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decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients.

Hence,organization must consider elements of both education and training whileplanning there training programmes.Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employeesgrow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides generalknowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions.Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition.Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmentalprogrammes, are generally voluntary.To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharpfocus, it may be stated that training is offered to operatives , whereas developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions . Education however is common to all the employees , there gradesnotwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose byadding value to its key resource the people it employs. Training meansinvesting in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them tomake the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of trainingare to: Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far aspossible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs onappointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fullycompetent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable theparticipants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision tolook into distant future. In addition to

these, there is a need to impart ethicalorientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-makingand problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needsskills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function.There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of ones body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and

driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees from the clerk to thegeneral manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills areneeded to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examplesof interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing anunderstanding of others feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme mustcontain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any suchprogramme has university professors as resource persons to enlightenparticipants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed.In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a parttime basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managersand executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is lessskill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about businessenvironment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specificindustry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics

There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training anddevelopment programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largelyignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance andproduction function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in thepersonnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge inunethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty toenlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethicalbehavior.Exhibit # 1White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMGs fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due todelinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of theiceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds willincrease.Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequenttypes of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secretcommissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds,window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creativeones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitudeaffects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need tobe converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficultbecause 1.Employees refuse to changes2.They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficientNevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to theorganization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction fromthere jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniquesfor making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learningrelated to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve traineesabilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generatealternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors andprofessionals.Exhibit # 2Training inputs at HLLThe training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop thefollowing:1.Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills andcompetencies2.Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing themfor the next level of responsibilities3.Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of theorganization

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVEADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes, as was pointed out earlier, help remove performance deficiencies in employee. This is particularly true when - (1) thedeficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation toperform, (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need tolearn to do the job better, and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of thedesired behaviors.Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removingperformance deficiencies; making employees stay long; minimized accidents,scraps and damage; and meeting future employee needs.There is greater stability, flexibility, and capacity for growth in an organization.Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Employeesbecome efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to thegrowth of the organization. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Further,trained employees tend to stay with the organization. They seldom leave thecompany. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All rounderscan be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Growth indicatesprosperity, which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Who else butwell-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, andturnover can be reduced if employees are trained well.Future needs of employees will be met through training and developmentprogrammes. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates asapprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after coursecompletion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is aninvestment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and theorganization. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits, the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. At the same time, theemployee's personal and career goals are furthered, generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. Ultimately, the objectives of the HRdepartment are also furthered. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization:

Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profitorientation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of theorganization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals

Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity, openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solvingskills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes,and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel,administration, etc.

Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competentand knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internalconsultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit theOrganization: Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problemsolving Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition,achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized andoperationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict

Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communicationskills and attitudes ncreases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skillswhen exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations, Intra-group & Inter-group Relationsand Policy Implementation: Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs throughtransfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills. Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable.

Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live

THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process Needs

NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be metthrough training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money(usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Beforecommitting such huge resources, organizations would do well to the trainingneeds of their employees. Organizations that implement training programmeswithout conducting needs assessment may be making errors. For example, aneeds assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e.g. selection,compensation package, job redesign) could be used in lieu of training.Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. An individualobviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is,TrainingValidity

Transfer ValidityIntraorganizationalvalidityInterorganizationalvalidityDevelopment of criteriaUse of evaluationmodelsSelectionand designof instructionalprograms

TrainingInstructionalObjectiveNeeds assessmentOrganizationalsupportOrganizationalanalysisTask and KSAanalysisPerson analysis

Lack of skillor KnowledgeOther Causes


PerformanceDeficiencywhen there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due tolack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performancedeficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied bytraining. Faulty selection, poor job design, uninspiring supervision or somepersonal problem may also result in poor performance. Transfer, job redesign,improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem. Figurebelow illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedialmeasures.

Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of anemployee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. Itis necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. This will help him/her toprogress in his or her career path. Training and development is essential toprepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Deputation to a part-time MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees.Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary, theydo not necessarily require training efforts. Employees commonly require only anorientation to new facilities and jobs. Recently however, economic forces havenecessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continuedemployment for many individuals. Jobs have disappeared as technology, foreigncompetition, and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in theorganizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. For example, when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products, salespersonnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and servicethe new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, ow morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed. Although training isnot all, such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce

Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for thepurpose. As shown in the below table, some are useful for organizational-levelneeds assessment others for individual needs assessment

Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Group or organizational Analysis Individual Analysis Organizational goals and objective Performance appraisalPer sonnel/skill invention Work samplingOrganizational climate i ndices InterviewsEfficiency indices QuestionnairesExit interv iews Attitude surveyMBO or work planning systems Trainin g progressCustomer survey/satisfaction data Rating scalesCus tomer survey/satisfaction dataConsideration of current and projected changes

Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment, individual or group, should consider several issuesas shown in Fig. #1 Organizational Support : Needs assessment is likely to make inroads intoorganizational life. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported bythe organization, disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely tooccur. Obviously, the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with allparties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needsassessment. Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support, the next stepin the needs assessment is an organizational analysis, which seeks to examine he goals of the organization (short-term and long-term), and the trends that arelikely to affect these goals. The analyst needs to ask and answer the followingquestions: Is there a sufficient supply of people? How does the firm attract, retain and motivate diverse work-force? How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills,knowledge abilities and attitudes? How do employees make the firm competitive, domestically andinternationally? Which are the target jobs that require training?These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people, which trainingseeks to fill.

Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support andmaking organizational analysis, it is necessary to assess and identify what tasksare needed on each job and which knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) arenecessary to perform these tasks. This assessment helps

prepare a blueprintthat describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the trainingprogramme. Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. A veryimportant aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs havealready been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time isnot wasted repeating what has already been acquired. Also, employed who needto undergo training are identified at this stage. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet feltneeds. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thoroughanalysis of these needs. Should this happen, the training programme becomesinappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment:1. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees.2. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees.3. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearlylinked to other human resource activities, which may make the trainingprogramme easier to sell to line manager. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at theconsequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. Failure to conductneeds assessment can contribute to: Loss of business Constraints on business development

Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants

Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay, overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment costs, including advertising, time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes, grading structures, payment systemand career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time, job sharing,part time working, shift working, etc. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives.Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to beachieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. Instructionalobjectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of thetraining programme. Below are some sample instructional objectives for atraining programme with sales people.

After training, the employee will be able to smile at all customers evenwhen exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. After training, the employee will be able to accurately calculatemark down on all sales merchandise. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1)who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methodsand techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programmeconducted?

Fig #3 Steps in training Programme Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself.Whatever is the basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. For example, rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learntogether about a new work process and their respective roles. Bringing severaltarget audience together can also facilitate group processes such as problemsolving and decision making, elements useful in quality circle projects. Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may beconducted by several people, including the following:1.Immediate supervisors,2.Co-workers, as in buddy systems,3.Members of the personnel staff,4.Specialists in other parts of the company,5.Outside consultants,6.Industry associations, and7.Faculty members at universities.Who among these are selected to teach, often, depends on where theprogramme is held and the skill that is being taught. For example, programmesteaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. On the other hand,interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. Largeorganizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. In addition, many organizations arrange basic-skillstraining for computer literacy. Methods and Techniques of Training:

A multitude of methods of training areused to train employees. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table#2. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of themost frequent uses to which these methods are put. As can be seen from Table#2, training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) off-the-job methods. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in theworkplace, while the employee is actually working. Off-the-job methods are usedaway from workplaces.

Who are thetrainees?Who are thetrainers?What methodsandtechniques?What should bethe level of training?What principles of learning?Where to conductthe programme?

Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge toemployees. Obviously, training techniques are the means employed in thetraining methods. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures,films, audio cassettes, case studies, role playing, video-tapes and simulations. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking basedon effectiveness. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank), the moreeffective the technique is.

Training Methods and the Activities for which they are usedOrientingNewEmployees,Introducing,InnovationsIn Products& ServicesSpecialSkillsTrainingSafetyEducationCreative,Technical &ProfessionalEducationSales, Administrative,Supervisory &ManagerialEducation12345 A. On theJobTraining OrientationTrainingYNNNNJobinstructiontrainingYYNNN ApprenticetrainingYYNNNInternships & AssistantshipNyNYYJob RotationYNNNYCoachingNYYYY B. Off theJobMethods VestibuleYYNNNLectureYYYYYSpecialStudyYYYYYFilmsYYYYYTelevisionsYYYYYConferenceor DiscussionYNYYYCase StudyNNNNYRole PlayingNNNYNSimulationYYYYN

ProgrammedInstructionsYYYY3LaboratorytrainingNN33N Y=Yes; N-No At this point, it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. Weexplain the following-lectures, audio-visuals, on-the-job training, programmedinstruction, computer aided instruction, simulation and sensitivity training. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to alarge audience. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be usedfor very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low. This method ismainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted intraining factory employees. (See Table #3)

Routine training such as orientation, safety and regulation compliance is besthandled in classrooms. Learning that requires discussion, tutoring and team-workcan go on-line, though it might also stay in the classroom. Requisites for E-Learning : E-Learning does not simply mean putting existingcourses and materials on a website. Following requisites need to be providedbefore launching learning on-line: Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed todevelop and implement e-Learning Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the ideathat training is being decentralized and individualized. Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequatelymeeting organizational training needs.

Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready accessto computers and the Internet Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivatedto direct their own learning. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning : E-Learning is advantageous inas much as it is self-paced, allows for consistency and incorporates built-inguidance and help. There are problems nevertheless. E-Learning tends to causetrainee anxiety, as many may not be ready to accept or have access tocomputers and Internet. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantagesmore comprehensively.Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning AdvantagesDisadvantages It is self paced. Trainees canproceed on their own time May cause trainee anxiety It is interactive, tapping multipletrainee senses Not all trainees may be ready for e-Learning Allows for consistency in thedelivery of training Not all trainees may have easyand uninterrupted access tocomputers Enables scoring of services/assessments andappropriate feedback

Not appropriate for all trainingcontent (e.g. leadership, culturalchange) Incorporates built-in guidanceand helps for trainees to use whenneeded Requires significant upfront 'costand investment It is relatively easy for trainers toupdate content No significantly greater learningevidenced in research studies Can be used to enhanceinstructor-led training Requires significant topmanagement support to besuccessful

Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learningexhibit a number of common success factors: Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happensand is delivered; E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business; E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such asclassroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities;

Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other wayaround; E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketedeffectively throughout the organization; A range of people with different skills are involved, including experttrainers, facilitators, champions of e-Learning and specialist web andgraphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective.Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do notspend money on training. Those that do, tend to concentrate on managers,technicians and professionals. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. This mustchange, for, as a result of rapid technological change, combined with newapproaches to organizational design and production management, workers arerequired to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology, (ii) theability to maintain it, and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. In anincreasingly competitive environment, the ability to implement rapid changes inproducts and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minusculeproportions of their revenues on training. Worse still, budget allocation to trainingis the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is thereason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basicskills. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. Managers,particularly at the middle level, need to be retrained in team-playing skills,entrepreneurship skills, leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in greatdemand. Unlike Germany, where local business groups pressure companies notto poach on another company's employees, there is no such system in our country. Companies in our country, however, insist on employees to sign 'bondsof tenure' before sending them for training, particularly before deputing them toundergo

training in foreign countries. Such bonds are not effective as theemployees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts ascompensation when the bonds are breached.

No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations aredownsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. The governmentshould set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seenas: responding to Labour-market demands. Business is seen as notcommunicating its demands to B Schools. This must change. Businessmen mustsit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role inimparting training workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy inattending to mundane issues such bonus, wage revision, settlement of disputes,and the like. They have little time in imparting training to their members. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practiceeffective:1.Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resourcesand adequate time to training. This is what high-performing organizationsdo. For example, Xerox Corporation, in the US invests about $ 300 millionannually, or about 2.5 per cent of its revenue on training. Similarly,Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to trainits 87.OC: workers.2.Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm.Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let traininghelp employees at all levels acquire the needed skills.3.Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists,and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous andongoing basis.4.Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let thisphilosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization.5.Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational andindividual training needs.6.Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above.)