1933 London Conference: -Global depress mitigation effort -Roosevelt eventually pulled out, favoring domestic over international

care Tydings-McDuffie Act: -Philippines gets its independence -Why? -Businesses wanted to get rid of Filipo sugar makers -The gov wanted to get rid of Filipo liability Foreign Policy -FDR recognized USSR in 1933 hoping for trade -US crept into isolationism -Led to the good neighbor policy—US withdrew from Haiti, Uruguay, etc. Even with (Mexican) hurdles. Increased US-Latin relations -Reciprocal Trade Agreements (1934), reversed high tariff World War II -World War I led to many dictatorships that played off of nationalism and economic decline. Hitler manipulated poverty to get what he wanted -Rome Berlin Axis: Mussolini and Hitler alliance -Japanese Aggression: Ended the Washington Naval Treaty and armed itself -Mussolini attacked Ethiopia in 1935, League of Nations fails to protect US response so far- Isolationism continues. Johnson Debt Default Act prevents anyone who has debts from the US to take out any more money They really liked this neutrality and so they formed the Nye Committee to access whether weapons manufacturers were pro war From 1935 to 1937, Neutrality Acts: America couldn’t sail with, sell to, or loan to any belligerent nation THE PROBLEM WAS these acts were created for a war like WWI not WWII Spanish Action Francisco Franco, dictator, took over Spain between 1936 and 1939 America just stood by and put an embargo on loyals, supported by USSR, and rebels, supported by Hitler. Japan FDR took a step away from isolationism, to the backlash of many Americans, when he sold China weapons during a “conflict” (not a war) when Japan invaded them. He wanted to Quarantine Japan and gave a famous Quarantine Speech

Japan then bombed and sank the American ship the Panay but apologized and conflict was resolved Germany European powers were fairly lenient to German mandatory military service, conquest, and persecution because they thought it was only temporary At the 1938 Munich Conference, the Allies agreed to let Hitler have part of Czechoslovakia, but Hitler took over ALL of it. On top of that, Russia signed a non-aggression treaty with Germany! People were scared. Entering the War When Germany took over Poland and France, Britain finally declared war (1939). -Key note:Americans were pro-allies, but anti-fighting and that’s why they didn’t enter -HOWEVER, America changed it’s Neutrality laws so that European powers, excluding Germany who didn’t have access to American seas, could get weapons on a cash and carry basis (use their own ships). -When France was conquered by Germany, Hitler had conquered most of the powerful countries. All that was left was Britain. -As a result American finally began military policies, Roosevelt creating a peacetime draft and increasing military spending -American warned Germany to not take over colonies in the US at the Havana Conference 1940 and on When Germany planned to attack Britain, American became divided into two groups: Committee to Defend American by aiding the Allies—pro war—and America First Committee—Isolationists -FDR crept out of isolationism—gave Britain destroyer weapons while they gave the US base sites -Presidential election was new Republican Willkie vs. Roosevelt (running for a third term). -They weren’t different in their views, the issue came down to whether having a third term outweighed Roosevelt’s capability and strength

-The Lend Lease Bill—heatedly debated in Congress—passed and America began lending ships and other items to countries who would give things back when they were done --THIS WAS THE OFFICIAL END OF NEUTRALITY. GERMANY BEGAN RECOGNIZING US SHIPS AS enemies, something it had not done before -They torpedoed the Robin Moore A Change of Circumstance -When Germany attacked Russia in 1941, lend and lease and Russian valiance and wit left Germans stranded in cold, foodless Moscow in the winter. -American neutrality acts were annulled -The Atlantic Conference led to the Atlantic Charter, which proposed: -no territorial changes contrary to those of the natural citizens -disarming -no dictators Some people thought America was still neutral and was interfering Pearl Harbor While all of World War II was happening, Japan and China were fighting. America put embargos on key Japanese supplies, and Japan had the choice to either stop being imperialistic or attack America The US knew attack was coming, but thought it would come in Philippines or British Malaya, not close to home, but in 1941, Japan struck at Pearl Harbor The next day, America declared war on Japan and Germany and Italy declared war on the US This led to an increased nationalism that isolation wouldn’t work against “iron wolves” and so only full war could prevent democracy HOWEVER, FDR steered this anger towards Germany and not Japan. Just enough troops were sent to Japan. War and unity The war united most groups in the US, but Japanese Americans were taken from their homes and discriminated against Korematsu vs. The US affirmed this as constitutional 

New Deal policies were removed War and Money The war made a lot of money for the US—jobs and production. It ended the Great Depression! The US was back to its ration policies of the World War I days—nonessential products were put on halt, speed limits imposed to prevent the need for more tires Striking was kept at a minimum, but when Miners did it, the gov passed the SmithConnelly Anti Strike Act, suspending rights to prevent interior instability War and Minorities Many women came into arms and jobs and unlike after WWI, didn’t come back home after the war ended Because there was a shortage of employees, the Braceros program brought people over from Mexico FDR tried to get people to move to the South, but blacks weren’t very unhappy and threatened to march to Washington under a man named Randolph. FDR passed a number of equality policies and agencies including: Fair Employment Practices Commission Congress of Racial Equality Because there were extra jobs and agriculture like cotton could be done with tech, blacks and Native Americans now went to urban areas to work there Though racism wasn’t super widespread because the nation was busy, there were some conflicts like a 1943 Mex-America conflict Looking Back on War America was basically the only country that came out of the war unscathed The economy was prosperous though income tax was expanded and debt rose because this was te most expensive war Japan: Part II Japan was still taking over a lot of places, and fighters in the Philippines were forced to make the Bataan Death March. America and Australia checked the imperialism in the Coral War when Japan tried to seize Midway Island.

To push back Japan, US started Island hopping, taking over neighboring Islands to Japanese conquests and starving the Japanese until they surrendered. Germany: Part II US cracked the enigma code and prevented Germany from using its really cool new submarines Britain and the US also conducted an air raid on France and forced Germany into Egypt Britain wanted a second front, but other European nations protested, so they went through North Africa with Eisenhower’s troops. They fought the French troops and though the campaign wasn’t really successfully, a lot of important things were learned. Ending the War The Casablanca Conference had Winston Churchill and Roosevelt agree on the terms of unconditional surrender Italy put up a fight, but when Siciliy fell Mussolini was disposed of and a new government was set up Many stalemates occurred because German soldiers were still there, but in 1944, the US took Rome. The Axis powers surrendered in the 1945. Opening the Italian front led to diversion from Russia which was good for the Allies. The Tehran Conference led to the meeting of the Big Three—Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt, who agreed to launch simultaneous attacks. This was D-Day when, with help of underground French escapades, France was liberated Election of 1944 It was Dewey vs. Roosevelt. But Roosevelt was old so his vice prez was carefully chosen as Truman because Wallace was too liberal and ill-balanced FDR won because the war was going well Hitler Failing Hitler concentrated his forces in the Ardennes Fort in 1944 and began the Battle of the Bulge. This was foiled by airborne divisions commanded by McAuliffe.

America finally entered the Rhine Valley and Germany surrendered on May 7th (Hitler committed suicide) Last Battles with Japan The Leyte Gulf was the last major battle with Japan Okinawa was won over The Potsdam Conference took place and allies told Japan that they should “surrender or be destroyed” The atomic bombs were dropped that year resting on the confident assumption that Japan would surrender. Japan did, with only one condition that their

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