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SA 21- Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology— Lecture Notes 5Anthropological Investigation Ethnography The first-hand, personal study of local

cultural settings is ethnography. It emerged as a research strategy in societies with greater cultural uniformity and less social differentiation than are found in large, modern, industrial nations. The characteristic field techniques of the ethnographer include the following:  Direct, firsthand observation of daily behavior, including participant observation, taking part in community life as one studies it.  Conversations with varying degrees of formality, structured or unstructured interview using an interview schedule or questionnaires.  The genealogical method, procedure by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols.  Detailed work with key consultants about particular areas of community life.  In-depth interviewing, often leading to a collection of life histories of particular people (narrators)  Discovery of local beliefs and perceptions, which may be compared with the ethnographer’s own observations and conclusions.  Problem-oriented research of many sorts.  Longitudinal research, the continuous long-term study of an area or site.  Team research, coordinated research by multiple ethnographers.

Field Work in Archaeological Anthropology Typically, archeologists combine both local (excavation) and regional (systematic survey) perspectives.
 Systematic Survey provides a regional perspective on the archeological record by gathering information on patterns of settlement over a large area.  During excavation an archeologist recovers remains by digging through the cultural and natural stratigraphy – the layers of deposits that make up an archeological site.  Principle of superposition, an undisturbed sequence of strata - the oldest layer is at the bottom. Each successive layer above is younger than the one below.

Supplement: Ethics in Anthropological Research

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Ethics In writing research grants, in conducting research and in all other professional contexts, ethical issues will inevitably arise. The following are provisions of the Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) which set certain ethical standards. Its main points about the ethical dimensions of research, teaching and application may be summarized: Research In proposing and conducting research, according to the Code, anthropologists should be open about their purposes, potential impacts, and sources of support. A. Responsibility to people and animals 1. The primary ethical obligation of the anthropologist is to the people, species, or materials he or she studies. Potential violation of this obligation can lead to decisions not to undertake, or to discontinue, research. This primary ethical obligation entails:

 Avoiding harm or wrong  Respecting the well-being of humans and nonhuman primates  Working to preserve the archaeological, fossil, and historical records  Working to achieve a beneficial working relationship for all parties 2. Researchers must respect the safety, dignity, and privacy of the people they study. Also, researchers should avoid harm to the safety, psychological well-being, and survival of the animals or species they study. 3. Researchers should determine in advance whether their hosts wish to remain anonymous or receive recognition. They should make every effort to comply with those wishes. 4. Researchers should obtain the informed consent of the people to be studied and of those whose interests may be affected by the research. Informed consent means that the anthropologist should tell people about the goals and procedures of the research, and gain their consent to be participants. 5. Anthropologists who develop close relationships with individuals (e.g., their cultural consultants) must adhere to the obligations of openness and informed consent. They must also carefully and respectfully negotiate the limits of the relationship. 6. Anthropologists may gain personally from their work. But they must not exploit individuals, groups, animals, or cultural or biological materials. They should recognize their debt to the societies in which they work. They are obliged to reciprocate with the people they study in appropriate ways. B. Responsibility to scholarship and science 1. Anthropologists should expect to encounter ethical dilemmas during their work. 2. Anthropologists are responsible for the integrity and reputation of their discipline, of

scholarship, and of science. They should not deceive or knowingly misrepresent. They should not fabricate evidence, falsify, or plagiarize. Nor should they prevent reporting of misconduct, or obstruct the research of others. 3. Researchers should do all they can to preserve opportunities for future field-workers. 4. To the extent possible, researchers should disseminate their findings to the scientific and scholarly community. 5. Anthropologists should consider reasonable requests for access to their data for purposes of research. They should try to preserve their fieldwork data for use by posterity. C. Responsibility to the public 1. Researchers should make their results available to sponsors, students, decision makers, and other non-anthropologists. Anthropologists should consider the social and political implications of their work. They should try to ensure that their work is understood, contextualized properly, and used responsibly. And they should be candid about their qualifications and philosophical or political biases. 2. Anthropologists may move beyond disseminating research results to a position of advocacy. This is an individual decision, rather than an ethical responsibility. Teaching The AAA Code of Ethics also addresses ethical issues affecting the relation between anthropologists and their students or trainees. The AAA Code first reminds anthropologists that there are other ethical codes and actual laws to regulate relations between teachers and students. Anthropologists need to be sensitive to specify ways in which such rules apply to anthropology (for example; when teaching involves close contact with students in field situations).

1. Anthropologists should conduct their programs in ways that preclude discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status, "race," social class, political convictions, disability, religion, ethnic background, national origin, sexual orientation, and age. 2. Anthropologists should strive to improve their teaching and training techniques. They should respond to student interests, advice students realistically about career opportunities, and conscientiously supervise, encourage, and support their students. They should be fair, prompt, and reliable in their evaluations. They should help students to obtain research support and to seek professional placement. 3. Teachers should impress a concern with ethics on their students. Students should be encouraged to reflect on the AAA Code and other codes of ethics. Teachers should encourage dialogue with colleagues on ethical issues and discourage student participation in ethically questionable projects. 4. Teachers should properly acknowledge student assistance in their research and in the preparation of their work. When appropriate, they should compensate, and give coauthorship credit to, students and trainees. They should encourage publication of worthy student papers. 5. Teachers must avoid sexual liaisons with those for whose education and professional training they are in any way responsible. Applied Anthropology The general provisions of the AAA Code of Ethics extend to applied anthropology, but with some specific additions. 1. Applied anthropologists should use and disseminate their work appropriately (i.e., for publication, teaching, and program and policy development). They must monitor the use and consequences of their work.

2. With employers, applied anthropologists should be honest about their qualifications, capabilities, aims, and intentions. The anthropologist must consider the potential employer's past activities and future goals. In working for government agencies or private businesses, the applied anthropologist should not accept conditions contrary to professional ethics. 3. Applied anthropologists, like all members of the field, should be alert to the danger of compromising ethics as a condition for engaging in research or practice. They should also be sensitive to issues of hospitality, good citizenship, and guest status in a foreign land. For the applied anthropologist, to assume a leadership role in shaping policies may be as ethically justifiable as inaction, detachment, or noncooperation.