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# QUESTION # 1: EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWINH REACTIONS WITH CALCULATION OF ENERGY RELEASED IN CASE OF EACH REACTION.

a) FISSION REACTION OF U-235 BOMBARDED WITH A NEUTRON: Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction that splits the nucleus of an atom into smaller, subatomic particles. It often produces free neutrons and photons. Fission of heavy elements can release large amounts of energy as electromagnetic and kinetic energy. For fission to produce energy, the total binding energy of the resulting element has to be lower than that of the original element. Fission is a form of transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element used. Nuclear fission can occur without neutron bombardment (radioactive decay). This type of fission only occurs in a few heavy isotopes. In nuclear devices, all nuclear fission occurs from a neutron bombardment process that results from the collision of two subatomic particles. In nuclear reactions, a subatomic particle collides with an atomic nucleus and causes changes to it, so nuclear reactions are thus driven by the mechanics of bombardment. The isotopes that can sustain a fission chain reaction are called nuclear fuels and are said to be fissile. The most common nuclear fuels are 235uranium and 230 plutonium. EXAMPLES: 235U + 1 neutron 235U + 1 neutron 3 neutrons + 92Kr + 141Ba + ENERGY 2 neutrons + 92Sr + 140Xe + ENERGY

CALCULATION OF ENERGY:

Both the fission fragments and neutrons travel at high speed. The kinetic energy of the products of fission is far greater than that of the bombarding neutron and target atom. EK before fission << EK after fission Atomic mass of U = 3.9014 x 10-25 Kg Atomic mass of Cs = 2.2895 x 10-25 Kg Atomic mass of Rb = 1.5925 x 10-25 Kg

## Atomic mass of n = 1.6750 x 10-27 Kg

The total mass before fission = 3.91815 x 10-25 kg The total mass after fission = 3.9155 x 10-25 kg

Total mass before fission > total mass after fission Mass difference, m = total mass before fission total mass after fission m = 3.91815 x 10-25 3.91550 x 10-25 m = 2.65 x 10-28 kg This reduction in mass results in the release of energy. E = mc2 E = 2.65 x 10-28 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.385 x 10-11 J b) FUSION REACTION COMBINING TWO ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN (DEUTRIUM AND TRITIUM) PRODUCING HELIUM: In nuclear fusion, two nuclei with low mass numbers combine to produce a single nucleus with a higher mass number.

Atomic mass of H-2 = 3.345 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of H-3 = 5.008 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of He = 6.647 x 10-27 Kg Atomic mass of n = 1.6750 x 10-27 Kg The total mass before fission = 8.353 x 10-27 kg The total mass after fission = 8.322 x 10-27 kg

Mass difference, m = total mass before fission total mass after fission

## m = 8.353 x 10-27 8.322 x 10-27 m = 3.1 x 10-29 kg

This reduction in mass results in the release of energy. E = mc2 E = 3.1 x 10-29 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.79 x 10-12 J The energy released per fusion is 2.79 x 10-12 J.

QUESTION # 02: EXPLAIN THE WORKING OF FOLLOWING NUCLEAR REACTORS WITH THE HELP OF NEAT SKETCHES: a) PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR: The pressurized water reactor belongs to the light water type: the moderator and coolant are both light water (H2O). It can be seen in the figure that the cooling water circulates in two loops, which are fully separated from one another.

The primary circuit water is continuously kept at a very high pressure and therefore it does not boil even at the high operating temperature. (Hence the name of the type) Constant pressure is ensured with the aid of the pressurizer (expansion tank). (If pressure falls in the primary circuit, water in the pressurizers is heated up by electric heaters, thus raising the pressure. If pressure increases, colder cooling water is injected to the pressurizer. Since the upper part is steam, pressure will drop.) The primary circuit water transfers its heat to the secondary circuit water in the small tubes of the steam generator; it cools down and returns to the reactor vessel at a lower temperature.

Since the secondary circuit pressure is much lower than that of the primary circuit, the secondary circuit water in the steam generator starts to boil (red). The steam goes from here to the turbine, which has high and low pressure stages. When steam leaves the turbine, it becomes liquid again in the condenser, from where it is pumped back to the steam generator after pre-heating. Normally, primary and secondary circuit waters cannot mix. In this way it can be achieved that any potentially radioactive material that gets into the primary water should stay in the primary loop and cannot get into the turbine and condenser. This is a barrier to prevent radioactive contamination from getting out. In pressurized water reactors the fuel is usually low (3 to 4 per cent) enriched uranium oxide, sometimes uranium and plutonium oxide mixture (MOX). In today's PWRs the primary pressure is usually 120 to 160 bars, while the outlet temperature of the coolant is 300-320 C. The PWR is the most widespread reactor type in the world: they account for about 64 % of the total power of the presently operating nuclear power plants. b) BOILING WATER REACTOR: In a boiling water reactor, light water (H2O) plays the role of moderator and coolant, as well. Part of the water boils away in the reactor pressure vessel, thus a mixture of water and steam leaves the reactor core. The thus generated steam directly goes to the turbine, therefore steam and moisture must be separated (water drops in steam can damage the turbine blades). Steam leaving the turbine is condensed in the condenser and then fed back to the reactor after preheating. Water that has not evaporated in the reactor vessel accumulates at the bottom of the vessel and mixes with the pumped back feed water.

Since boiling in the reactor is allowed, the pressure is lower than that of the PWRs: it is about 60 to 70 bars. The fuel is usually uranium dioxide. Enrichment of the fresh fuel is normally somewhat lower than that in a PWR. The advantage of this type is that - since this type has the simplest construction - the building costs are comparatively low. 22.5% of the total power of presently operating nuclear power plants is provided by BWRs.

1 Reactor pressure vessel 2 Fuel rods 3 Control rod 4 Circulating pump 5 Control rod drive 6 Fresh steam

7 Feed water

13 Cooling water

8 High pressure turbine 14 Preheater 9 Low pressure turbine 15 Feed water pump 10 Generator 16 Cooling water pump 11 Exciter 17 Concrete shield 12 Condenser

c) WHAT IS THE PRESENT STATUS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN PAKISTAN? WRITE A NOTE ON NULEAR POWER PLANTS.

Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 725 MWe capacity, but plans to increase this substantially. Pakistan's nuclear weapons capabilities of has arisen independently of the civil nuclear fuel cycle, using indigenous uranium. Because Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, due to its weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.

In Pakistan, nuclear power makes a small contribution to total energy production and requirements, supplying only 2.34% of the country's electricity. Total generating capacity is 20 GWe and in 2006, 98 billion kWh gross was produced, 37% of it from gas, 29% from oil. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for all nuclear energy and research applications in the country. Its first nuclear power reactor is a small 137 MWe (125 MWe net) Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) which started up in 1971 and which is under international safeguards - KANUPP near Karachi, which is operated at reduced power. The second unit is Chashma-1 in Punjab, a 325 MWe (300 MWe net) 2-loop pressurised water reactor (PWR) supplied by China's CNNC under safeguards. The main part of the plant was designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), based on Qinshan-1. It started up in May 2000 and is also known as CHASNUPP-1. Designed life span is 40 years. Construction of its twin, Chashma-2, started in December 2005. It is reported to cost PKR 51.46 billion (US\$ 860 million, with \$350 million of this financed by China). A safeguards agreement with IAEA was signed in 2006 and grid connection was in March 2011, with commercial operation in May.