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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING
MICRO LESSON PLAN
SUBJECT NAME SUBJECT CODE YEAR /SEM BRANCH
: ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION : CS 2204 : II / III : CSE
STAFF NAME Ms.D.BEAULAH PRINCIBA A.P / ECE
CS2204 ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
AIM The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the concepts of analog and digital communication. OBJECTIVES To study about the amplitude modulation techniques. To study about the angle modulation techniques. To understand about the angle modulation techniques used for digital data transmission. To have knowledge about digital communication. To study about spread spectrum and multiple access techniques.
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Wayne Tomasi, “Advanced Electronic Communication Systems”, 6/e, Pearson Education, 2007. 2. Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons., 2001. REFERENCES: 1. H.Taub,D L Schilling ,G Saha ,”Principles of Communication”3/e,2007. 2. B.P.Lathi,”Modern Analog And Digital Communication systems”, 3/e, Oxford University Press, 2007 3. Blake, “Electronic Communication Systems”, Thomson Delmar Publications, 2002. 4. Martin S.Roden, “Analog and Digital Communication System”, 3rd Edition, PHI, 2002. 5. B.Sklar,”Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications”2/e Pearson Education 2007.
CS2204 ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION 9 Principles of amplitude modulation, AM envelope, frequency spectrum and bandwidth, modulation index and percent modulation, AM Voltage distribution, AM power distribution, Angle modulation - FM and PM waveforms, phase deviation and modulation index, frequency deviation and percent modulation, Frequency analysis of angle modulated waves. Bandwidth requirements for Angle modulated waves. UNIT II DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 9 Introduction, Shannon limit for information capacity, digital amplitude modulation, frequency shift keying, FSK bit rate and baud, FSK transmitter, BW consideration of FSK, FSK receiver, phase shift keying – binary phase shift keying – QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude modulation, bandwidth efficiency, carrier recovery – squaring loop, Costas loop, DPSK. UNIT III DIGITAL TRANSMISSION 9 Introduction, Pulse modulation, PCM – PCM sampling, sampling rate, signal to quantization noise rate, companding – analog and digital – percentage error, delta modulation, adaptive delta modulation, differential pulse code modulation, pulse transmission – Intersymbol interference, eye patterns. UNIT IV DATA COMMUNICATIONS 9 Introduction, History of Data communications, Standards Organizations for data communication, data communication circuits, data communication codes, Error control, Error Detection, Error correction, Data communication Hardware, serial and parallel interfaces, data modems, Asynchronous modem, Synchronous modem, low-speed modem, medium and high speed modem, modem control. UNIT V SPREAD SPECTRUM AND MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES 9 Introduction, Pseudo-noise sequence, DS spread spectrum with coherent binary PSK, processing gain, FH spread spectrum, multiple access techniques – wireless communication, TDMA and CDMA in wireless communication systems, source coding of speech for wireless communications. TUTORIAL: 15 TOTAL: 45 +15=60 TEXT BOOKS: 1. Wayne Tomasi, “Advanced Electronic Communication Systems”, 6/e, Pearson Education, 2007. 2. Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons., 2001. REFERENCES: 1. H.Taub,D L Schilling ,G Saha ,”Principles of Communication”3/e,2007. 2. B.P.Lathi,”Modern Analog And Digital Communication systems”, 3/e, Oxford University Press, 2007 3. Blake, “Electronic Communication Systems”, Thomson Delmar Publications, 2002. 4. Martin S.Roden, “Analog and Digital Communication System”, 3rd Edition, PHI, 2002. 5. B.Sklar,”Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications”2/e Pearson Education 2007. T/ R WEEK A/ V S.NO TOPIC BOOK PAGE.NO NO CLASS NO
UNIT I - FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION Principles of amplitude modulation1 T1 AM envelope 2 frequency spectrum and bandwidth T1 modulation index and percent 3 I T1 modulation 4 AM Voltage distribution T1 5 AM power distribution T1 6 Angle modulation T1 7 FM and PM waveforms T1 8 Phase deviation and modulation index T1 II Frequency deviation and percent 9 T1 modulation Frequency analysis of angle modulated 10 T1 waves. 11 Bandwidth requirements TI UNIT II - DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 12 Introduction T1 13 Shannon limit for information capacity T1 III 14 Digital amplitude modulation T1 15 Frequency shift keying T1 16 FSK bit rate and baud T1 17 FSK transmitter T1 18 IV BW consideration of FSK T1 19 FSK receiver T1 20 Phase shift keying-BPSK T1 21 QPSK T1 22 QAM T1 23 V bandwidth efficiency T1 24 carrier recovery-square loop T1 25 Costas loop T1 26 DPSK T1 UNIT III - DIGITAL TRANSMISSION 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 VI Introduction Pulse modulation PCM PCM sampling sampling rate signal to quantization noise rate Companding-analog Digital companding percentage error T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1
138 138 to 140 142 to 145 145 to 148 149 to 153 272 to 275 277 to 278 278 to 279 279 to 282 282 to 286 286 to 288 364 to 365 365 to 368 368 to 369 369 to 370 370 to 373 373 to 374 370 to 373 374 to 375 376 to 381 381 to 388 395 to 403 403 to 404 404 to 405 405 to 406 407 to 408 424 to 425 425 to 431 425 to 427 427 to 431 431 to 433 439 to 440 442 to 446 446 to 452 452 to 453 Yes
36 37 38 39 40 41 42
IX 43 44 45 46 Error correction T1 905 to 908 47 48 X Data communication Hardware T1 911 to 912 49 Serial interfaces T1 924 to 939 50 parallel interfaces T1 139 to 146 51 Data modems- Asynchronous modem T1 168 to 170 52 Synchronous modem T1 170 to 171 53 XI low-speed modem T1 171 to 172 54 Medium and high speed modem T1 172 to 175 55 modem control T1 175 to 176 UNIT V - SPREAD SPECTRUM AND MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES 56 Introduction- Pseudo-noise sequence T2 479 to 487 DS spread spectrum with coherent 57 T2 490 to 493 binary PSK XII 58 Processing gain T2 493 to 497 59 FH spread spectrum T2 499 to 505 60 multiple access techniques T2 513 to 514 61 wireless communication T2 529 to 535 TDMA and CDMA in wireless 62 T2 547 to 550 XIII communication source coding of speech for wireless 63 T2 550 to 553 communications. ASSIGNMENT- I
delta modulation T1 455 to 457 adaptive delta modulation T1 457 to 458 differential pulse code modulation T1 458 to 459 pulse transmission T1 459 to 460 Intersymbol interference, eye patterns T1 460 to 463 UNIT IV- DATA COMMUNICATIONS Introduction, History of Data TI 852 to 853 communications Standards Organizations for data T1 858 to 859 communication data communication circuits T1 912 to 914 data communication codes T1 890 to 900 Error control, Error Detection T1 900 to 905
1.For an AM DSBFC with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage Vc = 10Vp,a load resistance RL= 10Ω and a modulated coefficient m=1,determine (a)Powers of the carrier and the upper and lower sidebands.
(b)Total sideband power (c)Total power of the modulated wave Then (d)Draw the power spectrum. 2.Compare FM with AM. ASSIGNMENT- II 1.Compare BPSK and DPSK. 2.For an 8-PSK modulator with an input data rate equal to 20Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz. Determine minimum double side Nyquist band width and baud. ASSIGNMENT- III 1.Write short notes on ISI. 2.What is eye pattern? Explain how is the performance of a baseband pulse transmission system measured with this? ASSIGNMENT- IV 1.Determine the BCS for the following data and CRC generating polynomials: Data G(x) = x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x1 + x0 CRC P(x) = x5 + x4 + x1 + x0 2.Describe the function of compander. ASSIGNMENT- V 1.What are pseudo noise sequences? How are they generated? 2.Explain direct sequence spread spectrum system in detail.
UNIT I - FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION Part A
1. For an AM DSBFC modulator with a carrier frequency of 100KHz and maximum modulating signal frequency of 5 KHz, determine upper and lower side band frequency and the bandwidth. 2. State Carson’s rule. 3. Draw the waveforms of AM signal and DSB-SC signal. 4. What is the required bandwidth for FM signal, in terms of frequency deviation? 5. Define Amplitude modulation. 6. What is modulation index and percentage modulation in AM system? 7. What is modulation index for FM? 8. Distinguish between FM and PM. 9. Enumerate the advantages of angle modulation over amplitude modulation. 10. Write the expression for total power of AM modulated wave. 11. A carrier wave is represented by equation s(t)=12sinwt.Draw the wave form of an AM wave for depth of modulation of 0.5. 12. Describe the significance of Bessel table. 13. State Carson’s general rule for determining the bandwidth for an angle modulated wave. 14. Define low ,medium and high modulation index. 15. Define power in an unmodulated carrier. Part B 1. (i) Derive the expression for an Amplitude Modulated wave and draw its spectrum. (10) (ii) Obtain a relationship between carrier and side band powers in an AM DSBFC wave and explain how power distribution takes place in AM DSB FC system. (6) 2. (i) Define modulation index for FM and PM and obtain the relation between modulation index and modulating signal for FM and PM. (8) (ii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of angle modulation with amplitude modulation. (8) 3. Derive expression for AM wave. Define modulation index and express its value in terms of maximum and minimum voltage values of signal. Draw the spectrum and time-domain signal of AM wave. (16) 4. Define FM and PM modulation. Write down their equations. Describe suitable mechanism that can produce PM from FM modulator. (16) 5. (i) Explain the principles of amplitude modulation. (8) (ii) Write a note on frequency spectrum analysis of angle modulated waves. (8) 6. (i) Explain the bandwidth requirements of angle modulated waves. (8) (ii) Compare FM and PM. (8) 7. (i) Explain in detail about AM power distribution. (8) (ii) A 400 watt carrier is modulated at a depth of 75%.Calculate the total power in the modulated wave. (8) 8. (i)Explain the frequency analysis and bandwidth requirements for angle modulated Waves. (10)
(ii) 5.For an AM DSBFC transmitter with an modulated carrier power Pc =100W that is modulated simultaneously by three modulating signals with coefficients of modulation m1=0.2,m2=0.4 and m3=0.5,determine (a)Total coefficient of modulation (b)upper and lower side band power (6) (c)Total transmitted power. 9. i) Define amplitude modulation. Derive the relation between the total transmitted power and carrier power in an AM system when several frequencies simultaneously modulate a carrier (12) ii) For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage Vc=10Vp, a load resistance RL=10 Ω?, and a modulation coefficient m=1, determine (1) Powers of the carrier, upper and lower side bands (2) Total power of the modulated wave (3) Total side band power (4) Draw the power spectrum. (4) 10. For an FM modulator with peak frequency deviation Δf = 10kHz,a modulating-signal frequency fm=10kHz,Vc=10V,and a 500 kHz carrier,determine (a)Actual minimum bandwidth from the Bessel function table (b)Approximate minimum bandwidth using carson’s rule. Then (c)plot the output frequency spectrum for the Bessel approximation. (16) 11. (i)Determine the peak frequency deviation(Δf) and modulation index(m) for an FM modulator with a deviation sensitivity K1=5kHz/V and a modulating signal vm(t)=2 cos(2π2000t). (8) (ii) Determine the peak phase deviation (m) for an PM modulator with a deviation sensitivity k=2.5rad/V and a modulating signal vm(t)=2 cos(2π2000t). (8) 12. (i) Explain AM voltage distribution. (ii) Explain AM power distribution. UNIT II - DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Part A 1. Define information capacity. What is Shannon limit for information capacity? 2. What is binary shift keying? What are the advantages of BPSK? 3. What is the relation between bit rate and baud for a FSK system? 4. Draw the phasor diagram of QPSK. 5. Define information capacity and bit rate. 6. Define PSK and FSK. 7. What are the advantages of QPSK? 8. Draw the PSK and FSK signals for the binary signal s(t)=1011001 9. Determine minimum bandwidth required to pass a 40kbps signal using ASK. 10. Draw squaring loop carrier recovery circuit for a BPSK receiver. 11. What is coherent detection? 12. Why is binary ASK called on-off keying? 13. Determine the bandwidth and baud for the FSK signal with a mark frequency of 49KHz and a space frequency of 51KHz and a bit rate of 2Kbps.
14. What is a constellation diagram? 15. Draw the binary PSK and FSK modulated waveforms assuming a modulating bit stream 1011 Part B 1. (i) Describe with neat diagram, the operation of a QPSK modulator. Draw its phasor and constellation diagram. (10) (ii) Explain the bandwidth considerations of QPSK system. (6) 2. What is carrier recovery? Discuss how carrier recovery is achieved by the squaring loop and Costas loop circuits. (16) 3. Draw the block diagram of FSK receiver and explain the operation. Determine the : (i) peak frequency deviation (ii) minimum bandwidth (iii) baud for FSK signal with a mark frequency of 49 kHz, space frequency of 51 kHz, and input bit rate of 2 kbps. (16) 4. Draw the block diagram of QPSK modulator and explain its operation. For QPSK modulator, construct the truth table, phasor diagram and constellation diagram. (16) 5. (i) Discuss the principle of operation of FSK transmitter. (8) (ii) Write a note on QPSK (8) 6. (i) Discuss the principle of operation of FSK receiver. (8) (ii) Write a note on DPSK (8) 7. Explain in detail about phase shift keying digital modulation technique. (16) 8. What is known as Binary phase shift keying? Discuss in detail the BPSK transmitter and receiver. (16) 9. Explain ASK modulation scheme with neat block diagrams. 10. .(i) Define BPSK and QPSK. Draw the block diagram and constellation diagram of a QPSK system and explain its working. (12) (ii)Explain how BW consideration is carried out in QPSK. (4) 11. .(i)Compare BPSK and DPSK. (8) (ii) For an 8-PSK modulator with an input data rate equal to 20Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz. Determine minimum double side Nyquist band width and baud.(8) 12. .(i)Describe coherent and noncoherent detection of FSK. (8) (ii)Explain with phasor diagram how digital information can be contained in both amplitude and phase using QAM. (8) UNIT III - DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the need for sampling? Define Inter symbol Interference? When does ISI occur? What are the advantages of digital transmission? Define companding. Draw PWM and PPM waveforms. Draw the Eye pattern and indicate how ISI is measured from it. Define PDM and PPM.
8. What is quantization noise? 9. List the advantages and disadvantages of digital transmission. 10. Give the compression characteristics for A-law companding. 11. Where and when the overload distortion occurs. 12. What are the errors in DM? 13. Define slope overload and granular noise. 14. Distinguish delta modulation and differential pulse code modulation. 15. Define A law companding and µ law companding Part B 1. (i) Draw the block diagram of a PCM transmitter and explain the function of each block. (6) (ii) What are the types of sampling? Explain the operation of the sample and hold circuit. (10) 2. Draw the block diagram and describe the operation of a delta modulator. What are its advantages and disadvantages compared to a PCM system? (16) 3. What is companding? Explain analog companding process with the help of block diagram. (16) 4. How does delta modulation differ from PCM? Explain delta modulation transmitter with the help of a block diagram. (16) 5. (i) Describe the basic principles of PCM system. (8) (ii)What is companding? Explain in detail. (8) 6. (i) Describe in detail the adaptive delta modulation. (8) (ii) What is signal quantization noise? (8) 7. Write short notes on Adaptive DM. (8) 8. (i)Explain in detail about DPCM with suitable diagram. (8) (ii)1kHz signal is sampled by 8kHz sampling signal and the samples are encoded with 12 bit PCM system. Find (8) 1.Required bandwidth for PCM system 2.Total number of bits in the digital output signal in 10 cycles. 9. What are the drawbacks of delta modulation and how are they overcome in adaptive delta modulation? Explain with the help of a neat block diagram. (16) 10. (i)Write short notes on ISI. (4) (ii)What is eye pattern? Explain how is the performance of a baseband pulse transmission system measured with this? (12)
UNIT IV - DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Part A 1. What is data terminal equipment? Give examples. 2. What is forward error correction? 3. Compare the merits and demerits of error detection and correction. 4. Give typical CRC-16 generating circuit. 5. List any two data communication standard organization. 6. What is a data modem? 7. What are the two methods of error detection and correction? 8. Distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous modem. 9. Which error detection technique is simple and which one is more reliable? 10. Which standard is suitable for smooth operation of Internet? 11. Determine the hex codes for the Baudot codes for C and 1. 12. What do you mean by signaling rate? 13. Define CRC 14. Define VRC and LRC. 15. What are the types of error messages? Part B 1. (i) Describe the features and purposes of serial Interfaces. (6) (ii) Describe the mechanical, electrical and functional characteristics of RS 232 interface. (10) 2. Explain how vertical, longitudinal and cyclic redundancy checking is used for detecting the occurrence of errors in data transmission. (16) 3. Discuss UART transmitter and receiver in detail. Under what conditions, asynchronous mode of data transfer is better? (16) 4. (i) Write a note on data communication codes. (8) 5. (ii) Explain serial and parallel interfaces in detail. (8) 6. (i) Explain in detail about error detection and correction. (8) (ii) Write a note on medium and high speed modem. (8) 7. Write short note on Hardware interface and low speed modem. (8) 8. (i)Write short notes on error correcting codes (6) (ii)Find the generator polynomial of (7,4) cyclic code and find the codeword for the message 1001. (10) 9. Determine the BCS for the following data and CRC generating polynomials: Data G(x) = x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x1 + x0 CRC P(x) = x5 + x4 + x1 + x0 (16) 10. .(i)Explain the function of a quantizer in a PCM system. Obtain an equation for Quantizing noise assuming a uniform quantizer. (8) (ii)Describe the function of compander. (8) 11. .(i)Explain the history of data communications. (8) (ii)Explain Data communication circuits. (8) UNIT V - SPREAD SPECTRUM AND MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES
Part A 1. What is frequency hopping? 2. What is meant by an orthogonal code? 3. Define effective jamming power and processing. 4. What is the principle of frequency hopping spread spectrum? 5. List the spread spectrum techniques. 6. What is CDMA? 7. What are the applications of spread spectrum modulation? 8. Define processing gain in spread spectrum modulation. 9. What are the types of frequency hopping? 10. Define PN sequence. 11. How does the avoidance type SS modulation reduce interference. 12. What is the need for speech coding in wireless systems? 13. Define TDMA and FDMA 14. Draw the block diagram of RAKE receiver. 15. Define Doppler shift 16. What is fast frequency hopping? Part B 1. (i)Explain the principle of DS spread spectrum technique. (8) (ii) Explain the salient features of wireless communication. (8) 2. (i) Describe the frequency hopping spread spectrum technique in detail. (8) (ii) Explain the basic principle of TDMA. (8) 3. With the help of block diagram explain how DSSS can be implemented. Draw the input and output waveforms. (16) 4. Explain the frequency – hopped spread spectrum with a block diagram. How PN sequences are generated? (16) 5. (i) What is a PN sequence? Explain its important properties. (8) (ii) Describe with block diagram, DS SS binary PSK spread spectrum system. (8) 6. (i) Describe the operation of a CDMA multiplexing system. (10) (ii) List the advantages of CDMA over TDMA multiple access scheme. (6) 7. i) Compare Time division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access. (8) ii) A spread spectrum communication system has the following parameters: Information bit duration Tb=4.095ms, PN chip duration Tc=1µs, the energy to noise ratio Eb / No=10. Calculate the processing gain and Jamming margin. (8) 8. Explain 2 types of FH spread spectrum systems with suitable diagrams. (16) 9. Explain GSM and IS -95 wireless communication systems. (16) 10. Discuss about (i) Linear Predictive coding techniques (ii) Spread spectrum (16) 11. Explain the need for multiple access techniques. Draw the block diagram of a TDMA system and explain. Enumerate its advantages and disadvantages over FDMA technique. (16) 12. Define Pseudo noise sequence? How do you generate PN sequence? 13. Draw the block diagram of RAKE receiver and explain the operation. (16) (16)
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