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Quaterna O' International, Vol. 26, pp. 131-137, 1995.


Copyright 1995 INQUA/Elsevier Science Ltd, Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved. 1040~5182/95 $29.00

R.K. Sukhtankar

Department of Geology, Shivaji University, Centre for P.G. Studies, Solapur 413 003, India
The Maharashtra Coast is part of the central west coast of the tectonically 'passive' and 'divergent' Western Continental Margin of India. Major tectonic elements that characterize the region are the West Coast Fault and the Panvel Flexure. These features have played a major role in the development of coastal geomorphic features, which have been further modified by marine and fluvial processes. Neotectonism is expressed in associated raised marine terraces. The coastal tract of Maharashtra has been divided in three geomorphic blocks on the basis of the role of tectonic elements and spatial distribution of various geomorphic features.

Coastal geomorphology studies along the world's coastlines have increased in the last few decades, as a result of interest in climatic changes during the Quaternary and research of tectonic event periodicy of earthquake hazard prediction, the evidence of which appears in the form of morphologic features. On the basis of morphologic features, a framework for geodynamic modelling of coastal evolution was suggested by Fairbridge and Finkl (1988). The world's coastlines were classified in three types; emerging, submerging and quasi-stable, each exhibiting an association of characteristic geomorphic features. Evolution of morphologic features is due to changes in sea-level during the Quaternary, as a result of glacial, eustatic or tectonic influences. Each influence has acted either independently or in possible combination. To single out the specific results of any of these influences in the development and evolution of coastal features is a difficult task. Evolution of coastal geomorphic features of a particular coastline should be analyzed by considering its tectonic setting and tectonic evolution, lithology of coastal rocks or sediments and glacio-eustasy and Quaternary coastal transgressional and regressional responses to sea-level change. It is generally accepted that the present configuration of many continental margins and the coastlines are a result of their differential displacement after the breakup of Gondwanaland, according to the plate tectonics concept. Continental margins are classified as either active or passive. Considering this aspect as a primary and fundamental basis for evolution of a coastline, a combination of glacial eustasy, neotectonism and coastal erosional processes has later modified and shaped most coastlines. Using these criteria, the evolution of the Maharashtra coastline on the Western Continental Margin of India is analyzed and discussed.

Indian subcontinent was separated from Gondwanaland along two main geofractures, giving rise to the coastline. Of these, the west coast has developed along the western continental margin, which has followed the N N W - S S E trend, which began in the Precambrian (Biswas, 1982). The west coast is recognized as the trailing margin of the advancing Indian subcontinent. The Maharashtra coast constitutes the central part of the west coast and lies along the western continental margin of India. It extends for a distance of about 500 km from lat. 15 , 45' N (Vengurla) to lat. 19 , 30' N (north of Bombay) (Fig. 1). Most of the area along the Maharashtra coast has been covered by the vast outpourings of the Deccan flood basaltic lava flows, while only a small part of the southern tract exposes the Archaean metamorphics, granites and gneisses and the Proterozoic sediments.

The coastal tract being examined for its geomorphic evolutionary history is known as 'Kokan'. It also includes the coastal lowlands of Maharashtra. The coastline extends more or less N-S and is bounded to the west by the Arabian Sea and to the east by the scarps of the Western Ghats mountain range. The coastal tract broadens in the north to a width of about 100 km and gradually narrows southwards to a width of about 30-40 km. The eastern cliffs rise to a maximum height of more than 1000 m. Major rivers, viz., Kundalika, Savitri, Shastri, Vashishti and numerous streams, originate in the Western Ghats, flow westwards, have steep gradient courses and discharge into the Arabian Sea. These rivers have carved out deep valleys in their catchments in the Western Ghats and have formed relatively broad plains at their mouths. In places, the coastal tract is intersected by promontories of the Western Ghats. As the coastal tract falls in a transitional environment, it is subjected to both fluvial and marine erosional and depositional processes, producing coastal and floodplain geomorphic features. In addition, sea-level changes during the Quaternary period have modified the coastline. A number of workers have documented a variety of

The coastline of the east and west coasts of India extends nearly 6000 km. The plate tectonics concept suggests that the



R.K. Sukhlankar

BOMBAY h ( rLReva s Alihag (,( ~ P e n (~-.~ ~,/.~ ~ 18 00' Srivardhan Kundlika \R. Mahad

, ,_.
tx ~J



%x I



0i Kml ~60t)

lb\ [ , I \ Dabhol ~ C h i p l u n

h-headland lb -linear beach pb- pocket beach


Pb /Jxlver

17 00' Ratnagiri " ~ (

'V Shastri
-'X" Lanja ,' / ajapur ' ~ Gad


ldurlb ~ R

h ~

16 00' 0 Km 35



/ ~ Sawantwadi Vengurla- x ~ ~

73 O0'E


FIG. I. I.ocalionmap.

geomorphic features along the Maharashtra coast, which provide evidence of sea-level changes (Chatterjee, 1961; Ahmed, 1972; Dikshit, 1976: Nair, 1974: Powar etal., 1978, 1979a, b; Tiwari, 1984; Kale and Rajaguru, 1985; Bruckner, 1987; Sukhtankar, 1989). Most of these studies discuss geomorphology of the coastal tract in relation to either sealevel changes or neotectonism. In this paper, the distribution of geomorphic features will be analyzed in the context of the major tectonic elements and tectonic setting TECTONIC SETTING Once separated from Gondwanaland, the northward drift of the Indian subcontinent included counter-clockwise rotation during the Eocene, possibly of about 50 degrees (Klootwijk, 1979; Powell, 1979: Biswas, 1982). Such rifting and associated counter-clockwise rotation are thought to have produced the various major tectonic elemenls,

associated with the west coast of India and the outpourings of the continental tholeiitic flood basalts. The geomorphic features of the coastal tract are developed on these volcanic deposits. Gravity, seismic, geomagnetic surveys and LANDSAT imagery studies for petroleum exploration in the offshore and onshore areas of the west coast have revealed complexities in the tectonic setting of the western continental margin (Eremenko and Dutta, 1968; Kailasam et al., 1972: Harbison and Bassinger, 1973; Guha et al.. 1974a,b; Balkrishnan and Sharma, 1981; Kaila et al., 1981: Valasangkar et al., 1981). On the basis of such studies, Chandrasekharam (1985) modelled the structure and evolution of the Western Continental Margin of India. A number of horsts, grabens and faults have developed along this trailing margin of the advancing Indian subcontinent. Prominent structural elements, in the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Maharashtra coast, are the

Evolutionary Model based on Geomorphologic and Tectonic Characteristics



// ~'/"

/ o




Bombay [ff WCF West Coast Fault


% %

Sasaune Alibag

Kundalika River
i lI

-- N 20' , "-'-- - P-S-+ P S Sahyadri scarpline Lineaments on land Submarine lineaments Panvel flexure Scarpline lineaments Limits of sedimentation Dip direction of flows Hot springs Rivers

v%. ~ ~Srivardhan J ~ ~ - :'' " "5 : : : Z ~ % r ~



S.~ i. ...... ': . ......... ba ~_. ~,

,:ii ...

West Coast Fault and the Panvel Flexure, which run nearly parallel to the coast (Fig. 2). Both these elements trend in a NNW-SSE direction, which is a typical Precambrian trend in Peninsular India (Biswas, 1982). The axis of the Panvel Flexure (Auden, 1949) exposed west of the Western Ghats, has been extended by Das and Ray (1977) further south along a line of hot springs. However, from LANDSAT imagery studies and data collected in the field, Powar et al. (1978, 1979a) have shown that the Panvel Flexure dies out in the Kolaba district in the northern part of the area a.nd does not extend further south (Fig. 2). Basaltic lava flows to the west of the flexure axis near Bombay dip by about 10 to 12 degrees towards west. Further south, near Alibag, flows dip by about 5 to 7 degrees towards west; while south of the Kundalika River, flows are horizontal. The location of the West Coast Fault has been the subject of much controversy. It has been thought to be located along the west coast (Krishnan, 1953); 10 km offshore (Auden, 1975) and 25 km offshore (Gubin, 1969); Guha (1974a) mapped the fault at a distance of about 7 to 20 km offshore; whereas, Guha et al. (1974b) show the fault parallel to the coast and cutting across the promontories. Powar et al. (1978) observed evidence of faulting at Sasaune, south of


FIG. 2. Major lineaments inferred from L A N D S A T imageries.

Bombay on the west coast of Maharashtra and suggested that the fault is located along the coastline. The distribution of geomorphic features will be analyzed in context of the major faulting structure regime outlined above.

The coastal tract constitutes a transitional environment and exhibits geomorphic features of both fluvial and marine origin. Geomorphic features fall into the following categories; (I) Marine - - Erosional: Headlands, creeks, tidal inlets, wave-cut platforms, seacliffs, sea-caves, sea-stacks and islands. Depositional: Estuaries and rias, tidal and mud flats, sandy beach, pocket beach, sand bars and sand spits, tombolo, raised marine terraces. (II) Fluvial - - Erosional: Hill ranges and valleys, waterfalls, planar surfaces. River terraces, alluvial plains. (III) Aeolian - - Depositional: Beach dunes. A variety of the geomorphic features are presented in Fig.

LEGEND i~ Hill ranges

R.K. Sukhiankar

i8 o


i c ~ '

"- Dipslopc I-- i Crestlinc

V . "~



ioi l.ake
~ 30' Arnala 0 Island River bed
1 S-' 35'




[ :[ (Tolluvial slope Tidal t'lais,'allu'v ial Mud flats

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'> 7 Rcvadanda i }~

-~' (t I 2 Km 4

" ~
i9 15' 3~

Bassei Creek

~i ~]

i Marine terrace Sandy b e a c h coaslal dunes P,, '.... ~m7 ,-I,'__,' 2 ""~ " L "~"

~ i i Rocky beach Marine clltt


t ~ ] Road

: ,.



/~11i!] _~ '~ i
I Senlemenl

~,"~ Railv~ a',

i ,
i I

.... . -

o (I I...~8 N 45'

5 3



15 9



l <


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6 Miles

Re, as Underi

, 72 I 45' E


\ 18 I~,'

~ * '~

FIG. 3(a). Gcorn,t)rphol,agicai nlap of the west coasl o f hidia betv,,cen Palghar and Maharashlra.

Hill ranges " ~ L .!), / ~ _ ~ / Dip/slope ~ ~ \ Escarpmenl I Crestline ~ " /" Residual hill -- "." ~ ' Rapi~ .c, .~7.. ~ ..... Riverbed / ~ 3 ) Abandoned Murud Z C , ~ . river bed Valley forms Scrce fan Fluvio colluvial deposn gZ,.,. " ' " ~"--' Landslide inactive (7-" ~.~'/ Marine cliff t e~ . ~'~y. Stack " Tombohl l Marine lerracc ' ,"~ ('oaslal dune . ., ~ ,.......... " Rock,. beach

:~ \ "" ~


9 ,~

ebblv beach

~ t-'x; t ~ '

">" " 3,," ~" . cha an 7 it

3 (a)-(c). Their distribution and field characteristics have been described by Powar et al. (1978, I979a,b), Sawant (1980), Patil (1981), Sukhtankar et al. (1986), Sukhtankar ( 1986, 1989), Pandian and Sukhtankar (1989) and Patti eta/. (1988). DISCUSSION The associations and dislribntion ol the :,ibo\c geomorphic features are characteristic of any coastal tract. where fluvial and marine systems merge. Numerous small islands are present just offshorc of the Maharashtra coast, viz., Chaul, Kadu. Rat, Sansa Fort. Janjira Fort, Butcher, Underi, Khanderi, Arnala, etc. These islands are the result of marine erosion and appear linearl 5 placed, parallel to the coastline, suggesting that their formation is structurally controlled. Their linearity parallels the trend of the West Coast Fault. Straight line segments of the coast are represented by linear beaches, while aerial photographs and L A N D S A T images indicate lineaments. Such a pattern is shown in Figs 3 (a)-(c) and 4, which indicate disposition in an en echelon fashion. Drifting of the Indian subcontinent with anti clockwise rotation is a possible explanation for such a pattern of linear beaches and coastlines (Sukhtankar, 1989) Absence of marine erosional features north of lat. 18', 50"

..~" Vidal alplain Alluvial

.......... Swamp and mud Creek Seiflemcnt Road

Sand,' beach



t'1(~ ~ b I G c o m o r p h o l o g i c a l map of the Alibag B o r l a i - P a n c h a i t a n area.

N led Powar el al. (1978) to suggest a hinge fault along the trend o1' Kundalika River. To the south of the Kundalika Rivet', marine erosional features and the ria type coast have led Bruckner (1987) to suggest that the Maharashtra Coast is a submerged coast. A similar conclusion was reached by Ahmad (1972). Along with the features of marine erosion, raised marine terraces have also been observed The marine terrace lithology and their disposition patterns indicate that they' represent regressional facies and coastal p,-ogradation, which occurred during Quaternary sea-level changes. Vertical sections of these deposits are shown in Fig. 5. The deposits are about 2-5 m thick. Field characteristics have been described by Powar et al. (1978, 1979a,b). The occurrence of an additional marine terrace with low elevation from the southern part of the Maharashtra coast has also been reported (Sukhtankar el al., 1986). This terrace is observed south of Ratnagiri but is absent to the north of

Evolutionary Model based a Geomorphologic and Tectonic Characteristics


'"..... i%::<-"-....

' "~ijiif,',:,]I j it,

17" ~-5' l0

Miles 10

0 25 Km



.' ",' '

7" % 17 30'

Dabhol Creek

J 7~N _. 00 Ratnagiri


_16N 00'
Vengurla ~ / " " ~" Lineaments,

73 k00'E 21 aigarh Creek 17 15' FIG. 4. Major lineaments, linear coastal tracts and their en echelon disposition.

LEGEND Kalbadevi Hill ranges 17 [~7] River bed [[~] Colluvial slope Tidal flats/ alluvial plains Mud flats Marine terrace 16 45' [~ [~ Sandy beach/ coastal dunes Rocky beach Marine cliff [~ N 16 73 3-0' L00'E Road Purangac Creek Bha


Pavas Creek

[[[] Settlements

Rajapuri Creek Vijaydurg Creek / 73o] 15 , ~ ~ x,.-........_._ -

FIG. 3(c). Geomorphological map of the west coast of India between Sriwardhan and Vijaydurg, Maharashtra.

Ratnagiri. This suggests that the southern part of the Maharashtra Coast, south of Ratnagiri, has experienced regressive sedimentation and therefore coastal progradation. Proximity of this terrace to the present high tide mark, compared to the terrace that occurs to the north and south of Ratnagiri, indicates that it is relatively younger in age. The possible uplift of the coast south of Ratnagiri can explain the presence of this terrace on this part of the coast and the absence on the coast north of Ratnagiri. The Maharashtra coast has experienced both

transgression and regression of sea-level during the Quaternary (Kale and Rajaguru, 1985). Lower stillstand levels on the western continental shelf of India at -92 m, -85 m, -75 m and -55 m between lat. 14 and 20 have been reported by Nair (1974). These stillstands are assigned to the Holocene transgression that followed maximum of the last glacial regression. It has been suggested by Kale and Rajaguru (1985) that about 6000 BP, sea-level was almost the same as that of today. Between 6000 and 2000 BP it rose to about 3-4 m above the present sea-level. A curve plotting sea level data (Kale and Rajaguru, 1985) shows two instances about 4.2 to 4.3 ka BP and about 2.2 to 2.8 ka BP, when sea-level was above the present datum. The raised marine terraces, observed on the coast seem to have developed in response to these changes. The raised marine terrace of about 4 m elevation, that developed all along the coast to lat. 19 N, indicates a uniform response of the coastline to changing sea-level. However, the development of a second raised marine terrace of about 0.5 m elevation south of Ratnagiri indicates a differential response of the coastline. Considering the nature of lineaments and the spatial distributions of the regressional facies of sedimentation, the Maharashtra coast can be divided into three blocks, as shown in Fig. 4. With respect to changing seaqevels, concurrent but differential vertical movement of these blocks is responsible for the distributions of marine erosional and depositional geomorphic features. An evolutionary model of the Maharashtra coast is suggested and diagrammatically presented in Fig. 6. Such an evolutionary model explains the differential response of each block, the distribution of geomorphic features of marine origin including raised marine terraces, and the development of broader river valleys and river terraces at the river mouths. In conclusion, transgressional-regressional phases of sea-

4.03.5 3.0 2.5 -"2.0 1.5
4 1.0 -.~

R,K, Sukhtankar

Compact sands

Fine sand with silt G r a v e l s with silt Gravels with fine sand

0.5 0 Kasid (a)


Gravels with silt

Dive A g a r ( b )

35 f 3.11 2.5 2.(} 1.5 1.0 0.5 0

Borlai (c)

2"5 I 2.0

I1) l o5 o
Nagaon (d)

FIG, 5. Vertical sections of the Quaternary Scdinients, exposed along the Maharashtra Coast.




Bh~ck I

Submergence followed hy Emergence

, ~" , .....


"" /_ i " i ]:'


Submergence followed by t,~L'~ Emergence in succession " ~ ~ ""~ .~, 5 i.-"/" I~';~'; ?" " ""
. .-,<% f

Bh)ek Ill

L'~_~ Originalposition~)1block', FIG. 6. An evolutionary model showing three blocks of the Maharashmt Coast and their possible responses.

level change, in combination with differential vertical movements of the three blocks are responsible in shaping and carving out geomorphic features in the coastal tract of Maharashtra. REFERENCES
Ahmad, E. (1972). ('oa,~ta/Geomo/7~hoh~gv ~?]huha. ()rient Longman. Nov, Delhi, 222 pp,

Audcn, ,I.B. (1949). Dykes in western India -- A discussion of their relationship with the Deccan Traps. 7)'ansaetions (?f"the National Institute ~![ Science, India, 3, 123-159. ,\uden, J.B. (1975) Report on the problem of seismicity associated with the Koyna Reservoir, Maharashtra. Report, Government of Maharashtra, hrigation Department, Koyna Dam and Design Circle, Poona. Balkrishnan, T.S. and Sharma, D.S, ( 1981 ). Tectonics of west coast of India. Bulletin ON, G.C., 1812). t'~is~as. S.K. 11982). Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch Basin Bull., A,A.P.G., 66, 1497-1513. Bruckner, HI. (1987). New data on the evolution of Kokan (western India). hi: Datye, V.S., Diddee, J.. Jog, S.R. and Patil. Ch. (eds), Erploratiml,~ i~t the Tropics, K.R. Dikshit Felicitation vol., pp. 173 184. t haudrasekharum, D. (1985). Structure and evaluation of the Western Continental Margin of India deduced lrom gravity, seismic, geomagnetic and geochronological studies. Physics ~)['the Earth and Pkmetarv Interiors, 41, 186-198. ('hattcr]ee, S.P. ( 1961 ). Fluctuations of sea level around the coasts of India during the Quaternary period. Zeit,/io" ,q,eomorphologie, N.S. Suppl. Berlitt, 3, 48-56. t)as, SR. and Ray. A.K. 11977]. Lineament pattern, hot springs and Earthquake m the west coast of India - A synoptic study of remote sensing. Geol. Surv. Ind. News, 7, 6 I 1. I)ikshit. K.R. !1976). Geomorphic features of the west coast of Indi~L between Bombay and Goa. Geography Review, India, 3813), 2602Sl i',remenko. N,A. and Dutta, A.K.I. (I 968). Regional geological framework and evolution of the petroleum prospects of the Laccadive Archipelago and the adjoining offshore territory, South India. Bull. O.N.G.C.. 5, 29~-(). Fairbridge, R.W. and Finkl, C.W. (1988). I.G.C.P. 274: Coastal evolution in the Quaternary - - Note lnaug. Meet., The Netherlands, pp. I 4 Gubm, I. E. (1969). Seismic zoning of the western margin of the Indian Peninsula in Maharashtra State. UNESCO Report No. 1519/BMS/RD/SCE, Part 2, Paris (kuha. S.K, Gosavi, P.D., Krishna Nand, Padale, J.G. and Marwadi, S.C. t l974a). Koyna earthquake (Oct. 1963 to Dec. 1973). C.W.P.R.S., Khadakwasla, Poona.

Evolutionary Model based on Geomorphologic and Tectonic Characteristics Guha, S.K., Gosavi, P.D., Agarwal, B.N.P., Padale, J.G. and Marwadi, S.C.I. (1974b). Case histories of some artificial disturbances. Engineering Geology, 8(4), 59-77. Harbison, R.N. and Bassinger, B.G.I. (1973). Marine geophysical study of western India. Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 433-440. Kaila, K.L., Reddy, P.R., Dixit, M.M. and Lazarenko, M.A. (1981). Deep crustal structure at Koyna, Maharashtra indicated by deep seismic sounding. Geological Society of lndia Journal, 1-16. Kailasam, L.N., Murthy, B.G.K. and Chayanulu, A.Y.S,R. (1972). Regional gravity studies of the Deccan Trap area of Peninsular India. Current Science, 41,403-407. Kale, V.S. and Rajaguru, S.N.I. (1985). Neogene and Quaternary transgressional and regressional history of the west coast of India - - An Overview. Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. Pune, 44, 153-167. Klootwijk, C.G. (1979). A review of palaeomagnetic data from Indo-Pakistan fragment of Gondwanaland. In: A. Farah and K.A. De Jong (eds), Geodynamics of Pakistan, Pakistan Geol. Surv., pp. 4186. Krisbnan, M.S. (1953). Geology oflndia and Burma. Higginbothams (P) Ltd., 536 pp. Nair, R.R. (1974). Holocene sea-levels on the western continental shelf of India. Proceedings of the India Academy of Science, 79(5), 197203. Pandian, R.S. and Sukhtankar, R.K. (1989). A study of the tidal clastics from Agashi and Bassein Creeks, Thane Dist. Maharashtra. Geol. Surv. Ind., Misc. Publ. 24, 349-354. Patil, D.N. (1981). Geomorphology and tectonics of the west coast of India between Palghar and Thai., India. Ph.D. thesis, submitted to University of Poona, 178 pp. (unpublished). Patil, D.N., Sukhtankar, R.K. and Powar, K.B. (1988). Geomorphic evolution of the Kokan coastal belt between Palghar and Vijaydurg, Maharashtra, India, Proc. Natl Sem. Quaternary Studies in India. Patel, M.P. & Desai Nikhil (eds), pp. 198-210. Powar, K.B., Sukhtankar, R.K., Patil, D.N. and Sawant, P.T. (1978). Geomorphology and tectonics of the west coast of India between Revas

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and Sriwardhan, Kolaba Dist., Maharashtra, Techn. Report No. 1, Department of Geology, Poona University, submitted to O.N.G.C., Dehra Dun (unpublished). Powar, K.B., Sukhtankar, R.K., Patil, D.N. (1979a). Geomorphology and tectonics of the west coast of India between Palghar and Revas, Maharashtra, Techn. Report No. 2, Dept. of Geology, Poona University, submitted to O.N.G.C., Dehra Dun (unpublished). Powar, K.B., Sukhtankar, R.K. and Sawant, P.T. (1979b). Geomorphology and tectonics of the west coast of India between Sriwardhan and Vijaydurg. Techn. Report No. 3, Dept. of Geology, Poona University, submitted to O.N.G.C. Dehra Dun (unpublished). Powell, C.Mc.A. (1979). A speculative tectonic history of Pakistan surroundings; some constraints from the Indian Ocean. In: A Farah and K.A. De Jong (eds), Geodynamics of Pakistan, Pakistan Geol. Surv., pp. 5-24. Sawant, P.T. (1980). Geological studies of the coastal tract between Alibag and Sriwardhan, Kolaba Dist., Maharashtra, India. Ph.D. thesis, submitted to University of Poona, 164 pp. (unpublished). Sukhtankar, R.K. (1986). Trends in grain-size measures of the Quaternary sediments off the Vengurla coast, Maharashtra, with reference to beach morphology and tectonic evolution. Geological Society of India Journal, 27(5), 419-427. Sukhtankar, R.K. (1989). Coastal geomorphic features in relation to neotectonics along the coastal tract of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Geological Survey of lndia, Special Publication, 24, 319-325. Sukhtankar, R.K., Pawar, J.B. and Kulkarni, M.B. (1986). Quaternary sediments in relation to geomorphology and tectonics along the Vengurla Coast, Maharashtra. Science and Culture, 52, 95-98. Tiwari, M.P. (1984). Morpho-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the west coastal tract of Maharashtra. Geological Survey oflndia, Rec. 113, 113-125. Valsangkae, A.B., Radhakrishnamurthy, C., Subbarao, K.V. and Beckinsale, R.D. (1981). Palaeomagnetism and potassium-argon age studies of acid igneous rocks from St. Mary's Islands. Geological Society of India Memoir, 3, 265-276.