Structure and Operational Functionality of

The Turing Machine
11 — 13 — 2008

¨ ¨ Soren Wellhofer

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Table of Contents
1 History 2 Structure and Definition 3 Samples 4 Varieties 5 Computability 6 References
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Time frame — The 20th century

What were mathematicians working on?
• Rediscover Theory of Numbers • Reduction of all math to fundamental logic

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Time frame — The 20th century

What were mathematicians working on?
• Rediscover Theory of Numbers • Reduction of all math to fundamental logic • Arithmetics/computations by means of automatic formal

system

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Time frame — The 20th century

What were mathematicians working on?
• Rediscover Theory of Numbers • Reduction of all math to fundamental logic • Arithmetics/computations by means of automatic formal

system

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Time frame — The 20th century

What were mathematicians working on?
• Rediscover Theory of Numbers • Reduction of all math to fundamental logic • Arithmetics/computations by means of automatic formal

system

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

What does it mean to be computable?

Turing’s achievements
• Proof of the possibility of a symbol-processing machine • Simple operations according to rules

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

What does it mean to be computable?

Turing’s achievements
• Proof of the possibility of a symbol-processing machine • Simple operations according to rules • Instruction tables for machine’s moves = formal system

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

What does it mean to be computable?

Turing’s achievements
• Proof of the possibility of a symbol-processing machine • Simple operations according to rules • Instruction tables for machine’s moves = formal system • All computations logically feasible!

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

What does it mean to be computable?

Turing’s achievements
• Proof of the possibility of a symbol-processing machine • Simple operations according to rules • Instruction tables for machine’s moves = formal system • All computations logically feasible!

→ wrote first programmes

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

What does it mean to be computable?

Turing’s achievements
• Proof of the possibility of a symbol-processing machine • Simple operations according to rules • Instruction tables for machine’s moves = formal system • All computations logically feasible!

→ wrote first programmes

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Elements of the Turing Machine
• Read/Write Head • Infinetly long tape • Divided into cells • Cells containing symbols

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Elements of the Turing Machine
• Read/Write Head • Infinetly long tape • Divided into cells • Cells containing symbols • Action table = the program

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Elements of the Turing Machine
• Read/Write Head • Infinetly long tape • Divided into cells • Cells containing symbols • Action table = the program

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Tape

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Tape

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Tape
Machine’s State

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Tape
Machine’s State

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

Infinetly long ...
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
Read/Write Head

Now action according to state table

Machine’s State

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
State table might say: When in state A reading 0: write 1, move right, change state to B.
Read/Write Head

Machine’s State

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
State table might say: When in state A reading 0: write 1, move right, change state to B.
Read/Write Head

Machine’s State

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
State table might say: When in state A reading 0: write 1, move right, change state to B.
Read/Write Head

Machine’s State

Move right

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
State table might say: When in state A reading 0: write 1, move right, change state to B.

Move right

A

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine
State table might say: When in state A reading 0: write 1, move right, change state to B.

New state B

B

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

The Turing Machine

Now read again, etc ... ... until final configuration.

B

1 0

1 0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1 0

1 0

1 0

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Finite set of states

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ Finite set of states Finite set of symbols

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} δ : S × Γ × {L, R} Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols Finite set of states

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} δ : S × Γ × {L, R} s0 ∈ S Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols Finite set of states Initial state

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} δ : S × Γ × {L, R} s0 ∈ S F ⊆S Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols Finite set of states Initial state Accepting states

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} δ : S × Γ × {L, R} s0 ∈ S F ⊆S Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols Finite set of states Initial state Accepting states

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Formal definition — 7-tupel M = S, Γ, b, Σ, δ, s0 , F
S Γ b∈Γ Σ ⊆ Γ \ {b} δ : S × Γ × {L, R} s0 ∈ S F ⊆S Finite set of states Finite set of symbols Blank symbol Input symbols Finite set of states Initial state Accepting states

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :
• write symbol aj1

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :
• write symbol aj1 • move into dk , k ∈ {L, R}

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :
• write symbol aj1 • move into dk , k ∈ {L, R} • change state to si1

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :
• write symbol aj1 • move into dk , k ∈ {L, R} • change state to si1

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

General Structure Formal definition Action table

Action table/Transition function δ — Quintupel

si aj −→ si1 aj1 dk
When in state si reading symbol aj :
• write symbol aj1 • move into dk , k ∈ {L, R} • change state to si1

S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o

Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Numbers

n−→u 1−→X 5−→XXXXX

n=m u... number of Xs n... natural number

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition — Self-performed

Simulating a Turing Machine:

Now it’s your turn!

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT}

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +}

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B si = 1

si = 0

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B si = 1 si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R

aj = X

si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B si = 1 si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R —

aj = X aj = +

si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B si = 1 si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R — —

aj = X aj = + aj = B

si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R si1 = 1; aj1 = B; dK = L

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

Unary Number Addition Machine

S ={0, 1, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, X, +} Σ={X, +} b=B si = 1 si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R — —

aj = X aj = + aj = B

si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = X; dK = R si1 = 1; aj1 = B; dK = L

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT}

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1}

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B si = 0

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

aj = 0

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = 1; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

aj = 0 aj = 1

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = 1; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = 0; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

aj = 0 aj = 1 aj = B

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = 1; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = 0; dK = R si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Addition Class activity Complement

A Complement Machine

S ={0, HALT} F ={HALT} s0 =0
Action table δ

aj = 0 aj = 1 aj = B

Γ={B, 0, 1} Σ={0, 1} b=B si = 0 si1 = 0; aj1 = 1; dK = R si1 = 0; aj1 = 0; dK = R si1 = HALT; aj1 = B; dK = R

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Variations of the TMs ...

... provably equivalent
• Two-way infinite tapes • Arbitrary movement of the head • Arbitrary numbers of read-write heads • Arbitrary finite alphabet

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Variations of the TMs ...

... provably equivalent
• Two-way infinite tapes • Arbitrary movement of the head • Arbitrary numbers of read-write heads • Arbitrary finite alphabet

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

4-tupel representation

asi −→ si1 dk
When in state si reading symbol a:

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

4-tupel representation

asi −→ si1 dk
When in state si reading symbol a:
• change state to si1

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

4-tupel representation

asi −→ si1 dk
When in state si reading symbol a:
• change state to si1 • Take action d: move right/left or

write

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

4-tupel representation

asi −→ si1 dk
When in state si reading symbol a:
• change state to si1 • Take action d: move right/left or

write

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

State diagram: successor of a unary number

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Instantaneous description

A Turing Machine in an instantaneous state.

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Universal Turing Machine

Features
• Emulates δ of other Turing Machines • Von Neumann architecture

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Universal Turing Machine

Features
• Emulates δ of other Turing Machines • Von Neumann architecture • Turing-completeness

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Universal Turing Machine

Features
• Emulates δ of other Turing Machines • Von Neumann architecture • Turing-completeness

... 010110101111 00 101011011 00 110110110111 00 11010111011110 ...

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Variations 4-tupel State diagrams Instantaneous description Universal Turing Machine

Universal Turing Machine

Features
• Emulates δ of other Turing Machines • Von Neumann architecture • Turing-completeness

... 010110101111 00 101011011 00 110110110111 00 11010111011110 ...

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Computability

Computable
• Any number if

TM-representable √ (π, e, )
• Numerical functions

(+, −, × , ÷)

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Computability

Computable
• Any number if

Incomputable
• Entscheidungsproblem: Will

TM-representable √ (π, e, )
• Numerical functions

any algorithm A with arbitrary input I halt? h(A, I ) is incomputable

(+, −, × , ÷)

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Computability

Computable
• Any number if

Incomputable
• Entscheidungsproblem: Will

TM-representable √ (π, e, )
• Numerical functions

any algorithm A with arbitrary input I halt? h(A, I ) is incomputable
• “Busy beaver” function

(+, −, × , ÷)

Σ(n)

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Computability

Computable
• Any number if

Incomputable
• Entscheidungsproblem: Will

TM-representable √ (π, e, )
• Numerical functions

any algorithm A with arbitrary input I halt? h(A, I ) is incomputable
• “Busy beaver” function

(+, −, × , ÷)

Σ(n)

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Church?Turing thesis
“Every effectively calculable function is a computable function.”

• Effectively calculable: produced intuitively • Computable function: computable by a Turing Machine

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Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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Church?Turing thesis
“Every effectively calculable function is a computable function.”

• Effectively calculable: produced intuitively • Computable function: computable by a Turing Machine

Solvable by humans = Solvable by machines (algorithm)
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

Church?Turing thesis
“Every effectively calculable function is a computable function.”

• Effectively calculable: produced intuitively • Computable function: computable by a Turing Machine

Solvable by humans = Solvable by machines (algorithm)
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

History Structure and Definition Samples Varieties Computability References

The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey R. Herken New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-machine/] Turing Machines Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 04.11.1995 [http://www.intelligentedu.com/turing machines examples.html] Turing Machines: Examples Jaime Soffer, 2005. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki] Turing Machine, Busy Beaver, Computability, Turing-completeness, Entscheidungsproblem, 11-03-2008
S¨ren Wellh¨fer o o Structure and Operational Functionality of The Turing Machine

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