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Matter and Radiation

Wiens displacement law

When a body emits radiation, there is a particular wavelength which comes out with most intensity (watts per m 3). Let this wavelength is max. Then

(temperature in Kelvin)max=(constant)
Using Wiens displacement law, it is possible to approximate a Stars temperature, by its prominent emitted wavelength.

Plancks Hypothesis: Max Planck said that energy is emitted/absorbed in packets or quanta. So energy is
quantized and not continuous. He put forward that energy is proportional to frequency. E=hf where h is Plancks constant.

Note that Einstein applied Plancks Hypothesis to the photoelectric effect.

Stefans Law
For a black body, let energy radiated per m2 per second is E. Then, E=T4 where is Stefans constant.

For a non black body, a second constant (which is less than 1) is introduced, because a non black body is not a perfect radiator/absorber.

Wave-particle duality
A phenomenon of Electron diffraction was observed by Davisson and Germer. (names not v. important) showing that important), electron could behave as a particle and as a wave. De Broglie found the wavelength of these waves: =h/p where h is plancks constant and p is the mo momentum of the particle.

*This is the principle used in the electron microscope where an accelerated beam of electrons with shorter wavelength than light is used for grater resolving power.

The Photoelectric Effect

The wave model of light can't explain the photoelectric effect i.e.: - the threshold frequency. - the maximum Ek of the photoelectrons. - no. of electrons is proportional to intensity, not frequency. - the instantaneous production of photoelectrons. Einstein explained this using Quantum Theory:- (Using Planck's Hypothesis) - light comes in packets of energy (photons). - each photon has energy that depends on the frequency of the light: E=hf - each photon interacts with only one electron (and vice versa). Higher frequency, shorter wavelength radiation is more energetic. The work function, , is the energy needed for an electron to leave the surface of the material. h f = + 1/2 m v2max This is Einstein's photoelectric equation. Photoelectric Current

- The plate is called the "emitter". - The electrons that cross the gap are collected at the other metal plate - called "the collector" - The flow of electrons across the gap sets up an emf between the plates that causes a current to flow around the rest of the circuit. That's a photoelectric cell producing a photoelectric current.

Stopping Potential, Vs

The emitter gives out electrons. So we call it a cathode. If you remember, work done moving a charge through a pd is W = QV and in this case charge, Q = e, the charge on an electron, then: eVs=Ekmax=(1/2)m(vmax)2 Using this information you can calculate the maximum energy of the photoelectrons emitted from the metal. Rewrite the photoelectric equation (from about 3 screens above this point) as eVs =h(f-f0)

Thisgraphshowshowthephotocurrentincreases whenthelightintensityincreasesbutthe wavelengthisheldconstant.Thestoppingpotential isthesamehowever,suggestingthatthekinetic energyoftheejectedelectronsisthesameand henceindependentoflightintensity.Thisisthe oppositeofwhatwouldbeexpectedclassically.