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PERFORMANCE APPLICATIONS

Refereed Journal Articles

Elton, D. J., Mohamed, T., and Adanur, S., BubblePoint and AOS Testing of

Geotextiles, Proceedings of the Geosynthetics Conference, 2001, Portland,

Oregon, Feb. 12-14, 2001.

Adanur, S., and Liao, T., "Fiber Arrangement Characteristics and Their Effects on

Nonwoven Tensile Behavior", Textile Research Journal, 69(11), 816-824, Nov.

1999.

Liao, T., and Adanur, S., "Computerized Failure Analysis of Nonwoven Fabrics

Based on Fiber Failure Criterion", Textile Research Journal, 69(7), 489-496, July

1999.

Liao, T., and Adanur, S.,"A Novel Approach to Three Dimensional Modeling of

Interlaced Fabric Structures", Textile Research Journal, 68(11), November 1998,

pp. 841-847.

Adanur, S., and Liao, T., "Computer Simulation of Mechanical Properties of

Nonwoven Geotextiles in Soil-Fabric Interaction", Textile Research Journal,

68(3), March 1998, pp. 155-162.

Liao, T., Adanur, S., and Drean, J.,"Predicting the Mechanical Properties of

Nonwoven Geotextiles with the Finite Element Method", Textile Research

Journal, Vol. 67, No. 10, October 1997, pp. 753-760.

Basu Mallick, S., Elton, D. J., and Adanur, S., "An Experimental Characterization

of Soil-Woven Geotextile Interface in Large Box Pullout Tests", Geosynthetics,

March 1997, pp. 927-940.

Mallick, S. B., Zhai, H., Adanur, S., and Elton, D. J., "Pullout and Direct Shear

Testing of Geosynthetic Reinforcement: A State of the Art Report",

Transportation Research Record, No. 1534, Soils, Geology and Foundations,

Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, National Academy

Press, Washington, DC, 1996, pp. 80-90.

Zhai, H., Basu Mallick, S., Elton, D., and Adanur, S., "Performance Evaluation of

Nonwoven Geotextiles in Soil-Fabric Interaction", Textile Research Journal, Vol.

66, No. 4, April 1996, pp. 269-276.

Presentations with Conference Proceedings

Elton, D. J., Howie, D. L., and Adanur, S., Bubblepoint Testing of Nonwoven

Geotextiles, Proceedings of the 37th Symposium on Engineering Geology and

Geotechnical Engineering, 2002.

Elton, D. J., and Adanur, S., Varying Pore Sizes in Hydroentangled Geotextiles,

Proceedings of the Techtextil North America International Trade Fair for

Technical Textiles and Nonwovens, Vol. 3, March 22-24, 2000, Atlanta, GA.

Mallick, S. B., Elton, D. J., and Adanur, S., "A New Approach in Modeling of

Soil-Geotextile Interface Behavior in Pullout Tests", Proceedings of the Sixth

International Conference on Geosynthetics, March 25-29, 1998, Atlanta, GA.

Basu Mallick, S., Elton, D. J., and Adanur, S., "An Experimental Characterization

of Soil-Woven Geotextile Interface in Large Box Pullout Tests", Proceedings of

the Geosynthetics '97, Long Beach, CA, March 1997, pp. 927-940.

Adanur, S., Mallick, S., and Zhai, H., "Analysis of Geotextile-Soil Interaction in

Pull-Out Tests", Proceedings of the IS Kyushu '96, International Symposium on

Earth Reinforcement, Fukuoka, Japan, November 1996.

Adanur, S., Mallick, S. B., and Zhai, H., "Design and Characterization of

Geotextiles for High Performance Applications", Proceedings of the Hi-Tech

Textiles Exhibition and Conference, Textile World and INDA, Greenville, SC,

July 1995.

Mallick, S. B., and Zhai, H., "A Laboratory Study on Pull-out Performance of

Woven Geotextiles", Geosynthetics '95 Conference Proceedings, Nashville, TN,

February 1995. This student paper, directed by Dr. Adanur and Dr. Elton, was one

of the 6 papers accepted for the conference.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the United States Department of Commerce Grant No. 99-27-

07400 through the National Textile Center, which is appreciated.

F 97 - A3 Page 1

Design and Characterization of Geotextiles

for High Performance Applications

Sabit Adanur - Textile Engineering, Auburn University

David Elton - Civil Engineering, Auburn University

Post-doctoral fellow: Tianyi Liao

PhD Student: Sumita Basu Mallick

Goal

To analyze the soil-geotextile interface and develop new geotextile product(s) based on the

scientific understanding of this interaction.

Abstract

Substantial amount of work has been done in this project in engineering applications of

geotextiles. We analyzed the geotextile-soil interaction theoretically and experimentally in pull out

tests. We used both woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The results showed that a new type of

geotextile needs to be developed to improve the shortcomings of woven and nonwoven

geotextiles.

1. Introduction

Geotextiles are widely used with soil structures in the field of geotechnical engineering. In

these applications geotextile compensates for the obvious weakness of soil in withstanding tensile

stress through the geotextile's strength and soil/geotextile interaction. The necessity of tests on

geotextiles to study their suitability for a particular application is becoming more and more

important as the variety of geotextiles and their use in geotechnical works have been

increasing.

The pullout test is a common test in determining the strength and deformation parameters

between geotextile and soil in the design of reinforced earth structure. In this study, we are

developing new finite element models for woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The objective is to

obtain information about the deformation, stress and strain distribution within the sample during

pullout tests, and the influences on constituent fiber properties and structure-related parameters of

geotextiles.

2. Theoretical and Experimental Work for Nonwoven Geotextiles in Pullout Tests

First, we described the finite element's constitutive matrix and stiffness matrix from the

knowledge of stress-strain behavior of fabric's constituent fibers and their distribution of fiber

orientation angles. Then we calculated the deformation, stress and strain distribution at any point

along the embedment length, as well as the pullout load versus displacement curves. Finally, we

F 97 - A3 Page 2

conducted pullout tests for several nonwovens and made comparisons between the calculated and

experimental results.

Finite Element Formulations: Several assumptions are made for the model. Basically, each

fiber layer made up of parallel fibers can be considered as a thin sheet of orthotropic material.

Based on the stress strain behavior of biaxially stressed orthotropic materials, we can deduce the

equilibrium equation for each finite element as follows:

F

F

F

F

F

F

T

b c

c b

b c

c b

b c

c b

G

T

E

i fi

i i i i i

i i i i i

i i i

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

3 3

3 3

4 2 2 3

2 2 4 3

3 3

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

'

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

cos sin .cos sin .cos

sin .cos sin sin .cos

sin .cos sin .cos sin .cos

i i i

i

i N

2 2 1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

_

,

_

,

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

b b b

c c c

c b c b c b

U

U

U

U

U

U

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 1 2 2 3 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

0 0 0

0 0 0

where F

1

...F

6

: the force components at nodal points; b

1

,b

2

,b

3

,c

1

,c

2

,c

3

: algebraic constants;

i

:

fiber orientation angle in the i

th

layer;

i

: relative frequency of fiber in the i

th

layer; E

f

: fiber

modulus; U

1

...U

6

: displacement component at nodal points; N: number of layers in the fabric; G:

weight per square meter of the fabric; T: thickness of the fabric; : specific gravity of fiber.

Acting Force and Constraint Conditions : The soil/geotextile interactions are mainly

contributed by two factors: the interlocking of grain particles in fabric voids and the soil-fabric

surface friction. These two factors act together to transfer shear stresses from reinforcement to

soil. In this study, these shear stresses are realized by introducing a set of parallel forces acting on

the fabric at the mesh nodal points. The direction of these forces is opposite to the direction of

fabric displacement (Figure 1).

In order to simulate the pullout tests, the boundary constraint conditions are chosen in such a

way that one lateral boundary of sample remains stationary, and the other three remaining

boundaries were left to move. The nodal displacements in the stationary boundary were specified

to be zero in the computational procedure. Therefore, no vertical or horizontal movement is

allowed for nodes on the stationary side.

Solution of System Equilibrium Equation: The system equilibrium equation can be established

based on the single element equilibrium equation, fabric sample configuration and the mesh lines

dividing the sample. Once the boundary constraint conditions and the acting forces are defined,

the system equilibrium equation can be solved and the nodal displacement throughout the entire

sample can be obtained. The knowledge of nodal displacements, in turn, can be used to determine

the fabric deformation and configuration. It is also possible to use the calculated values of the

nodal displacement to calculate other parameters of interest, such as the stresses and the strains in

every element, the fabric Poisson's ratio, and the pullout force acted on the fabrics. As a result,

we can predict the deformation behaviors and other relative properties of nonwoven geotextiles in

soil geotextile interaction from the knowledge of the stress-strain behavior of constituent fibers,

the distributions of fiber orientation angles and the constraint conditions.

F 97 - A3 Page 3

Computational Method: Experimental data regarding the fiber physical and mechanical

properties and fiber web structure parameters are supplied to the main program as the initial data.

The size and shape of the sample, the number of elements and the spatial coordinates of all nodal

points within the fabric are also entered. Meanwhile, the boundary constraint conditions, the acting

forces and their exerting points are fed into the calculation program as well.

After running the fiber modulus approach program and the force bearing area determination

program, a set of computed results are produced in digital or graphical form. The output results

include the deformation shape of geotextile, element stresses, element strains, and pullout load

versus displacement curves.

The program was written in C Language and run on Sun computer station under the UNIX

system, while the graphical output was produced by Mathematica

TM

and Xplot

TM

software. The

cpu time used to generate the full data was less than 15 minutes in the Engineering Computer

Center at Auburn University.

Experimental Procedures: Two kinds of nonwoven geotextiles supplied by LINQ Industrial

Fabrics, Inc., and Hoechst Celanese Corp. were used in this study. Fabric A: GTF 180EX made of

polypropylene, needle punched, 213.6 grams per square meter, 2.03 mm thickness. Fabric B:

Trevira

011/250 made of polyester, spunbonded, 254.3 grams per square meter, 2.41mm

thickness.

A large pullout box in conjunction with the Instron Material Testing system was used for the

pullout test. Figure 2 shows the schematic of the experimental system. The box dimensions are 61

cm (width) X 91.5 cm (length) X 45.7 cm (height). In the middle of the front side, there is a

horizontal opening through which the fabric is pulled. The force-displacement data were recorded

with a data acquisition system controlled by a microcomputer. Loading was stopped if the front

end displacement exceeded 125 mm or if the geotextile failed in tension.

Results and Discussion: The model fabrics were strained at 10% increments of shear

force acting from the front end of the fabric until the shear forces acted on the entire area of

contact between the fabric and sand.

The distributions of the strains in transverse direction,

x

, within fabric A in different pullout

steps are shown in Figure 3. From these figures, we can find the forming and developing

procedures of the lateral contractions of the sample during pullout test. At the beginning of the

test, the lateral contraction occurs at two boundaries of the sample near clamp, which are

presented by the two darkest areas in Figure 3 (a) . As the pullout load increased, the contraction

regions developed toward the center portion of the fabric, and extended in the direction of free

end. The imperfect symmetry of the lateral contraction observed in Figure 3(b) may result from the

imperfect symmetric distribution of fiber orientation within the fabric. Figure 3 (c) shows the

lateral contraction contour within the fabric in the final situation. The contractions gradually

decreases to zero at the free end and at the clamp due to the constraints imposed by jaws. Such

behavior is very similar to the deformation of fabrics observed during pullout tests.

The distributions of the stresses in longitudinal direction within the fabric during pullout tests

are plotted in Figure 4. The figures, the stress and the corresponding elongation along the

anchorage length of the geotextile are developed progressively from the front end to free end. In

Figure 4 c, the stresses reach to the free end and all the region within the fabric is subjected to

F 97 - A3 Page 4

shear resistance from the sand. This point may be called the maximum shear force. Beyond this

point, the fabric will slide if the pullout load continues to increase. The stresses in the regions near

the clamped boundary are much higher than the other parts, particularly in two corners of the

sample. This explains the reason why the breaks usually occur near the clamps of the pullout test

machine.

Figure 5 shows the contour plots of the shear strains of the geotextile sample A during the

pullout test. The dark regions in the figures represent high shear deformation in an anti-clockwise

direction, and the white regions represent high shear deformation in a clockwise direction. The

shear strains develop toward the free end with the progress of the pullout test, but they always

concentrate at the clamped boundary of the fabric.

The experimental pullout load versus displacement curves and those computed from the

models under different normal pressures for fabric A are plotted in Figure 6. The difference in

normal pressure level could cause a large variation in the predicted pullout load. A high value of

normal pressure results in high shear forces acted on the fabric. Therefore , the fabric under high

pressure experiences a large deformation and stress. Good agreement was found between

theoretical curves and experimental values.

3. Theoretical and Experimental Work for Woven Geotextiles in Pullout Tests

Three 2D plane strain nonlinear models were selected as trial runs to simulate the stress-strain

behavior of a woven geotextile subjected to a pullout load. Model 1 (Figure 7) was structured with

small number of finite elements to represent the complete experimental system with soil and the

geotextile. For model 1, linear elements were used to represent the geotextile. Model 1 was tested

for initial pullout displacement of 40 mm and for this displacement region stress-strain relationship

for soil and geotextile materials were considered to be linearly elastic. For the correct simulation of

the stick-slip behavior of the interface, geometric nonlinearity was incorporated in the model.

Model 2 (Figure 8) is a full scale version of model 1 with finer mesh. Stress-strain relationship

for geotextile material is modeled as nonlinear-elastic. Model 3 (Figure 9) simulates the soil-

geotextile interface region with two thin layers of soil, on top and bottom of the geotextile sheet.

Very small (1 mm by 2 mm) quadrilateral elements were selected to represent the geotextile and

soil. Gap elements are used to connect the soil and geotextile elements and to simulate the stick-

slip behavior of the interface. Both geometric and material nonlinearity were incorporated in the

model.

Elements and parameters used for Model 1

Inside the pullout box, soil was modeled using a nonlinear, four node, isotropic, quadrilateral

element. The material properties used for the quadrilateral elements are: Modulus = 100 MPa,

=0.3, = 32o, c= 0 (dry sand).

Soil-geotextile interface was modeled with 10 isotropic gap elements. A transverse shear

stiffness was used to simulate the frictional force at the interface. In this case interface was

modeled as a closed gap before the application of any horizontal load. As the load is applied, the

stick-slip behavior of the interface was examined with the behavior of gap element under the

specified loading condition. Parameters selected as the properties of the gap elements are: axial

F 97 - A3 Page 5

stiffness= 80.E+7 N/m, transverse stiffness= 9.E +7 N/m, coefficient of static friction= 3.0,

coefficient of kinetic friction= 0.1

Reinforcement was modeled with four one dimensional rod element with no bending stiffness.

Variable modulus was selected for the elements. Parameters selected as the properties of the rod

elements are: thickness= 0.001m, modulus= 5250 kN/M. Normal Pressure was 7 kPa and the

pullout displacement was 40 mm (10 % increments).

Results: Figure 10 shows the displacement measured and calculated along the length of the

geotextile. A considerable difference between the measured and calculated values was noticed at

the load application point. As the measured displacement values are considerably higher than the

calculated values only at the load application point, it can be derived from the comparison of the

results that the geotextile material behaves nonlinearly close to load application point.

Figure 11 shows the calculated and measured load-displacement behavior at the front end of

the geotextile. From the output it was observed that the calculated load response of the geotextile

at different displacement levels are very close to the load measured during the experiment.

Calculated loads are slightly higher than the measured load at all displacement levels. Figure 10

shows that the measured displacements at the front end of the geotextile (gage # 3, Figure 12) are

higher than the calculated displacements. Therefore it can be concluded that a less stiff element

with nonlinear material properties is needed to represent the frond end of the geotextile.

Figure 13 shows the calculated pullout resistance along the length of the geotextile. From the

results it can be noted that the pullout resistance obtained for element number two is smaller than

that of the element number one. This behavior is probably related to the modulus value selected for

the element. As the pullout resistance sharply increases from element 3 to element 4, nature of the

load response graph shows a need for nonlinear modeling of the geotextile material close to load

application point.

From the force-displacement output of gap elements it was observed that up to 15 mm

displacement, all ten gap elements were sticking to the rod elements and no slip was calculated at

the interface. From 15 to 40 mm displacement, gap element 5 and 10 (both at the load application

point) starts slipping with kinetic friction. No sliding was observed from the analysis.

4. Conclusions

Finite element models have been developed and utilized for prediction of pullout load versus

displacement curves of woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The calculated results of stress and

strain distribution within the geotextile in soil-fabric interaction demonstrate the mechanical

behavior of geotextiles buried under soil more clearly. A good agreement between the

experimental results and those from the model, makes it possible to produce optimum geotextile

for various applications by selecting the fibers with appropriate properties and designing proper

fiber web structure and manufacturing processes. It is concluded that a new type of geotextile is

needed which will optimize the properties of woven and nonwoven geotextiles.

-.

.

Y

Fig. 1 The finite element mesh and shear forces. a. nonwoven geotextile model; b. finite element

mesh: c,d and e. shear forces acting at nodal points at different pullout stages.

A

s

1- Computer Data

onuol Panel

Load Cell

Acquisition System

Air Pressure

_

Fig. 2 Schematic of geotextile pullout test device

b SO 100

Front End Displacement (mm)

Fig. 6 The experimental pullout load versus displacement curves and those computed

from the model for fabric A at normal pressure levels of 7 kPa and 21 kPa

66

National Textile Center Annual Report: November 1997

Fig. 3 The distribution of the strains in transverse dire- Fig. 4 The distributions of the stresses in longitudinal dire-

ction, EX, within fabric in different pullout stages. ction, oy, within fabric A in different pullout stages.

a. Rarea=30%; b. Rarea=60%; c. Rarea=lOO% .

a. Rarea=30%; b. Rarea=60%; c. Rarea=lOO%

a

h 3 4 5 6 I

C

Fig. 5 The contour plots of the shear strains, yxy, within fabric A in different

pullout stages. a. Rarea- -30%; b. Rarea=60%; c. Rarea=lOO% .

National Textile Center Annual Report: November 1997 67

600 mm I

Normal Pressure

68

National Textile Center Annual Report: November 1997

Figure 7 Finite element Model 1

.384 N

,384 N

40.0 mm

Fixed Support

Figure 8 Schematic of Model 2

-__ Soi l

~ S o i l

Gap Elements ~~ Geot ext i l e 1; Geot ext i l e

-1 Soil ~ Soil

Connection Scheme at&Qnection Scheme at BB

_ __A I

B

Soil

Normal Pressure

A

*

Figure 9. Schematic of Model 3

18.0

-Gage 2:Calculated Displacement

16.0 -Gage 3:Calculated Displacement

2 Results

.z 14.0

AGage q

Gage

2: 3: Experimental

Experimental Rvults

z

; 12.0

10.0

S-

.A

n 8.0

%

S 6.0

z

._

a 4.0

Figure 10 Calculated and Measured Displacements along the

Length of the Geotextile

+. Experimental Results

Q--G Calculated Response

2 90.0 1 y

5 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

0

=

2

Front End Displacement (mm)

Figure 11 Calculated and Measured Load-Displacement behavior

National Textile Center Annual Report: November 1997

69

70

National Textile Center Annual Report: November 1997

Gage 1

4

Geotextile

Gage 2 Gage 3

+ Forced Displacement

75 mm

250 mm

575 mm

600 mm

Figure 12 Positions of Dial Gages 1, 2 and 3

710.0

6 1 0 . 0

1 2 3 4

Geotextile Elements

Figure 13 Pullout Resistance along the Length of the Geotextile

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