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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

(Semester II, 2002-2003)

Name: Zhang Xiaoqiang Matric No.: U00-5668A-11 Email: eng00176@nus.edu.sg Lecturer: A/P. Ben M. Chen

PART I: The general form for a PID controller is like the flowing D(s) = K p + K d s + The plant for this assignment is given as

G( s) = 6 10 7 s2

u y

Ki s

r=1 + -

D(s)

G(s)

Fig.1: System in continuous time domain According to the design specification, the settling time is 8 milliseconds, and the maximum overshoot is less than 25%. Read from the relationship diagram of Mp% vs. ?, we get 0 .4 = 0.8

ts 4 .6 n 4 .6 4.6 = = 820 t s 0 .8 8 10 3

Hence the desired transfer function that can meet the design specification is

H desired(s) = 820 2 s 2 + 1312 s + 820 2

The closed-loop transfer function for the motor drive system is given by

H (s ) = Y (s ) G( s) D( s) = R ( s ) 1 + G (s )D (s )

H (s ) =

6 10 7 ( K d s 2 + K p s + K i ) s 3 + 6 10 7 (K d s 2 + K p s + K i )

Ki = 0 Ki = 0 7 5 6 10 K d = 1312 K d = 2.18 10 6 10 7 K = 820 2 K = 0 .0112 p p Hence, the closed-loop transfer function is,

H (s ) = 1312 s 2 + 820 2 s s 2 + 1312 s + 820 2

Fig. 2: Step response in the continuous time domain The amplitude bode plot is,

Fig. 3: Bode plot for the closed-loop system From the bode plot we can get the bandwidth for the frequency is 1790Hz, hence the

2

f sufficient = 30 BW

Discretize the continuous time PD controller with T=5.59E-4 using bilinear transformation method, we get D( z ) = D( s) | Hence,

D( z ) = 1 .358 z 2 4 .693 z + 2.335 z2 1

2 z 1 s= ( ) T z +1

= K p + Kd s |

2 z 1 s= ( ) T z +1

Fig. 4: Step response for the digital controller at T=5.59E-4s But according to the question, the maximum sampling frequency is 10KHz. Hence, the PD controller is

D( z ) = 0.4485 z 2 0.8747 z + 0.4261 z2 1

Fig. 5: Step response for the digital controller at T=0.0001s Though the performance is not as good as the previews one, but it still meets the design requirements. For this digital PD controller,

G( s) G( z ) = (1 Z 1 ) Z s

G( z ) = 0.3 z + 0 .3 z 2 2z +1

From the lecture notes, we know the general form for a PID controller in discrete time domain is,

D( z ) general = K p + K i

We choose PD controller in this assignment,

D( z ) =

z z 1 + Kd z 1 z

(K p + K d ) z K d z

r=1 + -

D(z)

G(z)

Fig.6: System in discrete time domain The resulting closed-loop transfer function from r to y is given by

H ( z) =

D( z )G( z ) 1 + D( z)G( z) 0 .3[( K p + K d ) z 2 + K p z K d ] z( z 1) 2 0 .3[( K p + K d ) z 2 + K p z K d ] z ( z 1) 2 0.3[( K p + K d ) z 2 + K p z K d ] z( z 1) 2 + 0 .3[( K p + K d ) z 2 + K p z K d ] 0 .3[(K p + K d ) z 2 + K p z K d ] z 3 + ( 0.3 K p + 0.3 K d 2 ) z 2 + (0.3 K p + 1) z 0.3 K d

From PART I, we get the desired = 0.8 , and n = 820 in continuous time domain, which would achieve the design specification. The poles for the system in continuous time domain is given by,

s p = n + j n 1 2 s p = 656 + j 492

The transformation between s and z is given by

z p = eTs

From which, we can get the poles in the discrete time domain

z p = 0 .9354 + j 0.0461

H desired ( z ) = (1 z p )(1 z p ) z( z z p )( z z p ) 0.0063 z ( z 1 .8707 z + 0 .8770 )

2

H desired( z) =

Substitute one of the poles of the desired transfer function into the original

closed-loop transfer function H(z). They should have the same poles in order to have the similar performance. z 3 + (0.3 K p + 0 .3 K d 2 ) z 2 + (0 .3K p + 1) z 0 .3 K d = 0 ( 0.9354 + j 0.0461 ) 3 + (0 .3K p + 0.3 K d 2)(0 .9354 + j 0.0461 ) 2 + (0.3 K p + 1)(0 .9354 + j0 .0461 ) 0.3 K d = 0 ( 0.8125 + j 0.1209 ) + (0 .3K p + 0.3 K d 2)(0 .8728 + j0 .0862 ) + (0.3 K p + 1)(0 .9354 + j0 .0461 ) 0.3 K d = 0 ( 0.8125 + 0.8728 (0.3 K p + 0 .3K d 2 ) + 0 .9354 ( 0.3 K p + 1) 0.3 K d ) + j (0.1209 + 0 .0862 (0.3 K p + 0 .3 K d 2 ) + 0.0461 (0 .3K p + 1)) = 0 This is the same as the following set of equations:

0.8125 + 0.8728 ( 0.3 K p + 0.3 K d 2) + 0.9354 (0.3 K p + 1) 0.3 K d = 0 0.1209 + 0.0862 (0 .3K p + 0.3 K d 2) + 0 .0461 (0 .3K p + 1) = 0

Solve this equation set we can get

K p = 0.0094 K d = 0.194

Substitute Kp and Kd in the original transfer function, the denominator has the following polynomial

z 3 1. 939 z 2 + 1 . 0028 z 0. 0528

The three roots for this polynomial is, p 0 = 0 .0622 p1 = 0 .9364 + j 0 .0448 P = 0 .9364 j 0.0448 2 The two complex roots are nearly the same as those of the desired transfer function. If we take in the consideration of the limited accuracy that occurs in the above computation, the two roots are the same. P0 is far less than the real part of the other two poles, and it is almost zero, which means the pole has almost no effect on the overall system response. Practically, we replace it with a pole at the location of zero. Hence the PD controller is given as

6

z 0.2035 z 0 .194 D( z ) = z

D( z ) =

(K p + Kd )z Kd

Fig. 7: Discretized plant with a PD digital controller The simulation result is,

Fig. 8: Simulation result for the discretized plant with a PD digital controller Since the plant is a operating in continuous time domain, hence the actually system should be like,

Fig. 7: The actual plant with a PD digital controller The simulation result is,

7

M p % 21 % < 25 % t s = 7 ms < 8ms

10

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