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Chapter 13 Height and Distance


Height and Distance Some times we are required to find the height of a tower, tree, building and distance of a ship from light house, width of a river etc. We cannot measure them accurately, though we can find them using the knowledge of trigonometric ratio. Line of sight: When we see an object standing on the ground. The line of sight is the line from our eye to the object, we see. Angle of Elevation:-

When the object is above the horizontal level of our eye, we have to turn our head upwards to see an object. In this process, our eyes move through an angle which is called angle of elevation. Angle of Depression:When the object is on the ground and the observer is on a building then the object is below the level of the eye of the observer. The observer has to turn his head downward to see the object. In doing so, his eyes move through an angle which is called angle of depression. Example 1. A man is standing on the deck of a ship, which is 8m above water level. He observes the angle of elevation of the top of a hill as 600 and angle of depression of the base of the hill as 300. Calculate the distance of the hill from the ship and the height of the hill. Solution: - Let B be man, D the base of the hill, x be the distance of hill from the ship and h + 8 be the height of the hill.

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In tan 600 = AC/BC

In tan 300 = CD/BC

Height of the hill = h + 8 = 24 + 8 = 32m Distance of the hill from the ship = Example 2. A person standing on the bank of a river observes that the angle of elevation of the top of a tree standing on the opposite bank is 600. When he moves 40m away from the bank, he finds the angle of elevation to be 300. Find the height of the tree and the width of the river. Solution:- Let height of the tree be y and width of the river be x. CD = 40m

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In tan 300 = AB/BD

In tan 600 =AB/BC

Putting value of y from (ii) to (i)

Height of the tree = Width of the river = 20m. Example 3. From a window (h metres high above the ground) of a house in a street, the angle of elevation and depression. of the top and the foot of another house on the opposite side of the street are house is . respectively. Show that the height of the opposite

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Solution :- Let W be the window AB the house and WP the width of the street. In

In

Height of the =

Example 4. From the top of a tower 100 m high, the angles of depression of the top and bottom of a pole standing on the same plane as the tower are observed to be 300 and 450 respectively. Find the height of the pole. Solution:- Let AB be the tower and CD be the pole.

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Let CD = h. AB = 100m In

In

Height of the pole = 42.26 Example 5. The angles of elevation and depression of the top and bottom of a light house from the top of a building, 60m high, are 300 and 600 respectively. Find (i) The difference between the heights of the light house and building. (ii) Distance between the light house and the building. Solution:- Let AB be the building and CE be the light house.

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AD = BC =

tan 300 = DE/AD

(i) CE - CD = DE = 20m (ii) Distance = AD = BC = 34.64m Exercise - 26 1. From the top of tower 60m high, the angles of depression of the top and bottom of a building whose base is in the same straight line with the base of the tower are observed to be 300 and 600 respectively. Find the height of the building. 2. An aeroplane flying horizontally at a height of .1.5 km above the ground is observed at a certain point on earth to subtend and angle of 600. After 15 seconds, its angle of elevation at the same point is observed to be 300. Calculate the speed of the aeroplane in km/hr.

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3. A vertical tower is surmounted by a flagstaff of height h metres. At a point on the ground, the angle of elevation of the bottom and top of the flag staff are respectively. Prove that the height of the tower is 4. If the angle of elevation of a cloud from a point h metres above a lake is angle of depression of its reflection in lake is and

and the

, prove that the distance of the

cloud from the point of observation is 5. A tower in a city is 750m high and a multi-storeyed hotel at the city centre is 50m high. The angle of elevation of the top of the tower at the top of the hotel is 300. A building, h metres high, is situated on the straight road connecting the tower with the city centre at a distance the city centre at a distance of a 1.0 km from the tower. Find the value of h if the top of the hotel, the top of the building and the top of the tower are in a straight line. Also find the distance of the tower from the city centre. 6. In the adjoining figure, ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || CD. Line segments RS and LM are drawn parallel to AB such that AJ = JK = KP. If AB = O.5m and AP = BQ = 1.8m, find the length of AP, BD, RS and LM.

7. The angle of elevation of a jet plane from a point A on the ground is 600. After a flight of 15 seconds, the angle of elevation changes to 300. If the jet plane is flying 8. at a constant height of find the speed of the jet plane. Determine the height of a mountain if the elevation if the elevation of its top at an unknown distance from the base is 450 and at a distance 10km further off from the mountain, along the same line, the angle of elevation is 300 (USE tan300 = 0.5774). The angle of elevation of the top of a rock from the top and foot of a 100m high tower are respectively 300 and 450. Find the height of the rock. The angle of elevation of the top Q of a vertical tower PQ from a point X on the ground is 600. At a point Y, 40m vertically above X, the angle of elevation is 450. Find the height of the tower PQ and the distance XQ. An aeroplane, when 3000m high, pass vertically above another aeroplane at an instance when the angles of elevation of the two aeroplanes from the same point on the ground are 600 and 450 respectively. Find the vertical distance between the two aeroplans. A pole 5m high is fixed on the top of a tower. The angle of elevation of the top of the pole observed from a point A on the ground is 600 and the angle of depression

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of the point A from the top of the tower is 450. Find the height of the tower. 13. A tower is 50m high. Its shadow is x m shorter when the suns altitude is 450 than when it is 300. Find x. 14. From the top of a tower, the angle of depression of two objects on the same side of the tower are found to be If the distance between the object is p .

metres, show that the height h of the tower is given by

Also, ditermine the height of the tower if 15. A 7m long flagstaff is fixed on the top of a tower on the horizontal plane. From a point on the ground, the angles of elevation of the top and bottom of the flagstaff are 600 and 450 respectively. Find the height of the tower correct to one place of decimal. 16. A round balloon of radius r subtends an angle at the eye of the observer while the angle of elevation of its centre is 17. , Prove that the height of the centre of the balloon is The angle of elevation of the top of a tower as observed from a point in a horizontal line through the foot of the tower is 300. When the observer moves towards the tower a distance of 100m, he finds the angle of elevation of the top to be 600. Find the height of the tower and the distance of the first position from the tower. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point A on the ground is 300. On moving a distance of 20m of towards the foot of the tower to a point B, the angle of elevation increases to 600. Find the height of the tower and distance of the tower from the point A. A vertical tower stands on a horizontal plane and is surmounted by a flagstaff of height 30m. At a point on the plane the angle of elevation of the bottom of the flagstaff is 450 and of the top of the flagstaff is 600. Determine the height of the tower and the horizontal distance. From the top of a tower 50m high, the angle of depression of the top and bottom of a pole are observed to be 450 and 600 respectively. Find the height of the pole if the pole and tower stand on the same line. The angles of elevation of the top of a tower, as seen from two points A and B situated in the same line and at distances p and q respectively from the foot of the

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tower, are complementary. Prove that the height of the tower is . 22. From a window (60 metres high above the ground) of a house in a street the angles of elevation and depression of the top and the foot of another house on opposite side of street are 600 and 450 respectively. Show that the height of the opposite metres. house is 23. If the angle of elevation of a cloud from a point h metres above a lake is angle of depression of its reflection in the lake is cloud is and the

. Prove that the height of the

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24. From an aeroplane vertically above a straight horizontal plane, the angles of depression of two consecutive kilometer stones on the opposite sides of the aeroplane are found to be and . Show that the height of the aeroplane is

. 25. A man standing on the deck of a ship, which is 10m above water level, observes the angle of elevation of the top of a hill as 600 and angle of depression of the base of the hill is 300. Find the distance of the hill from the ship and height of the hill. 26. As observed from the top of a light-house, 100m high above sea level, the angle of depression of a ship, sailing directly towards it, changes from 300 to 600. Determine the distance traveled by the ship during the period of observation . 0 27. The angle of elevation of a cloud from a point 200m above the lake is 30 and the angle of depression of the reflection of the cloud in the lake is 600. Find the height of the cloud. 28. The angle of depression of the top and bottom of a tower, as seen from the top of a 100m high cliff, are 300 and 600 respectively. Find the height of the tower. Answers 1. 40m 5. 172.6m, 1212.4m 7. 720km/h 9. 236.5m 11. 1268m 13. 3660cm 15. 9.589m 18.17.3m, 30m 20. 21.13m 26. 115.46m 28. 66.67m 2. 415.68 km/h 6. BD = AC = 2.0785m, Rs. 1.1928m, LM = 1.8856m. 8. 13.66m 10. 94.64m, 109.3m 12. 6.83m 14. 43.25m 17. 86.6m, 150m 19. 40.98m, 40.98m 25. 17.3m, 40m 27. 400m,

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