, at air pressure of 1 atm, the boiling point of water is 100 C. At higher place, the air pressure is decrease and boiling point of water is also decrease.

Boiling point

## Vaporing heat and condensation heat

The amount of heat absorbed by every 1 kg of matter for vaporize at its boiling point is called vapouring heat (U).

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The amount of heat released by 1 kg of matter for condense at its condensation point is called condensation heat (U).

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## AMOUNT OF HEAT (Q) RECEIVED OR RELEASED BY A MATTER

WHEN IT EVAPORATES OR CONDENSES

Where: Q = amount of Heat received or released (J) m = mass of matter (kg) L = Vaporing Heat or Condensation Heat (J/kg)

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Substance Helium Nitrogen Oxygen Ethyl alcohol Water Sulfur Lead Aluminum Silver Gold Copper

Melting Melting Boiling point Vapouring Heat point (C) Heat (J/kg) (C) (J/kg) -269,65 -209,97 -218,79 -114 0 119 327,3 660 960,8 1063 1083 5,23 x 103 2,25 x 104 1,38 x 104 1,04 x 105 3,33 x 105 3,81x 104 2,45 x 104 3,97 x 105 8,82 x 104 1,34 x 105 5,23 x 103 -268,93 -195,81 -182,97 78 100 444,6 1750 2450 2193 2660 1187 2,09 x 104 2,01 x 105 2,13 x 105 8,54 x 105 2,26 x 106 3,26 x 105 8,70 x 105 1,14 x 107 2,33 x 106 1,58 x 106 5,06 x 106

## Differences between evaporation and boiling

No 1. 2. 3 4 Evaporation Occurs at any temperature below boiling point Boiling Occurs at a fixed temperature (boiling point)

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Occurs on the liquids surface Occurs throughout the liquid No bubbles are formed Slow Process Bubbles are formed in the liquid Quick process

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Heating When we heated liquid, the molecules near the surface vibrate faster, which enable them to release from liquids surface Blowing air through the liquids surface If we blow air through the surface of a hot water, the air near the water surface would carry the waters molecules at the surface. Extending the surface To make hot tea in a cup cold faster, you should pour on a saucer, because the surface area of the saucer is larger than on the cup, so the molecules have more chances to leave the water surface Decreasing the pressure on the surface If the pressure decreasing, the space between air molecules near the surface become looser and it make easier for the molecules of water to fill the empty space among the molecules of air.

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1. If ice melting, the state change from . to 2. For melting, ice . heat energy 3. During ice melted, temperature is.. and it is called 4. Amount of heat energy used to melt you can calculate with the formula 5. During the water boil, the temperature is and it is called 6. During the water boil, the state change from become and is called 7. During evaporation the water heat energy. 8. Quantity heat energy used to evaporation can calculate by the formula

Example
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1. Calculate the quantity of heat required to melt 3 kg of ice on 0C ! (L = 3.36 x 105 J/kg) Known: m= 3 kg L = 3.36 x 105 J/kg = 336,000 J/kg Question: Q ? Answer: Q=mxL Q = 3 kg x 336,000 J/kg Q = 1,008,000 J = 1,008 kJ

Example

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2. Calculate the quantity of heat required to change 500 grams of water at a temperature of 100C into water vapor at a temperature of 100C! (U = 2270 kJ/kg) Known: m= 500 grams = 0.5 kg U = 2270 kJ/kg Question: Q ? Answer: Q=mxU Q = 0.5 kg x 2,270 kJ/kg Q = 1,135 kJ Q = 1,135,000 J

Example

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3. Calculate the heat required to change 1 kg of water at temperature of 80C into 1 kg of water vapor at a temperature of 100C (specific heat of water is 4200 J/kgC and vapouring heat of water is 2270 kJ/kg) Temperature Known: m= 1 kg Q2 T = (100-80) C = 20 C 100C c = 4200 J/kg C Q1 U = 2270 kJ/kg = 2,270,000 J/kg 80C Question: Q total Answer: Heat (J) Q1 = m x c x T Q2 = m x U Q total = Q 1 + Q 2 =(m x c x T) + (m x U) =(1 kg x 4200 J/kg C x 20 C)+(1 kg x 2,270,000J/kg) = 84,000 J + 2,270,000 J = 2,354,000 J

Example
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4. Ice cube has mass 100 gram at 0C. If it heated until 20C the all ice become water. How much heat energy absorb?
(melting heat of ice = 80 cal/g ; specific heat of water 1 cal/g c)

Known: m= 100 g T = (20-0) C = 20 C L = 80 cal/g c = 1 cal/gC Question: Q total Answer: Q1 = m x L Q2 = m x c x T Q total = Q 1 + Q 2 = (m x L) + (m x c x T) =(100 g x 80 cal/g ) + (100 g x 1 cal/g C x 20 C ) = 8,000 cal + 2000 cal = 10,000 cal

Exercise of Heat
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1. Calculate heat needed to change 100 gram of ice at 30C into water vapor at 120C. cice = 2100 J/kgC cwater = 4200 J/kgC cwater vapor = 2010 J/kgC Lice = 336,000 J/kg Uwater = 2,270,000 J/kg

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Joseph Black (16 April 1728 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.

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When two substances or more are mixed, the amount of heat released by the substance with higher temperature is equal to the amount of heat absorbed by the substance with lower temperature.

released

= Q received

Example

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100 grams of hot water at 40C is mixed with 200 grams of water at 10C . What is the final temperature of this mixture? T1 Given: m1 = 100 grams T1 = 40C m2 = 200 grams T2 = 10C T1 = T1 - Tf Question: Tf (Final Temperature) Tf Solution Qreleased = Q received T2 = Tf T2 m1. cwater . T1 = m2. cwater . T2 m1. cwater . (T1 Tf) = m2. cwater . (Tf T2) T2 m1. (T1 Tf) = m2. (Tf T2) 100 g(40 Tf) = 200 g. (Tf 10) 4000 100Tf = 200 Tf 2000 4000+2000 = 200 Tf + 100 Tf 6000 = 300 Tf Tf = 6000/300 = 20C

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1. The volume of water in glass B is half of the volume of water in glass A. The water is then mixed in glass C. The final temperature of the water in glass C is

2. kg of hot water at 80C is mixed with 2 kg of cold water. What is the temperature of cold water if the final temperature of mixture is 24C?

THANKS!