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a) FISSION REACTION OF U-235 BOMBARDED WITH A NEUTRON: Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction that splits the nucleus of an atom into smaller, subatomic particles. It often produces free neutrons and photons. Fission of heavy elements can release large amounts of energy as electromagnetic and kinetic energy. For fission to produce energy, the total binding energy of the resulting element has to be lower than that of the original element. Fission is a form of transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element used. Nuclear fission can occur without neutron bombardment (radioactive decay). This type of fission only occurs in a few heavy isotopes. In nuclear devices, all nuclear fission occurs from a neutron bombardment process that results from the collision of two subatomic particles. In nuclear reactions, a subatomic particle collides with an atomic nucleus and causes changes to it, so nuclear reactions are thus driven by the mechanics of bombardment. The isotopes that can sustain a fission chain reaction are called nuclear fuels and are said to be fissile. The most common nuclear fuels are 235uranium and 230 plutonium. EXAMPLES: 235U + 1 neutron 235U + 1 neutron 3 neutrons + 92Kr + 141Ba + ENERGY 2 neutrons + 92Sr + 140Xe + ENERGY


Both the fission fragments and neutrons travel at high speed. The kinetic energy of the products of fission is far greater than that of the bombarding neutron and target atom. EK before fission << EK after fission Atomic mass of U = 3.9014 x 10-25 Kg Atomic mass of Cs = 2.2895 x 10-25 Kg Atomic mass of Rb = 1.5925 x 10-25 Kg

Atomic mass of n = 1.6750 x 10-27 Kg

The total mass before fission = 3.91815 x 10-25 kg The total mass after fission = 3.9155 x 10-25 kg

Total mass before fission > total mass after fission Mass difference, m = total mass before fission total mass after fission m = 3.91815 x 10-25 3.91550 x 10-25 m = 2.65 x 10-28 kg This reduction in mass results in the release of energy. E = mc2 E = 2.65 x 10-28 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.385 x 10-11 J b) FUSION REACTION COMBINING TWO ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN (DEUTRIUM AND TRITIUM) PRODUCING HELIUM: In nuclear fusion, two nuclei with low mass numbers combine to produce a single nucleus with a higher mass number.

Atomic mass of H-2 = 3.345 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of H-3 = 5.008 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of He = 6.647 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of n = 1.6750 x 10-27 Kg The total mass before fission = 8.353 x 10-27 kg The total mass after fission = 8.322 x 10-27 kg

Mass difference, m = total mass before fission total mass after fission

m = 8.353 x 10-27 8.322 x 10-27 m = 3.1 x 10-29 kg

This reduction in mass results in the release of energy. E = mc2 E = 3.1 x 10-29 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.79 x 10-12 J The energy released per fusion is 2.79 x 10-12 J.

QUESTION # 02: EXPLAIN THE WORKING OF FOLLOWING NUCLEAR REACTORS WITH THE HELP OF NEAT SKETCHES: a) PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR: The pressurized water reactor belongs to the light water type: the moderator and coolant are both light water (H2O). It can be seen in the figure that the cooling water circulates in two loops, which are fully separated from one another.

The primary circuit water is continuously kept at a very high pressure and therefore it does not boil even at the high operating temperature. (Hence the name of the type) Constant pressure is ensured with the aid of the pressurizer (expansion tank). (If pressure falls in the primary circuit, water in the pressurizers is heated up by electric heaters, thus raising the pressure. If pressure increases, colder cooling water is injected to the pressurizer. Since the upper part is steam, pressure will drop.) The primary circuit water transfers its heat to the secondary circuit water in the small tubes of the steam generator; it cools down and returns to the reactor vessel at a lower temperature.

Since the secondary circuit pressure is much lower than that of the primary circuit, the secondary circuit water in the steam generator starts to boil (red). The steam goes from here to the turbine, which has high and low pressure stages. When steam leaves the turbine, it becomes liquid again in the condenser, from where it is pumped back to the steam generator after pre-heating. Normally, primary and secondary circuit waters cannot mix. In this way it can be achieved that any potentially radioactive material that gets into the primary water should stay in the primary loop and cannot get into the turbine and condenser. This is a barrier to prevent radioactive contamination from getting out. In pressurized water reactors the fuel is usually low (3 to 4 per cent) enriched uranium oxide, sometimes uranium and plutonium oxide mixture (MOX). In today's PWRs the primary pressure is usually 120 to 160 bars, while the outlet temperature of the coolant is 300-320 C. The PWR is the most widespread reactor type in the world: they account for about 64 % of the total power of the presently operating nuclear power plants. b) BOILING WATER REACTOR: In a boiling water reactor, light water (H2O) plays the role of moderator and coolant, as well. Part of the water boils away in the reactor pressure vessel, thus a mixture of water and steam leaves the reactor core. The thus generated steam directly goes to the turbine, therefore steam and moisture must be separated (water drops in steam can damage the turbine blades). Steam leaving the turbine is condensed in the condenser and then fed back to the reactor after preheating. Water that has not evaporated in the reactor vessel accumulates at the bottom of the vessel and mixes with the pumped back feed water.

Since boiling in the reactor is allowed, the pressure is lower than that of the PWRs: it is about 60 to 70 bars. The fuel is usually uranium dioxide. Enrichment of the fresh fuel is normally somewhat lower than that in a PWR. The advantage of this type is that - since this type has the simplest construction - the building costs are comparatively low. 22.5% of the total power of presently operating nuclear power plants is provided by BWRs.

1 Reactor pressure vessel 2 Fuel rods 3 Control rod 4 Circulating pump 5 Control rod drive 6 Fresh steam

7 Feed water

13 Cooling water

8 High pressure turbine 14 Preheater 9 Low pressure turbine 15 Feed water pump 10 Generator 16 Cooling water pump 11 Exciter 17 Concrete shield 12 Condenser


Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 725 MWe capacity, but plans to increase this substantially. Pakistan's nuclear weapons capabilities of has arisen independently of the civil nuclear fuel cycle, using indigenous uranium. Because Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, due to its weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.

In Pakistan, nuclear power makes a small contribution to total energy production and requirements, supplying only 2.34% of the country's electricity. Total generating capacity is 20 GWe and in 2006, 98 billion kWh gross was produced, 37% of it from gas, 29% from oil. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for all nuclear energy and research applications in the country. Its first nuclear power reactor is a small 137 MWe (125 MWe net) Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) which started up in 1971 and which is under international safeguards - KANUPP near Karachi, which is operated at reduced power. The second unit is Chashma-1 in Punjab, a 325 MWe (300 MWe net) 2-loop pressurised water reactor (PWR) supplied by China's CNNC under safeguards. The main part of the plant was designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), based on Qinshan-1. It started up in May 2000 and is also known as CHASNUPP-1. Designed life span is 40 years. Construction of its twin, Chashma-2, started in December 2005. It is reported to cost PKR 51.46 billion (US$ 860 million, with $350 million of this financed by China). A safeguards agreement with IAEA was signed in 2006 and grid connection was in March 2011, with commercial operation in May.

Reactor Karachi Chashma 1 Chashma 2


MWe net 125 300 300

Construction start 1966 1993 2005

Commercial operation 12 / 1972 June 2000 May 2011

Planned close 2019 2040 2051

Enriched fuel for the PWRs is imported from China. In 2005 an Energy Security Plan was adopted by the government, calling for a huge increase in generating capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030. It included intention of lifting nuclear capacity to 8800 MWe, 900 MWe of this by 2015 and a further 1500 MWe by 2020. Plans included four further Chinese reactors of 300 MWe each and seven of 1000 MWe, all PWR. There were tentative plans for China to build two 1000 MWe PWR units at Karachi as KANUPP 2 & 3, but China then in 2007 deferred development of its CNP-1000 type which would have been the only one of that size able to be exported. Pakistan is now planning to build smaller units with higher local content. In June 2008 the government announced plans to build units 3 and 4 at Chashma, each 320 MWe gross and largely financed by China. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the US-India agreement shortly preceding it. In March 2009 SNERDI announced that it was proceeding with design of Chashma 3 & 4, with China Zhongyuan Engineering as the general contractor and China Nuclear Industry No.5 Construction Company as installer. In April 2009, a design contract with SNERDI was signed, and the government said that it had approved the project at a cost of $2.37 billion, with $1.75 billion of this involving "a foreign exchange component". In March 2010 Pakistan announced that it had agreed the terms for Chashma 3 & 4, whereby China would provide 82% of the total US$ 1.912 billion financing as three 20-year lowinterest loans. The main construction contract was signed in June 2010, and the two 340 MWe (315 MWe net) units are to be completed in eight years. They will have a design life of 40 years and be under IAEA safeguards. Construction of unit 3 officially started at the end of May 2011, and unit 4 in December 2011. However, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) raised some questions about China's supply of Chasma-3 & 4. Contracts for units 1 & 2 were signed in 1990 and 2000 respectively, before 2004 when China joined the NSG, which maintains an embargo on sales of nuclear equipment to Pakistan. China argued that units 3 & 4 are similarly "grandfathered", and arrangements are consistent with those for units 1 & 2. In November 2010 PAEC is reported to have signed a construction agreement with China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) for a fifth unit at Chashma, which may revive the prospect of a 1000 MWe class unit if China has an exportable model by 2013 as planned. In August 2011 it was reported that Pakistan aimed for 8000 MWe nuclear at ten sites by 2030. PAEC has apparently selected six new sites on the basis of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advice. These are Qadirabad-Bulloki (QB) link canal near Qadirabad Headworks; Dera Ghazi Khan canal near Tuansa Barrage; Taunsa-Punjnad canal near Multan; Nara canal near Sukkur; Pat Feeder canal near Guddu and Kabul River near Nowshera.