TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

TIOBE SOFTWARE BV

TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012
JUNE HEADLINE: HASKELL IS RAPIDLY APPROACHING THE TOP 20
Last month we asked ourselves the question what language could become the next big new programming language. We suggested several candidates such as Scala, Erlang and Clojure. Clearly, the new thing was expected to come from the functional programming field. A functional language not explicitly mentioned was Haskell. And this month it was Haskell that jumped from #35 to #25. Looking at the TIOBE trend graph of Haskell (starting in 2003) it shows a constant rise, with peaks in 2006, 2010 and now in 2012. This certainly sounds promising. The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the number of skilled engineers worldwide, courses and third party vendors. The popular search engines Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube and Baidu are used to calculate the ratings. Observe that the TIOBE index is not about the best programming language or the language in which most lines of code have been written. The index can be used to check whether your programming skills are still up to date or to make a strategic decision about what programming language should be adopted when starting to build a new software system. The definition of the TIOBE index can be found here.

POSITION POSITION DELTA IN POSITION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE JUNE 2012 JUNE 2011 1 2 C 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 3 7 4 6 5 8 9 12 INDEX FOR JUNE 2012 Java C++ Objective-C C# (Visual) Basic PHP Python Perl Ruby

RATINGS JUNE 2012 17.725% 16.265% 9.358% 9.094% 7.026% 6.047% 5.287% 3.848% 2.221% 1.683%

DELTA STATUS JUNE 2011 +1.45% A -2.32% -0.47% +4.66% +0.18% +1.32% -1.31% -0.05% -0.09% +0.20% A A A A A A A A A

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INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

TIOBE SOFTWARE BV

POSITION POSITION DELTA IN POSITION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE JUNE 2012 JUNE 2011 11 11 JavaScript 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 29 13 14 21 15 17 19 22 10 Visual Basic .NET Delphi/Object Pascal Lisp Logo Pascal Transact-SQL Ada PL/SQL Lua

RATINGS JUNE 2012 1.474% 1.216% 1.150% 0.986% 0.860% 0.844% 0.705% 0.681% 0.637% 0.635%

DELTA STATUS JUNE 2011 -0.03% A +0.78% +0.08% +0.05% +0.31% +0.11% +0.05% +0.08% +0.13% -1.40% A A A AA A B AB

LONG TERM TRENDS
The long term trends for the top 10 programming languages can be found in the line diagram below.

INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

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INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

TIOBE SOFTWARE BV

OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
The complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. This overview is published unofficially, because it could be the case that we missed a language. If you have the impression there is a programming language lacking, please notify us at tpci@tiobe.com.
POSITION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE RATINGS POSITION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE RATINGS

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Bash MATLAB Assembly SAS Haskell ABAP RPG (OS/400) COBOL Fortran R Scheme Scratch D Prolog NXT-G

0.622% 0.563% 0.538% 0.534% 0.532% 0.476% 0.470% 0.463% 0.451% 0.438% 0.421% 0.339% 0.339% 0.329% 0.329%

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

(Visual) FoxPro Erlang Awk Smalltalk APL Scala Forth ML Ladder Logic Max/MSP Alice ActionScript Algol CFML PowerShell

0.265% 0.257% 0.257% 0.247% 0.243% 0.234% 0.230% 0.224% 0.209% 0.199% 0.196% 0.189% 0.169% 0.165% 0.151%

THE NEXT 50 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
The following list of languages denotes #51 to #100. Since the differences are relatively small, the programming languages are only listed (in alphabetical order). ABC, bc, Boo, C shell, cg, CHILL, CL (OS/400), Clean, Clojure, Cobra, cT, Curl, Dylan, Eiffel, Euphoria, F#, Factor, Gambas, Go, Groovy, Icon, Informix-4GL, J, JavaFX Script, JScript.NET, LabVIEW, Lingo, Magic, Modula-2, MUMPS, NATURAL, Oberon, OCaml, Occam, OpenCL, OpenEdge ABL, Oz, PL/I, Q, REXX, S, SPARK, Standard ML, SuperCollider, Tcl, VBScript, VHDL, X10, xBase, XSLT

INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

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VERY LONG TERM HISTORY
To see the bigger picture, please find the positions of the top 10 programming languages from 5, 15 and 25 years ago in the table below. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE C Java C++ Objective-C C# (Visual) Basic PHP Python Perl Ruby Lisp Ada POSITION POSITION POSITION POSITION JUNE 2012 JUNE 2007 JUNE 1997 JUNE 1987 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 18 1 3 45 7 4 5 8 6 10 15 17 4 2 3 25 6 17 11 12 7 5 3 2

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE HALL OF FAME
The hall of fame listing all "Programming Language of the Year" award winners is shown below. The award is given to the programming language that has the highest rise in ratings in a year.
YEAR WINNER

2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

Objective-C Python Go C Python Ruby Java PHP C++

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CATEGORIES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
In the tables below some long term trends are shown about categories of languages. Object-oriented statically typed languages have been most popular for more than 5 years now. RATINGS JUNE 2012 DELTA JUNE 2011 +1.4% Object-Oriented Languages 57.5% Procedural Languages Functional Languages Logical Languages 36.9% 3.9% 1.6% -0.4% -1.2% +0.2% CATEGORY

CATEGORY Statically Typed Languages Dynamically Typed Languages

RATINGS JUNE 2012 71.3% 28.7%

DELTA JUNE 2011 +0.4% -0.4%

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TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

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THIS MONTH'S CHANGES IN THE INDEX
This month the following changes have been made to the definition of the index:  The numerical programming language "GNU Octave" has been added to the index. It starts at position 143 of the TIOBE index.  Last month Wes Byrd pointed out that according to Wikipedia, ColdFusion is also used to refer to the CFML programming language. This is an issue that raised a huge debate a couple of years ago. After this change CFML entered the top 50 again at position 49.  One of the reasons for the rise of Logo is that there is also a TV station called Logo. So if querying for +"Logo programming" also Logo programming guide information is returned. From next month on we will add -tv to the Logo entry. Thanks to Rowan Davies for letting us know!  There are lots of mails that still need to be processed. As soon as there is more time available your mail will be answered. Please be patient.

BUGS & CHANGE REQUESTS
This is the top 5 of most requested changes and bugs. If you have any suggestions how to improve the index don't hesitate to send an e-mail to tpci@tiobe.com. 1. Apart from "<language> programming", also other queries such as "programming with <language>", "<language> development" and "<language> coding" should be tried out. 2. Add queries for other natural languages (apart from English). The idea is to start with the Chinese search engine Baidu. This has been implemented partially and will be completed the next few months. 3. Add a list of all search term requests that have been rejected. This is to minimize the number of recurring mails about Rails, JQuery, JSP, etc. 4. Start a TIOBE index for databases, software configuration management systems and application frameworks. 5. Some search engines allow querying pages that have been added last year. The TIOBE index should only track those recently added pages.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)

Q: Why is the maximum taken to calculate the ranking for a grouping, why not the sum?
A: Well, you can do it either way and both are wrong. If you take the sum, then you get the intersection twice. If you take the max, then you miss the difference. Which one to choose? Suppose somebody comes up with a new search term that is 10% of the original. If you take the max, nothing changes. If you take the sum then the ratings will rise 10%. So taking the sum will be an incentive for some to come up with all kinds of obscure terms for a language. That's why we decided to take the max. The proper way to solve this is of course to take the sum and subtract the intersection. This will give rise to an explosion of extra queries that must be performed. Suppose a language has a grouping of 15 terms, then you

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TIOBE PROGRAMMING COMMUNITY INDEX FOR JUNE 2012

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have to perform 32,768 queries (all combinations of intersections). So this seems not possible either... If somebody has a solution for this, please let us know.

Q: Am I allowed to show the TIOBE index in my weblog/presentation/publication?
A: Yes, the only condition is to refer to its original source "www.tiobe.com".

Q: I would like to have the complete data set of the TIOBE index. Is this possible?
A: We spent a lot of effort to obtain all the data and keep the TIOBE index up to date. In order to compensate a bit for this, we ask a fee of 5,000 US$ for the complete data set. The data set runs from June 2001 till today. It started with 25 languages back in 2001, and now measures more than 150 languages once a month. The data are available in comma separated format. Please contact sales@tiobe.com for more information.

Q: What happened to Java in April 2004? Did you change your methodology?
A: No, we did not change our methodology at that time. Google changed its methodology. They performed a general sweep action to get rid of all kinds of web sites that had been pushed up. As a consequence, there was a huge drop for languages such as Java and C++. In order to minimize such fluctuations in the future, we added two more search engines (MSN and Yahoo) a few months after this incident.

Q: Why is YouTube used as a search engine for the TIOBE index?
A: First of all, YouTube counts only for 10% of all ratings, so it has hardly any influence on the index. YouTube has been added as an experiment. It qualified for the TIOBE index because of its high ranking on Alexa. YouTube is a young platform (so an indicator for popularity) and there are quite some lectures, presentations, programming tips and language introductions available on YouTube.

RELATED LINKS
 TIOBE Software’s main site: http://www.tiobe.com/index.php/home  Contact to TIOBE Software: http://www.tiobe.com/content/company/Contact.html  Privacy Statement: http://www.tiobe.com/content/general/privacy.html

BIBLIOGRAPHY
 http://www.tiobe.com/index.php/tiobe_index (June 2012)

© 2012 TIOBE Software BV. Free copy and redistribution are authorized. Portable Document Format file edited by Ángel Moisés García Zepeda.

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