# IFET COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHATRONICS-UNIT-III 1.

Explain Mechanical building blocks and electrical building blocks with diagram.
1. Basic elements of mechanical system- Springs, dashpots, masses 2. Properties of MBS- mass directed, mechanical tension, vibration. 3. Input & output of MBS - Force, acceleration, fluid resistance. 4. Examples of MBS – springs, dashpot, masses 5. Spring represented by- stiffness, force, displacement. 6. Diagram for spring - applied force, extension, constant, spring, input, output. 7. Masses represented by- mass, force, acceleration. 8. Diagram of mass & inertia – Force, acceleration, mass. 9. Dash pot represented by- damping ratio, force, velocity. 10. Diagram of dashpot - Velocity of piston, a constant, force, resistance, fluid. 11. Diagram of spring-dashpot-mass –force, stiffness, mass, damper. 12. Advantages of MBS models- stiffness, load withstand, vibration less. 13. Basic EBS- inductors, capacitors, resisters 14. Equation of PD of inductors – sum, 15. Equation of PD of capacitors16. Equation of resistor PD17. Laws of EBS - Kirchhoff’s current law, voltage law, combination. 18. Node & mesh analysis- Total current flowing, towards the junction, from the junction. 19. Diagram for node analysis- Applied voltage, resistance. Current, point. 20. Diagram for mesh analysis- Applied voltage, resistance, current, loop. 21. Diagram of resistor-capacitor – Applied voltage, resistance, capacitor, current.

(8+8)

22. Diagram of resistor-inductor-capacitor - Applied voltage, resistor, capacitor,

inductance, current.
23. Diagram of resistor-inductor – Resistance, applied voltage, inductance.. 24. Mechanical vs electrical – analogies, velocity: voltage, capacitance: inertia. 25. Applications of electrical systems- LCR circuit, find potential difference, form circuit.

2. Discuss briefly about the fluid and thermal system with neat sketches and relations. (8+8)
1. Fluid building block- electrical resistance, inductance and capacitance. 2. Components of FBS 3. Differentiate hydraulic & pneumatic 4. Hydraulic resistance- flow resistance, liquid flow, changes in pipe diameter. 5. Diagram of FBS – Volumetric rate of flow, pressure difference, flow control. 6. Symbol of hydraulic resistance – valve, Rate of flow, pressure difference. 7. Hydraulic capacitance- energy storage, results, potential energy. 8. Diagram of hydraulic capacitance9. Explain hydraulic inertance- equivalent inductance, electrical, spring, mechanical. 10. Diagram of hydraulic inertance- Mass, force, area. 11. Applications of fluid block 12. Fluid system13. Classifications of thermal system- Thermal resistance, thermal capacitance. 14. Thermal resistance- rate, heat flow, temperature difference, resistance. 15. Equations of conduction & convection 16. Thermal capacitance – measure, store of energy, system. 17. Diagram of thermal block18. The first order differential equation of thermal system-

19. Lumped parameter considered as 20. Thermal system Equations arrived by-

21. Applications of thermal system22. Advantages of TBB23. Fluid vs thermal system24. Building blocks in design25. Building blocks in research-

3. Describe the following with diagrams and equations (a) Rotational-translational systems

(6+10)

1. Rotational-translational systems- Rotational motion, pinion, translational motion, racks. 2. Examples of RTS – Racks & pinion, lead screws shafts, pulley & cable systems. 3. Components of RTS- Input torque, output torque, rack, pinion. 4. Equation of torque in RTS - (Tin-Tout)=I(dw/dt) 5. Diagram of rack and pinion6. Equation of force with friction 7. Output Equation of RTS-

8.Applications of rack and pinion9. Advantages of RTS -

(b) Electromechanical systems
10. Electromechanical devices- Potentiometer, motor, generators. 11. Use of potentiometer- input, rotation, output, potential difference. 12. Diagram of rotary potentiometer- Angle swept, slider, potential difference, output. 13. Equation of rotary potential meter- vo, V. 14. Diagram of DC motor driving a load-

15. Diagram of one wire of armature16. Armature controlled motors17. Draw DC motor circuits and explains with equations18. Field controlled motors and give its diagram19. Circuit diagram of armature controlled motor20. Net torque equation of field controlled motor21. Net torque equation of armature controlled motor22. Compare armature and field controlled motors23. Characteristics of armature controlled motors24. Characteristics of field controlled motors25. Applications of armature and field controlled motors-

4. Explain about continuous and discrete process controllers and their modes. (8+8)
1. Need of closed loop control- used to compare the output of a system with the required

condition and convert the error into a control action designed to reduce the error.
2. Error signal3. Control mode- Number of ways by which a control unit can react to an error signal and

supply an output for correcting elements.
4. Applications of sequence operating machines5. PLC and its uses in controlling-

6. Compare PLC with computer7. Lag in control system8. Example of lag in control system9. Steady state error10. Diagram of unity feedback system and explain it11. Elements of unity feedback system12. Equation of unity feedback system-

13. control modes used in continuous and discrete controls14. Looking back15. Diagram of PI control and its characteristics16. Diagram of controlled output with time of proportional action17. Diagram of controlled output with time of integral action18. Equation of proportional constant, derivative constant and integral constant19. Equation of proportional band and change in output20. Transfer function of proportional controller21. Offset in proportional mode of control22. Application of proportional mode of control23. Electronic proportional controller24. Diagram of electronic proportional controller25. Equations of voltage of proportional control-

5. Explain the following with neat diagrams and its characteristics. (a) Two step mode

(4*4)

1. Example of two step mode of control- Bimetallic thermostat. 2. Working of two step mode control- This action tends to be used where changes are

taking place very slowly.
3. Diagram of two step control- Heater supply, temperature, controller switch point. 4. Characteristics of two step mode of control- Is not very precise, but it does involve

simple device and is thus fairly cheap.
5. Diagram of oscillations with two step control- Control switch position, time,

temperature.
6. Diagram of two control with the controller switch points- Heater supply, dead band,

temperature, controller switch point.

7. Applications of two step control mode- Control the speed of motor, and operational

amplifiers.
(b)

proportional mode

8. Applications of proportional mode of control9. Proportional mode of control- Size of controller output is proportional to the size of

error.
10. Characteristics of proportional control of mode11. Diagram of proportional band- Controller output, error. 12. Equation of proportional control and explain it13. Error expressed in proportional mode of control- KP= 100/ proportional band.

(c)

derivative control

14. Derivative control- Change in controller output from the set point value is proportional

to the rate of change with time of the error signal.
15. Derivative control be expressed as- Set point output value, output value that will occur

when the error is changing at the rate de/dt.
16. Transfer function of derivative control- Iout, Io, s. 17. Diagram of derivative control with respect to response time- Constant rate of change

of error.
18. Characteristics of derivative control varied with integral mode of control19. Diagram of proportional plus derivative control- Differentiator, inverter. 20. Derivative time constant- TD = KD/KP

(d)

integral control.

21. Integral control- Where the rate of change of the control output I is proportional to input

error signal e.
22. Equation of integral control- dI/dt = K1e 23. Equation of transfer function of integral control- 1/s (k1) 24. Characteristics of integral control-

25. Integral time constant-

6. Discuss briefly about digital and velocity controllers.
1. In which control process digital controllers are used-

(8+8)

2. When the direct digital control is used- The digital controller requiring inputs which

are digital, process the information in digital form and give an output in digital form.
3. Operating cycle of events of digital controllers4. Accuracy of digital control5. Characteristics of digital controller6. Computer controlled system7. Controller performance-Receives input from sensors, Executes control programs,

Provides the output to the correction elements.
8. Diagram of system with proportional control and explain it- Controller output, error,

proportional band.
9. Diagram of system with integral control and explain it- Integrator, summing

amplifier.
10. Diagram of system with derivative control- Constant rate of change of error with time,

time.
11. Transfer function equation of proportional control- Change in output(s)/ E(s) 12. Transfer function equation of integral control- (1/s)K1 13. Transfer function equation of derivative control- (Iout-Io)/ E(s) 14. Controller tuning15. Process reaction curve and explanation16. Basic methods of controller tuning17. Velocity control- A second order system with proportional control system will take more

time to reach the required output when step input is given.
18. Need of velocity control19. Velocity feedback- Use of second feedback loop that gives the measurement related to

the rate at which the displacement is changing.

20. Diagram of velocity control- Input, summing amplifier, servo amplifier, motor,

rotational output, gear and screw, load, output position.
21. Block diagram of velocity control- Input, summing amplifier, servo amplifier, motor,

rotational output, gear and screw, load, output position.
22. Advantages of velocity control23. Characteristics of velocity control24. Compare digital control and velocity control25. Applications of velocity control-

(4)

ii) Discuss briefly about the logic controllers with diagrams.
1. Logic control- The sequence of steps required to perform a specific function.

(12)

2. Use of combinational logic gates3. Application of sequential logic gates4. Compare decimal and binary system-

5. Logic gates used as controllers6. Use of AND gate and its diagram- Is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction. 7. Standard symbol of AND gate and its truth table-

8. Use of OR gate and its representation diagram- The OR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction.

9. Symbol of OR gate and its truth table-

10. Use of NOT gate and its representation diagram- Accepts only one input and the

output is the opposite of the input.

11. Symbol of NOT gate and its truth table-

12. Use of NAND gate and its representation diagram-The output is high when either of

inputs A or B is high, or if neither is high.

13. Pulse diagram of NAND gate14. Boolean equations for AND, NOT, NAND and OR gate15. Use of NOR gate-The output is high only when neither A nor B is high. 16. Diagrams of NOR gate and its truth table-

17. XOR gate- The output from this gate will be a 1 only when one or other of the input is a

1.
18. Diagram of XOR gates and its truth table-

19. Applications of logic gate controllers- Used to make flip-flops and other vital electronic components.

8. i) Briefly discuss about the microprocessor control with block diagram. memory) decodes and executes instruction.

(12)

1. Microprocessor- A program controlled semi conductor device (IC), which fetches (from

2. Explain ALU and control unit- Perform arithmetic and logic functions on eight bit

variables.
3. Register and its uses- It has eight addressable 8-bit register and two 16-bit register. 4. Use of accumulator register and status register- Used in arithmetic, logic, load, and

store operation and in input/output operation.
5. Function and its use of program counter register and temporary register- Stores the

address of the next instruction to be fetched.
6. Memory address register and instruction register- CPU stores opcode in register. 7. General purpose register and stack point register- B,C,D,E,H,L are 8-bit general

purpose register. Reserved area of memory in the RAM.
8. Address and data bus9. Serial I/O control- Used to transmit data bit by bit to reduce cost of cabling. 10. Timing and control status- Operation is synchronized with the help of clock signal. 11. Address buffer and data buffer- Is an 8-bit bi-directional buffer.

12. HOLD and HLDA13. INTA and INTR-

14. TRAP in interrupt control- Interrupt control has five interrupt input. TRAP is one of

the interrupt input.
15. Use of RESET IN and RESET OUT16. ALE and interrupt control- The processor fetches, decodes and execute instruction in

sequence.
17. ROM, PROM and EPROM18. Incrementer and Decrementer- 16-bit register is used to increment or decrement the

program counter or stock pointer as a execution of instruction related to them.
19. SID and SOD- Serial I/O control provides SID and SOD for serial communication. 20. Applications of MP- Greater variety of program become feasible.

ii) Explain about PID controllers.

(4)

21. Diagram of controlled output with time of PID control- Resister, capacitor. 22. Advantage of PID control- Considering this as a proportional controller which has

integral control to eliminate the offset error and derivative control to reduce time lags.
23. Three mode controllers- Combining all three modes of control enable a controller to be

produced which has no offset error and reduce tendency for oscillation.
24. Equation of transfer function of PID controller- Transfer function= KPe+(1/s)

(K1)E(s)+sKD(s)
25. Diagram of error signal of PID controller and explain-

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