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Literature Review

Williams(1999) this study is to investigate that does gender effects managerial styles, the present study examine the interaction effect of gender of supervisor and gender of subordinate on perceived mentoring. The purpose of this study is to find out the effectiveness of the sub-ordinate mentoring between male and female managers and for that reason one-hundred thirty-six questionnaires were collected in the first organization. Sixty-six were collected in the second organization;Therefore, a total of two-hundred responses were used in the final analysis.Results revealed the least amount of mentoring occurred between female supervisors and female subordinates, but the greatest mentoring took place between female supervisors and male subordinates and its also shows that management styles of male and female supervisors is mixed. Results were explained in terms of managerial experience and the double-bind of female managers. These findings challenge the traditional advice that female subordinates should seek female supervisors. .

Shadare (2010) this study investigated the influences of gender on managerial style and conflict resolution effectiveness it is designed to investigate the contribution of management style to conflict resolution effectiveness in work organisations in South-Western Nigeria.This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relative impact of gender on management style and conflict resolution effectiveness. With a view to harvesting information from respondents, a questionnaire titled Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (ROCI) developed by Conrad (1991) was adopted for the study. The target population for the study consists of all top and middle management managers of private organisations in South-Western Nigeria percent of the total population, were selected for the study using stratified sampling and purposive sampling techniques. The respondents consist of 123 (58.3%) male managers and 88 (41.7%) female managers. The age range of the respondents was between 28-60. The findings of the study revealed that a significant relationship exists between managerial style and conflict resolution effectiveness. It was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female managers conflict management style but it was significant difference exists between female and male managers conflict resolution effectiveness.

Lizarraga , Baquedano,,Elawr (2007) in this study, the influence of gender and age in the importance allocated to several factors in the decision process. For this purpose, the Decision-Making Questionnaire, DMQ was administered to a sample of 589 participants (294 men and 295 women) of ages between 18-80 years old, who were grouped into three developmental stages: youths 18-25 years (n= 207; 97 men and 110 women); adults 26-65 years (n= 205; 110 men and 95 women), and retired persons 66-80 years (n= 177; 87 men and 90 women)..The statistical analyses revealed significant differences in decision p r o c e s s e s due both to gender and age. women are more concerned with uncertainty, doubts, and the dynamism that are involved in the decision. They place more value on time and money; they are more concerned about the consequences that may derive from the decision, no matter whether these affect them or other people. Women are more aware of the constraints that the setting and close persons put on them, and their emotions are more important to them in the decision process.Conversely, men scored higher than women in information and goals, motivation, and work pressure. No differences were found in cognition, self-regulation, and the environmental factor.The analysis of the age variable detected that youths only achieved statistically higher scores than the other two groups in the variables emotion . The adults revealed significant differences compared with the other groups in time/money constraints, information and goals, and work pressure, and the retired people only scored higher in uncertainty.

Brewere,mitchell,Weber(2002) study examined the relationship among biological sex, gender role, organization status and conflict management behavior of males and females in three similar organizations individual from upper and lower status organization positions the focus of this study was to examine the relationship between conflict management styles and both gender role and organization status. Data were collected via questionnaire distribution to 184 individuals holding upper and lower organization positions in finance related institutions.Conflict management styles were assessed using C of the ROCI-II(rahim 1983) which contains situations involving participants and peers to measure fine dimension of conflict resolution styles that includes avoiding,compromising,dominating,itegrating and obliging approaches.The Bem sex Role Inventory(BSRI) (Bem 1974) was used to measure each indviduals perceived masculine and feminine scales comprise 20 masculine and 20 feminine attributes.The result revealed that line individual gender roles masculine individual were highest on the dominating conflict styles, whereas feminine individual were highest on the avoiding styles further upper organizational status were higher on the integration and lower organizational status were higher on avoiding approach.

of this study of the role of gender (the first factor) and country (the second factor), on each of the five leadership behaviors and six leadership styles that comprise the Flamholtz [1986] framework . The gender factor is a two-level fixed effect contrasting males and females. The country factor is a considered a four-level fixed effect contrasting Norway, Sweden, Australia, and the United States. The total sample size is 209 participants. This includes 45 individuals from Norway, 55 individuals from Sweden, 64 individuals from Australia, and 45 from the United States. Flamholtz [1986] developed the Leadership Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) to measure the emphasis a leader places on each of the five behavioral dimensions and the six leadership styles.The result present a mixed picture of gender differences males in all four countries emphasized goal Setting more than females,but did not differently emphasize other dimensions such as work faciliation and the directive styles that,at first glance,seemto require agentic qualities.Females emphasized interaction facilitation more so than did males,.Males and females in Norway and Sweden were expected to emphasize similar leadership dimensions. In Australia and the U.S, male and female leadership were expected to differ. The nonsignificant interaction effect indicates, however, that the differences that occur between genders in one country also occur between genders in all four countries

Gibson(1995)The analysis

Van Praag(2001) this paper reports about a field experiment conducted to estimate the impact of the share of women in managment teams on their business performance.They manipulated the gender composition of teams and assigned students, conditional on their gender, randomly to teams.They assigned 550 students to 45 teams and commu- nicated this assignment to the coordinators of the five fields of study who enforced its implementation. They found that management teams with an equal gen- der mix perform better than male-dominated and female-dominated teams in terms of sales, profits and earnings per share. Our results indicate that this is due to more intensive monitoring and more equalized learning in mixed teams than in homoge- neous teams. Further investigation suggests that this positive impact of gender diversity is caused by more intense mutual monitoring and more equal learning in gender diverse teams.

Pratch (1996) The effects of gender, coping, and motivational orientation in evaluating individual leadership were investigated,the instrument measures coping behaviors that are only semiconsciously controlled. The entire group of 48 students met during the spring of 1993 three times a week for three hours each session to develop and plan the fall course. They also met in smaller committees outside the large group throughout the spring and summer. The SSCT (A Sentence Completion Technique) (SSCT; Shanan, 1965) was designed to assess active coping as a structura characteristic of personality functioning. i t consists of 40 sentence stems, 10 stems making up one of four categories. Items in the first two categories elicit responses indicative of the extent to which the respondent is open to experience and capable of clearly articulating aims (Category 1) and sources of frustration and difficulties (Category 2) in terms of people, things, and events in the external environment. Items in the last two categories examine the respondents tendency to overcome obstacles and continue to strive to achieve aims in a constructive and effective fashion (Category3) while maintaining positive self-esteem and a gratifying sense of accomplishment (Category 4). The data reveal significant gender differences on the measures of motivation, with men showing higher levels of agnatic-instrumental tendencies and women exhibiting higher levels of communal-social qualitie. Andersen, Hansson(nov 2010) This study aims to explore behavioural differences between women and men in managerial positions and suggest explanations for differences and similarities This study concerns women and men in managerial positions in public organizations as indicated by the respondents indication of their sex. Leadership behaviour refers only to behaviours in relation to leadership.In order to eliminate any effects of organizational differences on leadership behaviour, this study had public managers responding to questionnaires that measured their leadership style, decision-making style, and motivation profile.Findings Statistical analyses of data from three groups of Swedish public managers revealed virtually no significant differences in behaviour between female and male managers. Regardless of whether there is a female or male majority of employees or a female or male majority of managers, no effect on leadership behaviour occurs.A number of studies indicate that managers behaviour is different in different types of organizations. This study suggests, therefore, that, independent of gender, organizational and demographic characteristics modify leadership behaviours, thus explaining similarities in leadership behaviour.

Arnania-Kepuladze (2010) examines the gender features of motivation concerning the gender stereotypes and includes investigation of masculine characteristics such as opportunity for advancement, opportunity for high earning, responsibility and autonomy and feminine characteristics such as personal life time, co-operation and environment. The sample of 675 participants took part in the study. Among them 539 were females and 136 were males359 participants worked in educational sphere and included 72 men and 287 women, and 316 participants worked in public health service system from which there were 252 women and 64 men. Using the results of a questionnaire which was conducted in organizations of education and public health service system, they have defined the gender features in motivation. , both men and women have given wide marginal estimation for masculine as well as for feminine characteristics of motivation indicates that there are significant differences in the estimations of both masculine and feminine job motivation characteristics within each gender group and within own group neither men nor women express similar attitudes toward job motivation.The data do not confirm the stereotypical notions of gender differences usually reported in the literature and have shown that differences within each sex group are greater than between sexes. This study was examined within the Georgian context.

Mueller(2007) The present study confirms two recent studies by finding no significant difference in ESE between men and women in a representative sample of MBA students. This finding leads to an investigation of gender-role orientation as a possible determinant of differences in entrepreneurial self-efficacy..selft is efficacy is a psychological state generally defined as possessing self-confidence in performing a specific task. This study is designed to address a series of questions about differences between the sexes with regard to entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Results indicate that the relationship between gender-role orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy is complex and multifaceted. Early in the venture creation process, the searching and planning tasks demand creativity and innovation where a strong mix of masculine and feminine traits (androgyny) improves performance. Later in the venture creation process, an individual (male or female) with a strong masculine orientation seems better suited for undertaking entrepreneurial tasks associated with persuading and leading others.

Wolfram,Mohr(n date) Meta-analytic evidence exists that the numerical dominance of one gender
group among employees can affect the behaviour of female and male leaders. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesis that leaders will show more transformational behaviour when they hold a minority status. Transformational behaviour might help to mitigate discrepancies between male leaders gender and the feminine context, as well as between female leaders gender and the masculine leadership role. 455 team members answered questionnaires about their work satisfaction and their team leaders transformational leadership, whilst 142 team leaders answered questions regarding their teams goal fulfillment.Findings Female and male leaders are rated more transformational in economic sectors and working groups where they hold a minority status. The paper finds a positive interrelation between transformational leadership and followers work satisfaction for male leaders, but not for female leaders.The findings point to the potential advantage of being a high- transformational male leader in female-dominated contexts. Irrespective of the numerical dominance of one gender group, followers of low-transformational female leaders are more satisfied than those of low-transformational male leaders.The paper uses sector-level (gendertypicality of economic sectors) as well as group-level data (gender-composition of working groups) to account for the numerical dominance of female and male employees.

Patil(n date) Two experimental studies were conducted to measure the effects of contextual and situational factors on employees perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors to- ward female managers in traditionally male-oriented jobs. Study 1 manipulated the contexts (gender rarity and diversity justification) of female perceivers through the mediating effect of social identity, while Study 2 manipulated the contexts (gender rarity and performance) of female and male targets The participants of Study 1 were 80 women, between the ages of 18 to 34..Results for Study 1 indicate that: (a) rare female perceivers are more likely to per- ceive female managers as being dominant (a stereotypically male trait) and adopt these traits, (b) rare female perceivers are also more likely to believe that they have to try harder to prove themselves in the organization, and (c) female perceivers in companies with legal compliance diversity justification are less likely to encourage prospective females to join the company. Results for Study 2 indicate that companies with female targets in positions of gender equality were assumed to have affirmative action hiring policies more often than companies with female targets in positions of gender Results indicate that increasing female representation in maletypical professions is not enough to counter negative perceptions and behaviors toward traditionally underreport- sented minorities equal gender representation must be coupled with a culture that believes that diversity is intrinsically advantageous, in order to mitigate some of the effects of implicit sex-based discrimination in the workplace.

Oyebamiji ,Akintayo(2011) The study investigated the influence of some psychological factors on perceived workers` productivity in private organizations in Nigeria. This is for the purpose of ascertaining the contributions of psychological factors to perceived workers` productivity in work organizations in Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 341 respondents were selected for the study, using stratified sampling technique. The instruments used for data collection are structured questionnaires titled Job Involvement Scale (JIS); Self Efficacy Scale (SES), Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS) and Locus of Control Scale (LCS). The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at 0.05 alpha levels using Regression Analysis statistics. The findings of the study revealed that: The psychological factors were found to have jointly contributed to perceived workers` productivity in private organizations. Relatively, job involvement, selfefficacy, job satisfaction and locus of control have significantly predicted perceived workers` productivity. Based on the findings, it is recommended that workers should be deeply involved in organizational programme of activities in order to create rooms for their participation in the planning and implementation of decision process. This will definitely foster job involvement and job satisfaction among the workers and enhance increased workers` productivity.

Gustavsson, Eriksson (2010) The aim is to investigate female and male managers learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that the male managers were provided with significantly richer opportunities to participate in activities conducive to learning and career development than were female managers. The opportunities and barriers in terms of horizontal and vertical manager mobility, senior managers support, strategic networks, career system, freedom of action and gender stereotypes operated simultaneously as opportunities and barriers to learning and career development for the female and male managers, respectively. The conclusion is that the expansive-restrictive continuum developed by Fuller and Unwin (2004) does not cover the extent to which gender operates as a condition for learning and career development, nor the extent to which the gender order influences the learning environment. Therefore we suggest that the expansive- restrictive model of learning environments would benefit from incorporating or, at least considering, gender dimensions in order to form a gender-sensitive model to analyse learning environments in workplaces.

Johnson, , Thomas J. Bouchard Jr(2006) Empirical data suggest that there is at most a very small sex difference in general mental ability, but men clearly perform better on visuospatial tasks while women clearly perform better on tests of verbal usage and perceptual speed. In this study, we integrated these overall findings with predictions based on the VerbalPerceptualRotation (VPR) model ([Johnson, W., and Bouchard, T. J. (2005a). Constructive replication of the visualperceptualimage rotation (VPR) model in Thurstone's (1941) battery of 60 tests of mental ability. Intelligence, 33, 417430.; Johnson, W., and Bouchard, T. J. (2005b). The structure of human intelligence: It's verbal, perceptual, and image rotation (VPR), not fluid and crystallized. Intelligence, 33. 393416.]) of the structure of mental abilities. We examined the structure of abilities after removing the effects of general intelligence, identifying three underlying dimensions termed rotationverbal, focusdiffusion, and memory. Substantial sex differences appeared to lie along all three dimensions, with men more likely to be positioned towards the rotation and focus poles of those dimensions, and women displaying generally greater memory. At the level of specific ability tests, there were greater sex differences in residual than full test scores, providing evidence that general intelligence serves as an all-purpose problem solving ability that masks sex differences in more specialized abilities. The residual ability factors we identified showed strong genetic influences comparable to those for full abilities, indicating that the residual abilities have some basis in brain structure and function.

Birenbaum,Keren(2003) This study examined sex differences in spatial abilities using a standard twodimensional paper-and-pencil test of mental rotation administered to 410 subjects. A personality questionnaire and six other ability tests related to mental rotation were also administered: numerical ability, verbal ability, inductive reasoning, associative memory, perceptual speed and accuracy, and speed of closure. Structural and superficial features of the tasks were specified, and sex differences in accuracy and speed were examined. Certain features of the mental rotation test stimuli (e.g., long trajectories, multilined or multispotted) proved difficult for both males and females, but more difficult for females. These findings were interpreted in the light of Just and Carpenter's (1985) model. Males also completed more items than females. In this regard, personality factors related to cautiousness yielded significant negative correlations with speed. On the related ability tests, males outperformed females on a numerical skills test, and females outperformed males on an associative memory test. No significant sex differences emerged on the other four ability tests.

Bodla,Hussain(2009) Gender diversity at workplace with respect to leadership practices and need for leadership among followers have drawn the considerable research attention among leadership researchers across the world., this study aims at exploring the difference in opinions of both male and female subordinates about their leaders leadership characteristics. Secondly, it aims at determining the extent to which male and female employees differ in their need for leadership in banking sector of Pakistan. At the first stage, among 41 different banks 8 banks were selected based on the classification of public sector (2), private but national banks (4), and foreign banks (2). At the second stage, out of more than 550 braches in Lahore and SahiwalThe empirical results of the current research have supported the hypotheses of the studies suggesting that gender has impact on leadership practices of the managers and need for leadership among subordinates. It is interesting to note that the results of present research especially in human related and task related facets of the leadership were partially consistent with the gender stereotyped findings of the earlier researches. it is found that females rated high their leaders on both dimensions of leadership styles. The empirical results of the current research have positive implications at workplace predicting that female employees in male dominated society have the potential to grow as efficient workers and effective leaders.