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Rocket Nozzle Design

Group Members:
Mike Nick

Introduction...

Presentation Outline
Introduction (Nick) Brief Theory / FLUENT Modeling (Mike) Literature / Experimental Data (Nick) Conclusion (Mike)

Introduction...

Project Objectives
1)To analyze four simplified nozzle geometries in a model rocket and calculate their maximum thrust. 2) Compare the theoretical and experimental thrust of these nozzles. Choose the best nozzle based on our data.

Introduction...

Which simplifications?
The Nozzle Configurations we modeled:
1) 2) 3) 4) Orifice Converging Nozzle Diverging Nozzle Converging-Diverging

(Click on links above to see the various configurations)

Introduction...

Rocket Particulars
The type of rocket we modeled: 1) Solid Propellant / Core Burning
Core burning rockets burn propellant from the inside out.
This is in comparison to endburning rockets which burn propellant from the bottom up.

Graphic from: http://www.sewanee.edu/physics/SEMINARS/HTML%20Rowland/sld011.htm

Introduction...

Rocket Particulars
The size of rocket we modeled:
0.25 Inch diameter casing 2) 2.25 Inches Long

Brief Theory

How to calculate thrust


The general thrust equation is given as follows:

Graphic from: http://members.aol.com/ricnakk/th_thrst.html

GAMBIT Boundary Conditions

GAMBIT

The Mesh
Triangular Elements
40 to 400 Intervals/Inch

FLUENT
1) 2) 3) 4)

Assumptions
Axisymmetric 2D Flow Steady State / Constant Pressure Inlet Compressible Flow Ideal Gas (air)

FLUENT

Particular Settings
1) On all configurations the iterations were run to a residual of 1e-3 2) Turbulent Flow (K-E model) 3) Variable Density
4) Used 2nd Order Equations to Calculate Density / Pressure / Momentum

FLUENT

Velocity Contour Plots

FLUENT

Pressure Contour Plots

FLUENT

Density Contour Plots

FLUENT

Results
Nozzle Type Converging Force (oz) 4.56841

Diverging Regular Orifice


Converging - Diverging

3.81035 4.18331
7.53282

FLUENT

Graphical Results
FLUENT Results
8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 1

Converging Diverging Regular Orifice Converging Diverging

Thrust (oz)

Literature
The preponderance of literature clearly shows the Converging Diverging Nozzle as the most efficient nozzle design.

Diagrams like this (right) are not uncommon:

Graphic from: http://www.nakka-rocketry.net/lambda_p.html

Literature
Similar Pressure Trends

Experimental Data

Introduction
Homemade rockets with these four various nozzle geometries were built and tested. All thrust values were measured and recorded.

Experimental Data

Experimental Setup Method #1


Method #1
In this case the nozzle thrust was downward onto the scale. Before ignition, a thin metal plate was placed on top of the scale to protect it from the flame.

Experimental Data

Testing Using Method #1


For record keeping, a camcorder was zoomed up close to the scale and recording.

Note the metal plate protecting the plastic of the scale.

Experimental Data

Method #1 (Thrust Downward)


Nozzle Type Converging Diverging Regular Orifice Converging - Diverging Set 1 (oz) 0.5 0.25 0.6 n/a Set 2 (oz) 0.4 dud 0.7 n/a

Experimental Data

Experimental Setup Method #2


Method #2 In this case the nozzle was placed into a hollow tube and thrust was directed upward. Thus the rocket pushed onto the scale.

Experimental Data

Testing Using Method #2


Note the camcorder was zoomed up close to the scale. (Right) Movie of ConvergingDiverging Run: Click on Image to Play

Experimental Data

Data Using Method #2


We were able to go back and watch our results on TV in slow motion.

Experimental Data

Method #2 (Thrust Upwards)


Nozzle Type Converging Diverging Regular Orifice Converging - Diverging Set 3 (oz) 0.6 0.45 0.25 0.90

Conclusion
8.00

FLUENT Results
7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 1

Converging Diverging Regular Orifice Converging Diverging

Thrust (oz)

Experimental Data Results


1

Converging Diverging Regular Orifice Converging Diverging

Thrust (oz)

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1

Next time

Questions?

Converging/ Diverging

Diverging

Converging

Orifice