Regenerating

Design Response

Elephant & Castle

BU1 Transforming Local Areas: Urban Design for Development
Cover - Elephant and Castle Shopping centre - Main entrance

19th March 2012/The Bartlett/UCL

Research was conducted as part of The Bartlett Development Planning Unit’s BU1 module titled “Transforming Local Areas: Urban Design for Development” at UCL; Research in Elephant and Castle occurred over two months from second week of January to mid March 2012; The exercise took place in collaboration with Southwark Council’s Planning Department, specifically Nick Wolff (Project Development Manager from the Economic Development Team) and Tim Cutts (Head of the planning policy team, responsible for developing the new planning policy for the Elephant and Castle); Students were invited to attend Elephant Amenity Network meetings Students also met with Lend Lease’s Head of Community Development in London.

Group Work
Sarah Ahmad Budoor Bukhari Diogo Cardoso Paola Fuentes Stefano Mascia Luz Navarro Nora Nogradi Clarisa Segura Rachel Tanamas QianWu Juliane Zellner

Acknowledgements
Tim Cutts Nick Wolff Susie Wilson Annie Lennox Paul McGann Steve Lancashir

Guidance
figure 1 - Elephant and Castle exposition model

Camillo Boano Melissa García Lamarca

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Table of contents
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 Executive summary List of figures Introduction Context 3.1 Physical 3.2 Socio- Economic 3.3 Policy 4.0 Urban design analysis and SWOT 4.1 Strengths 4.2 Weaknesses 4.4 Threats 4.7 SWOT Map Summary 5.0 Vision and Principles 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Vision Statement 5.3 Principles 3 5 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 8.0 9.0 7.0 6.0 Mapping the Opportunities 6.1 Critique of the current SPD/Plans 6.2 Theoretical Framework 21 22 26

6.3 Mapping Opportunities Sites for Intervention 27 6.4 Strategic Urban Regeneration Framework Intervention Sites & Design Response 7.1 O.S./Intervention 1: HEYGATE COMMUNI TY PARK 7.2 O.S./Intervention 2: LIVING RAILROAD 28 30 31 35

4.3 Opportunities

Acknowledgements
Tim Cutts Nick Wolff Susie Wilson Annie Lennox Paul McGann Steve Lancashir

7.3 O.S./Intervention 3: NEW ELEPHANT & CAS 39 TLE CIVIC CENTRE 7.4 O.S./Intervention 4: CONNECTING THE DOTS 7.5 O.S./Intervention 5: NEW WALWORTH ROAD Conclusion References 43 47 51 53

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figure 2 - Elephant Amenity Network exposition at the Heygate Estate

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0.0 Executive Summary
The urban analysis herein was conducted through a series of SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats) studies that culminated in the identification of opportunity areas within Elephant & Castle that suffered from either spatial or socio-economic fragmentation or an abundance of empty (left over) residual space. These opportunity sites became the focal points of five interventions rooted on the collectively devised principle of socio-spatial inclusion that aimed to emphasize both the spatial adaptability and cultural hybridity of the area while increasing economic livelihoods. Through these interventions, we believe, that a dynamic regeneration and social integration can be sought for residents of Elephant & Castle as well as visitors. Moreover, these interventions seek to bridge the socio-spatial disconnects that have occurred during the long and disorienting redevelopment period. Our interventions seek a celebratory and beneficial creation of alliances between local businessman, residents, council members, and private developers. Without these alliances it is difficult to reconcile the social and spatial changes that large scale master planning can create. Furthermore, a theoretical understanding of contemporary planning theory and causative processes of gentrification have led us to conclude that cities such as London may seek to revitalize and economically invigorate centrally located neighborhoods, but they must also establish a practical implementation of socially inclusive policies to reduce the displacement of local residents.

figure 3 - ‘Chatica’ caffee and other local commerce next to Elephant and Castle railway station

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figure 4 - Railroad flyover in Elephant and Castle

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1.0 List of figures
Cover - Elephant and Castle Shopping centre - Main entrance figure 1 - Elephant and Castle exposition model 0 2 figure 2 - Elephant Amenity Network exposition at the Heygate Estate figure 4 - Railroad flyover in Elephant and Castle 4 figure 5 - Inside the Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre figure 6 - The Heygate Estate at night 7 8 9 figure 7 - Elephant and Castle subway station building figure 9 - Elephant and Castle north roundabout 10 figure 10 - East Road market 11 figure 11 - Swot Analysis Map - Strenghts figure 12 - Swot Analysis Map - Weaknesses figure 13 - Swot Analysis Map - Opportunities figure 14 - Swot Analysis Map - Threats figure 15 - Swot Summary figure 17 - The Heygate Estate at night figure 18 - Contesting the SPD - Summary figure 19 - Contesting the SPD - Open space network figure 20 - Contesting the SPD - Pedestrian roads 25 figure 21 - Mapping the opportunity sites for the Intervention figure 22 - Contesting the SPD vision diagram 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 ‘ 39 38 30 27 12 13 14 15 16 17 23 24 21 6

figure 34 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Summary plan figure 35 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Imagining the New E&C Civic Centre figure 36 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Imagining the New E&C Civic Centre figure 37 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Sketched perspective figure 38 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Summary plan figure 39 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Imagining ‘Connecting the Dots’ figure 40 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Imagining ‘Connecting the Dots’ figure 41 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Sketched perspective figure 42 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Summary plan figure 43 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Imagining the New Walworth Road figure 44 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Imagining the New Walworth Road 47 43

40 41 42 44 45 46 48 49 50

figure 3 - ‘Chatica’ caffee and other local commerce next to Elephant and Castle railway station 3

figure 8 - Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre accessibilities

figure 16 - ‘Occupation road’ in Elephant and Castle

figure 23 - Elephant Amenity Network exposition at the Heygate Estate figure 24 - Intervention Sites and Design Response - Summary figure 25 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Sketched perspective figure 26 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Summary plan figure 27 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Imagining the Heygate figure 28 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Imagining the Heygate figure 29 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Sketched perspective figure 30 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Summary plan figure 31 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Imagining ‘Living Railroad’ figure 32 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Imagining ‘Living Railroad figure 33 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Sketched perspective

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figure 5 - Inside the Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre

2.0 Introduction
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2.0 Introduction
We have spent the past two months deliberating and devising various methods and approaches to urban regeneration in Elephant & Castle. Multiple visits to the site, meetings with developers and council representatives, conversations with residents, and studying carefully the proposed master plan have left us with a unique understanding of the richness of this site. In our analysis, we confronted a generous amount of social diversity, deeply-rooted historical significance, capacious activity centres and dynamic character zones that led us to imagine strategies that could offer a tremendous foundation for both regeneration and integration. Moreover, we have also been able to gain a keen insight into the multiple interests of stakeholders. Taking into account different elements and considerations, both socioeconomically and spatially, we decided to work within the margins of the proposed redevelopment. These margins, in our view, are manifested in opportunity areas termed herein as ‘residual spaces’ that exemplify the aspects of contemporary master planning that overlook the socio-spatial potential in certain areas. The dynamic reworking of these residual spaces can lead to a more socio-spatially coherent and connected Elephant & Castle. This report entails an over all context of Elephant & Castle resulting in key principles that lead up to five strategically chosen interventions that aim to socially and spatially address the observed oversights in the existing proposals we have studied. Our objective, therefore, in this design response it to illustrate a set of interventions that attempt to celebrate the socially and spatially diverse characteristics of Elephant & Castle that have been lost in the speculative limbo and which need to be revitalized and regenerated.

figure 6 - The Heygate Estate at night

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figure 7 - Elephant and Castle subway station building

3.0 Context
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3.0 Context
3.1 Phyiscal
Our case study focuses on London`s neighborhood Elephant and Castle, which lies in the South- East of the Borough of Southwark. Geographically the area is located in the inner part of London (zone 1), a couple of kilometers from landmarks such as London Bridge or touristic sites such as the Tate Modern or Shakespeare`s Globe theatre. As transit hub for the public transportation between South and North London (e.g. Northern/Bakerloo Line) the area is well connected to the rest of London. But compared to the flourishing economy and the attractive image of the surrounding areas in the North and West of Elephant and Castle, the designated neighborhood is marked by poor socio-economic conditions, a high rate of criminality and low income taxes. It can be assumed that one of the reasons for that is the high concentration of social housing in this area. According to the 2007 Index of Deprivation E&C ranks within the lowest 22% of the London Index of Multiple De- privation (IMD)(GVA Gimley, n/d). In the reception of Londoners the area is mostly perceived as deprived and marginalized, in the context of tourism it is rarely mentioned.

3.2 Socio-Economic
Historically Elephant and Castle was a British working class area. If we look at the demography of the area today, we can recognize a high percentage of minorities: South American, French Ghanaian, Turkish, Sierra Leonian etc. With over 100 languages spoken in the area, E&C is characterized by ethnic diversity. In particular London’s Latin American community meets and lives in Elephant and Castle (E&C) since the 80’s. Most of these minorities become visible through the various ethnic businesses, which can be found especially in the Shopping Centre above the Elephant and Castle tube station, and along Walworth Street. The customers of these shops are partly residents, partly they come from all over London to buy for example food from their home countries. For these minorities the area contains a symbolic value, for example the Latin American population identifies Elephant and Castle worldwide as the Latin American neighborhood in London. Elephant and Castle is marked by a hybrid character of multiple identities and cultures. The different cultural groups organize themselves in alternative spaces, but are not represented by any official facilities.

figure 8 - Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre accessibilities

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Since 1990 the idea of a redevelopment plan for Elephant and Castle exists and due to that neither private investors nor the council invested in the area. Regarding the regneration inhabitants were evicted, some buildings were closed, spaces became dilapidated and mostly short-time leases were entered. Therefore most of the social, commercial and cultural activities going on in the area are marked or created by the limbo of the planned regeneration project (e.g. Community Project at Rodney Place Building, temporary galleries in the Shopping Center, gardening in the Heygate).

3.3 Policy
In the London Plan Elephant and Castle is named as an opportunity area, which covers 122 hectares and includes the Elephant and Castle junction and shopping centre, the Heygate estate, Walworth Road, the Pullens estate, West Square, St George’s Circus, the Enterprise Quarter bounded by London Road, Borough Road and Newington Causeway and the Rockingham estate (London Plan, n/d). Parallel to the broader framework of the London Plan but in compliance with it, the Southwark Council intends a regeneration of the area as well. In a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD, n/d) for Elephant and Castle the Southwark Council set out the overall plan for how developments should be realized. The SPD identifies opportunity areas which will be the main targets for future developments. Different actors are involved in this process, including inter alia: the local government, Southwark Council; the private sector in form of LendLease, a developer company; the “community engagement experts” Soundings, as communicator between the official organs and the community; and various community groups, which are representing local residents, local businesses and local universities. The vision of the Council is to create in Elephant and Castle a town centre, which provides shopping, business, high quality homes, Social and community infrastructure, Arts, culture, leisure and entertainment, transport and movement and sustainable use of resources. For financing this vision the area has to attract tourists, investors and the wider public of London, an integration of private investment and public-private partnerships has to be set up. The local community generally welcomes the regeneration of the area, but it is concerned about future changes in the area in terms of an exclusive attraction of a wealthier public and therefore the exclusion of minorities and poorer residents.

figure 9 - Elephant and Castle north roundabout

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figure 10 - East Road market

4.0 Urban design analysis and SWOT
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4.1 Strengths
11. Mobilized community trying to remain actively engaged in the redevelopment process. 12. Diversity of the scales of economic activities all represent the local community. 13. Independent economic actors contribute to communal ties and social identity. 14. Important nodes and landmarks have strategic central location, commercial centre as a transport hub, heterogeneity of mobility means and infrastructures. 15. Worldwide recognition of the E.&C. as Latin American neighbourhood. 16. Varied economic activities reflect the diversity of ethnicities. 17. Flexibility of use and appropriation of spaces outside the planning bureaucracy; alternative

cultural economic spatial

figure 11 - Swot Analysis Map - Strenghts

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4.2 Waeknesses
18. Physical and psychological mobility disconnection (disorientation and fractured urban experience); complex road system that does not support existent traffic; excess of physical barriers; consequent exclusion of pedestrians/cyclers from the mobility discourse. 19. Reputation of area as deprived. 20. Spatial segregation of open spaces and isolation of certain groups - ‘invisibility’ of some social activities. 21. Lack of centrality in shopping locations – no organized circulation and functions within the shopping centre (also poorly maintained). 22. Wide gap between high income housing and low income housing. 23. Railway line as barrier for mobility and accessibility, it is very difficult to solve in an integrated way/design. 24. Actors in the cultural and economic arenas are mainly minority groups with no relation to each other. 25. Insufficient recognition of cultural minorities. 26. Gap of economic activities between the shopping centre and the shops on Walworth road that disconnect the flow of people shopping. 27. Highly illegible urban design overall, except for the main arteries and the most important landmarks. 28. Lack of commercial or cultural activities that promote permeability of the inner space. 29. Lack of proper plazas/attraction points for free social interaction and empty spaces poorly managed. 30. Design of Heygate exclusionary of non-residents (issues of mobility and connectivity).

cultural economic spatial

figure 12 - Swot Analysis Map - Weaknesses

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4.3 Opportunities
1. OPS (Open public space) inside the Heygate as ‘limbo’: unrestricted and allow community temporary appropriation of space, that could give a distinctive urban character to the area, attracts people from outside site. 2. E&C as a transport hub itself due to its strategic location. 3. Alleviation of traffic congestion and permeability improvement through creation of cycling and pedestrian connections, and prioritizing them at ground level. 4. Introduction of cultural activities that allow communities to engage with different minority groups together and enhance alternative and flexible uses in liminal or leftover spaces. 5. Use of landmarks and nodes locally and at a city scale to facilitate the accessibility of the site. 6. The use of spaces under railway and shopping centre can result in the creation of more retail spaces or alternative activities. 7. Integration of the existing urban forest into the ‘London’s strategic open space network’, enhancing also some leftovers as an opportunity for environmental friendly green spaces. 8. Build on the existing community organizations: enhance responsibilities and management - the area as centre for different cultures. 9. E&C. historical significance through “branding” of neighbourhood. 10. Suppression of the physical barriers between housing building making them more integrated and well connected.

cultural economic spatial

figure 13 - Swot Analysis Map - Opportunities

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4.3 Threats
31. Conflict of interest between different users and ways of space usage can be taken as an advantage by speculators in gentrification process. 32. Imposition of exclusionary strategies either by design or management. 33. Potentially conflicting interests of private housing and social housing. 34. Segregation of existing communities from social and economic local interactions. 35. Minorities may not be able to defend themselves. 36. Small local businesses including “temporary” economic activities can be threatened by gentrification and resultant eviction. 37. Isolated areas prone to crime. 38. Illegal appropriation of empty spaces or used for trash therefore abandoned.

cultural economic spatial

figure 14 - Swot Analysis Map - Threats

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4.5 SWOT Map Summary

figure 15 - Swot Summary

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figure 16 - ‘Occupation road’ in Elephant and Castle

5.0 Vision and Design Principles
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5.0 Vision and Design Principles
5.1 Introduction
In the wake of the current Southwark Council Redevelopment Plan, Elephant & Castle has become London’s manifestation of the urban development limbo. The area’s history is replete with recurrent processes of rapid gentrification, commodification and homogenization that continue to replace social housing and cultural capital with high profile developments. Such glocal dynamics have contributed to the creation of liminal pockets that are emblematic of social, economic and cultural exclusion. Consequently, the Elephant & Castle area has unfortunately gathered a negative reputation (crime, drug trafficking, etc.) that needs to be challenged and overcome through comprehensive regeneration. This negative social perception is resultant of the continuous reproduction of tensions due to spatial contestations and administrative oversight of certain localities. Thus, Elephant & Castle’s resultant vulnerability to exclusive land speculation poses an imminent threat to its rich heterogeneity and the welfare of its current residents. While a community consultation process has been carried out to ensure that the voices of the community are heard, those remain highly bureaucratic and susceptible to conflicts within the community and between key stakeholders as to determining the future of Elephant & Castle.

5.2 Vision Statement
Hence, we aspire to create a locale capable of retaining its current residents despite the gentrification threats that can come with redevelopment, through contesting/working within the current framework of the E&C Regeneration Plan…

“Transform Elephant and Castle into a vibrant urban centre for southern London through capitalizing on its current ethnic diversity, economic capacity and extensive open/leftover spaces, to create a socio-spatially inclusive locale characterized by cultural hybridity, economic opportunity and spatial adaptability”

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5.3 Principles: Socio-spatial inclusion
Elephant & Castle’s reputation has suffered due to crime in addition to the superficial bureaucratic process of community inclusion. These sociological issues have been exacerbated by certain issues of accessibility and connections within itself and to adjacent areas. Despite such issues, the area remains a heterogeneous and centrally located site within the city and enjoys a diverse community. Hence despite its once vibrant historical significance, there is a problem of marginalization in so far that a variety of user groups are not being included. Therefore socio-spatially inclusive endeavors have to be carried out in order to make the area of Elephant & Castle retain its diverse user groups. Enabling: 1) Cultural Hybridity Creation of opportunities for livelihoods and ensuring vibrancy of the area, more investment in Elephant & Castle, small businesses must retain their patronage; economic development and attracting new retail while maintaining minimal displacement of small businesses.

2) Economic Opportunity Area fostering (re)production of diasporic identities within London which nurture the multiple identities characteristic of Elephant and Castle.

3) Spatial Adaptability Overtime and between occupancies unique uses of the space have emerged resulting in changing appropriations of space. Therefore, we encourage an urban regeneration initiative that creates a space that fosters the multiple forms of urban expression, while nurturing the creative and transformative power inherent in them.

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figure 17 - The Heygate Estate at night

6.0 Mapping the Opportunities
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6.0 Mapping the Opportunities
6.1 Constesting the SPD
Following the initial urban analysis of the opportunity area (SWOT), we also conducted a thorough review of the SPD for Elephant & Castle and Lendlease plans for the Heygate Estate. This was coupled with attending several community meetings organised by the Elephant Amenity Network, as well as consultation meetings with Lend Lease at their Consultation Hub on Walworth Road. In order to map opportunities for intervention, our team decided to overlay our main findings from the SWOT analysis, with the planning oversights identified through the review of the SPD. The intention was to begin to identify focal areas that can offer entry points for intervention according to our vision and principles for regeneration.

While the SPD and Lendlease Plans incorporate a variety of valuable ideas for regenerating the area, we realised that multiple opportunities for appropriating left over and undesigned spaces, and incorporating the needs and priorities of the local community, were overlooked. 5 main key opportunities began to emerge...
figure 18 - Contesting the SPD - Summary

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Open Space Network (SPD, 2011, pg. 62)
figure 19 - Contesting the SPD - Open space network

CURRENT SPD PROPOSAL CONTESTING... The SPD is dealing with the demolition of the Heygate Estate as a given, overlooking its value to the area’s residents. Shouldn’t at least the Heygate urban forest and the memories and temporal activities it embodies be retained? Shouldn’t the current infrastructural fragmentation be addressed as central to the area’s regeneration?

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Existing and Proposed Pedestrian Routes (SPD, 2011, pg. 49)
figure 20 - Contesting the SPD - Pedestrian roads

CURRENT SPD PROPOSAL

CONTESTING...

The existing SPD is proposing an extensive pedestrian network, but does not offer a clear indication of how this network will foster socio-spatial inclusion. Shouldn’t Walworth Road be a primary pedestrian route? Shouldn’t the northern roundabout be explicitly addressed, and can’t the railway road be utilised as a route that can connect Elephant & Castle to the rest of the city?

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6.2 Theoretical Framework
“Planning theory needs to consider under what conditions conscious human activity can produce a better city (region/ nation/world) for all its citizens. Addressing such a question requires a constant concern with the interaction between planning procedures andoutcomes. It also requires investigating the nature of this better city, relative to its particular history, stage of development, and context; the strategies by which it can be achieved; andthe obstacles to reaching it.” (Fainstein, 2005: 127)

1) Re-appropriation of Residual Spaces:
might have cultural and/or economic significance to current residents, and which offer the potential for alternative uses. banism” by Solomon Benjamin (Benjamin, 2008). Such claims can enable citizens marginalized by speculative development, to build complex strategic alliances through the appropriation of key institutions and real estate surpluses. While vote bank politics and informal tactics fuel such occupations in the context of the global South, in Elephant & Castle, they can take the form of tapping into key local actors to build strategic alliances aimed at appropriating the extensive amount of residual spaces, with the overall intent of defying the threats of gentrification. As an example, such alliances can be geared towards promoting existing small businesses, to enable them to compete with branded chains.

Residual Spaces: Circumstantial and undersigned leftover spaces that

Re-appropriation: Means spatial claims, referred to as “occupancy ur-

The current redevelopment of Elephant and Castle takes a pedagogical approach to urbanism (Berney R. in Shatkin, 2011, pg. 81) that “encourages a kind of controlled heterogeneity in public space. It constitutes an effort to nudge urban practice in a direction that accommodates a ‘broader neoliberal, pro-market, pro-commodification project,’ while also acknowledging the entrenched nature of existing urbanisms that may be resistant to this change” (Shatkin, 2011, pg. 81) However, such a planning approach has resulted in a nearly 63 year-long development saga of largely unsuccessful planning strategies that fail to address Elephant & Castle’s complex socio-spatial realities. Hence, our endeavor to reach holistic intervention strategies for Elephant & Castle stemmed from an attempt to understand actually existing urbanisms in Elephant & Castle, that is, “how people make claims to urban space outside existing legal and planning frameworks” (Shatkin, 2011, pg. 86). The overarching intent was to identify potential entry points that heed the current residents’ reality of subversive urban spatial practices throughout the currently fragmented fabric of Elephant & Castle. After much deliberation, we decided that our strategy would be focused on the two following approaches:

2) Linking of fragmented zones:
structural barriers

Fragmentation: Visual and spatial disconnection, mainly due to infra-

Given the extensive fragmentation characterizing Elephant & Castle, major interventions are needed to connect key sites and residual spaces and make them accessible to the public. This involves the creative destruction of barriers as well as significant public realm improvements. While some of those have been proposed in the SPD, the framework does not offer an integrated approach to the overall opportunity area. Hence, through the above two approaches, we seek to generate worthwhile additions to the redevelopment agenda. This will be achieved through proposing an integrated framework for regeneration within the 5 identified opportunity sites. This framework aims to acknowledge existing urban practices in the area, with the overall intent of making Elephant & Castle a socially, economically, and culturally inclusive space in South London.

1) re-appropriation of residual spaces and/or 2) linking of fragmented locales

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6.3 Mapping the Opportunity Sites for Intervention
Residual Spaces
figure 21 - Mapping the opportunity sites for the Intervention

Fragmented Zones

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6.4 Strategic Urban Regeneration Framework

4 3

2 1 5

Adapted from SPD Elephant & Castle Key Diagram (SPD, 2011, pg. 49) CONTESTING THE SPD VISION DIAGRAM Keeping in mind the theoretical framework and the 5 identified opportunity sites, we adapted the SPD vision key diagram to present our redefined framework for the regeneration of Elephant & Castle.
figure 22

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figure 23 - Elephant Amenity Network exposition at the Heygate Estate

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In the following section we are going to present the five interventions that imply the re-appropriation of residual spaces and/or the linkage of current fragmented sites. Apart from the current main actors (Council, LendLease) a new actor has been set up, Community Trust Committee, which explicitly represents the interests of local residents within the regeneration process (Maisonnetes/Arches). All of the five interventions are aligned to the principles outlined above: cultural hybridity, economic opportunity and spatial adaptability.

7.0 Intervention sites & design response 7.0 Intervention sites & design response
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7.1 HEYGATE COMMUNITY PARK
figure 25 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Sketched perspective

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7.1 Opportunity Site/intervention 1: HEYGATE COMMUNITY PARK Strategy
Our proposal for the Heygate site is the retainment of both the Maisonettes in the centre of the Heygate area and the Crossway Church at New Kent Road. The huge building blocks which are currently surrounding the area will be demolished such as already planned by LendLease. But we propose firstly that new private investment will be built mainly in the periphery of the area and secondly that a densification of the new built housing blocks takes place without green spaces for private use on the first floor such as currently stated in the design idea by LendLease. In our proposal these green spaces planned for private use become part of a public space in the centre, surrounding the existing maisonettes. Strategic Alliances

Economic Opportunity The new private investment in the periphery of the area can develop new retail space, which will bring market vitality and living convenience to the area. The maisonettes do not deliver a direct economic output, but they will stimulate the inner part of the area and support the dynamics in the area in form of indirect profitability Spatial Adaptability The new interventions will be connected with the existing built and natural environment, which embodies the residents’ memories, and represents the history of social and cultural realities. »the maisonettes and the surrounding green space is open to the public and enables a common use by residents and for all Londoners »parts of the green space can be used for gardening as it is currently happening
figure 26 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Summary plan

Cultural Hybridity Maisonettes and Crossway Church will serve as community use, including nurseries, an asylum, a social center, gym, artists’ studios, sports center, libraries, spaces for movie projections, or local associations (e.g. Gotitas de Sabor, Alevi Cultural Centre, Karate Institute)

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figure 27 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Imagining the Heygate

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figure 28 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 1 - Imagining the Heygate

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7.2 LIVING RAILROAD 7.2
figure 29 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Sketched perspective

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7.2 Opportunity Site/intervention 2: LIVING RAILROAD Strategy
Voices from the community contested the use of funds from the area’s redevelopment for infrastructure upgrading by TFL at the expense of improvements to the local area. Given the threat of gentrification and pushing out of local businesses and local cultural units by mainstream commercial chains, attendees of an Elephant Amenity Network workshop voiced the need for subsidized retail units for small local businesses, some of which could be live-workplaces that can encourage the development of light-industries and workshop retail. Our proposal aims to bridge between the two development agendas: We suggest the appropriation of the full length of railway arcades for local businesses, North and South of the Shopping Centre area. Next to the railway viaduct, some community services located, such as nursery and playground. To tackle fragmentation and to create additional linkages between the archways and the direct surroundings, we propose to allocate these certain railway viaducts for the use of these community services. Along the viaduct, using the chain of redesigned residual spaces, we would open some of the arches and create a linkage of movement opportunity for pedestrian uses. In order to avoid a gentrification of the site we propose the establishment of a Community Trust Committee for managing the space in the arches and guarantee the affordability of the space. Strategic Alliances

figure 30 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Summary plan

Cultural Hybridity »Building a character for a residual and avoided area Enforce cultural diversity through the variety of enterprises accommodated in the arches Reinforcing the identity of Elephant and Castle area by building a vertical social and cultural line Support for the ongoing urban agriculture activities by offering the products in the archway shops Economic Opportunity »Enforcement of local businesses by provision of subsidized retail units Creation of job opportunities for local residents Spatial Adaptability »Encouraging the increase of activity to create a safer path along the viaduct Along the creation of the new public square some arches will be opened for pedestrian movement Reconfiguration of pedestrian movement

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figure 31 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Imagining ‘Living Railroad’

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figure 32 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 2 - Imagining ‘Living Railroad

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7.3 NEW ELEPHANT & CASTLE CIVIC CENTRE
figure 33 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Sketched perspective

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7.3 Opportunity Site/intervention 3: NEW ELEPHANT & CASTLE CIVIC CENTRE Strategy
At the present the shopping centre is occupying a huge part of the opportunity site, the design of the shopping centre creates loads of residual spaces. The area is illegible and lacking of centrality. The site is centered in a traffic hub but lacks available space for loading and interchanging of the public transport. There is an ongoing discussion between the Council, St. Modwen and Lend Lease about a possible redevelopment of the shopping centre site. Our proposal is to use half of the site of the shopping center to establish a new public square, on the other half a new high rise shopping centre could be built, which compensates the “lost space” on the ground. The new public square can be used by temporal shopping stalls as well. Strategic Alliances

Economic Opportunity Direct profitability: »temporal shopping stalls Indirect profitability: »attracting of people to stay in the area rather than travelling through »Opening access to the archway shops »Social node for the redeveloped shopping centre Spatial Adaptability This intervention provides a centrality for Elephant and Castle and serves the dense area with an open space Establishment of a strong linkage between the new developments (Oakmayne, Heygate) behind the railway viaduct and the green area located opposite the shopping center and towards Walworth Road The created linkages will support the pedestrian movements among the sites
figure 34 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Summary plan

Cultural Hybridity »Public space for cultural open air events (e.g. Elephest) »Creation of a great opportunity to provide the local community a space for outdoor, social activities.

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figure 35 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Imagining the New E&C Civic Centre

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figure 36 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 3 - Imagining the New E&C Civic Centre

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7.4 CONNECTING THE DOTS
figure 37 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Sketched perspective

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7.4 Opportunity Site/intervention 4: CONNECTING THE DOTS Strategy
At the moment the green spaces of the area are very fragmented and the area dominated by busy traffic, which makes the area unpleasant to live. Our proposal is to create a new all-embracing green space and connect the existing fragmented ones. This greening intervention will include the area of the roundabout, the new public space next to the shopping center, roads, pavements, the leisure centre site and leftover spaces. The greening process implies inter alia tree planting and green islands in busy roads for supporting the pedestrian crossing.The new green areas will be provided with adequate lighting, larger areas will be furnished with benches and picnic tables for social activities. This intervention will also improve the accessibility and safety of pedestrians. Strategic Alliances

Economic opportunity »Attraction of more consumers »Connection of commercial (e.g. Shopping centre with Walworth Road) by increasing the pedestrian mobility Spatial adaptability »New green spaces contribute to the heterogeneity of the area »Improvement of legibility by the elimination of leftovers and reduction of fragmentation »Elimination of visual pollution produced by the traffic »Improvement of the environment by mitigation of carbon emissions
figure 38 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Summary plan

Cultural hybridity »Connection between cultural spots, people and environment »Open spaces for residents and foreigners for sports, outdoor and social activities

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figure 39 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Imagining ‘Connecting the Dots’

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figure 40 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 4 - Imagining ‘Connecting the Dots’

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figure 41 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Sketched perspective

7.5 NEW WALWORTH ROAD

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7.5 Opportunity Site/intervention 5: NEW WALWORTH ROAD Strategy
Walworth Road is one of the most dense areas of local shops in London. Shops and street life along the road are marked by the busy traffic as source for immense noise and as cause of a lacking safety for pedestrians and cyclists. The area prioritize the vehicle flow, the pedestrians are excluded from the discourse of mobility. The area is not attractive to stay and spend time there, which probably reduces the prosperity of the businesses. We propose to create a new pedestrian friendly road to strengthen the local businesses and to serve the highly residential area. Additionally we extend the cyclist routes along the Walworth Road. This intervention will also link the newly created public square with the East Street Market, providing continuity in pedestrian movement and which stimulates the social interactions. Traffic will be calmed by shared surfaces, traffic islands, street furniture and using different paving materials for the construction. The pedestrian and the traffic will be put onto the same level which solution will make the road safer by enquiring more responsible driving behavior Strategic Alliances

figure 42 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Summary plan

Cultural Hybridity »Cultural and ethnic shops along the Walworth Street are spotlighted by the increased accessibility. Economic Opportunity »Higher visual catchment and easier access for consumers strengthens the local businesses - more job opportunities »The linkage of Walworth Road, East Street Market, Shopping Centre and Railway Arches creates a shopping hub and therefore strengthens the prosperity for the whole Elephant and Castle area Spatial Adaptability »Improve pedestrian and cyclist mobility on a currently traffic dominated road »With our proposed regeneration plan for Walworth Road and the Southern part of the Railway Arches we create a parallel shopping and pedestrian routes to enforce the linkages in the area

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figure 43 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 Imagining the New Walworth Road

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figure 44 - Opportunity Site - Intervention 5 - Imagining the New Walworth Road

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8.0 Conclusion
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8.0 Conclusion
Our proposed interventions for Elephant & Castle were the result of an extensive urban analysis and design process. Initial research focused on assessing the strengths and weaknesses existing in Elephant & Castle and were divided into specific focus areas such as housing, economic activity, open space, voids & liminal spaces, transport, and culture. Theses studies were then combined into a comprehensive analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) in order to determine the key challenges and opportunities for the site, including their spatial implications and overlaps. From this analysis, our overall vision and principles for the site was developed, and key opportunity areas were identified. We found that while the proposed master plan for Elephant & Castle has been produced with considerations from community feedback meetings, some gaps remain in aspirations of residents and practical implementation. The site selections were not only based on what areas revealed themselves to be the most challenging or with most apparent opportunities, but also on what sites could be enhanced to create an improved appropriation of space in Elephant & Castle. As mentioned at various instances in the report, our interventions attempt to address two critical issues: Fragmentation and Residual Space, therefore our choice of intervention sites was greatly influenced by where we observed these elements. Moreover, our principal vision helped steer our work towards ensuring that each design intervention capitalized on the current ethnic diversity, economic capacity and extensive open/leftover spaces, to create a socio-spatially inclusive locality characterized by cultural hybridity, economic opportunity and spatial adaptability. For these interventions to reach their full potential as we have e nvisioned, it is important for developers and local council to bear in mind that intricate and strategic alliances need to be formed between various actors and stakeholders. Our interventions endeavor to create enhanced nodes of activity and public spaces throughout Elephant & Castle, giving residents an improved environment that reinforces a sense of belonging, a sense of community, thus revitalizing collective identity, while also providing visitors reasons to come and explore.

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9.0 References
Appadurai, A. (2001) Deep democracy: urban governmentality and the horizon of politics, Environment and Urbanization, 13(2), pp.23‐43. Benjamin, S. (2008). Occupancy Urbanism: Radicalizing Politics and Economy beyond Policy and Programs. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , 32.3, 719-729. Bentley, I. (1999) Urban transformations. Power People and Urban design. Routledge Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital’, in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education Ed. J G Richardson.Greenwood Press, New York. pp 241‐ 258 Buzar, S., Hall, R., Ogden, P.E. (2007) Beyond gentrification: the demographic reurbanisation of Bologna. Environment and Planning A, Vol 39, pages 64‐85. Fainstein, S. (2005, November 7). Planning Theory and the City. Journal of Planning Education and Research , 121-130. Harris, A. (2008) From London to Mumbai and Back Again: Gentrification and Public Policy in Comparative Perspective.Urban Studies, Vol. 45(12), pp: 2407–2428. Harvey, D. 1989. From Managerialism to Entrepreneurialism: The Transformation in Urban Governance in Late Capitalism. Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography. 71, 1, pp. 3-17 McFarlane, C (2011) On context Assemblage, political economy and structure, CITY, Vol.15(3‐4). McFarlane, C. (2009) ‘Translocal assemblages: space, power and social movements’, Geoforum 40, pp. 561–567. McFarlane, C. (2011) ‘Assemblage and critical urbanism’, City 15(2), pp. 204–224. Pinder, D. (2002) In Defence of Utopian Urbanism: Imagining Cites at the ‘End of Utopia. Geografiska Annaler. Vol. 84, No. 3/4, pp. 229‐241. Roy, A. 2011. Urbanisms, worlding practices and the theory of planning. Planning Theory, 10(1), 6-15. Shatkin, G. (2011). Coping with actually existing urbanisms: The real politics of planning in the global era. Planning Theory , 10, 79-87. Short, John R. 2006. ‘The Political City’ in Urban Theory: A Critical Assessment. Palgrave Macmillian. P. 144-159.

Website GVA (Commercial Property and Property Managment): http://www.gvagrimley.co.uk/PreBuilt/Research%20web/Transport%20Qtr/05093_Transport_briefing_Final.pdf (12th March 2012). London Plan: http://www.london.gov.uk/shaping-london/london-plan/docs/london-plan.pdf (12th March 2012). SPD document: http://www.southwark.gov.uk/downloads/download/2896/elephant_and_castle_spd_supporting_documents (12th March 2012).

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