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Human Resources Management: A Management Function Human resources management is a division of the general science of management, thus the

principles are also applicable in the practice of personnel management. Human resource management is the function and responsibility of management; it is primarily the function and responsibility of all levels of management from the top to the lowest operating supervisor. The employees relationship with the organization is probably more directly influenced by his contacts with his immediate superior than by any other factor. Boss, who is a management man, is the one who gives him instructions and directions, who judges his performance, who compliments or criticizes him on his work and is the man who has the primary influence over the rewards and recognition that the employee receives. It is the employees superior who establishes the atmosphere in their daily relationships on the job whether or not they are friendly, satisfying, and generally pleasant or carried on in an atmosphere of tension, uncertainty, or friction. The second dimension of relationships, perhaps the most important, concerned with the basic responsibility of top management that must define its philosophy and attitudes toward its human resources and/or the union through its policies and programs. This is important for the guidance of all managers, supervisor, and employees in their relationships with each other. Top management sets the tone of the day-to-day relationship between the organization and its employees by establishing its objectives through its plans, directions, controls, and coordination of its operations. Thirdly, the lower level of management bears the brunt of direct relationship with the rank and file employees. Line supervision is the part of management that is responsible for the actual implantation of top managements basic policies and programs to achieve the organizations objectives and goals. Supervision that really carries the burden of making the policies and programs work, and is generally responsible for the productivity and profitability of the enterprise. Responsibility of All Levels of Management The organization must implement personnel policies and programs germane to their respective divisions or departments. Making and planning; at the middle management level, developing subsidiary plans, implementation of policies and objectives. Almost entirely on implementation and control measures to insure that the personnel policies and programs are carried out. Serves as staff, to render assistance and act as adviser to all levels. Unit of management has been created to assist top management in developing and in implementing personnel policies, programs, and procedures and in coordinating them with line

management in establishing a pleasant atmosphere in the organization so that each employee will contribute his best towards the success of the company. These relationships will make every subordinate feel responsible for his job, give him a chance to exercise his initiative and generate in him a feeling of importance. Personnel Management Defined Personnel management may be defined as the function of management concerned with promoting and enhancing the development of work effectiveness and advancement of the human resources in the organization. Proper planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of activities related to procurement, development, motivation, and compensation of employees to achieve the goals of the enterprise. Management Functions Human resources management embraces two functions: (1) planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling; (2) the operative functions which cover the daily activities of the business such as procurement placement and utilization of employees, motivating, and compensating employees. Planning refers to the job of determining a proposed mode of action based upon a full understanding of the factors involved, and directed at specific objectives which take into consideration the priorities desired by management. Involves looking ahead in order to anticipate possible stumbling blocks and eliminating them before they occur. The objective is to create a favorable climate for human resources in the organization. In human resources management, planning enters in the formulation of personnel policies, programs, and activities directed to achieve the goals of the enterprise. Human resources manager is appointed by top management to assist and aid line management in the implementation and coordination of their policies and programs. The functions essential in carrying out these policies and programs are determined in advance so that there is a ready procedure that can help anticipate difficulties, thus facilitating the accomplishment of objectives. Good planning improves working relationships; helps in the accomplishment of employees assigned duties and responsibilities in achieving objectives. Organizing refers to the arrangement and relationships of jobs and position which are necessary to carry out the personnel programs as determined by top management. It establishes lines of responsibility, authority and communication. Division of work is allocated to proper working groups, each of which knows its assignments and its relationships with other groups whether

above, equal to, or subordinate to other groups. The purpose of organization is to ensure smooth operation of the various activities required in achieving the objectives. Directing is concerned with the guidance of all efforts toward a stated objective. It provides a means of putting plans into action through effective supervision, work rules, and procedures. The technique of good communications is utilized in carrying out the tasks of directing. If workers know their duties and responsibilities, they can work with greater efficiency and accomplish more. IN getting things done, the effective manager uses the principles of leadership, motivation, and human relations that make the worker perform his work with enthusiasm. Coordinating is a method of getting people in an organization to work together harmoniously to achieve a common goal with minimum expenditure of effort and materials. This provides the orderly synchronization of efforts through correct timing and sequence of execution, resulting in harmonious and unified action in pursuit of common objectives. Coordination is a fundamental function, providing an orderly arrangement and execution of the activities. By means of coordination, managers strive for a smooth working together of all necessary actions, each in the proper amount and executed in the proper time and place. Controlling is concerned with keeping all efforts within the channels prescribed by management as shown in the personnel plan for the entire organization to ensure that the organization is accomplishing its purpose. When the program is being implemented, changes or deviations may have to be made when necessary. Operative Functions The operative functions of personnel management cover the details of the responsibilities and tasks necessary to carry out policies and programs related to personnel. 1. Procurement of employees recruitment, selection, hiring, and placement of employees. The selection and hiring of employees must take into account the proper qualifications of personnel necessary to accomplish organization objectives. 2. Placement and utilization of employees After an employee is hired and trained, he is expected to contribute the maximum of his abilities towards attaining the productivity objectives of the company. It would be frustrating for the company to have spent time and money in recruiting and training an employee only find him non-productive.

Maximum productivity of an employee, however, is possible only if after training, he is placed on a job where his skills and experience would be best utilized and where he would be happy. 3. Training and development of employees This refers to the employees acquisition of knowledge, development of skill in the job, and proper work attitudes. This is an important phase of personnel management, for it helps the employee become more useful and valuable to the company. 4. Motivating employees This is the means by which the employees are inspired to work achieve the objectives of the organization effectively. An important task of management is to harness human energy and organize it into a powerful team willing and eager to work in order to make the company more solid and secure. Motivation is the driving power which carries out the plans of management through group enthusiasm. Human being are motivated to work willingly, not because of money alone, but because of other considerations like the kind of human relations in the firm, the quality of leadership, and the attitude of management toward the employees. 5. Compensating The objectives of a good compensation plan are to attract and retain well qualified employees in the organization and to reward them for good performance. A lot of good employees leave the organization because of poor compensation policies. Compensation should not only be adequate and competitive, but it should also be fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory. It must satisfy three requirements which are basic in human motivation namely: (1)It should satisfy the economic needs of the employee, as well as of his immediate dependents; (2)It should satisfy his psychological feeling that his pay is fair and reasonable in relation to the pay received by other employees and how the community in which he lives regards his status; (3)It should provide an extra reward (incentives) to the employee for doing his job better than what is expected of him. A formal compensation plan should be supported by well structured jobs, properly evaluated and ranked, as well as by pay scale that provides for flexibility and growth. Human Resources Management and Personnel Resources Department Distinguished Human resources management is the main function and responsibility of management because the organization is comprised of people. It means that the management of the human resources is primarily a function of and the

responsibility of line supervisors and managers who are responsible for planning, organizing, directing, controlling and coordinating the work of their subordinates to attain the desired objectives. Supervisors and managers perform human resource management functions in their own respective units. The human resources department is an organizational unit established by top management to assist the other units in the organization in their performance of personnel management functions. It is a service unit known as staff. As a staff department, its functions are to advise, serve, assist, counsel, and facilitate the work of line supervisors and managers in their task of managing their respective personnel. Staff which is useful in modern business management in the light of increasing complexities in managing the enterprise as a result of the development of business firms into big corporations with a multiplicity of functions, the growth and strength of labor unions, the passage of social and labor legislations, and the recognition of the individual worker as a human being. The personnel or human resources department is a creation of modern business management with the objective of developing good employee relations. It coordinates the personnel functions in every level of management. Responsibilities of the Personnel or Human Resources Department 1. Developing and Administering Personnel Policies and Programs The personnel department helps management to formulate personnel programs, policies, and procedures and after approval by top management, administers them. This department also helps explain and interpret management policies to employees and brings to managements attention the employees views on these policies, thus bridging any communication gap between management and employee. 2. Assisting Line Management This necessitates the employment of trained counselors to guide employees in meeting their personal and family problems. While counseling does not aim chiefly to solve the problems of employees, it is a service that can help make people remain in their jobs and do productive work at the same time that they enjoy a pleasant family life. It is therefore one of the responsibilities of the personnel department to assist line supervisor in discharging their personnel administration responsibilities. Such assistance may be provided through: a. Employee recruitment, selection, hiring, and placement b. Determination of what skills are available in the work group c. Employee counseling and human relations d. Discipline, complaints and grievances e. Employee benefits and services f. Medical and hospitalization facilities

g. Encouraging safety and accident prevention h. Employee training and development to enable line management upgrade employee knowledge and skills i. Employee suggestion system j. Labor relations problems k. Personnel records and files This also includes among others the handling of grievances and disciplinary problems, the negotiation and administration of union contracts, and the maintenance of good rapport with union officials. Problems at home or at their place of work sometimes prevent employees from performing at their peak efficiency. These problems often arise when the employees do not know enough about the company personnel policies and procedures. Well-managed companies promote good communication with their employees. 3. Assisting Line Management in Personnel Appraisal An important task of the personnel department is that of helping line supervisors and managers in evaluating the performance of the personnel under their supervision. An evaluation form is designed by the personnel department with the assistance of line management and the approval of top management. It is based on practical standards which will prove useful to line supervisors in evaluating and improving employee performance. 4. Coordinating Personnel Activities The personnel department undertakes or shares operational responsibility for inter-departmental programs in personnel areas where coordination can best be achieved by some degree of centralized administration. a. Employment recruitment, selection, hiring, placement, promotion, transfer, discipline, absenteeism, termination, etc. b. Training and development of supervisors and employees c. Fringe benefits and employee services d. Wage and salary administration setting salaries and wage rates e. Employee motivation and morale development f. Health and safety including accident prevention and the promotion of good health among personnel g. Communications company internal publications, magazines, bulletins, brochures, etc. 5. Job Evaluation and Classification, and Salary Administration The personnel department studies and evaluates the jobs in the firm through job analysis and job evaluation. It recommends job classification and the establishment of a sound wage and salary structure. It administers the firms policies governing wages and salaries. 6. Employee and Labor Relations An important task of the personnel department is the negotiation, interpretation, and administration of the collective bargaining agreement. It uses its utmost tact and diplomacy in dealing with

employees and the union. It assists line management in handling problems of discipline, complaints and grievances. It keeps open the communication lines between top management and the employees. 7. Keeping Personnel Records and Files Another important function is to develop and maintain a systematic and accurate personnel records and filing system which is indispensable to management in its daily operations and decision-making on personnel matters. It was revealed that todays Personnel and Human Resources Managers perform a myriad of other functions. Thus, in addition to the responsibilities enumerated earlier, the personnel managers are also concerned with organizational development, executive compensation, career and succession planning, public relations and community development. They are also involved in corporate planning activities, elevating their status in the organization. Roles Of A Personnel Manager The personnel manager is expected to play varied roles. 1. As a Supervisor - Manager oversees the employees in his own department over whom he exercises a direct line of authority. As supervisor of his department, he plans, organizes, directs, controls and coordinates the activities of his department. He delegates some of his functions to his subordinates but checks on them through follow-ups. Since he manages the work of the employees in his department, he is their leader. He trains them and develops their skills for efficiency. 2. As an Administrative Official - He manages the personnel department. He translates into action those parts of the personnel policies and programs assigned to him. He or his staff conducts or directs certain personnel activities as provided for in the policies and programs entrusted to the department. He sees to it that labor laws and government implementing regulations are properly complied with. He and his staff represent management in administering, implementing and interpreting personnel policies. The cooperation of the personnel staff in helping line supervisors is most needed in making its administration successful.

3. As an Adviser - He serves as counselor, guide, and confidant to management, supervisors, and employees. To be a competent adviser, he must keep himself informed about employee attitudes and behavior and be abreast of trends in the industrial relations field which may affect his company. He should understand the human factors involved in management relationships to insure the success of personnel programs. 4. As a Coordinator - He brings into action all activities; regulates and combines diverse efforts into a harmonious whole; and gets together and harmonizes the work of various personnel in his department and the related functions in other departments. 5. As a Negotiator - He is usually asked either to represent management in negotiating labor contracts or to attend negotiations with unions in an advisory capacity. He is, charged with the administration of the labor contract. These are delicate and highly technical processes in labor management relations. As a negotiator and administrator of the labor contract , the personnel and industrial relations manager must understand the nature, significance, and methods of collective bargaining. 6. As an Educator - Functions are to sell the employees point of view to management and the line supervisors and the managements point of view to the employees and supervisors. He conducts or administers the companys training program. His influence and authority in the firm should enable him to counsel and assist the employees and stimulate the organization in developing good employee relations. 7. As a Provider of Service - The personnel manager occupies a position in a company which best provide certain services to all employees. He can initiate action, for instance, to help employees

obtain facilities with government agencies like SSS, Medicare, etc., which can make their employment more satisfying. 8. As an Employee Counselor - One of the functions of a personnel manager is employee counseling. His knowledge and training in human relations and the behavioral sciences plus his familiarity with company operations, puts him in the best position to counsel employees. Counseling has been found to be one of the most effective means of threshing out the problems between the management and the employees. To make his counseling service effective, he must win the confidence and trust of the employees as their confidante. 9. As a Promoter of Community Relations - The personnel manager must be well informed of the activities and developments in the environment where the enterprise operates. At times, he is called upon to project a favorable image of company. Or he may participate in affairs beneficial to the interests not only of his organization but also of the community. 10. As a Public Relations Man - The personnel manager may not be the public relations officer of the firm but his functions require him to deal with the various publics of the company, such as the employees, the unions, the general public , and the community.