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Four basic functions of management

Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing (leading), and controlling of an organizations resources of a choice of goods. + Planning: determining what the organizations goals are and have to get them done. It relates to goal setting and strategic planning. + Organizing: determining how to arrange best, how to assign tasks, to be performed to achieve goals effectively and efficiently. + Directing (leading): involving in interactions between manager and their subordinates to meet the organizations goals. Managers give orders and demand results, guide and motivate employees. + Controlling: monitoring (theo di, gim st) activities and make corrections to make sure that performances stay on its track (hot ng doanh nghip i ng hng)

2. Efficiency effectiveness
Efficiency (Hiu sut) Effectiveness (Hiu qu) Being able to work well without wasting Having/reaching the desired effect time and resourse. (outcome) A measure of how well/how The degree (mc ) to which an productively resources are used to organization to achieve the goals. achieve the goal. Performing the percentage of tasks. Comparing between outcome (kt qu) Do right things (lm ng vic) and costs. Effectiveness link GOALS (mc tiu Do things right. (lm vic ng cch) anh lm c) Efficiency link MEANS. (p.tin thc hin cng vic).

3. Organizational Structure (Chain of Command, Span of control, Centralization vs Decentralization, Departmentalization)

Organizational Structure: It identifies rights and responsibilities for each job position and relationships among these positions/the formal. + Organizational design involves: Chain of command Span of control Centralization vs Decentralization Departmentalization

Chain of command (chui mnh lnh): consists of Authority, responsibility, Unity of command. Span of control (phm vi kim sot, qun l): the numbers of employees that a manager can manage effectively and efficiently . Centralization (tp quyn) Decentralization (tm quyn)

- The degree to which decision making is - The degree to which lower level concentrated at high-level of the organization employees can make decisions.
Departmentalization (phn vic c th): jobs are grouped together into department.

Tasks are assigned to different department by function, product, location, customer.

4. Theory of Hierarchy of Human needs.

A Maslow developed the Hierarchy of needs theory. This theory suggests that people rank their needs into 5 categories once they achieve a given category of needs, they become motivated (thc y) to reach the next category. 5/ Self-actualization (t th hin mnh) - Maximization potential

4/ Esteem needs (c ngi khc tn trng, - Respect/ prestige/ power social status knh trng mnh) 3/ Social needs 2/ Safety needs 1/ Physiological needs (nhu cu sinh hc) - Social interaction/ acceptance by others. - Job security/ safe working condition - Foods, shelter, clothing

The hierarchy of needs theory can be useful for motivating employees because employees may be at different levels , therefore if manager recognizes employees needs, they can manage subordinates better. Theory X: A management approach based on the belief that working people: lazy, irresponsible, uncooperate must be forced/ punished/ rewarded => motivate them. Theory Y: Based on the belief that the working: hard-working, enthusiastic, cooperate. Measures: motivate them to achieve higher needs. Theory Z: It allows employees to participate in decision-making-> consensus->participation-> job satisfaction => employees can develop various skills and have a more flexible career paths.

Expectancy theory: Holds that an employees efforts are influenced by the expected outcome for those efforts. Rewards must be desirable to employees think that they have a chance to get the reward. Equity theory: Suggests that compensation should be equitable or in proportion to each employees contribution

5. Five components of HRM (Human resources management)

HRM activities that managers engage into attract and to retain high performers and contribute the accomplishment of companys goals.
Recruitment and selection

Labor relations

Training and development

Pay and benefits

Performance Appraisal (nh gi thnh qu lao ng)

Recruitment and selection: to attract and to employ new employees who have abilities,

skills, experiences.
Training and development: To train and to develop employees skills and abilities to

perform their jobs efficiently and effectively. Performance Appraisal: is the control system which help managers with the information in employees performance. Pay and benefits: to fill job position with talented employees. Labor relations: are activities to maintain the good working relationship among managers and employees.

6. Two ways of recruitment

External recruitment Internal recruitment Advantages Advantages - Attract a large candidates from the - Candidates are familiar with the labor market. organization the goals structure - To offer opportunities to new comers. corporate culture. - To find the best candidates. - HR managers know well candidates. - Push up employee motivation and morale. - Less time consuming and less expensive. Disadvantages Disadvantages - High cost of recruitment. - Limited candidates be in organizations way. - Need more training for new employees

7. Training and development Types of Training and development

- Training: teaching employees how perform their current jobs help them to acquire abilities and skills needed to become effective employees. (focusing on short-term skills). - Development: building the knowledge and skills for members so that they are prepared to take new tasks and challenge in future. (focusing on long-term abilities)

In class room setting: get experiences from the work setting. On the job training: attend the computer course and support for the current job.


In classroom setting On the job training Varied work-experience Formal training

Other training methods: a) Orientation training. b) Conferences and case discussion groups. c) Cross training: employees are taught multiple skills. d) On the job training and off the job training. e) Apprenticeship. f) Online training g) Job simulation.

8. Performance Appraisal
- It is the control system for comparing employee actual performance with the expected performance. - It is used in making decisions about Retraining Promotion # demotion Rewarding Firing - Performance appraisal serves two different purposes: + It can provide managers with the information they need to know how well employees perform their jobs and their contribution to the company. + It can provide managers with the information about the employees strengths and weaknesses for the development purpose.

9. Effects of salary and benefits toward working people.

High salary and benefits Recruit Select Retain Raise costs Costs advantages high performers Low salary and benefits Not retain Not motivate employees

The organization offer high/average/low salaries based on: + Performance + Qualifications. + Seniority + Abilities and skills. Ways of paying salaries: Depending Seniority/Degrees on Depending on job titles/job Depending task completed on job + Creativity. + Working time.

MBO - High degrees high Skills/abilities/experiences/ salaries. contribution high/low - Long working time salary high salaries.

Benefits: - Annual leave days. - Paid vacation - Sick leave - Time off for pregnancy - Moving house Salary and benefits are the marketing tools that the company used to attract qualified employees; providing employees with incentives to work effectively and efficiently; keeping talented employees from leaving and going to competitors. When the company offers unfair compensations cause employees morale problems. - Insurances: life insurance, insurance, disability insurance. - Pension plan: Fringe car/laptop/mobile phone, discount for Cos product. health

benefits, employee

10. The managerial skills:

Conceptual skills: + Ability to analyze a situation between cause and effect. + They are associated with abstract thinking. Interpersonal skills: + Ability to understand/to control the behaviors of others. + Ability to communicate/to work well with others. Technical skills: + Skills for performing specialized tasks. + Techniques require to perform tasks. Skills and qualifications: + An ability to do something well. + Learn how to do it/ how to practice it. + Education: teach people how to think. + Training: to train for a specific job. Other sub skills for managers: + Writing skills: business writing, memo, report, business letter. + Computer skills: presentation, email, the internet. + Verbal skills: give talks, access in meeting, communication skills and good speaker is a good listener. + Time management skills: how to setting priority, delegating work, dealing with interruptions. Decision making skills: - Requires the assessment of costs and benefits. - Decision making is the process of identifying problems and solving them.

11.Organazational culture (OC):

The OC is the shared at of beliefs/expectations/norms/work routines/values of an organization that influence the organizational members relating one to another and cooperate to achieve the goals. It shows how organizational members are treated. It identifies what is acceptable and what is not. Characteristics of founder
(That means the founders of a new organization play an important role in creating and maintaining the organization culture)

Employment Relationships
(HR policies and practices shape OC)

Organizational Ethics
(Foundation for OC)

Organizational culture Organization Structure

(Different kinds of structure bring different culture)

12. Six elements of Organizational Design

1. Work Specialization - Dividing work activities into job tasks: job analysis, job disruption, job specification, job title. - Each employee specialized in doing a job task in order to increase work output. - Work specialization makes employees more efficient. - Remarks: extreme work specialization leads to: boredom/fatigue, stress, monotony, increase turnover, absenteeism. 2. Departmentalization - The basic on which jobs are grouped together by similar characteristics. - Tasks are assigned and responsibilities are taken by different dept. - Departmentalization is based on: function, location, product, customers. Advantage: - Employee can develop their skills abilities. - Good coordination - CEO can direct and control various dept: minimize expenses, maximize values. Disadvantage: - Lack of communication among different departments. - Employees think only their depts. - Companys responses to external changes may be SLOW.

3. Chain of command Who reports to whom Who gives orders to whom Chain of command: Authority ( The right to give orders) Responsibility ( The obligation to perform duties) Unity of command (who reports to whom) Line authority ( quyn trc tuyn): from top to bottom bottom to top. 4. Span of control - The optimum number of employees that a manager can manage/ supervise. - The optimum number depends on skills, expertise (thnh tho), abilities of manager and employee. - Wide span of control: -> speed of decision, flexibility, empower employee, reduce costs. 5. Centralisation and Decentralisation Centralisation Decentralisation Advantages Delegation of authority can improve Good in stable environment employees morale. Low-level managers do not want to Employee get more experiences in have a SAY in dicision decision making. Decision making is more quickly. Diadvantages Hard to deal with risks/ crisis Hard to keep up with changes Employee ( low-level manage): make major decision thought they lackexperience. They maybe inable to complete all of their tasks. 6. Formalization (quy chun): job desription/ rules/ procedure/ work routines. Neceessary for: consistence (nht qun) and control.