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PA 8I3.N97""
The elements
of

"""'"»">'

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;a

New Testament Greek

3 1924 021

607 191

THE ELEMENTS
OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK

BY THE SAME AUTHOR A Short Syntax of New Testament
Cambridge University

Greek

Press, 2/6 net

THE ELEMENTS
OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK
A

METHOD OF STUDYING THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT WITH EXERCISES
by
Rev. H. P. V.
St John's College, St

NUNN,

M.A.
at

Cambridge, sometime Lecturer Aidan's College, Birkenhead

Cambridge
at

the University Press

1914

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
IlDnlron:

FETTEE LANE,
CLAY, Manager

E.G.

C. F.

(EDinliutflf):

100,

PRINCES STREET

Berlin:
S-eipjia:

A.

ASHER AND CO. F. A. BROCKHAUS
PUTNAM'S SONS

iJefaaotfi:

G. P.

Botnfiaa an* aralratta:

MACMILLAN AND CO.. Ltd. STotonto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd. JCofcao: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA

PREFACE

THIS

book

is

intended principally for those

who wish

to

take up the study of Greek after they have

left school

with a view to reading the Greek

New

Testament.

It is

concerned only with such words and forms as are found in

New

are those

Testament Greek. The words used in the exercises which occur frequently in the Gospels and the Acts
:

of the Apostles

they are collected in vocabularies at the
it is

end of the book, and
are carefully

believed that, if these vocabularies
to

committed

memory, the student

will find

himself supplied with such words as are necessary to enable

him to read these portions of the and rapidity.

New

Testament with ease

The author attaches great importance to the accurate knowledge of the meanings of the most common words as an aid to the thorough and rapid acquirement of a language. Fortunately the words used in the Gospels and in the Acts are comparatively few, and this fact together with the simplicity of their style makes these books in many respects very suitable first reading books even for those who do not intend to limit their study of the Greek language to the

New

Testament.
are gradually introduced

The most common irregular verbs
into the exercises

and are

also collected in a table at the

end
in

The of the book. almost verbatim from the Greek Testament.
/it

sentences in the later exercises are taken

The verbs

are not introduced until the end of the book and the

VI

PREFACE

itself

author therefore recommends that the Greek Testament should not be studied until these verbs have been mastered and all the Greek into English exercises in the

book have been written
into Greek exercises.

out.

Those who wish to become

proficient in the subject should also write out all the English^

In no studj' is the saying of Bacon that writing maketh an exact man so thoroughly exemplified as in the study of
languages.

The order

in which the forms and constructions treated
is

determined by the principle which occur most frequently. Syntax is only treated so far as to enable examples to be given of the use of the Subjunctive and Infinitive moods and
in the exercises are placed

that those are treated

first

of the Participle.
desire

The author ventures

to refer those

who

on this subject to his Short Syntax of New Testament Greek published by the Cambridge University Press, to which reference is occasionally made in
further information
footnotes in this book.

The Introduction

to that

book on the subject of English

Grammar
it

is

reprinted here as an Appendix.

Although

it is

printed at the end of the book, the author would urge that

should be studied at the beginning by those to
It

whom

its

contents are partially unfamiliar.
is hoped that a student who has been carefully through book will be able to read the easier portions of the New Testament with the aid of a dictionary. As however the

this

New Testament is already so familiar most people in an English translation, such a power does not really imply much knowledge of Greek. Those who* wish to gain an intelligent knowledge of the language should
subject-matter of the
to

PEEFACE
study some easy Greek author whose meaning
familiar
to
is

Vll

not already

Such may be found in any of the many elementary editions of Xenophon or Lucian which are published^ or even in Plato's Apology of Socrates studied with or without the help of a translation. The latter book is so interesting and important in its contents and so perfect and yet so simple in its style that it should be studied in the original language by all those who have 'the opportunity. Translations of Lucian and of Plato's Apology are published in a convenient form by the Oxford University Press.
them.
If these books are thought to be too difficult the writings

Clement and the Shepherd of Hermas, may be recommended. These latter books are however not published in a form adapted for beginners, and the author has therefore attempted to meet this need by publishing selections from them and from other
of the Apostolic Fathers, especially the Epistle of St

Christian authors of the

first

two centuries with notes at the
his

end of the

"

Syntax

" referred to above.

In

conclusion

he wishes to record

obligation to

Messrs Bradley and Horswell for their

"New

Testament

Word

Lists," which were of great service in preparing the

exercises in this book,

and

to his father for the care with
proofs.

which he looked over the

H. P. V.

NUNN.

175 Stockport Road,

Manchester. November

6,

1913.

'

See the "Elementary Classics" series published by Macmillan.

CONTENTS
TjESSON
I
• •

PAGE

The Alphabet
'

II III

Breathihgs, accents, iota subscript

The Present The Present

Indicative Active

....
fm
. .
.

...

1

5
7

IV

Indicative of contracted verbs in

9 10
13

V
VI
VII
VIII

Nouns of the Second Declension ending in os The Genitive and Dative cases, the Definite Article
Neuter Nouns
of the

Second Declension

...
.

14
16

Feminine Nouns of the First Declension

IX

Masculine Nouns of the First Declension,
of

etc.

17

X
XI
XII
XIII

Adjectives of the Second Declension, Present Tense

"To be"
Active, Accentuation of
.

19

The Imperfect Indicative
verbs

.

21

Imperfect of the verb "To be," Demonstrative Pronoims, airos

25 27

The Present and Imperfect
.

Indicative Passive

.

XIV

Deponent Verbs, the Present Imperative, the Relative Pronoun

...

.

.

31

XV
XVI
XVII XVIII

The Present
nouns

Infinitive, Personal

and Possessive Pro35

The Future

Indicative
.

Active and Middle, the

Middle Voice

......
.

40 43
47

Twostemsof verbs, the
The

Reflexive Pronoun, questions

First Aorist Active

XIX

The Second Aorist Active, Object clauses after verbs
of saying or thinking.
.

.

.

51

XX

The Future and Aorist Active
Temporal clauses

of

liquid

verbs,

55

X
LESSON

CONTENTS
PAOB

XXI
XXII
XXIII

The Third Declension Nouns with stems ending
Adjectives
of

58
in a vowel,

Neuter Nouns
62
Irregular

of the Third Declension

the

Third

Declension,

Adjectives

65

XXrV

The

First

and Second Aorist Passive, the Future
68 72

Passive

XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII

Participles

The Genitive Absolute, The
First
of

Interrogative
.

and
.

Indefinite
. .

Pronouns, certain Prepositions

77

and Second Aorist Middle, the comparison Adjectives, Adverbs
aa>

82 87
91

Contracted Verbs ending in

and oa

XXIX

The

Perfect

and Pluperfect Tenses

....
.

.

.

XXX
XXXI
XXXII XXXIII

The Subjunctive Mood
Subjunctive of Contracted Verbs and of
uses of the Subjunctive
elfu,

95
further

99
102 106

Further uses of the Infinitive

The Verbs
7-Mij/tt

in fu

:

diSa/u

XXXIV

110
112
^i
. .

XXXV
XXXVI XXXVII

twniiu

Other Verbs in

.116
.

The Optative Mood, Periphrastic Tenses Vocabularies The Regular Verb
Table of Principal Parts of Verbs

119
122

....
.

142

149
164

Appendix
„ „

I.

Prepositions

II.

Conditional Sentences

.

.

161

III.

Accentuation
English

IV.

Grammar

English-Greek Vocabulary

.... ...
.

164 168
igg^

.

Greek Index

.

200

LESSON

I

THE ALPHABET
The Greek Alphabet
which we
still

consists of 24 letters, a good

many

of which

are identical with the corresponding letters of the Latin alphabet

Both alphabets were derived from the Phoefrom which the Hebrew alphabet also took its origin. The letters given in the second column are now used only as capital letters in printed Greek books but originally letters like these were used in all Greek writing. They are generally called Uncial letters, and all the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament are called
employ.
nician alphabet,
;

Uncial Manuscripts, because they are written throughout in these
letters.

the letters in the second column

another style of writing more resembling came into general use. These were called Cursive or running letters, because they could be written without raising the pen from the paper, like our modern handwriting. This type of writing has remained in use ever since, both in

About the 9th century

a.d.

manuscripts and printed books, with certain modifications. The student should learn the list of the names of the letters down the column thoroughly in order that he may be able to find the words in his Dictionary as quickly as possible. He should make sure of the letters both by reading aloud and by writing, as much time will afterwards be saved if he is able to read accurately and quickly, and to grasp the sound of a word as soon as
It will be noticed that there are two letters to it written. represent the English letter " e," and two to represent the letter " o." One of these represents the short sound of the letter, and the other the long sound. The mark - written over a letter denotes that it is to be pronounced long, and the mark - that it is to be pronounced

he sees

short.
letters

must be

This distinction in the length of the sound denoted by the carefully observed in pronunciation.
1

2

PRONUNCIATION

3

Notes on the Alphabet
(1)

The examples given
It is

to

show the pronunciation
is

of

a,

f. rj,

i,

v

indicate the pronunciation generally given to these letters in English
schools.

however certainly wrong, as

also the usual English

pronunciation of Latin.

A
r]

more

a to be pronounced as
to be

correct prommciation would probably be as follows a in " father."

:

t

to be pronounced as «y in " they." pronounced as i in " machine "
short.

when

long,

and as

i

in " pit

when

V to be pronounced as French u in " du." We have no equivalent sound in English the y sound in such words as " sympathy " will do fairly well. It should be noted that when a Greek word is transliterated into English, v always becomes ^, for examples take the words " sym:

pathy," " hydropathic."

The form
Latin.

of the

Greek capital

letter

Y

is

just like our letter Y, the

reason being that our letter

Y is derived from
it

the Greek through the

The student

will

probably find

convenient and almost necessary

to adopt the usual English pronunciation as things are.

The matter

is

not one of vital importance.
the

be noticed that two forms are given for the letter aused when the letter occurs at the beginning or in the middle of a word, the second when it occurs at the end.
(2)

It will
is

first

The pronunciation
together
;

of Diphthongs

Diphthongs are sounds produced by two vowels being sounded they are generally sounded as follows in England ai to be pronounced as ai in " aisle." « to be pronounced as ei in " height.'' ot to be pronounced as oi in "oil." av to be pronounced as aw in " caw." ov to be pronounced as ow in " cow." €v to be pronounced as " you." VI to be pronounced as wi in " wipe." It would be more correct to pronounce av like ow in " cow," and ov
:

like 00 in " loose."

1—2

4

CONSONANTS
Classification of Consonants, for reference only
Consonants are divided into three groups
(1)
:

Mdtes, or
'Tj

letters
8,

which cannot be sounded by themselvef

•^1

7j X, (2)

A

(t>>

T,

6.

Semi- Vowels, or letters which have some sound of their own
p, a.

X,

fi, ./,

(3)

Double Letters,
^,
f,

or letters

which are made up of two con

sonants.

i^.

The Mdtes are again subdivided according to the part of the voca organs used in producing them
:

(a)
"^ 7. X-

Gutturals, or letters produced

in the throat (Latin "guttur"]

(6)
ff,

Labials, or letters produced by the lips (Latin "labia")

ft 0.
(c)

Dentals, or

letters

produced by the teeth (Latin "dens")

r,

8, 6.

The Semi- Vowels
(a)
(6)

are divided into
/i,

Liquids.

X,
a-.

v, p.

Spirant,

Exercise
(1)

1

Write out the English alphabet and give the Greek equivalen Write out the Greek alphabet with the English equivalent

for each letter as far as possible.
(2)
fo

each

letter.

These exercises should be repeated

many

times until perfect.

BREATHINGS AND ACCENTS

LESSON

II

BREATHINGS, ACCENTS, IOTA SUBSCRIPT
It will be noticed that there is

no sign
is

for the letter

A in the Greek
called

alphabet.

The want

of such a sign
is

made up by the marks

breathings, one of which

written over every vowel or diphthong that
'

in inverted

The rough breathing (turned like the opening comma commas) is sounded like our letter h, 6 is pronounced " ho," indicates that the A is pronounced "ha." The smooth breathing vowel is to be sounded without the rough h sound. If the word begins
begins a word.
'

with a diphthong, the breathing is placed over the second vowel, and not over the first ovtos not ovtos. p at the beginning of a word generally has a rough breathing.
pp in the middle of a word is sometimes written pp. Accents are marks invented by Aristophanes of Byzantium about 200 B.O. in order to teach foreigners the correct pronunciation of Greek. They were not written in the ancient manuscripts. They denoted musical pitch and not stress, and no use of them is made now as a guide to correct speech. The student who is pressed for time is recommended not to trouble about the accents except in the case of
verbs.

They are chiefly of use to distinguish certain words which differ only in accent. list of these together with a brief account of the principles of accentuation is given in the appendix. The student however must on no account neglect the breathings,

A

but must write and pronounce them carefully. A small I is often written under the letters a, ij, m especially when one of these letters ends a word. It is called the Iota Subscript and It is not pronounced, but it is a relic of an ancient diphthong. must always be written. All the other letters in a Greek word are
pronounced.

yy

is

pronounced "ng," iyyi^a "engizo."

EXERCISES
Sxercise 2
Write out the following
necessary.
in

Greek

letters inserting breathings where

word denotes a The English letter h rough breathing. The vowels e and o are marked with a stroke ovei the line when they are long ; when not marked they are short. Care must be taken to use the proper Greek letter for them.
at the beginning of a

The

letter i in brackets denotes that

t

subscript

is

to be written

under the preceding vowel. Use small letters throughout. en arche(i) gn ho logos, kai ho logos en pros ton theon, kai theos 6n ho logos, houtos en en arche(i) pros ton theon. panta di autou egeneto kai choris autou egeneto oude hen ho gegonen. en auto(i) zoe kai to phos en t6(i) skotia(i) en, kai hs zoB gn to phos ton anthropon. phainei, kai he skotia auto ou katelaben. egeneto anthrSpos apestalmenos para theou, onoma auto(i) ioanes. houtos elthen eis marturian, hina marturese(i) peri tou photos, hina pantes pisteusSsin di autou. ouk en ekeinos to phos, all hina marturesS(i) peri tou photos, en to phSs to alethinon ho photizei panta anthropon erchomenon eis ton kosmon. en td(i) kosmo(i) en, kai ho kosmos di autou egeneto, kai ho kosmos auton ouk egno. eis ta idia elthen, kai hoi idioi auton ou parelaboa. hosoi de elabon auton edoken autois exousian tekna theou genesthai, tois pisteuousin eis to onoma autou, hoi ouk ex haimaton oude ek thelematos sarkos oude ek thelematos andros all ek theou egennethesanj kai ho logos sarx egeneto kai eskenosen en hemin, kai etheasametha ten doxan autou, doxan hos monogenous para patros pleres charitos kai
aletheias.

The student may correct his exercise by comparing it with the first 14 verses of the 1st chapter of St John in the Bible Society's (Nestle's): Greek Testament. This exercise should be done several times until
perfect.

Write out the Greek of St John

i.

19-28 in English characters.

Read

as

much

as possible of the Greek Testament aloud, paying

and the length of the vowels. Students who are working alone and who have no one to whom they can read aloud are recommended to put portions of the Greek into English letters, and to put them back into Greek letters after an interval. It is most important to be able to read the characters accurately and quickly before proceeding further.
great attention to the breathings

1st singular

8

THE GREEK PRESENT

Greek the person and number of the subject of the verb are already made sufficiently clear by the variable ending, and so there is no neea to add a personal pronoun unless special emphasis is required. It will be found that this principle applies to all forms of the:
verbs.
It will be noticed that two English equivalents are giveu for the one Greek form of the Present tense. This is because there are more tenses in English than in Greek, and one Greek tense has to do the work of two EngUsh tenses. The first form given in English above is called the Present the second is called the Present Indefinite, or Present Simple
;

Continuous.

The Greek Present corresponds more closely in meaning to the English Present Continuous than to the Present Simple. In the forms of the Present Continuous tense will be noticed another difierence between English and Greek, namely that in English we freely employ Auxiliary or helping verbs to form our tenses (in this case the present tense of the verb " to be " is used) while in Greek a
single

word

is

used.

In spoken English we now never use the 2nd person singular in addressing a single person, but always the 2nd person plural. In Greek the 2nd person singular is always used in addressing a single person, and the 2nd person plural is kept for addressing more than one person. In these exercises when " thou " is written in English the 2nd person singular must be used in Greek, and when "ye," or "you" is written the 2nd person plural must be used in Greek, unless an indication is given to the contrary. In translating the Greek Testament it is better to use the 2nd person singular of the English verb when the 2nd person singular is used in
Greek.

Exercise 3
Learn Vocabulary 1, p. 122. The words given in this and the following vocabularies are all words which occur frequently in the

New Testament. The student should make a habit of carefully mastering all the words in the vocabularies as he goes along, as this will save much subsequent labour. The words given in brackets

CONTRACTED VERBS

9

after the English meanings of the words are words derived from the Greek words. They are intended to help the learner to remember

them.

The Greek words

are also transliterated in

the

first

few

vocabularies.

Give the English for
etTOLOJ, a7roo"TeX\ov(7(,

:

\4yei, \4yofifv, Xiyovtri, \4yfTe, Xiyiis.
/yXeTretff,

eipi-

(TKO^eVf ypd<j}€ij /SaXXert, d7ro6vr}(TK€i,

€yeLpQV(n, Kpivere^ ^dWop.€v,

aKOuoutrt, Xa/ijSai/erc, tra^ofiev, fiivei.
:

Give the Greek for we say, they say, thou sayest, ye say, he says, they are saying, she is saying, you say, they are dying, he dies, I am throwing, she arises, we judge, thou art remaining, I am throwing, ye judge, he sends, yoxi are writing, thou art eating, he finds, we are taking, they look, she hears.

LESSON IV
THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF CONTRACTED
VERBS IN
fco

When certain vowels come together in the same word they unite and form a diphthong, or a single long vowel.
This is called " contraction." There are many verbs whose stems end in e, and, when the personal endings are added to such stems, contraction takes place. £ coming before another c becomes «.
( €

coming before o becomes ov. coming before a long vowel, or a diphthong, drops
jtense of the verb
(^iXc'a>

out.

The present
follows
:

"I love"

is

conjugated as

^iXS

I love, or I

am
it

loving.

Thou

lovest, or

thou art loving.
loving. loving.

He, she, or

loves, or is loving.

We love,
You
They

or

we are

love, or

you are

love, or

they are loving.

10

SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS IN
Exercise 4
Learn Vocabulary
2.

05

Ka\a, XaXoviiCv, aiTfir, rripovai, iroifire, napaKoKel, fiaprvpova-i, (rfTfiTf,
6fa>povp,ev, Trjpeis.

he asks, thou callest, we bear witness, they speak, you she makes, you behold, we love, they call, she asks, we seek, they bear witness, he beholds.

They

seek,

keep

safe, I exhort,

LESSON V
NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION ENDING IN
Nouns
case are dechned as follows.
or

of the Second Declension ending in or in the Nominative:

They

are nearly all Masculine.

Name
Singular

of Case

Plural

noun given above brings before us again the between English and Greek mentioned in Lesson III, namely that it is often necessary to employ two or more words in English where one sufl&ces in Greek. The various modifications of meaning! which are expressed in Greek by adding case endings to the noun are expressed in English by placing a preposition before the noun, or by altering the order of the words in the sentence. The only noun

The

declension of the

difference

1

The Iota Subscript

ie
:

of the second declension

it is

always written under the m of the Dative Singular not sounded.

NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE

11

endings which remain in English are the 's and s' of the Possessive ease, and the s or other ending added to make the plural. For example, if we want to show that a word is the subject of a sentence, we nearly always put it before the verb, while the word which is the object of the sentence is placed after the verb. If we invert the order of the words, we invert the meaning of the
sentence.

In the sentence

"An

angel finds a man," the word "angel"

is

the

subject of the sentence, and the
is

word

"

On the other hand in the sentence the subject of the sentence, and " angel " the object. We have inverted the order of the words, and, in so doing, also inverted the meaning of the sentence.
In Greek the
first

man " the object. "A man finds an angel" "man"
we have

sentence should be written
ayyeXos
evpltTKei avOptoirov,

:

We show that ayyeKos is the
case,
case.

and that SvBptonov

is

subject by putting the object by putting

it it

in the

Nominative

in the Accusative

In Greek the meaning of the sentence is still the same if we invert the order of the words and write avdpiowov fvpLa-Kei ayyeXos, because in

Greek it is not the order of the words, but the case form, which decides which word is the subject or object.

RULES
(1)

(2)

The subject of a Finite' verb is in the Nominative case. The direct object of a Transitive verb is in the Accusative
it is

case.

Before translating an English sentence into Greek

necessary to
is its

know which word
object, if it

is

the subject of the verb, and which

direct

has one. The subject can always be found by putting "who?" or "what?" before the verb. In the first sentence given above " An angel finds a man," we ask " Who finds ?" The answer is " an angel." " An angel " is therefore the subject of the sentence. In the same way we can easily see that " a man " is the subject of
:

the second sentence.
1

A Finite verb

is

a verb in any

mood

but the Infinitive.

12

SUBJECT AND OBJECT

can find the direct Object by placing " whom 1 " or " what ? In the case of the first sentence we say " an angel finds whom?" Answer "a mau." Therefore "a man" is the object of the
after the verb.

We

sentence.

Many
object.
sitive

verbs such as the verb " I remain " cannot have a direct Verbs which cannot have a direct object are called Intranverbs, because the action which they denote does not pass over
or thing (Latin " transire
").

to

some other person

Verbs which can have a direct object are called Transitive verbs, because the action which they denote passes over to another person or
thing.
It is easy to find

Intransitive

which English verbs are Transitive and which are by making a sentence containing the verb and seeing if a
it,

direct object can be put after

or not.

All verbs agree with their subject in number and person. (3) As all nouns are in the third person it is obvious that all verbs which have a noun for a subject must be in the third person. If the subject of the verb is a noun in the singular number, the verb will be in the third person singular if the subject of the verb is a noun in the plural number, or two or more nouns joined together by
;

" and," the verb will be in the third person plural.

Examples

:

avBpaiwoi, c(rBlov<nv Sprov.

Men

eat bread.

HvBpiairos Kal 8ov\os ea-Blovcriv Sprov.

The English

man and a slave eat bread. Indefinite Article " a " is not translated into Greek.
Exercise 5

A

Learn Vocabulary
1.

3. 2. 5.

nvBpai'rros
4.

fX" ^ovKovs.
avBpanos

SyyeXos \a6v

(rwfei.

3.

Kvpios Xoyovs
6.

ypdcjxi,.

iyeipeis dovXoi'.
7.

a.v6pa>voi obov fvpio-KOvm.
8.

SoCXos

^XfTTfi oiKOvs.
9.

(iTrooTeXXet a8iK(j}ovs.
evpiiTKop.ev

Xa/i/Savcrf olkov.
rrjpfiTe
v6p.ovs.

SoCXoj e^ft Kvpiov.

10.

686v.

11.

12.

avBpanos Koi bovKoi
1.

evpi(TKOviriv abe\<j}ovs.

find a way.

angel. 2. An angel rouses a man. 3. Slaves brother has a house. 5. Lords send slaves. 6. They are writing words. 7. You find an angel. 8. lord judges men. 9. We rouse slaves. 10. Thou keepest laws. 11. man and an angel see the way. 12. Thou beholdest death.

A man hears
4.

an

A

A

A

GENITIVE AND DATIVE.

THE ARTICLE

13

LESSON VI
USE OF THE GENITIVE AND DATIVE CASES. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
The Genitive Case can generally be translated into English by the use of the Preposition " Of," or by the Possessive Case, formed by adding 's to the noun.
Example
house."
or
:

o'koj

avBpanov means, "a house of a man," or "a man's
to denote the person

The commonest use of the Dative Case is For whom anything is done. It is used
meaning "to
give," etc.

To

to express the indirect

object after verbs

Examples

:

He
He

writes ]a,ws for a people.
v6}JlOVS

ypa^ii

Xa^.

gives a house to a
is called is

man.

In the last sentence oIkov the indirect object, because it
the verb.

the direct object, and av6pd>ira not directly affected by the action of

The
The
Definite Article

Definite Article

declined in Greek like a noun.

which corresponds to the English "the" is The forms that go with words like
N.

Xdyor are as follows

:

Singular. N.

6

Plural.

A.
G.

TOV TOV

D.

TM

It will be noticed that the endings except the Nominative Singular are the same as the endings of Xdyor. The definite article is always in the same case and number as the

noun

to

which
:

it is

joined.

Examples

Of the man, toO dvdpanov. To the men, tois dvBpairois. "The man's house" is generally written in the following
order
:

6 toO av6pa>7rov oikos.

14

SECOND DECLENSION NEUTER NOUNS
Exercise 6
Revise Vocabularies
1.

1, 2, 3.

01

SoCXoi TTOiova-iv 686v
3.

t^

Kvpitf.

2.

oi
4.

avdpanoi
o tov
6.

CrjTOXKTiv rois

dyyeXovs.

ypa(^« t&v tov Kvpiov^
5.
7.

vo/iov.

SovXm

d8e\(j)6s
(jyiKel

^Xfirci TOV oiKov.
roiis d8eX</)ovs.

ypd4>oiiev rovs vo^oui
fj;reiTe
9.

r^ Xam.

6^ 6e6s

TOV TOV 6fov \6yov.
10. d Xaos Trtoreuet.

Tqpovaiv 8. tov rSi/ avBpairav d8e\<f>6v. 01 SoOXoi eipia-KOva-iv ttjv 686v toIs Kvpiois.
KOtrpa.
11.

Xap.pdvop.ev tov vopov

Ta

XaXS rois Xoyoui tw Xaa,

icai

people.

2. They are writing the laws for the angel finds the men. "We are seeking the brothers of the slave. 4. The lord's 6. You behold the 5. The slave remains. slaves are making a way. house of God 2. 7. "We keep the law of the Lord. 8. They write
1.

The

3.

words

10. The man find a way for the people. 9. for the slaves. 11. The man and the slave are making saves the slave's brother. 13. The angel writes laws for the 12. The brethren believe. bread.

We

world.

LESSON

VII

NEUTER NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION
In English all nouns denoting men or male animals are in Masculine gender all nouns denoting women or female animals in the Feminine gender all other nouns are Neuter. But in Greek the rule is not so simple. Nearly all nouns denoting men or male animals are Masculine, nearly all those denoting women or female animals are Feminine other nouns may be either Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter. gender is generally decided by the ending.
; ;
:

the
are

and
but

The

1 When Kipios is written with a capital letter it meana " The Lord " it sometimea haa the definite article and sometimes not. It is the word used in the Greek Version of the Old Teatament to denote the aaored name
;

Jehovah.
'

Beds generally haa the definite article in Greek, but not in Engliah.

GENDER AND TERMINATIONS

15

In the Second Declension nearly all nouns ending in os in the Nominative singular are Masculine 6S6s " a way," epij^oy " a desert," irapBevos " a maiden," which are Feminine, are some of the few excep;

tions to this rule.

All nouns ending in ov in the Nominative singular are Neuter. The declension of these neuter nouns is given below.

Note that the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative same ending. This is the case with all neuter nouns.
Declension of epyov " a work."
Singular. N.

cases have the

epyov

16
1.

FIRST DECLENSION FEMININE

NOUNS
brother's
4.

children.

They take the garments of the men. 2. We send the 3. The angel receives the books for the people.

The

children have the garments.

6. Thou 5. He beholds the face of God. hast the sheep. 7. You find the trees. 8. The Lord judges the works 10. God works miracles (does signs) of men. 9. We seek the temple. 12. The children for the people. 11. The man seeks the young child. eat the loaves. 13. Thou keepest the money safe.
'

LESSON

VIII

FEMININE NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
Nouns
of the First Declension ending in a or
r/

in the Nominative

singular are declined as follows.

They are

all

feminine.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

17

18
71

NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION

ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION

19

the lake with the Baptist. 9. You send the children out of the house. 10. For the church does not hear the commandments and the promises 12. For of the prophet. 11. They call the disciples to the assembly.

God

writes the

commandments

in the hearts of the disciples.

13.

The

young men hear the parables of the kingdom.

LESSON X
ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. THE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB "TO BE"
Adjectives of the Second Declension are declined as follows
:

dyaSos "good."

Masc
Sing.

Plur.

Note that the Masculine endings are the same as those of 2nd Declension uouns in os. The Feminine endings are the same as those as of 1st Declension nouns in q. The Neuter endings are the same
those of 2nd Declension nouns in ov. the endings of If a vowel or the letter p comes immediately before those of an adjective, the endings in the Feminine are the same as
fjficpa.

Example:

Syos "holy."
&yia dyia
ayiov
aytov

dyiap
dyias dylq

ayiov
dyiov

dyia

2—2

20

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.

elfJii

RULE
Adjectives agree with the noun which they qualify in number, gender, and case. Note. An adjective preceded by an article is practically equivalent 6 irpSyros "the first" (man) to fo-p^ara "the last things"; to a noun. ol ayiot "the holy'' (men) or "the a'l dyadai "the good" (women);
;

saints."

The Present
1st

Indicative of the verb " to be "
Singular

is

as follows
Plural

:

fljii

I

am

ia-iiev

we

are

2nd
3rd

(t

thou art

eVre
el(ri{v)

you are
they are

foTiiy) he, she, or it is

The verb

" to be " belongs to a class of verbs called " Copulative

Verbs " because they serve to couple or link together two nouns or a noun and an adjective. Such verbs cannot make a statement by themselves, but must be followed by a noun or an adjective to make a complete predicate. This noun or adjective is called a predicative noun or adjective, or the complement. These predicative noims or adjectives are not put in the Accusative case like the object of a
transitive verb, because they are not objects.

in the

same case

They must always be as the subject of the verb, and, in the case of
must agree with the subject
this

predicative adjectives, they

in

number

and gender as
This rule
is

well as case.

sometimes stated in

form

:

RULE
The verb
Examples
" to
:

be

"

takes the same case after

it

as before

it.

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE
You
The tongue
yXatro'd

21
just
evil
KUKr]

are
BiKatoi 4tTTe
is
ea-Ti

Note. The various parts of the verb " to be " given above should not be placed as the first words in a sentence.

Exercise 10
Learn Vocabulary
1.
rj

7.

€KK\r]<rla ttutti] eartv*
etrri kukiJ.

2.

ol avdpciTTot jrpo<l>TlTaL elatv.
5.

3.

rj

^aaiKeta
jQavoufft
7.

4.

rj

evToXrj tov alcoviov deov SiKola iariv,

Xa/x-

TO

tdta ip^axta.

6.

erepot avOpaiTOi p,4vovcnv iv

ra npara
eaxoros,

TrXola,

r€Kva ayairryrd

etrfiev

tov Qeov.

8.

6

npSyros

ea'Ttv

Kal 6
10.

ea^aros Trp&Tos.
eare tov Kvplov.
1.

9.

ol dyiol rrjpovaLV

rd dyia o-d^^ara tov deov.

^

yXatra-a vovr^pd iariv.
13.

11.

ai iriOTaX fievova-iv iv TO)
ei,

Upa.

12.

iiadrjTai

ayLos

Kvpte.
2.

14.

Ka\ovp.€v Toiis erepovs veavias.

The brethren
master.

are disciples.

We

are prophets.

3.

Thou
5.

art

good,
different
7. 9.

4.

The

writings of the Apostles are holy.
6. 8.

A

man

is

in the last boat.

We

remain

in the evil world.
is

He makes

his

own garments.

The man

just

and good.

10. The saints Therefore the Baptist exhorts the evil men. 11. God keeps the souls of the remain before the house of God. saints. 12. Ye exhort the disciples.

LESSON XI
THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE. ACCENTUATION OF VERBS
All past tenses of the Indicative

mood

are preceded

by the

letter t

which
fXtyoi'.

is called
is

the Augment.

If the verb begins with a consonant the
:

Augment
with
it.

If the verb begins with a
e
E
t,

simply placed before the verb Present, Xiya ; Imperfect vowel the Augment combines
before a becomes
77,
i;

before

e

becomes

(except in the verb
1,

ex"")'

o,

V are lengthened into

a>,

v.

22

THE AUGMENT

A

diphthong lengthens

its first
r/,

vowel

m becomes
01

ei

becomes
Present
UKOVO)

9,

becomes t;, and ev becomes

tjv.

Examples

:

Imperfect

€<l}l\0VV

24
But,
contract
^iXeVi
if
'

EXERCISES
the grave comes before the acute on the syllables which the acute remains alone. Examples <j!)iXtofiej' = (^'Xoi3^ej(i^
:

',

= (^(X». But

f<^tX«

= £<^iXei,

<^iX«r<B

= (^iX€iV<».

Exercise 11
Learn Vocabulary
1.

8.
2.

ciireKTciveTe rois irpoiprjTas tov Kvpiov.
€ts

d tffor eireinre tovs
ttjs 6a\d(r(rrjs.

dyyeXovs
^ajrri'ffi

rov K6<r[iov,
5.

3.

^ye^ tovs fMadrjras diro

4.

ot

Vfaviai eyfaipov.

ra npo^ara virrfyov^ ex T^s e'pf}p.ov. 6. d /Sairrtor^t 8. oi 7. 6 ayye\os dwiXve tov anoaroXov. Tas jrapdfvovs.
9. oi ayaflol
Trj

/ladijToi

eSo^a^ov t6v Kvpiov.

SofXoi e(J3fpov
11.

to.

wpofiaTa.

10.

'Imai'ijf d iSoTTTiOT^S c/cpa^c

iv

eptiprp.

eSiSaa-Kes ra iraiSia

<rvv Tots 8ov\ois.

12.

€Kr)pva'aofiev to eiiayyeXtov T(p

\aa.

13. 15.

tireiBov

oSv

Toi/s

dvOpanovs,

14.

irepifiraTovfiev iv rio f^/J^.

e^e^aXKes

Ta

BaifiQvia.

1. They proclaimed the Gospel to the disciples. 2. The maidens departed from the house. 3. They dragged (dya>) the slave's boat to the sea. 4. The prophets used to teach the children in the houses. 5. Ye glorified the Lord, angels. 6. Thou wast teaching the people.

7. They were driving the sheep together to the trees. 8. The child was reading the scriptures in the temple. 9. We were departing from the lake. 10. John the Baptist did not work signs. 11. The Lord walked about in the wilderness. 12. Therefore you persuaded the people. 13. The saints were rejoicing. 14. He was casting out devils.

15.
1

We
If

were carrying the boat.

16.

You were

loosing the slaves.

the accent falls on the last syllable but one of any word in which the but one is long, and the last syllable short, the acoeut is always circumflex. ^ The accent never goes back beyond the augment.
last syllable

IMPERFECT OF

etflL

DEMONSTRATIVES

25

LESSON XII
THE IMPERFECT OF THE VERB "TO BE." DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, airos
The Imperfect
tense of the verb " to be " is as follows
Plural
I was thou wast he was
1.
rjfi.(v
:

Singular
1.
rjiirfv
rjs,

(Jiv,

Tj)

2.

^o-da

2.
3.

rjTe

we were you were
they were
infivos " that " are

3.

fjv

rjirav

The Demonstrative Pronouns
declined as follows
:

oiros " this "

and

''"

ovTo?, €Kecvo<;, avrov

oUtos and exfij/or agree with the nouns which they qualify in number, gender, and case just like adjectives. When they qualify a noun the noun always has the article.

Examples
This man, oStos 6 avdpairos, or 6 avdpmiros oStos, Those sheep, iKeiva to. irpo^ara, or ra npo^ara eKfiva.

That commandment,

exeivrj

fj

ivroki), or

i)

ivroXri

eieeivri.

without any word expressed for it to agree with it means "this man," aun? means "this woman," rovro means "this thing,'' ra€ra means "these things." The same is the case with eKcivos. avTos, avTT), airo is declined like inctvos. In the New Testament it is the ordinary word for " he, she, it " etc.
ovTos stands

When

by

itself

Examples

:

For he saves the people.
avTos yap ormffj tov \a6v.

They were
Tjyov

leading
els Trjv

him

to the sea.

avTov

dakaairav.

He was
67rf/t7rei/

sending her from the temple.
avrfjv otto

tov iepov.

This
OVTOS

is

his slave.
6 bovKos aVTOV^.

€(TTt.v

Those are her houses.
QVTOL
eltriv

ol olkol ai/rrjs^.

avTos also

means "himself,

herself, itself"

when connected with

a

noun.

Example

:-

Jesus himself taught them.
Irjo-ovs aiiTos

edldaaicev avrovs.

(In Classical Grnek the nominative case of airos has this latter

meaning
1

only,

and cannot be used in the sense of "he,
is

she,

it.")

If a

noun
it

followed by a genitive of
article.

aMs

in the sense of " his, her,"

or "its,"

always has an

EXERCISES.

THE PASSIVE

27

Sxercise 12
Revise Vocabularies 1—8.
1.

ovTot ol av6poj7roi airiByrifTKOv ev
3.

ttj

eprj^a.

2.

edeapovfiev tovs
4.
rjijLev

oiKovs avTwv.

ovTOs ovv ^v fiadrjT^s *lcodvov rod ^aTrrtaTov,
5.

yap doSXoi
6.

TTJS ifiaprias.

ineiva Si to SivSpa
7.

e^aWov

fls tijk

doKaaaav,
diro tov
9.

avTOt epevov ev

tm

irXolaj, 8.

6

yap 3ebs
KaKoL
rrj

trwfet avrovs

TTOvrjpov

(the evil one).
10.
ot

^re oZv Sea-n-orai tov Xaov.

ov yap
rjv
tj

Kpivofiev ravTa.
€VTo\rf avTov^

viol

avrov ^aav

11.

avrrj

yap

12.

eKr]pva-(ropev
14.

ravra ev

eKKXTjtTLa.

13.

fKetvot Se

e^ejSaXXov ra Satfiovta.

eV CKfivrj

Tjj rjjiepq

eSd^afov

Tyjv o'ocfyiav

tov

Kvpiov.
16.

15.

ai
rfj

irapBivoi &vvTJyov

ra vpo^ara avrSiv

els

ra bivSpa.

ev eKeivji

&pq

exalpop,ev.
ij

17.

d 'lijo-oOs avTos ovk efidirniev

dXKd

01 jiadrjTal

airov.

18.

fa)?;

jucvei ev avTois.

1. In the beginning was the word. 2. This is the love of God. For the Lord saves the souls of men from the evil one. 4. Peace and truth are in the kingdom of God. 5. They were glorifying his power and wisdom. 6. For in that day we were preaching the gospel of the kingdom in the synagogue, and casting out devils. 7. You saw

3.

her sons in the house.

8.

We

received

them

into the boat.

9.

Ye

were in the temple in those days. 10. This is life eternal. 11. We heard the voice of the angel from the trees. 12. They were holy and 14. Thou wast beloved. 13. Their children were in the assembly. reading the scripture to them in the synagogue. 15. The Jews used to slay his prophets. 16. The Baptist himself used to baptise his
disciples.

LESSON

XIII

THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE PKESENT AND IMPEEFECT
INDICATIVE

A verb is
of as p,cting
;

said to be in the Active Voice
it is

when

its

subject
its

is

spoken
is

said to be in the Passive Voice

when

subject

spoken of as suffering, or being acted upon.

Examples

:

Active " I love," " I was striking." Passive "I am loved," "I was being struck."

28
N.B.

THE INDICATIVE PASSIVE
Only Transitive verbs can have a Passive
voice.

There

are

certain verbs such as " I fall," " I slip," etc. which do not speak of the subject as acting, but which are regarded as Active verbs because they

are Intransitive.

The Passive
special endings,

voice is formed in Greek, as in Latin, by the use and not by the use of the Auxiliary verb " to be " as

of
in

English.

The Passive
given below.

voice of the Present and Imperfect Indicative of \va Note that the Imperfect Passive has the Augment.

is

Present Indicative Passive
Sing.
I.

Xvofuu
Xiei,

I

am loosed,
is loosed,

or I

am
is

being loosed.
loosed.

2. 3.

or Xir/

Thou

art loosed, or

thou art being
being loosed.

XicTM
\v6iie6a
\iea-6e

He

or he or

Plur.

1.

We are loosed,
You
They are

we

are being loosed.

2. 3.

are loosed, or you are being loosed.
loosed, or they are being loosed.

\vovTai

Imperfect Indicative Passive
Sing.
1.

eXvofiriv

I

was being loosed.
loosed.

2. 3.

eXvov
fXiero
iXvo/ieSa
eXvea-Be

Thou wast being

He was

being loosed.

Plur.

1.

We

were being loosed.
being loosed.
loosed.
'

2. 3.

Tou were

eXvovTo

They were being

Note. As in the case of the active voice a simple Past tense 'I was loosed " etc. will often sufficiently translate the Imperfect.

The Present and Imperfect
conjugated as follows

Indicative Passive of verbs in ea are

Present Indicative Passive
(j>i.\oviiai

AGENT AND INSTRUMENT
Imperfect Indicative Passive
e<j)L\ov[jirjv

29

30

AGENT AND INSTRUMENT.

PREPOSITIONS

RULE
In Greek the Agent of the action of a Passive verb is expressed by vv6 with the Genitive the Instrument is expressed by the Dative alone'. Active verbs may also be followed by a word denoting the instru:

ment.

Example

:

He

kills

the apostle with a sword.
fia)(^aipa.

dnoKTeivfi tov aTTOiTToXov

The same verb may have both an Agent and an Instrument. Example The apostle is loosed by the angel by a word.
:

6 diToa-ToXos \verat inro tov

ayyeXov Xoytp.
or

The Prepositions

8td

and

/xci-a

may

be followed by a noun

pronoun either in the Accusative or Genitive case. The student should here refer to the Appendix on prepositions on p. 154. The preposition vpos is generally followed by an AccuFor the sative case, and the preposition vtto by a Genitive case.

meanings of these prepositions see the vocabulary.

Exercise 13
Learn Vocabulary
1.

9.

cVe/iTTCo'^e viro

rav bL^aaKoKav

Trpbs erepov oxXov,

2.
3.

iv TovTa
o^Toi
4.
ol

Ta

TOTTft)

iBeapovfiev Tols oCJidaXpois tov

Kvpwv

Tatv ovpavatv.

\6yoi iXoKovvTO vno TOiV aTrocrrdXajv irpos
dia tov

Toiis irpetr^vTepovs. 5.

eitdiis

8e Ta Trpo^ara (rvvrjy€TO Xidots vtto Tatv Xr](rT5tv.
t5>v
7rpo<j)TjTav
7.

dne(rTeW6p.^da

jMSTa

o^ov.

6.

dta tovto iireidov Tols Tatv

Kpiratv

Xoyoif.

/xera

Tavra
8.

ol Tfkatvai

eSiddaKOVTo p€Ta twv veavtStv virb Tav
9.
St

irpea^vrlpayv.

ol vio\

tov oiKoBetTTTOTOv ^trOiov tovs dpTovs.
10. 6

viroKpird, ov irfpiirdTUS iv tols oSoIr tov Kvpiov.
V7rh Tatv epyaTotv
Trj

6p6vos eVoieiTO.
11.
ol

otKta tov Kvpiov

ev

lepovaaXrjp..

epyaTiu
St

direaTeWov tovs
iv (Keivco

KapTToiis Trjs yrjs irpos tovs olKodeffwoTas. 13.

12.

*Upov-

(ToKfin, ov)( fvpta-Kfi TrKTTTj.

irapcKoXoviifSa Tois \6yois Tatv padjjTav

xpova).

14.

rjyop,iv tcl

tikvo 8ia tov Upov.

15.

per' cKeivai

Tas rjpepas
1.

ol

XyaTOi virriyov Trpbs

ti}v eprjpov.

The word of God was being preached by the apostles. 2. These were sent by the householder to the elders. 3. On this account the judges were being persuaded by the faithful teachers. 4. Thou wast leading the people through the wilderness to Jerusalem. 5. After
fruits
'

This rule

is

not always strictly observed in the N.T.

DEPONENTS.
this they

THE IMPERATIVE

31

were being sought

for

in the eyes of the Lord.

7.

by the crowd. 6. They were wicked The throne was being carried by the

workmen
elders

to another place through the house. Immediately the 8. went with the prophets through Jerusalem. 9. The world was made through the Son of God. 10. O thou hypocrite, thou dost not keep the commandments of the Lord. 11. The young men were being taught by their own teachers. 12. Thou art not sent by the

sons of the prophets. 13. Therefore immediately after these things we preached the word of God to the disciples. 14. Ye were being

roused by the words of the householder.

LESSON XIV
DEPONENT VERBS. THE PRESENT IMPERATIVE. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN
are verbs which have the form of the Passive voice which are translated by a verb in the Active voice in They are called "Deponent" because the old grammarians English. considered that they had "laid aside" (Latin "deponere") a Passive sense, and assumed an Active.

Deponent verbs

in Greek, but

Examples

:

32

THE PKESENT IMPERATIVE
Present Imperative Passive
2. 3.

Present Imperative Active
Plur.
2.

XvfTf
Xviraia-av

loose (ye).
let

XvctrOe

3.

them loose.

\vfa-6aa-av

let

be loosed (ye). them be loosed,

or Xv6vT(ov

or

\vfa8a>v
:

The Present Imperative
<j)l\€l

of verbs in fa is as follows

Present Imperative Active

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN
Let him continue to keep the commandments.
TripeiTO)

33

Tas ivToKds.
ifi

Do
jXTj

not walk

the ways of wickedness any longer.
rrjs

TTopevov ev rais 68ols

aStnias.

The Relative Pronoun
The
Relative Pronoun
is

declined as follows

:

34
Examples
1.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

I see the
jSXcTTQ)

men who

are coming,
are sending are going away.

Tovs dvdpanovs oi epxovrat.

2.

The men that you
oi

avBpairot ots (TTeWere direp^^ovrat.
is

3.

This This

the writing that
fj

is

kept in the synagogue.

avTT] effTiv
4.

ypa<j)T]

^ TTjpeiTai ev Ttj avfayaytj.

is

the writing which the apostle used to have.
rj

avTTj itrrXv
5.

ypa<l>rj

7jv

ft-x^v

6 aTrotrroXos.

The

children

whom

I

was teaching are going away.
art reading is holy,
dyios etrriv.

Ta TraiSla a edlddaKov 'aTrtpx^Tai.
6.

The prophet whose books thou
o
rr po<j)TiTris

oi dvayivaxTKeis ra

/3(/3Xia

7.

The men

for

whom
is

I

am

doing this are slaves.
eltrtv*

oi avdpojirot ots noia)

ravra 8ov\ot

In example
because
it is

1

dv6pi)novs

in the Accusative case because it
it

is the

object of the clause in which

stands,

oj is in
it

the Nominative case
stands.

the subject of the clause in which

The student should

carefully consider the reason for the cases of the

Relative Pronouns in the other examples in the

Sections 8 and 10 in the Appendix on English

same way. grammar

should

be read

in

connexion with this lesson.

The

Relative clauses in the examples given above are all Adjectival

clauses, because they qualify

and explain their antecedents just

like

adjectives,

Exercise 14
Learn Vocabulary
1.

10.
ttjv

iiropevopeSa npos
TTJs

6a\aor(Tav p,fTa

T&v

liadrjrav,

2.

rjpvoiivto

TOP Kvpiov

86^s

bs rijpei avTois
'la-parjX.

dvo tov
4.
jifi

novrjpov.

3.

eScxea-Bt'

TOVS dypois ots eix^v 6 Xabs
5.

diroKpivov

tm
6.

Seo-wdrj.

drrfipxovTO irpbs
7-oiy

tt)v

eprjpov

ev ^ 6 'ladvrjs e/3d7rTife.

dwfKpi-

vd/mjv

dyyeXois
8.

oJ rjpxovTO

dno t&v
T&V

irpeo-^vTepav.
oi

7.

pj) epyd^ttrSe

Tfjv dbiKtav.

ovToi

Sf^*''"'" '"'"^r

ApapraiXovs
Kf<j}aXSiv

Koi io-6lti ptT 10.
ol

abrSjv.

9.

airrov

epxovTai npos avTon T&v waiSiav & ntpno,
11.

SoiXoi ots eSfX^TO epya^ovTai ev toIs dypois.

dirotrreXXoVTM.

PRESENT INFINITIVES
TO
ifidrta

35
o ypa(j)ci

a Xaji^avovaiv
13.

fls

tov oIkov.

12,

be^^cda to ^i^Kiov
&VTi<r6<oiTav tS>v

6 airoaToXos.
14.

8irjp^6i£e6a ovv Toiis

dypavs airaiv fierd tcov reXaivav,
15.

KHKOl

KOI KOVTjpoX bovkoi ^Te.

Xtdav TOV

iepov o aKoSopeiTO
1.

t£ Kvpia.

Let the love of the brethren remain in their hearts. 2. Keep commandments which you receive from the teachers. 3. Do not deny the Lord of glory who saved yovi from the evil world. 4. Let the elders whom they send receive the law for the people. 5. We were going through the fields in which the slaves were working. 6. After these things they built a temple to the God of Israel. 7. Do not walk (pi.) in the way of sinners. 8. Let him receive the messengers who proclaim the kingdom of heaven. 9. The disciples whom John 10. Let them work the was baptising remained in the wilderness. works of him that sent them. 11. For the prophet receives the sinners 12. Do not answer the who are sent to him and eats with them. teacher. 13. After those days they went away into the place in which the young men were remaining with the sheep. 14. This is the elder whose children were reading the books of the law which the prophet
the holy
wrote.

LESSON XV
THE PRESENT INFINITIVE. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
The Present
\veiv
<j>iKiiv

Infinitives are as follows

Present Infinitive Active
to loose to love
fivai

Present Infinitive Passive
\iea-dai
(/)i\«o-flat

to be loosed to be loved

to be
is really,

The
the

so-called Infinitive

Mood

both in Greek and English,

Dative case of a verbal noun. In many of its uses however its Dative sense is quite forgotten, and it is treated exactly as if it were It is always neuter. The Infinitive in indeclinable verbal noun. Dartakes of the nature both of a verb and a noun. As a verb it has a lubjeot expressed or understood, and it may have an object ; it is
qualified

by adverbs, and has tense and

voice.

As

a,

noun

it

may

itand as the subject or object of another verb.

3—2

36

THE INFINITIVE

Infinitive used as a Subject. The Infinitive is especially common as the subject of an Impersonal verb or of ecrri. As it is a verbal noun and therefore partakes of the nature of a verb, it may have a
subject of its own.
If this subject is expressed it is

put in

the

AocuSAirvB

case.

Examples

To

err is

human.
on the Sabbath,

n-apa/SaiVew dv6pajrtv6v iari.

It is lawful to heal
effort dtpanevciv iv
It

ra

(ra^^arif.

was necessary

for

him

to pass through Samaria.

€&ei avTov SiipxeirBai Bia rrjs Safuipias.

It is good for us to be here.

Ka\6v

i<TTiv fifias etvai fSde.

Notice that in the English of the last three examples the word " it" first as a sort of preparatory subject, the real subjects of the three sentences are however the Infinitives " to heal," " to pass," " to be here,'' as will be seen if the sentences are written in the following
is

placed

form;

To heal on the Sabbath is lawful. To pass through Samaria was necessary To be here is good for us.
^/iSs are

for him.

In the last two examples the subjects of the Infinitives airov and expressed in Greek in the Accusative case. Note that in English these words are in the Dative. The verb e^eari is however followed by a noun or pronoun in the Dative case to express the person to whom the action is lawful.

Example
It is lawful for us to heal

on the Sabbath.

e^eaTiv

fffiiv

depairevetv iv tc5 (ra^^arai.

Infinitive used as Object. Any verb whose action naturally implies another action or state as its object may take an Infinitive' as its object. Such verbs are generally the same in Greek as in
English.

They

are sometimes called

"Modal Verbs."

Examples:

They wish

to remain.

^oiXovrai Kara/iiveiv. are willing to hear.

We

6i\optv aKOvciv,

IN FINAL CLAUSES
I

37

am

able to do this.
TToieiv,

bwajxai TOVTO

They began

to build.

rjpXOVTO olicohojieiv.

After verbs meaning "to entreat," "to exhort," "to command," a' verb in the Infinitive mood is used as the direct object, while a

noun or pronoun
with
it

in

an Accusative, Genitive, or Dative case

is

used

as the indirect object of the

Infinitive is expressed it is in

main verb. If the subject the Accusative case.
to bring Paul.

of the

Examples

He commanded them

EKcXcuev avTovs ayeiv rbv IlavKov.
I beseech thee to heal

my

son.

deofiai trov Sepaireveiv rov vlov fiov*

He
Example

charged them not to depart from Jerusalem. TaprjyyeWev avTois fifj virdyuv otto 'lepoffoXu/Kav.
of

an

Infinitive with its subject expressed

He commands
KcXeuei Tov

Paul to be brought. HavKov SyetrOai,

All clauses which stand as the subject or object of a verb are called

Substantival Clauses.

The Infinitive used in Final clauses. As has been already stated the Infinitive is really the Dative case of a verbal noun.
It may therefore be used not only as the verb in a Substantival Clause but also as the verb in an Adverbial Clause expressing Purpose. Such clauses are called Final Clauses. The Infinitive is used in Final clauses on the same principle that

a noun in the Dative case

is

used in English to express purpose.
to the

Example

:

He went

market

for corn.
is

And

so both in Greek and English the Infinitive

used to express

Purpose.

Examples

He

sent his slaves to call the prophets.
roiis

dTreoreXXe

SoiXovs KoKeiv tovs 7rpo0i)Tas.

John used
d
'la>di'>;r

to go to the Jordan to baptise the disciples.
fiaBrfras.

^pxero n-pbs tok ^lophamjv fiairn^eiv tovs

38

PERSONAL AND
The negative used with the
Infinitive in the

New

Testament

is

almost always
being a

/irj.

Summary. The Infinitive is used in Substantival Clauses as Verbal Noun. The Infinitive is used in Final Clauses as being the Dative Case

of a verbal noun.

Personal and Possessive Pronouns
The Personal Pronouns
of the 1st

and 2nd persons are as

follows

Singular

.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
oi
fit

39

01 fiiv

followed by

must be translated "Some... others."
others were going away.
oi bk aiTr)p^ovTO.

Examplej

Some remained, but
01 fitv

efievov,

As the personal ending

of the verb

is

generally sufficient to

show

what person and number the subject is, the Nominative'case Personal Pronouns is not used except for emphasis.
Example:

of the

Thou
(TV fiev

art a slave, but I
€1

am

free.

8ov\os, eyw he eXevdepos.

The

Possessive Pronouns are
e>os
(TOS

40
r^
'laavfi.

THE FUTURE INDICATIVE
15.

cKcXevojUcv roiis dyyeXour neiiirtirdat.
17.

16.
<rc

o oe ouk

^dfXev wopeieirdai ev rais oSois Tov Kvpiov.
liivciv,

tyw

kcXcvco CKei

19.

ail 8e oIk vnaKoveis. 18. oi /lev ^trav SoCXoi naptKoKovfiev tov "Kaov vwaKOVciv Tois Trpo4>j]Tais.

ol

8e e\fv6epou

2. They were 1. We must not deny the Lord of glory (use 8el). not willing to obey the elders'. 3. It is lawful for them to receive the money from the publicans. 4. I am a man, but you are children. 6. We are sending 5. "We wish to see the temple of the God of Israel. the slaves to call the blind and the poor to the marriage. 7. It is bad for them to be there. 8. It was necessary for Jesus to pass through Samaria to proclaim the Gospel to the people. 9. We commanded the prophet to be brought. 10. I besought him to heal my child, but he would not. 11. Jesus commanded them to send the blind man. 12. I am not able to exhort them to remain in Jerusalem. 13. Therefore they began to confess their sins to us. 14. Some went to their houses and others to the temple. 15. We are free, but you are slaves. 16. Jesus is led into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.

be baptized by him in the Jordan. 18. They 19. I sent the messenger to you, but he was not willing to depart. 20. We must work the works of him that sent us (use 8fi). 21. They wish to read the books which thou hast.
17.

We

came

to

John

to

are not able to do this.

LESSON XVI
THE FUTURE INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE. THE MIDDLE VOICE
The Future Indicative Active is generally formed in Greek by putting (T at the end of the stem of the verb, and then adding the endings of the Present Indicative Active.
The Future Middle is generally formed by putting o- at the end of the stem of the verb and then adding the endings of the Present
Indicative Passive.

The meaning

of the Middle voice will be explained below.
'

Dat. case.

ACTIVE AND MIDDLE
The Future Active and the Middle
Active
Xuo-ffl

41
:

of

Xiito

" I loose " are as follows Middle

I shall loose, etc.

Xia-oum
\i(rei, Xva-rj

I shall loose (for

my

Xva-fis
\va-et
XvirofjLev

own

benefit), etc.

Xvo
\v(r6fie0a

Xucrere
\V(T0V(TI,

Xvaecrde
XlKFOVTai

Future Infinitive Active
Xva-eiv

Future Infinitive Middle
Xvaea-Sai

To be about

to loose

To be about one's own

to loose (for
benefit)

Note that each of these forms is made up of the stem of the verb, the <r, and the appropriate ending of the Present tense. If the stem of the verb ends in a consonant, this consonant combines with the a- which is added to it to form the endings of the Futxire in the manner shown below. If the stem of the verb ends in a guttural letter it, y, Xt it joins with the (T and makes ^. Examples
Present
OKOKta
dvoiyai

Future Act.

Future Mid.
dvQi^ofiai

pursue I open
I

dvoi§a>

apxa
exa
If the

Act. I rule

ap^a
«|q>

ap^ofiai

Mid.

I 1 I

begin

nave have

(but observe the rough

breathing)

stem of the verb ends in a
yjf.

labial letter

ir, /3,

<(>,

it

joins with

the

a-

and makes

Examples
Present
jSXettoj ypa<t>(0
ncfJLtro)

»
Future Act.
I

Future Mid.
^Xei/^o/iai

see

/SXc'i^m
•ypo\//'0)

I write I

ypayjfO/iai
ire/ii/ro/iai

send

jrefn^m
letter

If the

stem of the verb ends in a dental
<r

r, 8, 6, it is

dropped

before the

of the Future.

Examples
Present
neiOo)

Future Act.
wiiirat

Future Mid.
TTcliTopm

I persuade

42

THE MIDDLE VOICE
e

Verbs in ea lengthen the Future Tense.

to

?;

before adding the endings of the

Examples

:

Present
aireo)
fijreo)

Future Act.

Future Mid.
airrjiTOfiai,

I

ask

aiT^cra)

I seek

C^Tr)<ra

CriTTja-oiiai

The Future

tense of

flfii is

as follows

:

torofiai
etret,

I shall be, etc.

ecnj

ttrrai

eaovTOi

The Middle
subject
is

voice.

The Middle

voice generally denotes that the

acting upon himself, or in
it is

some way that concerns

himself,

but often

not distinguished from the Active voice in meaning. Many verbs have no Future Active forms, but only Future Middle. These Futures Middle are " deponent " and have exactly the same
if

meaning as

The Middle
Passive voice.

they were active. voice of the Present tense

is

the same in form as the

Exercise 16
Learn Vocabulary
1.

12.

ovK a5iK^O"ou(rt

rot

reKva,

2.

oi

be evdva-ovari ra IfiaTia.
TJj

3.
4.

dvoi^eL

rovs 6(l>Ba\fiovs rav
Toi/s

TV<l>Katv ot

(Tvudyovrai iv
5.

a-vvaywy^,

neiaofitv

epydras epyd^caSat iv Tols dypoiswpotpTjras,

nefi^j^o)

irpos avTovs trot^vs
l(rparj\.

Km
yr^v.

dW*

ovk aKovtrovtriv avToi/s
7.

ol

viol
o\

6.

cKelvos

earai

ayms ra Kvpia.
8.

Sphere rav '\ovhaiaiv

KOTOiKOvai
(rot.

eKfiViji' Tr\v

7rpo<pTjTeva'€is

tu

Xac5 TovT<fi Kai viraKovtrovtri
fioi,

9.

8taicovr]a'€Tf

Tols i)(Bpois vp,S>v OTi OVK TjSeXfTf vnaKOveiv
CKeivrj Tij Tjpipa.

dXX' eya

eXeij(ro> i/iSs en

10. KaToiKTitTopev Toiis dypoiis tS>v e'xBpSiv ols fiiijKoi/oi/jfK
11.
ol

OTi OVK rjKovofiev tov
8ta}^ov(rt Tovs

\6yov tov Kvplov. X^oras ev ra a-a^^dra.
13.

BiaKOVOi

ttjs OTJi/aycoy^s ov

12.

cuXo-yeircocrai' ttjv

86^av tov
14.
ot

deov

ItrparjX,

trep'^opev Toi/s veavlas KaroiKelv t^v y^v.

TTpea-^vrepoL e^oviTLTa

€v\oye2v rovs viovs

npS^ara A tra^erai aTTorau t&v wpotjjrjr&v.

€)(dpa)V.

15.

dp^ofifSa

THE TWO STEMS OF VERBS
1.

43

open the books which are in the synagogue. 2. They and faithful in that day, and I will bless them because they hear my voice. 3. "We shall behold the face of the Lord in the temple which is built in Jerusalem. 4. The Lord will have mercy upon them because they dwell in the land of their enemies, and he
I will

shall be just

them into their own land. 5. Jesus therefore began to send the apostles to proclaim the Gospel to the house of Israel. 6. We will send the slaves to pursue the robbers. 7. Peace and truth shall dwell in our land because we obey the commandments of the Lord. 8. He
will lead

speak these things to the multitudes in parables. 9. I shall be but thou wilt be last. 10. Do not praise the wicked, for the wicked shall not dwell in our land.
will
first,

LESSON XVII
THE TWO STEMS OF VERBS. THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN. QUESTIONS
Greek verbs are not divided into conjugations with
like Latin verbs.

different endings

All the verbs in

to

have the .same endings

:

the differences between

them are caused by variations in the stem. The verbs which are given as examples in the last exercise (except Treidio) and also those in the vocabulary have but one stem but many verbs have at least two stems The Verbal stem from which all the tenses with the exception (1)
:
:

of the Present
(2)

and Imperfect are generally formed.

The Present stem from which the Present and Imperfect

tenses are formed.

The fact that the meanings of verbs are given in dictionaries under the form of the Present Indicative tends to fix attention upon it, and to produce the impression that it is the original and most important form of the verb. This is however not the case. The present stem is
really derived from the verbal stem, and is generally a lengthened form of the verbal stem. The verbal stem is the most important part of the verb nouns
;

44

THE VERBAL STEM
it,

and adjectives of kindred meaning are formed from
the present stem.

and not from

Examples

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
Pao-Tofw
Sofafo)
I carry I glorify I

ai/Vo?
I try or

45
tempt
stumble

n-etpafm
a-KavSdKi^ai

I cause to

eyyi^a

draw near

am^a)
I

I save

ipyd^ojxai

work

Observe that in all the verbs given above the Future is formed from the verbal stem in accordance with the rules given on p. 41. Reflexive Pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence or clause refer to the same person or thing. The forms which occur in the New Testament are
e/iavTou
a-eavTov

myself
thyself

iavTou {airov)
iavrrjv (^avTrjv)

himself
herself
itself

eavTo (avTo)

iavTovs

ourselves, yourselves, themselves

already seen, airos, -ij, -o, means "he, she, it" when it stands alone, and " self" when it is joined to a noun or pronoun. When avTos is joined to, and immediately follows, an article it means "the same." The article and aurds are always in the same

As we have

number, gender and

case.

Distinguish carefully between

The same man.
6 avTOS av6ptin:os.

and

The man

himself.

6 avOptairos avTos.

Distinguish also between this last use of airos and the use of the
Reflexive pronoun
:

The man himself says The man
TO.

this.

6 ("ivdpaTros airos \iyei, tovto.

casts himself into the sea.

d avBpaTros /SaXXei avrbv els Tr)V BaKcurcrav.

avrd contracted to Toira means " the same things.''

Questions
Questions are expressed in Greek not by altering the order of the words in the sentence, but by placing the question mark ; at the end It will be noticed that this question mark is like an of the sentence.

iQ
English semi-colon.
line
• .

QUESTIONS IN GREEK
The Greek
colon
is

a single dot above the

Examples

They

are doing this.

VOlOVai TOVTO.

Are they doing this?
TTOIOVITL

rOlTO

,*

Exercise 17
Learn Vocabulary
1.

13.
tji oIkli};

Kpvy\ro}ifv
3.

TO iraiblov ev

2.

ovx^

ayiatrowi ra (ra^^ard
4.

fiov.

oi avTol

HyyekoL eTotfiairovtnv eavToiis TTopeveaBai.
5. 7.

Kadapi^eTt
6.

€avrovS) viroKpiTai.
^co^v ev eavTois.

aTroicaXvylrfis ai/rois ttjv
cru
9.

do^av
8.

rtjs (ro^tas.

e^erf

yap

rrpd^ets

Tci

aira,

^Irjtrovs

avTos ^yytfc

Tois avTOLS p.aSi]TaLS.

rd^ovo'i tovs avroiis avSpanrovs ev tols dypois.
11.
ayjreTai
;

10.
12.
TTJ

aKavdoKltreTe Toiis dyiovs;

tov Ip-aTiov tov

7rpo<j>rjTov,

TTopevao^ai irpos
dydirij
rrjs

rrjv avrrjv oiKiav

13.

dycd^fTe Tag KOpSlas
Xerrpoi/s

vp.Sav

a\ij6elas-

14.
iarTi

dTrd^ovo't.

roi/s
Tjj yfj.

diro

tov

Upoii.

15.

eKKoyj/eTe

Ta 5iv8pa d

iv eKcivrj

16.

6av}id<rei ttjv &6^av

TOV Kvpiov.
1. Ye shall set the books in order in the synagogue. 2. They will hope to behold the signs of the apostles. 3. We will draw near to hear the voice of the teacher. 4. The wicked man will do wicked things. 5. Will he cleanse himself in the same lake ? 6. She will make herself

ready to
will

go.

7.

I will

cut

down the
for
10.

buy the same books

the souls of his people.
11.

trees that are in the field. 8. We our children. 9. The Lord will guard We will begin to sanctify our hearts.

The maiden

will carry the loaves for the
13.

workmen.

will hide themselves in the trees.

You

will begin to

12. They wonder at

the power of the elders.
15.

14.

We

shall not reveal ourselves to them.

Art thou willing to behold peace and righteousness in the kingdom
?
?

of

God

16.

Shall

we command them

to read the Scriptures to the

brethren

THE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE

47

LESSON XVIII
THE
The
Aorist, a tense

FIRS.T

AORIST ACTIVE

it from the Second which has different endings, but practically always the same meaning. Very few verbs have both Aorists. The two Aorists may be compared in this respect with the strong and weak forms of the Past tense in English. Very few verbs in English have both a strong and a weak Past tense if they have, the meaning of the two forms is identical.

First Aorist is so called to distinguish

;

Example:

Present Beseech

Strong Past

Weak

Besought

Past Beseeched

At present we are concerned only with the
is

1st Aorist;

but whatever

meaning of this tense applies equally to the 2nd Aorist. The name Aorist means unbounded or unlimited. The Aorist tense is used in Greek to denote that the action spoken of is to be regarded simply as an event, without any regard being taken of the length of time during which it has been going on. The Present and Imperfect tenses on the other hand emphasise the fact that the action spoken
said about the of
is

continuous or often repeated.

In practice

it will

be sufficient

for the present to translate the Aorist Indicative

by the English Past

Simple, and the Imperfect generally by the English Past Continuous,

or Imperfect.

Example

:

eXvov
fKvcra

1

was

loosing, or I used to loose.

I loosed.

This distinction should be carefully observed.

The

1st Aorist of the verb
1st

\va

is

as follows

Aor

48
As

THE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE
in the Future

endings.

The a

and the o- is inserted between the stem of the verb characteristic vowel of the tense is a. which is inserted before the endings of the 1st Aorist produces

The

consonantal changes similar to those produced by the the endings of the Future.

a-

inserted before

Examples

Present

IMPEKATIVES.

AOEIST INFINITIVE

49

Give us (keep on giving us) day by day our daily bread.
Tov apTov
^fjLWV

Tov iiriovtTwv 8l8ov

rffiiv

to KaB*

rjfiepav.

Lk.

xi.

3.

Give to us this day our daily bread.
TOV SpTov
fifiav

TOV iiriovcriov bos

rifiiv

arj/iepov.

Mt.

vi.

11.

The Present Imperative denotes a continuous act of giving day after day. The Aorist Imperative denotes a single act of giving for

to-day.

Another good example is found in Jn ii. 16 Take these things hence (single action), do not continue to make Father's house a house of merchandise.
apare^
(piropiov.

my

TavTa evTevOev,

pfj

iroLdre tov oikov

tov iraTpos

p.ov

oiKov

The Aorist
just in the

Infinitive

The Aorist Infinitive differs in meaning from the Present Infinitive same way as the Aorist Imperative differs in meaning from

the Present Imperative.
Its use denotes that the action denoted by the verb is to be regarded simply as an action happening at some time not defined, without any regard to its continuance or frequency. The use of the Present Infinitive denotes that the action denoted by the verb is to be regarded as continuous or repeated. The Aorist Infinitive is consequently used more frequently than the Present Infinitive in Greek and the student should always use it unless there is some good reason to the contrary. It is Not confined to expressing action in past time like the Latin Perfect Infinitive, it has therefore no augment since it is not regarded
:

as a past tense.

Examples

To
I

keefp

on writing the same things
Ta
avTCL

is

good for you.

ypd<ji€LV

koXov eariv vpXv.
Ta)(4a>s.

(PreS. Inf.)

hope to write to you soon.
(Aor. Inf.)
Its

eXiri'fo) ypdyjrai vfiiv

1

apa.T€ is

an Aorist Imperative.

form

will be explained in the next

lesson but one.
N.

4

50

EXERCISES
Exercise 18
Revise Vocabularies 9-13.
1.

eSia^av

roiis

Xr/aras

oi

airrfyov
3.

to.

npo^ara.
5.

2.

oi

8e Xejrpot

iiriarfvaav ^
laaria,
4.

ra \6yto tov
trattrov

'lij<roC.

ineiii^as roiis reXavas ayopdiTat xa

to upyvptov
6.

ano Twv
ra
Tratdia.

X^arwi/.

craiff

tov Xaov
7.

(rov

diro TOV wovrjpov.

Ta^^drcacrai'

|3i|3\ia f v ti5 icp^.

/ifTa Tavra

eneitrapev

aiiToi/s

Kpvyjrai

ra

8,

CKaBapifrafitv
ttju

eavrovs ev Ta

iroTapa.
10.

9.

o bihaaKoKos airros iBavpaat
8ia Trjs yrjs €KKoyj/ai
to,

(To^'iav

Tav

paBrfraVi
ov
fici

f7rop€V€TO

8ev8pa.

11.

8ia tovto

a-KavSdXi^fiv Toiis
13.

vwrovs.

12.

/Sdorawoi' to wXoiov diro T^s daXairoi;c.
rj

dyidcraTe eavrovs, iyyi^ei yap
7rpo(t>riTris

rjpepa tou Kvpiov.

14.

fxtXcvafv
15.
!]

TOV Xf7rp6v 6
(jxovfi

Kadapi(rai iavTOV ev
tt/

rm
dno

'lopddvj] iroTapa.

TOV 'ladvov expose iv

fpi)p<f

'

eTotpMO-arf tj)v oSov tdS Kvpia.'
to)v 18.

16.

errjprjaapev

Tas evToXds as rjKOvopev

dyuov

drrotTToXav.
prj

17.

KaXov iariv ^pds irpdaaeiv
19.

rr/v hiKaioirvvrjv.

iiiovTo'^ avrov

Trpd^ai eavTca kokov.
Tv<pXov.

20.

ptTa tovto oZv dvea^ev tovs 6(l>BaXpovs tov 21. ^ elprjvrj eXnl^ets Setopelv tt}v bo^av twv dyyiXav,
22.

KaToiKijcraTW

Tas xapSias vp&v.

TavTa yap

jjffeXrjaav

/SXc^at

oi

dyyeXoi.
1. They baptised the publicans in the river. 2. You were going through the land to behold the houses and the people. 3. Hide the stones in the field. 4. Do not continue to offend the brethren (use the H. Let them set the men in order. Pres. Imper.). 6. You revealed the commandments and promises to the church. 7. Shall we begin to read the books ? 8. Cleanse your hearts, ye sinners, and confess your sins to the church. 9. Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath ? 10. Save Lord, from the wickedness of this world. thy people, 11. Make ready therefore to hide yourselves and your children in Jerusalem. 12. Let love and righteousness dwell in yom- hearts. 13. He commanded me to write these words in a book. 14. It is good for them 15. After this I will reveal my to keep on reading the same things. power to the children of Israel. 16. He wished to call the publicans to the marriage.

'

TTiffTeiioi

is

^

This verb

is

often followed by a Dative. not contracted.

THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE

51

LESSON XIX
THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE. OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER VERBS OF SAYING, OR THINKING
The Endings
of the Second Aorist Indicative Active are the

Same
of the

as those of the Imperfect Indicative Active.

The Endings

2nd Aorist Imperative Active are the Same as those of the Present Imperative Active. The Endings of the 2nd Aorist Infinitive Active

Same as those of the Present Infinitive Active. The 2nd Aorist can only be distinguished from the Imperfect and the. Present Imperative and Infinitive by the Stem. The Imperfect and the Present Imperative and Infinitive are formed from the present stem. The 2nd Aorist Indicative, Imperative and
are the

formed from the verbal stem (see p. 43). no difference in meaning between a 1st and a 2nd Aorist' few verbs have both. Take for example the verb ^dWa " I throw."
Infinitive are

There

is

Verbal Stem ^a\.

Present Stem |3aXX.

52
Present

THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE

OBJECT CLAUSES
jraB

53
ird(rx<'>

cjraBov
ffkSov rjveyKov

I suffered
I

e\6
ivtyK

came

ipxafiai
(jiipa

I carried

The Imperative
(rx^s,

of fISov
is

is 184,

that of
is

(Ittov is flwe,

that of e^xov

is

that of ij\6ov

A^e.

The Imperative of the other verbs

formed in the usual way.

Object clauses after verbs of saying or thinking
Object clauses after verbs meaning "to say" or "to think" are sometimes expressed in Greek, as they nearly always are in English, by a clause introduced by on, "that^", with a verb in the Indicative mood.

Examples

:

They say that they hear the
X4yov(TCV OTi aKOVOvai Tfjv

voice.

(jiiovrip.

We

believe that

we beheld the

temple.

7rt(Trevop.€v

OTi €/3Xei/^a/iev to iepov.

In Greek however the
original speaker or thinker

Tense of the verb which was used by the when he uttered the words or framed the

always retained, and the verb in the object clause is not put it is in English when the verb in the principal clause is in a past tense. In English we say " The man said that he heard the voice." The words that the man actually uttered were " T hear the voice." In Greek this present tense is retained and we write

thought

is

into a past tense as

o nvOpaiTOs enrfu ore aKOVfi rrjv

(jxavrjv.

Again, in the sentence " The
the thought that the
there," consequently

men

believed that the slave was there,"

men framed in their minds was "the slave is we translate this sentence into Greek as follows
eTrioTcvaav
:

ol avSpatiroL

on

6 fiouXdy eariv

exei.

So in the following sentences

He

said that he

had seen the
ir'Ko'La,

boats.

(I

saw the

boats.)

CiTrev

on

et8e

Ta

They thought that they had seen a iuofita'av on ecdov otrTa(riav,
'

vision.

(We saw

a vision.)

N.B.

oTt also

means "because,"

as has been already mentionecl.

54

OBJECT CLAUSES.

EXERCISES

In English the tense of the verb in the object clause is put one stage further into the past the Past is used instead of the Present, and the Pluperfect instead of the Past. But in Greek the tense used by the
:

:

original speaker or thinker is always retained.

The student should always ask himself what were the original words
uttered, or the original thought framed, before trying to translate such

sentences as these.

Exercise 19
Learn Vocabulary
1.
rfi

14.
2.

jiera
3.

Tavra atridavtv 6 wTOixos.
e/iaOfS

e^rjfiev
4.
Si

els

to lepov ev

cKeivr]
els
(re.

apa.

on
7.

epx^erm 6

KpiTrjs.

Kvpif, Tjp,apTov
6.

5.

fiSofiev

oTi 6 TeXavrjs (ftipei to
yfjs.

dpyvpiov ix t^s olxias.

iSe Tois
els

Seo'TToras Tijs
Koa-ftov
etrOtovo-i

yivao'Kopxv

on
8.

o

vios

tov Beov riKBev
nlvoviri,

Tov

(ra^eiv

Toiis

a/iapTioXovs.
9.

eXirev

on
dno

tov olvov Koi
10. ra

TOV aprov.

rjveyKopev tovs \iBovs
11.
ot Xi^orat

rr/s daXdtra-rjs,

bevbpa
12.

eiretre els

tov dypov,

oi 8e 7rpo(j>TJTat

efpvyov els ttjv eprjpov.

e^evyov utto Tav veaviav. 13. ev Tovra yivunTKopev rrjv
els

aydnrjv tov deov oti ewefiyjrev tov vlov avTov tov dyanrjTov
14. 0!jBi els Toiis dypoiis Koi
OTL 6 Kvpios eirefiyjfe

tov KOtrpov.
cyvmi'
iraibia

\d^e tov xapnov dnu tS>v epyuTcov. 15. tov ayyeXov avrov trco^eiv pe, 16. eXSerto to.
oti

TTpos

pe.

17.

etfropxv

del

naSelv avToiis
19.

TroXXa.

18.

eidov

on

riydyopev tov o)(Xov
pov.
1.

els Trjv (Tvvayayfp),

ecrxev to /3(^Xia tov dSeXtjmv

20.

eyvapev

oti TroXXa

epaBov

oi paBrfToi dfro tS>v
2.

dnoOToXav.

We
4.

cast ourselves into the river.
for the poor.
3.

You

received the garments

which the elders sent
judges.

They

fled

from the face of the

After this the disciples knew that they had sinned (their thought was "we sinned "). 5. This is the stone that fell from heaven. 6. The virgin brought forth a son, and they called him Jesus i. 7. Ye follow me, not because ye saw signs, but because ye ate the loaves.

8. The Son of man must suffer many things. 9. After these days we went to Samaria. 10. Behold the Lamb of God. 11. He said that he had learnt many things from the prophet. 12. We know that we must

suffer
fields

many
and

things.

fled.

14.

and drink the wine

On this account they left He commanded the multitude which the young men brought.
13.
^

the sheep in the to eat the bread
15.

The prophet

Accusative case.

LIQUID VERBS, FUTURE AND AORIST

55

who had the book died in the wilderness. 16. We saw that the slaves were carrying the boat to the lake (the thought was "they are carrying"). 17. They said that the children had eaten the fruit (the words used were " the children ate the fruit "). 18. They knew that the maidens were in the house. 19. I heard that the apostles were going to
Jerusalem.

LESSON XX
THE FUTURE AND AORIST ACTIVE OP LIQUID VERBS. TEMPORAL GLAUSES
\
fi,

The Future and Aorist of verbs whose stems end in a V, p present some peculiarities. The present stem is longer than the verbal stem (1)

liquid letter

:

(a) it

has a

long vowel or a diphthong where the verbal stem has a short vowel, or (6) it ends in XX where the verbal stem ends in X (except in the case of
o0fi'X(a).

(2)

The Future Active and Middle
have endings

instead of inserting

<r

before

their endings

like those of the Present of contracted

verbs in ea.

The 1st Aor. Act. generally has a long vowel or diphthong in (3) the stem, and does not insert a- before its endings, but adds them direct to the lengthened stem. The following verbs of this class are important.
1st or

2nd

Present

56
trwflpa
(palva
<j)6eipa>

TEMPORAL CLAUSES,
(Tirep
(jiav

nrapd
((rnfipa
I

irirtpSy

SOW

^avovpai
^6fpS>
fKJideipa

I manliest I destroy
iiralpet,

ipBep

The compound forms
eK^aKKo), KaraKpivo)

of these verbs such as TrapayyeWa,

form their tenses in exactly the same way as the uncompounded forms given above. The Future of dyyeWa is conjugated
as follows
:

dyyeXa, dyyikeis, ayye\el, dyyfXovpfv, ayyeXelre, dyye\ovin.
dyyciXai.

The 1st Aor. Imperat. is ayytiXov and the Infinitive is The other verbs are all conjugated in the same way.

Temporal Clauses, or clauses denoting time
Clause denotes the time of the action of the verb in the clause on which it depends. Temporal clauses are introduced by ore or 6s meaning "when,"
e<ur

A Temporal

meaning "while" or "until."

When

a temporal clause refers to a single definite event

its

verb

is

in the Indicative mood, just as in English.

N.B. Distinguish carefully between Sre " when," and " because."

on " that,"

or

Examples

:

When

ore rj\0f

he came to the sea he saw the ships. npos Trjv dd\a(r<Tav flBe ra ir\oia. While he read the books he remained in the house.
eas dveyvco ra
/3(/3Aia KaT(p,fiveii

iv TJj oiKi'a.

He

remained in the house until the slave came.
rfj

Karcpfiufv iv

olxia eai ^\6fV 6 SouXof.

The Preposition
The
It is

irapd

root

meaning of this preposition is Beside. used with a noun or pronoun in the accusative,
used with the Accusative case motion along side of places.
it

genitive, or

dative case.

When

denotes generally motion

to beside or

Examples
6 8e tTTTopos enea'fv

But the seed
o Sc
Irjtrovs

fell

rjXBev

wapa rfju odov. by the roadside. napa rrfv 0d\a<TO-av

Trjs

rdKiKaiat.

But Jesus went along the

side of the sea of Galilee.

n-apd.

EXERCISES
it

57

When

used with the Genitive case
kol eyvaxrav

denotes motion from beside
,

of persons.

Example

:

on irapa aov €^rj\0ov. And they knew that I came forth from Thee.

When used with the Dative it denotes rest beside and may be translated "near," or "by," or "with," or "at the house of."
Example
:

e/ictvav Trap'

aira

Trjv

fjiiipav

cKelvrjv.

They remained with him that

day.

Exercise 20
Learn Vocabulary
1.

15.
els rrjv otKLav aTTTjyyeiKav otl

ore

fie

ol

aTpariarat rjK6ov
2.

airiareiKcv

rareKva avT&v fiaxatpa. 3. ov fxeveXre ev ra tott,^ tovtco aXX* aTroOavelaOe iv TTj yji T&v €-j(6paiV vp.S)v, 4. ot airotTToKot, eff-ireipav tov \6yov iv Tois
KoraKptifova-LTas \rjpaf koI dTroKTevovat

aiiTOvs 6^ KopvTjXios.

KapSiais TOiv fiadrjraiv.
Irjaov.
7.

6. roS

^p€v ovv tov uravpov Koi ^XBev

OTricra)

tov

6.

eV

eKelvco

Kaip^

ol

KpiTai eKpetvav Tas <j}v\as 'IcparjX,

e<f)delpapev Tas Kotpas al rjaav -rrapa Trjv
jSjiSXiov.
9.

Bakaaaav.
10.

8.

epetva eKft

eais

aviyvm to
TroTYfpiov
^Xeyj/ova-L

ore
els
;

fie

aTrtKreivev 6 'HpmSijs to iraiSia iv BrjffKefp
(rvv

KaTf(f}vy€v 6^

*Io)(ri7<^

AtyvnTov
11. 12.

Mapia.

dvvacrBe

irteiv

to

o

fiei

pe nielv
13.

(jjavovpai to

KpotrtoTTOv pov avTois Kal
ewff

t^v Bo^av pov.
14.

epelvaptv iv rc» icpto
TJKOvtrav

(OKo86povv

ol

epyarai tov Bpovov.
Trap avTjj.
T(a

&s

fie

ravTa irapa t^s xVP^^ epeivav
15. 6
fie

S^etXes dpyvptov toIs TfKwvaiS'
''Eyet/ae,

*lT)rrovs eiTTfv

irapdkvTiK^

apov

ttjv kKivtjv

aov Ka\ vnaye

els

t6v oIkov

itov^

&s fie rfKOvaev TavTa ^pev Tr/v kXivtjv Kal vnrjyev, 16. aTreoTeiXa/xev tovs dyyiXovs eTotpdaat ttjv ofioy. 17. 6 irpoffyTjTrjs enrev OTt TrdvTa hvvaTa
icTTi

Trapa r<a
fiBi\rj(Tas

Bfm'^.

18.

TrnpijyyeiXa-re aiiTols
Tci fieVSpa.

prj

<j)6eipai

to.

TrXom.

19.
TTOts

ayeiv Ta Trpo^ara Trapa
itTTiv

20.

jrapa Tols dvBpa-

dSvvaTov
21. 22.
ol

aXX* ov Trapa roJ

dea>,

TrdvTa yap SvvaTU Tvapd ra
fiet

Bea.
Tjpav.
1.

Kai tovto rjKOvaaiiev nap' avTov otl

(f)t\e'lv

Toits aSeX<^oiis

^apuraloL eXeyov oTi iaBUt Trapa dpapTtoXa.

Child and

2. Joseph took the Send the young men to rouse the soldiers. Mary and departed into Egypt. 3. They shall not die in

' Proper nouus in Greek are often preceded by the article this article must not be translated into English. - Trapi T<f fleij) etc. "near God"; translate "with God," or "to God."
;

58

THIRD DECLENSION, CONSONANT ENDINGS

the wilderness, for the soldiers will save them. 4. I will manifest my servants (use doiXoc) at that time, saith the Lord. 5. The Pharisees went to eat bread at the house of the prophet^. 6. This is impossible with men, but it is possible with God. 7. When

myself to

Herod heard these words he sent his servants to destroy the children Bethlehem with the sword. 8. They remained in the house while the paralytic took up his bed. 9. We announced that the apostle was staying (use fieva>) in the house of Cornelius. 10. Take up thy cross and carry it after me. 11. You ought not to condemn these widows.
in
12.

I shall cast the

sword into the

lake.

13.

When

the disciples came

to the village they sowed the word in
14.

The Son
things.

of

man
15.

the hearts of the people. (insert the article before " of man ") must suffer

many

I heard this from (napd) the prophet who lives the house of the widow in Bethlehem. 16. Wilt thou not slay the wicked, Lord? 17. They wished to throw the stones beside the temple. 18. The Pharisees said that the disciples of John did not (/levm) at

eat with publicans and sinners (use napd).

LESSON XXI
THE THIRD DECLENSION
The
first

third declension contains or second declension.

all

nouns which do not belong
(1) in

to the

The stems of third declension nouns end a vowel, generally i, v or ev.

a consonant,

(2) in

TMrd. Declension nouns with stems ending in a consonant. (1) The endings of these nouns when masculine or feminine are as
follows
;

Singular

Plural

Nom.

THIRD DECLENSION, EXAMPLES
These endings are added to the stem.

59
found by taking

The stem

is

away the ending of the Genitive
Examples
:

Singular.
Genitive

Nominative
VV^ night
irais boy apxav ruler

Stem
VVKT waiS

VVKTOS
TrmSos

apxovros

dp^ovT

following are examples of the declension of nouns of the third declension.

The

60

THIRD DECLENSION, CONSONANT ENDINGS
Plural

Nom.

62

THIRD DECLENSION, VOWEL ENDINGS

being sent for the children by the widows. 10. The shepherds called own sheep, and they came after them. 11. Unless we eatjthe 12. Here flesh of the Son of man we shall have no life in ourselves.
their
will I dwell for ever, saith the Lord.

LESSON XXII
NOUNS WITH STEMS ENDING IN A VOWEL, ETC. NEUTER NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
(2)

Nouns of the Third Declension with stems ending
in
t,

in a

vowel.
These nouns have stems ending
v,

or

ev.

Examples
(-5)

THIRD DECLENSION, NEUTER AND IRREGULAR

63

Notice that as in the case of neuter nouns of the 2nd declension the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative cases have the same endings, and the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative Plural end in a. Decline like ypdiifia the words given in the vocabulary, and also
Trip, TTvpos, fire
;

ripas, Tcparos, a

wonder

;

<j)S)s,

cjxotos, light

;

which

are

all

neuter.

Neutee Nodns with Stems Ending
The
final s

in

«

of the stem appears only in the Nominative singular,

and there the es is changed to os. In the other cases r is dropped and the two vowels thus brought
together are contracted.

Example Stem yfi/es with Genitive ending added becomes yivea-os, when the s is omitted it becomes yeveos, and this is contracted to The same takes place in the other cases. yexous.
:

Singular

Plural

Nom. Voc.
Gen.
Dat.

Ace.

yevos
yevovs

a race

yevr/

yeviav or yfvau
yeveai
in the

ytVa
of this class

The nouns

which occur most frequently

N. T.
all

are given in the vocabularies.

They must be
os

carefully distinguished

from nouns of 2nd declension ending in
masculine.

which are nearly

Irregular

nouns of the Third Declension
nouns should be noted
:

The declension
same as the stem.

of the following

they are

contracted in the Dat. and Gen. Sing, and have the Voc. Sing, the

TraTTjp 6

64
The

THIRD DECLENSION, IRREGULAE
following
is

the declension of
Singular

dvrip,

a man.
Plural

Nom.
Voc. Acc.

dvrjp

avSpfS

avep

avSpes

Gen.
Dat.

avSpa dvSpos
dvSpi

avSpas

dvtpav
dvSpaa-i
:

The

following nouns

should also be specially noticed

Nominative

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION
1. This man did signs and wonders in the city. hands and my feet. 3. Ye are the light of the world. was wiping {i^ijuxa-tre) the feet of Jesus with her hair.

65
Behold

2. 4.
5.

my

The woman Our fathers

did eat the

manna

{to

ear of the deaf
his daughter.
10.

man
9.

fiawa) in the wilderness. 6. He touched the with his hand. 7. The king sent this woman to
city.
8.

bring her father from the

He was

The Holy

Spirit shall

seeking his mother and remain with them for ever.
12.

11. The dogs In that year my 13. The scribes would not receive father went through your city. baptism for' the remission of their sins. 14. I read the letters which 15. Your cities are destroyed with he wrote by the hand of his wife. woman, 17. 16. We bowed (eKa/ii/^nfiew) our knees to the king. fire. depart in peace, for I will heal thy daughtei'.

Thou

sayest that thou knowest the will of God.

ate the fish which I took out of the water.

LESSON XXIII
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION, IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES
Adjectives of the third declension have only two terminations,

because the feminine

is

the same as the masculine.

The two

principal forms of these adjectives are declined as follows
akrjBrjs^

true
aKrjdfs

Stem

66

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES
Great care must be taken to distinguish
"to,"
els

67
(maso.)

"one"

and

h

from

"one"

(neuter)

from tV "in."
Masc.
Fern.

Neut.

68
avTovs.
12.
fiijSfir

FIRST AOEIST PASSIVE
crKavSaKileTio tva tSiv
iralStov toutiov.

13.

oi hi

yovfts avTov ovk eyvatrav

on

jiivei iv rfj TrdXet.

14.

oix V

ypa<t>'l

(nrev

on

fK rov a-irepfuiTos AavfiS,

(cai

diro Bij^Xec/u t^j Kajiijs
rrj

cpX^Tui 6

Xpurrm;

15.

cv eKfivt/

Snov tjv AaveiS, &pq (rvvdyovToi aira ttoXXoI t&v

dpxiepeav
1.

ot Xiyavtriv

on

ovk

earm

dvaaTatris.

Lord, and my tongue shall praise mouth, thy name. 2. Didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ? 3. Do not carry any (use fiijSfi's) sick man to the synagogue on the Sabbath day. I came into, this world 5. 4. If thou wilt, thou art able to heal me. for (els) judgement. 6. One of the lepers, when he saw that he was

Thou

shalt open

my

healed, cast himself at his feet.

7.

The high
sick,

priests

knew

that this

saying was true.

8.

All the disciples were full of faith and of the

Holy
9.

Spirit,

and they healed the

and cast out many
is

devils.

a resurrection. 10. My parents built many houses in this city. 11. Let no one love darkness more than light. 12. When they came to the villages they preached the Gospel to all the Gentiles who dwelt there. 13. If I judge, my judgement is true. 14. When the disciples of John heard that he was dead, they came and took up his body.

None

of the priests believes that there

LESSON XXIV
THE FIRST AND SECOND AORIST THE FUTURE PASSIVE
The conjugation
of the First Aorist Passive
is

PASSIVE.

as follows

:

Indicative

FUTURE AND SECOND AORIST PASSIVE
:

69

Tlie conjugation of the Future Passive is as follows it is formed by adding 6ri<r to the stem of the verb and putting after it the endings of the Present Passive.
Indicative
Xtiflifo-ofiat

Infinitive
"KvBria-ea-dai

I

shall be loosed etc.

to be about

to be loosed.
\v8ri<reTai

\v6rjiT6fieBa
\v6fi(Tf<r6f

\v$T)(TOVTai

The presence
as follows
:

of the letter 6 at the beginning of the endings of these

tenses causes certain consonantal changes which

may
^fl,
(f>d,

be summarised

K.,

y,

IT,

^,
8,

T,

X followed by 6 become (^ followed by 6 become 6 followed by d become
is

ad.
6.

In the contracted verbs the short vowel

lengthened before

Examples
Present
1st Aor. Pass.

eirpd)(6rjv

inel(r6r]v

The Second Aorist Passive does not occur very frequently in the N.T. Its endings are practically the same as those of the First Aorist Passive with the exception that the 6 is omitted. The 2nd Aor. Pass, of <t)aiv<o is given below.

70
The

AORIST AND FUTURE PASSIVES
following are

some of the Second Aorists Passive found'

in

the N.T.
iypa<liT]v

iK.pv^T)v
ea-irdprjv

ea-TaXtjv

earpdtfnjv
f(l)6dpriv

"I "I "I "I "I "I

was was was was was was

from ypa^a from Kpiwra from a-ireipa sown" from trreXKo) sent" from a-Tpitjxo turned" destroyed" from ^6fipa>
written"

hidden"

The following important verbs have irregular forms of the and Future Passive.
Present

1st Aoriat

EXERCISES
fia^ev 6 ox^oSj eXcyov 8e
^fiepais Toyv irareptav
8.

71

fjfiSiv.

iroWoi OTI^ Tavra to, repara oiiK €irpd)(67] iv Tois 7. fi^ra Tavra at(j>dr] jrao'i Tois airofTToKois,
9.

eKeXeuo-f rov

avdpa

eVe;^^^i'at 8ta t^s noKetas,

ev eKeivij

rrj rjfiepa

iras 6 Xaoff K\r]6rj<rerat dytos

ra Kvpta^

10.

at

yvvaiKes TrapeKXrjBrjo'av

turo tSiv

dvSp&v avrav.
12.

11.

iroifjira to. prj/uiTd jxm) aROVcrBrjvai vtto

tov

/SaortXeW.

ovbeis tS)v
14.

dyyeXav

dKOvtrBrjaerai.

13.

irdvTfs ol l)(6ies
15.
irep.-

iff\ridr]<rav els
fpdrjTca

TO vS(op.

ravTacpprjOj] 8ia a-TofiaTos Aaveid.
16.

€is rS>v

iepeav ireWetv rov ^aaiXea.

0T€ Kapirov

eTToirja-e

to

Kokov CTTreppu
TOV yevovs.
Se ev 86^7],
1. 2. 3.

€(j>dvrj

Kalrd

^t^dvLa^.

17.

Zi^ao'tKev^^CKii}6r)tTeiVTr6 iravTos

18.

19.

iKKr)6r)T€

rd aaifxaTa tcov dyltov (CFTrdpr} iv nTifiia^^ iyepdrja-eTai d^poves vtto r5)v vo^SiV tov alatvos tovtov.

All this nation was called righteous (neut. agreeing with yei/os)^
of these words were written in a
fish

book by the high priest. were taken by these boys. 4. We were sown in weakness 5. If the devil shall be cast (da-ffeveia), we shall be raised in power. out the crowd will wonder. 6. The good seed was carried to the fields. 8. We 7. I was sent by one of the king's servants to seek for thee. know that this Gospel shall be preached to all the Gentiles, and that many will hear. 9. In that day many bodies of the saints arose (were 10. We wish raised), and came into the city, and appeared to many. 11. Thou shalt be saved by those sheep to be driven to the hills. 12. You commanded the faith and hope, if thou wilt abide in them. 13. All these things shall be done in stones to be cast into the water. the darkness. 14. Ye have heard that it was said by our fathers " Thou shalt not make an image of the Lord thy God°." 15. We were called foolish' by many of the rulers of the Gentiles, but we know that the words which we speak are true.

Many
The

* on must not be translated, it is often used to introduce the exact words of a speaker, like our inverted commas, Syntax 158. 3 * 5 * '

fi^Kio "tares." h inidq. " in dishonour."

Syntax

11.

See note 2 on the Greek exercise.
" foolish," plural, Syntax 11.

72

PARTICIPLES

LESSON XXV
PARTICIPLES
Participles are verbal adjectives sharing the characteristics both of

verbs and adjectives. As a verb a participle has a subject, and, if it is the participle of a It has also transitive verb in the active voice, it may have an object.
tense and voice.

As an
with

adjective

it

agrees with the

noun which
case.

it qualifies,

that

is

its subject, in

number, gender and

The active participles are declined with 3rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter, and Ist declension endings in the feminine.
They
are as follows
:

FIRST AORIST PARTICIPLE

73

First Aorist Participle Active
Singular
Plural
\virav

N.V. \va-as A. Xvaavra
G.
XvfravTOs
XvtravTt

\viTa<Ta

XvtravTes

\va-airai

XvtravTa

Xvtrcurau
Xvtrdcrrjs
XvtrdtTrj

\vaav
XviravTOs
XvtrauTi

XvfravTas
Xva-dvrtop
Xv(Tao'L

Xv<rd(Tas

XvaavTa
XvardvTav
Xutracrt

Xvaaaav
Xv(rd(raLS

D.

participles active of the contracted verbs in ew are declined as follows
:

The present

N.V. A.
G.

cjitXav

cl>i,Xov<ra

(^(Xo£i>

<j)tXovvTa
(jjiXovvTOS

(jjiXovcrav
<^iXov(Tris

(jitXovv
rjitXoiivTos

etc.

The present

participle of

elfil is

declined like Xiav

N.V. &v A. SvTU
G. OVTOS

ovtra

ovfxav

ov

ovros

etc.

The present
adjective of the

participle middle

and passive

is

declined like an

2nd declension.

The

aorist participles passive are

declined with 3rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter and
1st declension

endings in the feminine.

Pres. Part. Mid.

and

Pass.

Xvo/jifvos,

ri,

ov

being loosed
loosed, or

1st Aor. Part. Pass.

Xvdels, de'ura, 6iv

having been

loosed

2nd Aor. Part. Pass.

<jiaveiSi eiffa, iv

having appeared
:

The
N.V.
A.
G.

1st Aor. Part. Pass,
Singular

is

declined as foUovys

Plural

Xvdcis

Xvdeicra

Xv64v Xvdiv
XvBevTos
XvBevTi

XvBivTis

Xvdelcrai

Xudivra

XvBivra
Xv64vTO^
XvOevTi

Xv6ei(rav
XvSeioTjs
XvBela-Tj

Xvdevras

Xv6eio-as

XvBivra
XvBivTtov
XvBeifri

Xvdevrav
XvBs'iai
/xij

XvOeiaStv
XvBeitrais

D.

Participles are generally negatived with

in the

New

Testament.
in English.

Participles are used

much more frequently in Greek than

They may be used

either Adjectivally or Adverbially.

74
1.

ADJECTIVAL AND ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES
The Adjectival
Participle.

In this use the adjectival side of the participle is most prominent. The adjectival participle is generally preceded by an article with which The participle preceded by an article is very common in it agrees. the New Testament. It should generally be translated by a clause introduced by a relative pronoun, but may sometimes be translated

by a noun. Examples
oi

:

iruTTevovTes

d (TireLpav

those who believe, or believers, the sower.
thirst after righteousness.

They that hunger and
01 ireLvatvTes^

Kal 8f,ylfS)VT€S^ ttjv 8iKcuoavifr]v.
side.

Mt.

V. 6.

This

is

he that was sown by the way
odov arnapeis.

o^os

e(TTLV 6 Trapa Trjv

Mt.

xiii. 19.

Notice that any number of qualifying words between the article and the participle.
2.

may be

inserted

The Adverbial

Participle.

In this use the verbal side of the participle is most prominent. "When a participle is used adverbially it is equivalent to an Adverbial Clause modifying some other verb in the sentence. Such participles are best translated into English by a suitable adverbial clause. The context must decide what kind of adverbial In the New Testaclause the participle in question is equivalent to. ment an adverbial participle is generally equivalent to a Temporal ^ clause, sometimes to a Causal ^ clause, rarely to a Concessive^ clause.

Examples (a)_ A participle denoting the time of the action main verb, translated by a Temporal clause in English.
:

of the

a great multitude. Mt. xiv. 14. And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they knew that he spoke about them.
Koi aKovtravres oi dp^^tepels Kal
ol

And when he came out, he saw Km i^f\6o>v eibiv ttoXvv o^\ov.

^apt(raiot

ras napa^oXas avTOV

eyvaxrav

on

nepX airwv \eyei.

Mt.

xxi. 45.

Generally speaking, the Present Participle denotes action taking place at the same time as the action of the main verb, and the Aorist
^
''

For these forms see lesson 28. See appendix on English Grammar.

ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES
Participle denotes action

75

which took place before the action of the

main verb.
Examples.
Present Participle
:

He

appeared to them as they were fighting. &(l)dri avTols fiaxofifvois. Acts
Aorist Participle
:

vii.

26.

And

having fasted forty days and forty nights he afterwards
rj[j,€pas

hungered.
KaL vrfareva'as
ineivatrev.

T€tr(rapa.KovTa Koi TeiraapaKovTa vvKras vtjrepov

Mt.
:

iv. 2.

Present Participle

He
6

that has ears to hear let
SiTa CLKOveiv aKoveTot.

him

hear.

e^wv
:

Aorist Participle

But he that had been healed did not know who
6 8e laBcls^ oIk jfSfi^
ri's

it

was.
v. 13.

iariv.

Jn

(6)

Participle denoting the cause of the action of the

main verb

translated

by a Causal clause
:

in English.

Examples

they were he was a disciple.
KCLL

And

all afraid of

him, because they did not believe that
/if]

7rdvT€S e<j>o^QVVTO aiiTov,

7ri(rT€vovT€S OTi ecTTiv p.a9rjTr)S.

Acts
Godliness
the
life

ix. 26.

is

profitable for everything, because it has a promise for

that

^ 8e eiire^fia

vvv Kol

rfjs

now, as well as for that which is to come. npos navra aKJieXi/ios iariv, f TrayyeXtaK txovfra fffl^r T^f 1 Tim. iv. 8. fieXKmjarjs.
is

The
action,

Participle often denotes the

attendant circumstances

of

an

be best translated into English by a finite verb joined to that which is the main verb in Greek by "and."

and

may
:

Examples

He

answered and

said....

dnoKpideis eiirev....
'

See Lesson 28.

^

See Lesson 36.

76

ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES
Immediately the father of the child cried out and
€v6vs Kpd§as 6 Trarrip tov TratSlov cKeyev ....
said....

Mk ix.
2 Tim.

24.

Take Mark and bring him with thee. MapKov avoKafimv aye jieTa (reavrov.

iv. 11.

In some cases however it is better to translate the Greek participle by an English participle. The method of translation which sounds best in English must be chosen.

Examples

:

In those days John the Baptist came into the wilderness of Judea preaching and saying "Repent."
6V Se
TCLis fifiepais

eKslvaif wapaylyveToi ^ItadvTjs 6 BanTiaTrjs Kijpvtrirav

iu Tfi eprjpa Trjs 'lovdaiaf,

And
sins.

\eyav MeTavoeire. they were baptised by him in the river Jordan, confessing their

KoX e^airTi^ovTO
dp-aprias airav.

vn avTOv

iv

ra

'lop^dvij norafia i^OfioXoyovfievoi ras

Mt.

iii.

6.

Exercise 25
Learn Vocabulary
1.

19.

Koi napdycov irapd Trjv
dSfX(jfroi'

'AvSpeav tov
8uo";(oXa)s^ ol
4.

r]K6ev Krjpvfra-mv els

SaKaaaav ttjs ToKCKalas eldev Sipava koi Sipavos dpxl>i^dWovTas iv tji BaXdaoTi. 2. kcu. Tas trvvayayas avrav koi Saipovia CK/SdXXaiv. 3. ttSs
els rrjv

to ;fp^/iara e^ovTes

^atriKeiav tov Beov eltTeXevfrovrat.
5.

Koi 'qaav ol (^aydxTfr tovs aprovs 7rei/T-aKj(rxiX«ot avSpes.

oi

pev olv

SiairnapivTes 8ir)\6ov

fvayyeXi^opevoi tov \6yov.

6.

irapayevopevos 8e

els 'lepova-dXrip eTreipa^e

KoWdvBai^

Tots padrjTals, Koi
7.

wdvres etfio^ovvro

avTov,

be 'Avavlas Toiis \6yovs TovTOvs irefTwv e^eyjrv^ev^' koi eyevero <j)6^os piyas eTri* irdvras TOVS aKovovTas. 8. Kaitrirapd^av^ avTOV TonvevpaTO d<ddapTOV^Kai<^(Avriprj

•mtTTevovTes oTt ioTiv padrjTTjs.

aKovatv

vav
oSv

(fxavij

peydXij, i^rjkBev i^ avTOv.

9.

koi rjv iv

Trj iprjpa)

TeiTtrapaKOVTa
10.

Tfpepas Kol TeircapaKovTa vvktus neipa^opevos vtto tov Saravd.

vpels
avTois

dKov<raTe

ttjv

irapa^oXifv

tov

inrelpavTos.

11.

icai

&(j>8ri

M(av(rrjs Koi ^HXeias

avvXdKovVTes peT avTov.

1

Swx^Xus "with

^ ^
*

difficulty, hardly." KoWaaBai. "to join himself," see Lesson 28. ^itj/v^ev "gave up the ghost," from iK^ixu.
iiri

"upon."

^

trrapd^av 1st Aor. part, from (TTapdaaw.

GENITIVE ABSOLUTE

77

Partioiplea should be used to translate all the words

marked

*,

and
1.

also all the English participles.

2.

Those that had preached* the word were scattered abroad. passing by the sea of Galilee the disciples taught many people. 3. Blessed are those that hear* and those that believe* the words of 4. Many of the publicans therefore were baptised confessthis book. ing their sins. 5. But he answered* and said " How hardly shall ye enter into the kingdom of heaven." 6. The sower* soweth the word. 7. And when he came forth* he saw a great multitude. 8. And all those that heard* kept these words in their hearts. 9. But we were afraid because we did not believe* that his words were true. 10. This 11. While they were teaching* the is he that was sent* by the king. 12. And having come out of the people they remained in the temple. 13. But the prophet cried and said* city he went to another place. "Behold the man that cometh* after me: him shall ye hear." 14. When the governor therefore heard* this he was afraid and all 15. And when they had cast* the net into the that were* with him. 16. And when they had come* to Bethlehem sea they took many fishes. they tried to enter into the synagogue, but those that kept* it cast them 17. But while I was walking* through the fields I saw a great out. light from heaven and heard a voice speaking to me. 18. The prophet remained in the mountain forty days^ and forty nights writing the words

And

of this law.

LESSON XXVI
THE GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. INTERROGATIVE AND
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS

A

noun or pronoun and a

participle

may

stand by themselves in

the Genitive case if the noun or pronoun does not denote the same person or thing as the subject or object of the sentence. This construction is called the Genitive Absolute. phrases of Absolute means " loosed," from the Latin " absolutus
'
:

this kind are called " absolute from the rest of the sentence.
1

"

because they are loosed in construction

Days and

nights, use Ace. case, Syntax 18.

78

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

The Genitive Absolute should generally be translated by an adverbial The context must decide whether this clause is to be Temporal, Causal, or Concessive. Most of the Genitives Absolute
clause in English.
in the

New

Testament

may

best be translated by Temporal clauses.

Examples

And when

the devil was oast out the

dumb man
all

spoke.

Kal eK^\r)devTOs TOv baijiovlov i\d\rj<T€v 6 Ka(f>6s.

And

while the bridegroom tarried they
7-ou vvfiffiiov

Mt. ix. 33. slumbered and slept.
5.

^ovL^ovTOS Se

ivvara^av neural kcu indOevSov. Mt. XXV.

found in Latin, but the case there used is the Ablative. A similar construction is also rarely found in English, but in that language the case used is the Nominative.
is

The same construction

Example

:

" This done, he

went home."

N.B. The rule given above as to the noun or pronoun in a Genitive Absolute not referring to the same person or thing as the subject or object of the sentence is generally observed in Classical Greek. But it is frequently broken in New Testament Greek as the following example
will

show

:

And
him...

as he

was coming out of the temple, one of his
aira

disciples said to

Kdi exwopevofievov avTOv ex TOv iepov \iyei

els tS>v fiaBrfrav avTov...

Mk xiii.
The Interrogative Pronoun
of either a
ris

1.

who ?

W

what ? can take the

place

noun or an

adjective.
:

It is declined as follows

Singular
Maso. Fern.
Neut.
Ti Ti

Plural
Masc. Fein.
rives

Neut.
riva TLva

N. A.
G.

Ti9

Tiva

Tivas
t'ivwv

TWOS
tLvi

tIvos
Tivi

Tivav
t'utl

D.

rlcn

Examples of

its

use
I

:

Whom

do

What men do

hear? rivas aKoim; I hear? rlvas av6panovs aKoua;

CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS
The
"any."
It is

79
"

Indefinite

m generally translated by " some or distinguished from m Interrogative by having no and
Pronoun
is

accent',

by the

fact that it

It is

cannot stand as the first word in a sentence. declined in the same way as ris Interrogative.
:

Examples of its use

Some one

says this.

toCto Xeyn tk.

A
The
Kara
is

certain

man

says this.

avBpanos ns tovto

Xeyfi.

following prepositions present

some

difficulty

:

Kara, root-meaning

down.

followed by the Accusative or Genitive case. When followed by an Accusative it means " down along, throughout, with regard to,

according to,"

when

followed

by a Genitive

it

means "down from,

The meanings underlined
:

are the

commonest

in the

New

Testament.

Examples Take him and judge him according to your
\a^ere avrov
Vfieisy

law.

Koi Kara rhv vofiav vfjMV Kplvere avTOv,

Jn

xviii. 31.

He
6

that
atv

is

not with

me

is

against me.
ecrrtV.
:

firf

^6r' ep-ov Kar

ejLtov

Lk,

XI.

23.

Notice the following special phrases
car' ovap
KOTO. Kaipov

in a dream.
in

due season.

Kad' fjiiipav

daily.

KOT
€iri,

ISiav

privately.

root-meaning upon.

by the Accusative, Genitive or Dative case. It is draw any clear distinction between its meanings with these three cases, but with the Accusative it means "upon," "on," or "to" " upon," often with some idea of motion, with the Genitive it means
cVi is followed
difficult to

Dative

"on," and occasionally "in the time it means "on," or "at."

of,"

"in the presence of," with the

Examples

:

And
aXKa

other

fell

on good ground.

6c eireaev ewl Trjv yijv ttjv Koh'jv.
1

Mt.

xiii. 8.

It is

an "

enclitic "

;

see page 166.

80
Take

CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS

my

yoke upon you.
fiov i(^ fig tree
vfiaS'

dpare tov ^vyop

^^avrriv.

^^' ^9,
it.

And

seeing one

on the road he went to
Mt.

teal Idaiv

avKTJv fiiav eiri t^s oSoO rjKdep cjt
glorified thee

xxi. 19.

I

have

upon the

earth.

iya>

ac e86^a<ra

iiri Tfjs y^r.

Jn xvn.
Lk.

4.

In the time of Elisha the prophet.
fVi 'EXt<raiou tov
7rpo(jyriTov.

iv. 27.

And

they wondered at him. Koi iBaijia^ov in avT^. Know that it is near at the doors.

Mk xii. Mk xiii.
case,

17.

yiva)tTKtT€

on

eyyvs

etrriv

eVl dvpats.

29.

npos, root-meaning

wpos
that

is

towards. followed by the Accusative, Genitive or Dative

so rarely followed
it will

by a Genitive

or Dative case in the

be

sufiicient to regard it

but it is Testament as a preposition followed only by

New

the Accusative case. It means "towards, up
"with,"
it is

to, to,

also used after verbs

with regard to," and in certain cases meaning "to say" where a simple

Dative would have been expected.

Examples In the fourth watch of the night he went to them walking on the
:

sea.

TfTaprr] Se ipvXaKJj Trjs vvktos

^\6eu npos

avToiis irfpinarmv in\ Tfjv

BaKaaaav.
Jesus said to Simon "Fear not." KOI flitfv npos TOV 2ipMiva 'irjirovs Mij cjio^ov. The word was with God.
o \6ryos ^v nphs tov deov.

Mt.

xiv. 25.

And

Lk.

v. 10.

Jn

i.

1.

See the Appendix on Prepositions.

Exercise 26

A
Learn Vocabulary
1.

20.

\aKovvTos tov Herpov to pruiara ravra, enecrev to nvevpa to 2. rj yap vap^ €niBvp,ei Kara TOV nvevp.aTos Koi to nvfUfM Kara t^s capKos. 3. iyyi/s 8e offirijj AvSSas
CTi 8e

&yiov en\ ndvTas Toits aKOVOVTas TOV \6yov,

EXERCISES
TTJ

81

loTTTTiy, 01 lioBrfTiu

aKovtTavTfs OTi HeTpos eiTTiv ev avTTJ, aTTctrTftXav 8io

avopas irpos avTov.
avrSsv,

4. 6 fie cttI ra TriTpatdrj^ tnrapeLS, ovtos eariv 6 top \6yov aaovaVf KaX tvdvs pcra ^apds Xap-^dvav aiirov. 5. ava^atpovvrtav fie
ifioii

SyyeKos Kvpiov
rrpi p,r]Tipa

<j)aivfTai

kut ovap

T<f \<i>iri)^

\iyav IlapaXajSe
6.

TO iraibiov Kai
fie

airoC, KOi (peiye els AiyvnTov. avTOv,
8.
7.

i^eir\ri(T<rovTO

oi o;^Xot

eVt r^

8i8a)(jj
c<f>'

dWa

XTjfiyjretrBe^ hvvap,iv,
fie

eKOovTOS

Tov dyiov TTveifiaTOS
pxihov^ iv

vfids.

Ka5' ripjpau

npotrenapTepovv ofioBvto BeKqpu tov
aiiToii,

T^ Up^.
11.

9,

Kai oylfovrai^ tov vlov tov dvdpaTTOv ipxofievov eTTt
10,
tis ck

T&v

v€<l>e\<av

TOV ovpavov.

tow hvo

eTroirjtrev

iraTpos;

Tore iTpo(Tr\k6cv aiira yvvfj tis aiT-oCtra tl nap'

6

fie

etnev avTij Ti deXeif ;

B
1.

eV
3.

dp^^iepdajs^Avva Ka\ Ka£a(^a eyeveTO
epfjfi(0.

pjjfia

deov eVt *ladvvrju tov
Trjv eicicXij-

/.a^apiov ev t^
iTiav.

2.

effi TavTrj

t^ jrerpa otKotoprjaw pov
irpos vpus ev

oi Se dp\iepets
'lijo-oC.

xal to avveSpiov oKov e'^rjTovv yjfevSopapTvpiav^
rjpr]v
Tffl

KOTa TOV

4.
5.

Ka6' fjpepav
etfiev

iepa xal ovK

eKparrjaaTe pe.

6

*l7;a"o£;ff

TTvevpa deov KOTa^atvov oxrel Trepittj

(TTepdv^ ep\6pevov
eaiyrjo'av'' .
7.

eV

avTov,

6.

Kol SavpatravTes eirX

diroKpltTei avTOV

6 pfj i>v

per

e'pov

kot epov eanv.
9.

8.

Kai e<T7r\ayxvl<T0ri^

en' aiiTOLS Kai edepdnevaev TLvas aiiT&v.
eyoi
fie

vpets Kara ttjv trdpKa KpiVere,

Kpivo) ovdeva,

10.

Kai aTr^X^ew Kad oXi/v T^v noXiv Krfpvtrirtav otra
11.

enoiTjo'ev avTca 6 'irjaovs.
els Trpi

Kai &pprjo'ev^

fj

dyeXrj^^ KaTa tov Kprjpvov^^

6aKa(raav.
el

12.

Ka\ anrjKBov Tives tS>v a-vv fjplv en\ to pvirfpeXov.
ire

13.

Kvpie,

arv el,

Kekevaov pe e\detv npos
rfj

eVi ra vSara.

14.

Kai

el<rri\6ev
yayyipr.
fie

KaTa to eltodos avTt^^^ ev
15.

rjpepa tS>v o-a^ffaTav els ttjv a-vva-

eViOTara,
(TOv

fii'

oXijf

vvktos KonidaavTes ovSev eXd/So/xex, eVl
16. 6
fie

Tco

prjpaTi

^aXdooi^^ Ta biKTva.
fiia ttjs

emev npos

aiiTOvs

'Aytovi^effSe^^ elareXdeiv
'

aTevrjs 6vpas.

2 "K-fipij/eade,
'
*

tA nerpiiS^ "the rooky ground." future deponent from Xap^dva. ofioSvpaddv "with one accord." Stj/ovTai, a deponent future given as the future of
\pevSopapTvplav "false witness."
iiael irepiffrepdv

6pd<a.

' " '

"like a dove."
'

"they became silent." * iffirXayxvlo'Sv " he was moved with compassion." " ri dyiX-ij "the herd." ' wpp-qirev "rushed." '^ rd elui9bs airif "his custom." 1' Tou Kfrtipvov "the cliff.' " ayavl^eoSe "strive." 1' Xa\dau "I will let down."
iaiyiiaav

N.

6

82
Tlie clauses
1.

FIRST AORIST MIDDLE
marked * should
be translated hy

a Oenitive absolute.

And when

the multitudes away.

the disciples had entered into the ship* Jesus sent 2. Then a certain man came to him and said

"What art thou doing here?" 3. What power shall we receive when the Holy Spirit comes upon us*? 4. The day is drawing near iil which the Son of man shall come upon the clouds of Leaven. 5. Take and judge these men according to your law. 6. Peter went to him, walking
7. The disciples began to preach in the days of Oaiaphas the high priest. 8. They weiit into the assembly on the Lord's day according to custom. 9. I was with you daily in Jerusalem. 10. The high priest therefore said to the disciples "Who gave you authority to do these things?" 11. The Pharisees will say many things against the Son of man. 12. When the messengers of Herod had departed* the disciples told him privately all that they had done. 13. But although he sent his own son to them* they would not receive him. 14. You were astonished at his promises. 15. And when we had toiled all the night* Jesus came to us walking on the sea. 16. And while he was holding my hand* I received power to walk. 17. Who is able to endure these things? 18. And while we were drawing near to the city* the whole nmltitude began to rejoice saying "Blessed' is he that oometh in the name of the Lord." 19. In the days of Herod the king Joseph went down^ into Egypt taking with him the child Jesus and Mary his mother.

upon the water.

THE FIRST

MIDDLE. THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. ADVERBS
of the First Aorist

LESSON XXVII AND SECOND AORIST

The conjugation
IKviraiajv

Middle

is

as follows

:

Indicative
I loosed (for

Imperative

my
XSo-oi
Xvcraa-Ba)

Ikiaa
eXu<raTO

own

benefit) etc.

loose (for thy
benefit) etc.

own

eKvtratrOe

\vtraa$€
\v(ra(rdaa'av
'Kvtrdadoiv
'

IKvuavTo
eiKoyrmivos.

» koW/Sij.

SECOKB AORIST MIDDLE
Infinitive

§3
Participle

\v(Taa-dai

to loose (for one's

Auo-d/iei/or,

rj,

ov

having

own
Aorist.

benefit)
a-a,

loosed (for one's

own

benefit)

Notice the presence of the

the distinguishing

mark

of the First

The endings
the same as

as those of the Imperfect Passive.

Second Aorist Indicative Middle are the same The endings of the other moods are the corresponding riioods of the Present Passive. The
of the

endings are however not added to the present stem, but to the verbal
stem, as explained on page 43.
of yivofim " I

The Second Aorist
Indicative
iyevofirjv

become "

is

as follows

Imperative
etc.

I

was

eyivov

yevQv
yeveuoco

be

etc.

iyeveTO
iyevofieda
iy4ve(T6e

yevea-df

eyevovTO

yevetrdcoaav
y€ve(rd(ov

Infinitive

Participle

yevfo-Bm

to be, to

come

to

yevo/ievos,

rj,

ov

being,

com-

pass

ing to pass, happening
:

This word is especially common in the New Testament it is an example of a verb which is deponent in the Middle voice. The form which occurs most frequently is iyivcTo "it came to pass." Most of the Middle forms which are found in the N.T. are deponent, and mast therefore be translated by an active verb in English. In a few cases verbs are found in the Middle voice which denote
that the subject is acting upon himself, or in some way that concerns himself, or is allowing something to be done to himself. Examples are found in sentences 8, 13, 14 in the following exercise A.

The comparison

of Adjectives
:

There are three degrees of comparison

The Positive degree which denotes simply that the person or thing denoted by the noun which the adjective qualifies possesses the quality expressed by the adjective.

6-2

84

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
The Comparative
degree which denotes that the person or thing some other person or
or thing

possesses this quality in a higher degree than
thing.

The Superlative degree which denotes that the person
Examples

possesses this quality in the highest degree, or in a very high degree.
:

Positive degree.

Comparative degree.
Superlative degree.

He is a tall man. He is taller than his brother. He is the tallest man in the town.

Superlative degrees of comparison are expressed in Greek by adding repos and totos to the stem of adjectives of the 2nd dec, and to the stem of those ending in tjs in the 3rd dec.

The Comparative and

When
the stem

is

the last vowel but one of the adjective lengthened to <u.

is

short the final o of

Examples
Positive

Comparative
(SiKaiOTfpor,
rj,

Superlative
ov)
(StKatdraroff,
j;,
ij,

SiKaws
la-xvpos

ov)
ov)

la-xvpoTfpos,
(TO(^a>Tepos,

t],

ov

{lirxyparaTos,

iTo^os
a\r)6r]S

77,

ov
rj,

(o-o^mraToy,
ov)

>;,

ov)
ov)

{oKrjBforTfpos,

(ahjdfOTaTOs,

rj,

The following adjectives form their degrees
Positive

of comparison irregularly.
Superlative

Comparative
KpfiaaatVy KpsLTTuv better

dyaBos good
KOKos bad
TTokis

{uparuTTos) best
(xfiptoTos) worst

X^ipav, rjacrav,

rJTTtav

worse

many

TrXfitav,

nXeav more
iKuTTav

TrXfiaros

most

p.LKp6s little

psiKporepos, eXacrtro)!/,

(piKporaros), eXd;(«7-

Tos least
fieyas great
fiei^tav

greater

p.iyuTTos greatest
a>v

Adjectives in the Comparative degree ending in
follows
:

are declined as

Masc. Fem.

Neut.
fiei^ov

N. A.
G.

fiei(av

pei^ova,

/ift'fo)

pel^ov

pfi^ovos
p,eL^ovL

ptl^ovos
pel^ovi

D.

ADVERBS
Masc. Fern.
Neut.
fiel^ova, fiei^a

85

A.
G.

jiei^ovas, /ifi^ovs

fifc^ovav
nei^o(ri

D.

An

adjective or adverb in the comparative degree is followed either

by a noun or pronoun in the Genitive, or by ^ " than" followed by a noun or pronoun in the same case as the noun or pronoun with which the
adjective agrees.
.

Examples

:

He

is

wiser than his son.
eartv tov vtov.

c7"0(^(»Tcpdff

or

a-o<pa>T€p6s

iimv

ij

o vlos.

Adverbs
Adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing the
pi.

v of

the Gen.

masc. to

I.
:

Examples

Adjective
(^CKos
a-o<f)6s

Adverb
{'^iKas)
((ro(f>S>s)

dXrjdfjs

dear wise true

aKrjdas

dearly wisely truly

The comparative and

superlative degrees of adverbs are formed

by

taking the Neuter Singular of the comparative of the adjective to form
the comparative of the adverb, and the Neuter Plural of the superlative
of the adjective to form the superlative of the adverb.

Examples

:

Positive
(a-ocjiios)

Comparative
(<TO(j)aiTepov)

Superlative
(<ro(^a)TaTa)

oKTjdms

{dKr]6e<TTepov)

(dXrjdeaTaTa)

The
ev well

following forms should be noted.
Positive

Comparative
/SeXtioi/, KpelaiTov

Superlative
{fiiXnarTa) best

Ka\S>s well, beautifully

better KoXKiov better, beautifully
tj(r(rov, rJTTOv

more

(KaXXtoTo) best, beautifully
(ijiKio-T-a)

most

kokSs badly
{jiaKa)

worse

worst

TToKv

much

fiSXKov more vXeiov, ifKiov

p,aKi<TTa

more

(jrXeioTa)

most most

The Comparative and

Superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs

86
are not

EXERCISES
much used
in the
:

New

scarcely used at all

its

place

is

Testament. The Superlative degree taken by the Comparative degree.

is

Example
Being the least of
all

seeds that are on the earth.
<rnepjia.T<ov

funp&rfpov hv iravTmv t5>v

rav

c'jri

Trjs yrjs.

Mk iv.
The forms enclosed
the

31.

in brackets in the tables above are not found in

New

Testament.

Exercise 27

A
Learn Vocabulary
1.

21.
rtj
17

T^ 8e ejravpiov^, oSotnopovvTaiv eKfivav, Kal
2.

iroXfi iyyi^ovTav,
^v)(ri TrXetdv ecrrt
4.

dve^T) TlsTpos eirl to dafia^ irpotr^v^aadai,
Tjjs Tpo<^rjs ;

ov;(t

3.

Koiavve^ovXevcravTo dTTOKTelveiV Tov HavXov.

6 p-el^tov

iv Vfuv yevitrSa

as
7.

6

Kal Idiarai^

eltrlv.

Vfompot. 5. Kare\a/3oj/ro on avSpanoi aypafifiaTOi 6. vvv yap eyyvrepov ea-Tiv r) o'arrjpia ffpMV rj ore
8.

eivtfTTevfTapxv,

oKr^Qois o^tos 6 avSptairos vlos deov ^v.

Kal pi'^as
9.

Ta dpyvpia

els

tov vaov dve^^iapyi&ev, Ktu dweKdoiv aTrrfy^aTO^.
PairiXeia

6 Se

fuxparcpos iv

Tr[

rav evpavSiv

p,et^wv ixvTov ccrrlv.

10.
rj

vvvl Se
dydinq.
oijfd,

fiivei TTLtTTis, iXiTLS)

dyaTTTj

rti

rpia raOra, fiei^av Si Tovratv

11.

ipxfTai 6

Ia-xyp6rrep6s

p.ov

oiriam

pov.

12.

pei^ova rovrtov

13.

Kat vvv Ti /ieXXets,' ^dnTia-ai, Kal dnoKova'ai rds ctpaprias aov, iwiKa-

\eardp,ev6s to
els

Svopa tov Kvplov.
Trj vetfjeXr)

14.

irdvTfs ol iraripes TjpSiv i^anTiaavTo

TOV McouoTji' iv

Kal iv

Trj BaKda'a'Tj.

B
1.

oi 8e p^el^Qv

^Kpa^av Xeyovres Kupte,
3.
tj

eXerja-ov r)pds.

2.

trv

Kvpie,

dvdSei^ov^ TOV avdpaiTrov bv e^eXi^at^

^atTiXiatya vdrov^ ifXBev ck t5>v

TrepaTtnv ' ttjs yrjS oKoCfrat Ti]v (To<piav ^oXopSivos, Kal Iboii nXelov SoXop,&vos

aSe.
1

4.
7T)

ovSels ewi^dXXei enl^Xripa^ poKovs dyvd(j>ov^ inl

IpaTm naXaia-

the next day," iiraipiov is an adverb meaning "to-morrow," tj agrees with itp^pq. understood. 2 t6 3S/ia "the house top." * AypdnfiaToi. Kal ISiurai "unlettered and ignorant."
Si iiraipior
* ^ *

"And on

'
? "

middle aorist from ii7rd7xw "I hang." " show." ij pacrtXuT(fa v6tov "the queen of the south." ix Tuv trepkruiv " from the furthest parts." MpXvM^l', t6, "a thing put on, a patch." fidKovs d^vd^oi; "of undressed cloth."
dTTTJ-yfaTO

Avadei^ov

CONTRACTED VERBS IN
atpei
5.

aco

AND
rav

Ota

87
yiveTat,

yap ro

TrXrjpatijLa

auTov^ aTro rov

ip,arinv Koi

^eipov

or-)^l(Tp.a

dp^rjv Xeyft)

vply e0' oa'ov^

e7roLr}(TaT€ evt^ TOVTiav

d8€\<jiS)v

povTav

eXap^iOTO)!', epot eTroirja-aTe,

6.

koX yivcTai ra etrxoxa Tov dvOpairov CKeivov

^eipova
8.
9.
el

rav

irpaiTcov.

7.

eya>

yap

elpt

6

ekd^ttTTOs ratv
Ttov
Xotirajv
oiidels

OTrocrToXcoi/.

ovv

ovde

eKd)(^L(TTOv

byvatrBe,

ri

wept

pepipvare^;
efrriv 6 be
TreiBap^elv

Xeyo) vpXv pet^av
rfj
7j

iv yevvr)TQis^ yvvaiKoiv

'la>dvov

ptKpOTepos ev
Set

^atriXela tov Seov pei^atv avTov eariv.

10.

6ea
1.

p^Wov dvSpairots. And when Solomon had
of the sons

prayed he departed out of the temple.

would not work for' his father. 3. The robbers hanged themselves, for those that pursued them were more than they. 4 "We called upon the name of the Lord, for he is stronger than all the kings of the earth. 5. He chose Simon whom he surnamed 6. Behold, love is greater than faith. 7. Why then do ye Peter. delay to go to Jerusalem, for behold a greater than Solomon is there 1 9. They say 8. We ought to obey the king rather than the priest. 10. Ye took that these days are worse than the days of our fathers, 11. He that is least shall counsel together to slay the wisest of men. become the greatest. 12. But he cried out the more "Behold what 13. Truly I perceive things I suffer at the hands of my enemies." that there is a division among them. 14. We cannot do the least of 15. Inasmuch as* thou hast done this thou hast done these things. worse than all thy brethren. 16. But he answered them more wisely
2.

The younger

than his father.

LESSON XXVIII
CONTRACTED VERBS ENDING IN
The
stated as follows a followed
a<o

AND

oo..

rules for the contraction of the vowels in these verbs
:

may

be

by

o or
f

cB
77

a followed by
1
"-

or

becomes a. becomes a.
fills it

tA

irKiipiiipa airoxi
So-oi/

" that which

up."

> 5 8 '

^ hi dat. from eXs "one." "inasmuch as." pepipvare "do ye take anxious thought," see the next lesson. yevvriToh "the offspring." Dative. ireiflopxe'" "to obey," followed by a

i4

uTT^p followed

by a Genitive.

*

Sn.

88
i

CONTRACTED VERBS IN aa
is

generally written subscript, except occasionally in the Present
Infinitive Active.

followed by a long vowel becomes a.
o followed
o followed

by a short vowel becomes ov. by any combination with t, whether subscript or becomes o«, except in the pres. inf. act.
n/ido)

not,

Present Indicative Active of
Present Ind.
Tifuo (Tiiida)
Ti/ias (rifidfis)
Tifi^ (nfidfi)

"I honour"

Present Imper.

TLfia {rifiac)

n/idra {Tijiaira)
Tijiore (TtfidfTe)

Ttfiafxev {rifidofiev)

Ttfiare (rt/idere)
TijiSnTi {rifidovtri)

Tifidraaav {TifiairtiXTav)
rifiaivTav (niiaovTau)

Present Inf.
Tifiav {niideiv)

Pres. Participle
Tifiav, ato'a, ant

or n/iav

TijiavTos etc.

Imperfect Indicative Active
erifiav
(fVi'/xaoi')
eTifiSifJutv

(infidoiifv)

eTifias (e'rifiaes)
irijia (e'Tifiae)

iTifiare (cVi/idere)
e'riiuov (fTifiaov)

Present Indicative Passive
Present Ind.
Present Inf.
TtfiatrSat

Present Participle
TtfioifieuoS)
rj,

ov

CONTRACTED VERBS IN
Present Indicative Active of
Present Ind.
(jiavepSi {<l>avep6a))

Oft)

89

(l>avep6to

"I make manifest"

Present Imper.

^avepois

{(fiavepofts)

<j)avepov {(pavipoe)

<j>avepoi (^avspdei)

(pavepovTia (KJiavepoeTOi)

<^av€povpcv {(jiavepoofiev)
(pavepQVTe {<l)av€p6ere)
<j)av(poii<Ti (<f)avep6ov(Ti)

(pavepovTi ((j)av€p6fTe)
tpav€povT<o<7av (^avepoeroxrav)
KfjavepovvTOiv (ipavepoourav)

Present Inf.
<f)avepovv {^avepoetv)

Present Participle
(jiavcpatv, <j)avepova'a, (jiavepovv

cjiavcpovvros etc.

Imperfect Indicative Active
€<l)av€povv (e^avepoov)
cffiavipovs {i<j)av4poes)

efjjavepovpev {4(pavep6opfv)
e<l>avfpovTe (e<j)avep6eTc)
e<f>ajf€pouv {^<pav€poov)

etpavepov {e^avepoe)

Present Indicative Passive
Present Ind.
<l)avepovpai
(j^avepoi

Present Imperat.

Present Inf.
(jjavepovtrdm

Present Participle
(pavepovtievos,
rj^

ov

(fiavfpov

(fjavepovTat

(pavepovo'Oa)

(pavepovp^da
(pavepova-de
(jiavepovvTai

(pavfpovirdf

(pavepovadaya-av
(jiavipovaBcov

Imperfect Indicative Passive
€<j)av€povfirjv

ecftavepovpeOa
e<l>avepov(rO€

etpavepov

i(pavepovTO

etjjavepovVTO

The verb

fdo>

has

rj

for a in the contracted forms.
fn,

Present Ind. f£ fS*
Pres. Inf. f^v.

i&pev f^re

^Sxri.

90

EXERCISES

The Future and Aorist of verbs in am and o<o are formed by lengthening the last vowel of the stem before adding the endings.
Present.
nfida)
<jiavep6a)

Put. Act.
TiyLTftna

Aor. Act.
iniirjira

Fut. Mid.
Tifirjaofiai

(jiavepaKTco

€<j)avepa}(ra

<f>av€pa(rofiai

Fut. Pass.
Tiiuf6r]irojt,ai

Aor. Mid.
eTijir)crajiiqv

Aor. Pass.
iTip,rj6r)V

^avepioB-qiTOfiai

f<j)avfp<ocrdpriv

i<pavepa>6r)v

Exercise 28
Learn Vocabulary
22.
1. iirwddvero irap' alrav nov 6 KpiiTTOs yevvarai. 2. 6e6s ovk i(m vtKpav oKKa ^atvTtav, navres yap avra fwo"tv. 3. ovtos 6 \6yos oil <\>avf~

povrai

ffplv^

4. 5.

eXeyov
Si^fUi/
7.

ttjv

e^odov

avTov
fie

fjv

rffieWcv^

wXrjpoiJv
6.

ev

lepovtraXrjfi,

'Iwavou, iv
ttj

dyanas

irXeov

rovrav ;

<pojvrj

^oatvTOs ev

rfj eprj^ua.

avrri atpa rjyaXXtcavTo ol fiadrjTai.
Toiis

8.

o

yap Oebs
i-^oi.
9.

TaTreivoi Toiis vyjrovvras eavTovs,

5e raireivovvTas eavTOvs
10.
Ti

T&Tf earavpovv
11,

triiv

airra 8vo Xrja-Tds.
^lijtrovs

pe ipmras nepi
12. 13.

Tov dyadov;
6e6s
f'iaa-e

\4yei avTcd 6
to.

Hopevov, 6 vlos
ev rais
'IijiroOf

trov f^.

o

fie

ndvra

fBvrj

irepirraTelv

oSols avTav.

Alvea,

larai ire 'Irjaovs Xpurros.
1.

14.

ovk

e'ia

to Saifiovia \a\eXv,

were making manifest the things which they had heard. 2. We did not permit them to crucify the slave. 3. The king humbled those that were exalted. 4. They are inquiring if the servant 5. Why do you allow them to live in our city ? is healed. 6. Do ye ye sons of men ? 7. The voice desire to love the Lord your God, said "Cry,", and he answered "What shall I cry?" 8. Now is fulfilled the word of the prophet. 9. When Jesus was born in Bethlehem wise men came to worship him asking where the king of the Jews must be

The

disciples

born.
11.

10.

And

healed.

God justifies the sons of men by faith and not by works. men rejoiced greatly that the man that had the devil was 12. Rejoice greatly, for thy son liveth. 13. Humble yourall

selves therefore under^ the
in

due season.
it

14.

I

manifested thy

mighty ^ hand of God, for he wiU exalt you name to this people and I will

manifest
^

to their children.

iJlieWev a past tense with a double

augment from pMWu.

2 '

" Under" ^tto followed by an Accusative. " Mighty " KpoToiAs.

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES

91

LESSON XXIX THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES
The Perfect tense does not occur very frequently in the New Testament. Its use denotes that the action of the verb is to be regarded as brought to its appropriate conclusion at the time of speaking in such a way that its results still remain in action. The Perfect has therefore as much to do with Present as with Past
time, since
it

describes the. present result of a past action.
is

The

Pluperfect or Past Perfect
is

the past tense of the Perfect.

no exact equivalent to the Greek Perfect in. English; the so-called English Perfect formed by the auxiliary verb "have" is the nearest equivalent that can be given, but it will not always serve to translate a Greek Perfect. The conjugation of the Perfect and Pluperfect of \va is as follows
There

92

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES
There is a Perfect Imperative, but it is very seldom used in the Testament. It is given in the complete table of verbs at the

New
end.

Note that the Perfect participle passive always has the accent on the last syllable but one.
It will be noticed that in all moods of the Perfect tense and also in the Pluperfect tense the first consonant of the verb followed by the
letter s is placed before

the verb.

Reduplication. The Pluperfect has an augment in addition, although this is often omitted in the New Testament. Verbs beginning with a vowel, two consonants (except a mute and a liquid) or a double consonant, have no reduplication, but have an augment
is called

This

instead.

Verbs beginning with a rough mute (</>, x, 6) have the corresponding smooth mute (tt, k, t) in the reduplication.

Examples
Present
AfiapTavto

Perfect
^iMaprrjKa

(TTfWai
TrXrjpoa

eaToKxa
TreTrXrjpajKa

<l>i\4a

wecpiKriKa
Tt6eap.ai
is k.

Beaofiai

Note that the characteristic consonant of the Perfect active

The Second, or Strong, Perfect
Some
without
Perfects are formed
K,

by adding the endings direct to the stem these are called Strong Prefects, or Second Perfects.
:

The

following are examples
Present

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES
The verb
Xa/ifiaKco

.93

and the stem
el

ip (generally given

under Xeya) begin

their Perfect tenses with

instead of a reduplication.
Perfect Active
eiXij^a Perfect Passive
etXij/i/int
f'iprffiai.

Present

Xaii^dva

Stem

ip

ftprjKa

Examples of the use of the Perfect from the New Testament
Perfect Indicative

Ye have

filled

Jerusalem with your teaching.
'ifpovaaKr/p, Ttjs 8i8a)(rjs vp.S>v.

7re7rXj;pa)K07-€

riji/

Acts
I

V.

28.

have fought the good

fight, I

have finished

my

course, I

have kept

the faith.
Tov KciKov

aymva

rjyavicrjuu, Tov Spofiov T€T4\fKa, rrjv nltrnv TeTr)prjKa.

2 Tim.

iv. 7.

Pluperfect

For

it

had been founded on the
yap
e'ni Trjv

rock.

TiBffiiKiaTO

irerpav.

Mt.

vii.

25.

Participle

Having been
Tre7rXr)pa>ii(voi

filled

with

all

knowledge.

Trno-i/r Trjs

yvaxreios.

Rom.

XV. 14.

To

all

that love his appearing.
ini<f>av(iav airrov.

7ra(7i Tois rfyairrjuoai Trjv

2 Tim.

iv. 8.

Note that in all these examples stress is laid on the completeness and permanence of the action described. A good example of the exact meaning of the Perfect participle will
be found in sentence 9 in
tlie

following exercise.

This should be contrasted with the meaning of the Present participle of the same verb which is used in sentence 10. Another good example is found in sentence 14 where icrravpa/ievov denotes a permanent quality " one who has been crucified." It is impossible to render this meaning exactly in English, as has been said above- If the Aorist participle aravpadcis had been used in

94
tBia sentence
it

EXERCISES
would simply have denoted the
historical fact that

Christ was crucified.

the

now all been given. To repeat person singular of the Indicative mood of each of these tenses A list of the parts of the verbs is called giving the parts of the verb. occurring most commonly in the New Testament is given at the end. The student should now begin to learn those which are given at the
The
tenses of the Greek Verb have
first

head of each

exercise.

Exercise 29
Learn Vocabulary
23.

Before doing this exercise the parts of the following Verbs should be
learnt: ^dXXo> (34), yivojiai. (41), cpxoiiat (68), Xafi^dvai (50),
opdio (72).
1.

Xfyw

(71),

"EWrjvas

elirfjyayeu

els

to lepoVf Koi KeKoiv(OK€v tov ayiov roirov,
e/3t|3Xi;ro

2. 3.

tTTCD^bs

Se Tis

ovo/iaTi

Ad^apos
/cat

npos t6v irvXava^ auTov.

naiSia, ea-xdrr]

&pa

eariv,

xadajs TjKovtraTe
4.

on

ca>Ti\puTT0S^ epxerai
IrjtroiiSf

K.a\

vvv avTixpttTTOi TToXXot yeyovaaiv^
/te

Xeyft aiira 6

"Ort eatpands
5.

7rf7ri<TT€VKas;

pajidpioi

oi

pi)

Ihovrei Koi 7ri(rrev(ravTes.
6.

ore Si

yiyova avr)p,.KaTripyrjKa^ to tov
\v66s.
8.
7.

vrjTriov*.

Km

dne}\.6ov(ra fli tov oIkov

avTrjs eSpev to jrmSiov /Sf/SXij^e'vow eVi Tr)v
TTfTrXrjpcDTai

kXIvjiv koi to Satpoviov e|eXi)ij

6

Kaipos
rj

Kot

^yyiKev

jiatriKela

tov
rjs

Btoi.

epxeTat Trpos avTOU Mapta
9.

KaTiovpevjj MaydaKrjvrjy

d0

daLpovia

ewTa e^fXijXuflei.
10.
ol padrjToi

Koi iroXXa (rapara

t&v

Kcieoipripevav dyiav rfyip6r)<rav.
ai/roVy Tjpav

avTOv vvktos iXBovTcs €K\€\jrav

KoipMpevav.
12. nnpair-

11. 'lovdaiovs ovdev TjSiKTjKa

as Ka\

(TV

koWlov
13. 14.

eirtyiyvoitTKeis.

/lof v/ids oiiK et\Ti<j)€v el pj) dvBpiiirivos^.

d

yap 6eos
6e

etpTjue

tovto 8id

tTTopaTos

ndvTtav t&v

irpoCJjrjTtav,

fjpels

KrjptKrfropev

UpLOTov

earavpajpevov.
1. The days of the kingdom of heaven have been fulfilled. 2. He has not injured thee nor thy friends. 3. We have seen and testified that this is the prophet spoken of by Moses. 4. Then the young men were astonished, for great fear had taken hold upon them. 5. The

'

^
' *
'

"a door." ivHxpKTTos, ov, 6 "Antichrist."
Tv\iiv, Qvos, 6
Kar^ipyriKa perf. from Karafiyiui "I bring to nought, I put away." tA toO vtitIov "ohildiBh things." "proper to a man, such as a man can bear."

dLvdpiiirivoi

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

93

Lord hath spoken evil concorning thee. 6. They have defiled the house Lord with dead bodies. 7. Thou must proclaim the things which thou hast seen and heard. 8. The governor asks what the slaves have done. 9. Ye have suffered many'things at the hands' of the Jews. 10. Then Pilate answered saying "What I have written, I have written." 11. But when I became king I walked in the ways of my fathers. 13. 12. The poor and the blind are cast^ at the doors of the rich. Lord, in thee have we trusted. 14. They found that the devils had gone out. 15. I have told you the words of the kingdom, but ye have 16. These that have kept the faith shall receive the not believed me. crown of life which the Lord promised to those that love him. 17. They beheld the temple filled with the glory of the Lord.
of the

LESSON XXX
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The forms
of the Subjunctive

Mood

are as follows

:

Pres. Sub. Act.

1st Aor. Sub. Act.
\va-Qj
\v(rris
\v(rT]
\va'<i>iJ,€v

2nd Aor. Sub. Act.
jSaXo)
fiaKjis

\vai
Xvrjs
Xvrj

Xvcofiev

^^^Jt ^dXcofiev

\vrjTe
\va)(Ti

XvtnjTe

0d\T)Te
jSaXcucri

Xvaoxri

be seen that the endings of the Subjunctive are the same in all these tenses, but that in the 1st Aorist the letter o- is placed between the ending and the stem, and in the 2nd Aorist the endings are added The endings are the same to the verbal, and not to the present stem. as those of the Present Indicative Active with the exception that the vowels are lengthened and 4 is written subscript. There is no Future Subjunctive.
It will
Pres. Sub. Pass, or Mid.
XviOfjLaL
XiJ,i;

1st Aor. Sub. Mid.
Xt$(r&}/iat

2nd Aor. Sub. Mid.
/3aXeo/xac
iS"^!?

XixTTj

\vr)Tm Xvm/ieda
\vija-6e

XvoTirai

^d\r)Tai

XvnafieBa
Xva-rja-dc

^dKafitda

Xvwirat
1

XvfTonfTaL
5id f oU.

^akqaSe ^aKavrai

"

At the hands "

by Gen.

^

"Are cast," use the perfect pass.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
In these tenses the endings are the same as those of the Pres. Ind. Pass, or Mid. with the exception that the vowels are lengthened.
l8t Aor. Sub. Pass.

2nd Aor. Sub. Pass.

\vda)

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

97

clauses, the Present if

Either the Present or the Aorist Subjunctive may be used in these a continuoup or repeated action is spoken of,
if

the Aorist

a single action

is

frequently than the Present.
Latin, and, if the verb in the

spoken of. The Aoriat is used more There is no "sequence of tenses," as in
is in

main clause

a past tense,

it

does not

follow that the verb in the dependent clause

must be

in the Aorist

Subjunctive.

The Subjunctive is used in all clauses introduced by a relative (2) pronoun which does not refer to a definite person or thing i.e. all clauses in which the word "ever" may be introduced in English after
;

the relative pronoun.

In these clauses the word av or edv is placed after the relative pronoun in Greek and the verb is in the Subjunctive.

Example
Off

:

Whoever
&v

believes on the
els

name

of the Lord shall be saved.
<ra>6r]a-€Tat.

irKTTevo'Tj

to ovofia tov Kvpiov

Clauses introduced by orav (ote Sv) "whenever" and ottou Sv "wherever" and referring to the future also have their verb in the

Subjunctive mood.

Examples

:

Whenever ye depart go
orav direXOrjTe elirfp^eade

into the city.
els

rqv

iroXti/.

Wherever the Gospel

is

preached

many

will hear.

OTTOV hv TO evayyeXiOV Ki)pv(TfTr}Tai ttoWol aKowcovo"!.

habitual action

Clauses introduced by ewj depending on a verb denoting future or and referring to the futiu^e also have their verb in the

Subjunctive, generally with &v.

Such clauses may

also be introduced

by

eojff

ov or

eajs

otov without ap.

Examples

:

There remain until ye depart thence.
f Kei fiivere

And

ews &v i^i\6r)Te 'iKfXQev. goeth after that which is lost, until

Mk vi.
he' find
it.

10.

Kai TTOpeveTai eVt ro dn-oXaiXos etas evpjj avTO.

Lk. XV.
is

4.

Tell the vision to no

man

until the

Son of Man

risen from the

dead.
priSevl eiirrjTe to

Spapa eas oS

6 vios tov avBpairov

e'k

veKpwv

iyepdrj.

Mt..xvii. 9.

98
(3)

THE SUBJUNCTIVE
The Hortatory Subjunctive.
is

the 1st person plural when the speaker in the doing of an action.

The Subjunctive is used in exhorting others to join him

Example
(4)

:

Beloved, let us love one another. dyawriToi, dyaira/ifv dWrjKovs.

The Deliberate Subjunctive.

deliberative questions,
to do.

1 Jn IV. 7. The Subjunctive is used in when a person asks himself or others what he is

Example

What
Ti

shall

we do ?
;

iroajtmixtv
is

Lk.
/x^.

iii.

10.

Note that the Subjunctive

always negatived with

Exercise 30
Before doing this exercise learn the parts of Sya
bf)(oiJ,ai (8),

(1),

aKovm

(2),

dirotTTfWa (35), Kpivto (43), Ktjpvcraa (28).
24.
ttjv

Learn Vocabulary
1.

KoKas dQercire
2.

evToXrjv rov
els

6eov,

iva rijv

irapdhofriv

vfiav

•njprjaTJiTe.

Sytufuv
3.

dWa^ov^

ras i-)(opAvas KapoiToKeK^, Iva kcu
ovofiari

€K€i KTjpv^o).

6s hv fv

Tmv ToiovTav natditav de^rai enl T&
de';(i;rai,

pov,

e/16 di)(eTai-

Koi of &v epe

ovk

eiie

de^^erai,

dWa

tov ajrooT«'-

Xavrd
pi)

pc.

4.

fiij

Kplvtre Iva

prj

KpiBrJTe.

5.

or

avTov o'OKraL dnoXetTeL avrrjv.
TTOT-f

6.

Kal ravs 6<l>6aKpovs
7.

yap &v dAj/ ttjv ^xV" avrav inappva'av^f
f»ri
Tr/s

XbatTiv
iv

Tols

6<t>6dKpols.
8.

e'aw

dijO'DS*

y^r eorot
tva

Scdcpevov
9.

Tols

ovpavois.

Kvpioi,

rl

pe 8fl

jroielv

arada;

Kara vdvTa 0(ra &v XoX^ot; irpos vpds. 10. \iyapev ipa^ Hoifiirapev rd Kaxd, Iva eK6^ rh dyaBd; 11. TravTorre yap tovs
aiyrov dKoi(reiT0€

iTTaxovs «x*''^ M*^' favTmv, Ka\ orav 6i\rjTi Svvao'Se avTols fv jroajirai. 12. (jtevye els Aiyvirrov koi XaBi^ exel eas dv eiiro) crot. 13. optola eoTiK tj
/Sao'tXcia tS>v

oipavwv

fu/i.ij' fjv

Xa/3ov(ra yvvrj eveKpvsjrfv els dKevpov (rdra

Tpta^ etas ov e^vpatdij^ oKov.

The Pharisees disregarded the commandment of God that they 2. Whatever I say to you privately tradition. that proclaim to all the people. 3. What shall we do then ' shall we
1.

might keep their own
'

'

iXKaxoS "elsewhere." Kappiu "I olos-e."

' *

ixof"^"'' Kup/nr&Keis
5i)ffi)S

"the next

villages."

from

Siia.

'
'

a^o, then, in questions denoting surprise. tffSi, imperative ind. sing, from eXvai "to be.''
ii "leaven." dXeipov adra rpia " three measures of meal." fvpSa "I leaven."

' ' "

iipii, !)%,

OF CONTRACTED VERBS

99

continue in sin that grace may abound^ ? 4. Whenever ye see the Gentiles in the Holy Place know that the end^ of the age draweth nigh.

"Wherever the Gospel is preached those that believe shall be saved. Send away the children to the wilderness that the robbers may not kill them. 7. God sent many prophets that they might teach this people. 8. Let us eat and drink, for we must depart quickly. 9. Let us go elsewhere that we may exhort the multitudes. 10. Whenever we will we can do good to the poor. 11. Remain in the house until I 12. We have cut down all the trees that the enemy may not call thee. eat the fruit. 13. I will not drink wine lest I cause my brother to stumble. 14. I beseech thee to guard my sheep until I find that which 15. Whosoever wishes to be greatest among you let him humble is lost. himself as a little child. 16. Lord, reveal thy power to us that thy name may be glorified. 17. Bring the garments to me that they may be carried to the widows.
5. 6.

LESSON XXX[
SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONTEACTED VERBS AND OF FURTHER USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE
The Present Subjuncti\
«>'.

100
The subjunctive
of
flfit

FURTHER USES
is

as follows

:

Singular

Plural

ij

Shti

Further uses of the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive
Example
If ye
:

is

used in

all

conditional clauses introduced by

edv "if" referring to the future.

do not repent ye
fieTavorjtnjTC,

eav

fifj

shall all perish in like manner. Lk. XUl. wdvTes aaavTos aTroXcicr^e.

5,
fu)

The Aoiist Subjunctive
prohibitions.

(not the Present)

is

used with

in

Example:

Do
fjLTf

not get gold for your purses.
KTTja-r]6€

^pvtrov

els

ras ^covas vfi&v.
/xi;

Mt.

X. 9.

The Present Imperative
to express a prohibition.

(not the Aorist) with

may also

be used

The Present Imperative generally denotes a command to cease to do an action already begun, in accordance with the principle that the moods of the Present tense denote action in progress.
Example

And they all wept and lamented her. But he said to them " Do not continue to weep she is not dead, but sleepeth."
;

SKXatxtv 8e Trai/rep /cat eKoirrovTO avTTjv.

6

fie

elnev Mfj KXaierc, ovk

antBavev aWa Ka6ev8ei. The Aorist Subjunctive generally denotes a
to do

Lk.

viii.

52.

command

not to begin

an

action.
:

Example Whenever
thee.

therefore thou doest alms, do not sound a trumpet before
ek(riji,o(rivr}v ,
/itj

OTav oSv

Troifjs

(raXTriVjf eiinpoirdfv crov.

Mt.
In Acts
xviii.

vi. 2.

9

we have an example

of both

ways

of expressing a

prohibition in the

same verse

Do
fir)

not fear, but speak and hold not thy peace. ^o^ov, cii^a XaXei Koi fx^ (7Lai7rr](T7]s,
oi
/iij

The double negative

is

used with the Aorist Subjunctive and

OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

101

occasionally with the Future Indicative in the sense of the Future Indicative with ov, but with more emphasis.

Examples

Him
If I

that cometh to
fiC

me
ov

I will in
iifj

no wise cast deny
thee.

out.
vi. 37.

Tov cp\6fievov Trpos

CKjSaXo) e^(o.

Jn

must
8eTf
jue

die with thee, I will not

eav

avvairoOavelv

froi,

ov

firj

ae

apvTjirofiai.

Mk xiv.
Frequently however, especially in the Gospels, a negative future without any special emphasis.
it is

31.

used simply as

Exercise 31
Learn the parts of
TTlVcO (49).

Trpdo-o-to (29),

deXa

(11),

yiyvacrKa (55),

ia-6ta> (69),

Learn Vocabulary
1.

25.

KvpiCj eav
(fiaivfj

diXrjs bvva<Tal

pe Kadaplaai.
dtKatotrvvjj

2.

€(j}aivrfa-ev

de llaOXof

pfydXji
3.

Xeytov Mr/Sei' npa^Tji treavrio kokov, anavTes yap icrpev ivBabe.
vpoiv
rj

iav

pri

7r€pi(r<rev(Tjj

irXetov ratv

ypappariav Koi
4.
prj

^apKTaicov, ov p^ fltTeXdrjre els ttjv ^atriKfiav rStv oiipauav,
pepipvT]tTr]Te

oZv

eh

rtjv

aSpiov.

5.

hs &v pfj Se^rjrai Tfjv ^airiXeiai' tov Beov
6.

as waidlov, ov
avTo eas OTOV

pf] eltreXdrj els avrrjv.
jrXrjptoBfj

Xeyft)

yap vpiv
7.

otl ov pr] <j>dy(6
fleXi;

iv

TJj /SacriXcia

toC dcov.

edv

ns

ro BiXifpa
8.
pi)

aiiTOv Troteiv, yvwa-erai irepi rrjs didax^s iroTepov^ eK Oeov iarriv.
vopitrrjre oti rfkBov

KoraKvaai rov vopov

rj

rovs Tvpo^rjras.

9.

vpeis eare

TO okas

Trjs yrjs'

eav 8e to a\as pcopavdjjj ev tlvi dXtirBqa-erai ;

10. enrev 6e

6 Kvpios TIB TlavXco Mr) (j)o^ov,

dXXa XaXei, xai
Tr]pi]<TtTf.

pfj

aianrr^irris.

11.

iav
oti,

dyairare pe, Tas e'vToXds Tas epds
eltriv Tives

12.

a/i^v

Xiya vphi
eats

t&v

Side ovt(ov oiTtves

ov

prj yevcrcavTat
Trj

QavaTov

&v tdaa-iv
edv yap

TOV viov TOV dvdpmrrov 6p\6pevov ev

^atrLXela avTov.
14.

13.

dyavTjoriTe tovs ayairavTas vpas, Tiva purBov exeTe;

xal eTvoirjaev

SaSexa

Lva iiaiv peT' ai/rov Kai iva

dnoareXXri KrjpvaiTeai Kol exeiv e^oviriav
ij

eK^dXXeiv TO Saipovta.
Trepi^aXdipeSa

15.

pf/

ovv XeyereTi (jidyaipev ;

Ti iriapev ;

rj

Tl

do good to them that do good to you what reward have ye? not bring Gentiles into the temple. .3. Let us not seek the things of this age, but the things of the age that is to come^. 4. If ye do these things ye shall be loved by my Father. 5. Do not continue 6. I will in no wise allow thee to receive the enemies of the Gospel.
1.

If ye

2.

Do

'

vdrepov "whether."

^

Use

pres. part. o( Ipxopai.

102
to eat bread in this place.

FUETHER USES
7.

If

we

confess our sins he will have

upon

us.

8.

They went

to the priest that they

9. And all the people were silent messengers of Caesar. 10. If we love him we shall keep his commandments. 11. The slaves brought me bread and fish that I might taste 13. If it 2. 12. Sin no longer, lest a worse thing come upon thee. these men are wicked the Lord will destroy them and their city. 15. Do not 14. I will in no wise manifest myself to this generation. carry wine to the slaves. 16. If the enemy draw near I will set the 17. How shall we buy Isread that these may eat ? soldiers in order. 18. Let us love our parents that we may be loved by them.

the vision'.

mercy might ask him about that they might hear the

LESSON XXXII
FURTHER USES OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD
The
verb.
Its character as a
it
:

Infinitive

mood, as has already been pointed

out, is really a

verbal noun, and, as such, can be used as the subject or object of a

noun can be emphasised by prefixing an article to then practically becomes a declinable neuter noun. Its case is shown by the case of the article, for the infinitive itself
it

cannot have

inflections.

by an Article, or the Articular Infinitive, as sometimes called, may have a subject, object or other limiting words attached to it. These words generally come between the article and the infinitive and form with it a phrase equivalent to a noun. The Articular Infinitive is frequently used in connexion with a Phrases of this kind are generally best translated by an Preposition.

The

Infinitive preceded

it is

Adverbial clause in English.

Examples

:

els

or n-pos followed

by the Accusative of the Articular

Infinitive expressing purpose.

And
and

they shall deliver him to the Gentiles to
els

mock and

to scourge

to crucify. to ep.7ral^ai Kal p.a(mySttTat Koi

KoX TrapaSairovcrtv avTov Tois e$v€(rtv
<TTavpS>ornt.

Mt. xx.
that I might
to yvS>vai

19.

I sent

know your
Trjv
"

faith. 1

ejreiiyjfa fls
'

jrioTiv VfiSiv.

Thess.
case.

iii. 5.

Spa/ia -aros, t6.

Use genitive

OF THE INFINITIVE
But take heed that ye do not your righteousness before order to be seen of them.
Trpoa-fXfTf Se
tijj/

103

men

in

SiKauxrvvriv ifimv

fir)

Troielv ejnrpoa-dfv

t&v avBpamMv
vi. 1.

npbs TO deadrjvm airois.
ev followed

Matt.

by the Dative of the Articular Infinitive expressing the TIME DURING WHICH Something takes place. And as he sowed, some fell by the way side. KaL €V ra cnreipeLv avrbv o /iev en€<rev irapa ttjv 6b6v.
Lk.
viii. 5.

And
wheat.

while

men

slept, his

enemy came and sowed

tares

among the

ev oe Tco Kaoevdeiv tovs dvBpairovs ^Xdev aifTov 6 ey^Bpos Kal CTreaneipev fifaxm dva pearov roC a-irov. Mt. xiii. 25. 7rp6 followed by the Genitive of the Articular Infinitive to be

translated

by before. For your Father knoweth the things of which ye have need before
6 Tlarrip

ye ask him. DtSev^ yap
fierd

vp^v

Syv

^peiav €^€T€ npo tov vpds aiT^aat avrop-^

Mt.
followed
after I

vi. 8.

by the Accusative

of the Articular Infinitive to be

translated

by after.

But

am

raised up, I will go before

you into

Galilee.

dWa

peTci TO eyepdqvat

pe Trpod^ta vpds

els tt/v

TaKiXaiav.

Mk
Sid followed

xiv. 28.

by an Accusative of the Articular
because
it

Infinitive to express

CAUSE.

And

had no root

it

withered away.

Koi Sea TO pri e)(€iv pl^av e^pdvSrj.

Mk

iv. 6.

The

Infinitive in Object clauses after verbs

of saying or thinking
have already seen that object clauses after verbs of saying or thinking may be expressed by a clause introduced by Sti with a verb in the Indicative mood. They may also be expressed by putting the verb in the same tense of the Infinitive as that used by the original speaker or thinker when he uttered the words, or framed the thoughts, which

We

The original speaker or thinker used a verb in the Indicative, Subjunctive or Imperative mood to express when these words or thoughts are turned into his words or thoughts
are reported in these object clauses.
:

an object clause the mood

is
'

altered but

not the

tense.

See Exerciee 36.

104
The

THE INFINITIVE IN OBJECT,
subject of the Infinitive
is

case, unless it denotes the

same person as the subject

of course put into the Accusative of the verb of

saying or thinking. This construction
struction.

is

called the "Accusative

and Infinitive" conit is

We

have a similar construction in English, but

seldom used.

We

prefer to use the construction which corresponds with the

on

construction in Greek and to introduce object clauses after verbs of

saying or thinking with the conjunction "that."

Examples of the Accusative and Infinitive construction in English. "The priests pronounced the lepers to be clean.'' "We know them to be guilty." "I perceive them to be making a mistake."

The Accusative and
in the
fore

Infinitive construction does not occur frequently

verbs of saying or thinking. It is not therethought necessary to tre^t the subject at length here. For further information the student is referred to the author's Syntax of New Testament Greek. The following are examples of this construction from the New Testament.

New Testament after

Ye

say that

I cast

Xc'yere ev Bee^e^oiiX

out devils by Beelzebub. eK&dWetv fie ra Satfiovta.
Lk.
xi. 18.

How

do they say that Christ

is

the son of David?
Lk. XX. 41.
is

ttSs Xfyouo-iv tov Xpia-rbv elvai AavelS uidi/;

The Sadducees who say that there
ol

no resurrection.
Mt.
xxii. 23.

^addovKoioi

ol

\iyovTes

firj

eivai dvacrracrtv.

The

Infinitive in Consecutive clauses

introduced by ware
The Infinitive is often used in Oonaeeutive clauses introduced by Hare to express the result of the action of the main verb.
Example

And behold
KOI l8ov

there arose a great tempest in the sea so that the boat
eyeVfTO ev
doKda-a-n,

was covered by the waves.
(Tfia-fio! fif'yas
TJj

SorerA

irXoioi/ KaXvjrTe(r-

dm

iffi

T&v KvfiaTav.

Mt.

viii.

24.

CONSECUTIVE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES

105

The
When

Infinitive in

Temporal clauses introduced
or
irpiv V,

by

irpiv

"Before."

the verb in the principal clause is affirmative the clause introduced by irpiv has the Accusative and Infinitive construction.

Example
Before the cock crow thou shalt deny
irpXv

me

thrice.

oKcKTopa

(l>covrj(rai

rpXs airapvrja-T)

p,e.

Mt. xxvi.

34.

Exercise 32
Learn the parts of
Learn Vocabulary
1.

tx'^ (70), Ka\ea) (19), airo6vj)<TKa> (53), jSaiVco (48),

TtUTTeva (14), ayairaa (15).
26.
TrXrjiriov ois

TO ayairqv tov deov e^ oXrjs KapBias Kal to dyaTrqv Tov
neptacrorepov
irrri

eavTov
2.

navTav t&v
a
f Trotet.

oKoKavrcopaTcav'-

Koi

6vtnS)v.

npotTeixpv 5e

ol o^^Xot Tols Xeyofievots virb

tov ^iXliTTrov iv

Ta

OKOveiv
ottq

avToi/s Kol jSXcVetv

Ta

(TTjpeLa

3.

irpb
4.

yap tov eXdetv Tivas
o,

^laKta^ov peTa
TTjv

twv i6vS)V

(rvvr)aOtev 6 IlcVpoff.
j)

Kal Sta t6 ir\r]dvv0^vai

dvop.lav yl/vy7j(reTai^

dyairrj
6.

Tav iroWatv.

peTa Se to

(riyrja'ai

avToiis aTTCKptSri 'laxcu/Sos.

TiVn \eyovcTiv oi avBpoTroi eivai tov uiov
rj

TOV avBpmnov;
Oetov^
elvai,

7.

ovK otfjeiKopfv vopi^eiv \pv(Ta
8.

dpyvpa

r)

Xi'doj

to

opocov.

Kal XiddtravTes tov
9.

HavXov

ftrvpov e^(o ttjs TroXeoJS,

vopi^ovTes avTov TfBvrjKevai^.

eav de iiTrtap^v 'E^ dvdpoiirav^ 6 \abs
'ladvj)v

anas KaTaKidd(rei

r/pas,

maTevei yap
11.
;

wpo^rfTtv

eivai.

10.

6

pkv

ovv ^rfiTTOS dn€Kpi6ri TJjpeiaOai tov HaxiKov iv Kaitrapeiaj eavTov 8e peWeiv
iv Td)(€i^ eKTropevea'dai.
avToiis

Kal i6ap^T)6r)(Tav aTravTes, wiTTe o'v^r/Tflv
12.
dpijv Xf'yo) (rot oti eV ravTr;
1.3.

XiyovTas Ti icni tovto

Trj

vvktI
irdiri

nplv oKeKTopa

(pavfja^ai Tpls dnapvr)(rri pe.

koX

yvaarov iyivfTO
15.

Tois KOTOtKovo-w 'lepovordKrjp, aa-Tf KXr/drjvai to ^'^piov eKcivo

Ax^XSapd)^.

14.

Kvpie, Kord^ridi irplv diroBavelv to

jraMov pov.

^peXKev eavTOv

dvaipeiv^ vopi(a>v eKTrf<l)fvyfvai tovs 8€(rpiovs. 1. For to fear the Lord and to walk in his

of

men.
3.

2.

fields.
'

ways is good for the sons But while the elders were coming we remained in the The young men did not enter the temple because the priest
to'

oKoKaiTbiiia, -otos,
^iryiJiTETai, fut.

"a whole burnt

2

3 •
<•

pass, from ipixi^ "shall t6 Beiov "the divine Being." reSrriKfvai perf. inf. act. from BvTfUKw "
iv

offering." grow cold."
I die."
"

Tdx« "quickly."

avaLpeXv

"to slay."

106
was dead.

THE VERBS

IN

fll

spoken Festus answered him, 4. And after Paul had Before the king saw the city he sent three messengers to its rulers. 7. All the 6. But we aU feared, so that we hid among the trees. people believe that Moses wrote these things. 8. Depart from the
5.

house before the publican comes. 9. But after the multitude gave heed to the apostles they did many signs among them. 10. We think that he benefited this people by teaching them to obey the king. 12. The 11. And he healed the blind man so that all men wondered. young man died before the prophet came. 13. We believe that Peter is an apostle. 14. They stoned Paul because he preached the Gospel to them. 15. To love the Lord is better than gold or silver. 16. While he was coming down from the mountain he commanded his disciples to tell the vision to no man before they came to Jerusalem. 17. And now I have told you all these things before they come to pass. 18. All the Jews cried out that Paul ought not to live any longer •. 19. But I perceived that he was a wise and good man. 20. The peopfe gave heed to John for they believed that he was a prophet.

LESSON XXXIII
THE VERBS IN
;i«,

K8a>^i

Besides the verbs in at there are a few verbs of very frequent occurrence which are called verbs in fu from the ending of the 1st sing, of the Pres. Ind. Act.

These verbs have endings

differing

from those of the verbs in

a>

in

the Present and 2nd Aorist tenses. In the other tenses their endings are practically the same as those of the verbs in o>.

important in the case of the verbs in /ii to remember down in Lesson XVII between the verbal stem from which most of the tenses of the verb are formed and the present stem from which the present tense is formed.
It is especially

the distinction laid

The verbal stems of the three
Present
SiSiofii

principal verbs in fu are as follows

Meaning
I give I place I

Stem
fio

riSriiu
'ia-rrjju

Se

cause to stand

ora

BiBto/jLi

107

It will be noticed that the present stem is a reduplicated and lengthened form of the verbal stem in all three cases. "o-Tij/ii stands for a-i<m]fii, the rough breathing taking the place of the o-.

The Present and 2nd Aorist forms should be carefully learnt. The other tenses can readily be formed from the verbal stem.
Prei

108

SiScofii

EXERCISES
Exercise 33
Learn the parts of SiSafu Learn Vocabulary 27.
1.

109

(62), TriVra (26).

o oe
2.

Ir/crovs

e8i8ov rbv aprov rots liadrjTois iva StSSxriv airov role
blba<Ti to

ox^ots.
3.

6

yap 6fbs
4.

nvfvpa to dywv
ri's

rols alTovaiv avTov.
firTiv

finov ifuv iv iroia e^oviria ravTa woifts, ^
5.

6

Sois

aroi Trjv

e^ova-iav TavTr)v.
Vjuv.

KOI but Ti

avoXisTe kcu aTrokvOrjcrea-Bf, Si'SoTe kw. OVK ebwKas fiov to apyvpiov in\ Tpdwe^av^ ;
Trjs ^atTiXelas. 7.

dodri(rerai
6.

iiiuv

heboTai yv&vai to jivirrripia
8.

airoSos

fioi tl tl 6<j)e!Xeis.

6 Sc OVK ij6f\fv,
9.

aWa

aneKBaiv e^akcv avTov

els (fivKoK^v

cas anoSa to
fj

o^eCKofifvov.
10.

t^fo-Tiv fjfias Kaia-api :j>6pov^ Sovvat; Sa/iev

pj]

bmp^v;

ebodrj pot Tratra i^ovtria iv ovpavco Koi
ttj
fj

eVi y^s,
12.

11.

6 naTrfp
icrri

dyand
pSXKov
poi
el

t6v uioK, KOI jrdvTa SeSaxev iv
Sovvai
Tj

x^^p'^ ai/Tov.
ij

paKaptov
;

\ap^dvfiv.
;^a)^toi/

13.

Tis

o-ocfiia

8o6ei(Ta TOVTif
troi

14.
ttoarat

eiTre

ToaovTOv TO
TL \akr]aT]T€j

aTridoode ;

15.

TavTa irdvTa

iav

Trta-iav

Trpoo^KwrjaTis poi.

16. naX orav ayacriv

vpds napaSiSovTa,
ttj

pfj

Trpopeptpvare
17. Koi

aXX

o iav doOjj vpiv iv iKeivrj

cSpa tovto XaXetre.
TTia-TcitrriTe.

vvv (ipriKa
1.

iip'iv

irpXv yevicrdai, Iva

orav yfvrjTai

you power over unclean spirits to cast them out. 2. This me by my father. 3. We wish to give the gold to the high-priests. 4. Do not give good things to the wicked. 5. The field was being sold to the soldiers by the publicans. 6. They went about giving garments to the lepers. 7. I will in no wise give that which is thine to the Lord. 8. Thou gavest me water when I was thirsty 3. 9. Let us keep the commands which have been given to us. 10. He who gives bread to the hungry shall in no wise lose his reward. 11. We were giving the money to the servants that they might give it
I give

dog was given to

to the widows. in
it,

12.

The king has given us

this city that

we may

live

us not betray it to his enemies. 13. Sell all that thou hast and give to the poor. 14. If ye ask bread will your father give you a stone? 15. AVhatever we ask will be given to us. 16. Give and it
let

This money has been given to thee that thou Give us, Lord, thy grace that we may worship thee in spirit and in truth. 19. What is the wisdom that is given to this man ?
shall be given to you.
17.

may est buy

the

field.

18.

1

^iri TpctTTefoc

= " to

the bank."

^ <j>6pos -ov, 6,

"tribute."

110

THE VEKBS

IN

jJLl

LESSON XXXIV
THE VERBS IN
/it,

TlBriiu

"I place"

TL0r]fJ,l

111

2nd Aorist Middle
Indio.

112
10. Koi fit
Vjiiv.
fjv

THE VERBS IN
&v7r6Kiv eliT4pxi<r6e koX 84x''>vTai
l&oij

fil

vfias,

itrOUreTa irapariSeneva

avbpes ^ipovres eVi KXtVijs avdpairov oy 7]v irapaXeXvfievoS] Km e^rjTOVv avTOV eitreveyKetv xat tfeivai avTou evtaTTtpv avTov. 12. KOI avTos aTreawdirdri dir' avrSiv axTft \l6ov ^oKr]v ', Koi 6e\s ra yovara
11.

Km

npooTiixero.
fiov

13.

Kvpie Sia
14.

n

oi Svvafiai

itol

aKokovBtiv &pTi^;

Tr)V i\rv\r]v

iwep

(rov 6r)iTa>.

ecfiepov

ras Ti/ias rav ^apiav xai eTidovv irapa

Toils TToSas tS)v

aTrotrToKav.
*

15.

KaSov^ ix Se^Uov

fiov

eas av 6S>

toxis

e\6ptyvs (Tov viroirohiov
1.

t5)v iroSav (rov,

We

set beside

them wine and water
3. 4.

in cups.
falling

2.

We

wished to

place the sick in the market-places.

And

upon

his knees he

prayed to the God of heaven.
before his feet
?

How

shall

we

place the paralytic

They tried to place the books in the synagogue. 7. Thou didst place 6. We will place the lamp under the measure. me in a good land. 8. Behold all these laid down their lives for the brethren. 9. Do not place this writing upon the cross. 10. This is 11. Place the body of the the throne that was placed in the temple. prophet in the tomb of his fathers. 12. The sword is placed in the hand of the king. 13. The apostles placed their hands upon us and 14. I will come down that I may place my hands upon her, blessed us. and she shall live. 15. The lamps shall be placed in the house of the elder. 16. The nets were placed by the side of the ship. 17. The sick man was brought in on a bed and placed before him. 18. I am he that placed my hands upon your head when you were a boy. 19. Ye shall in no wise eat that which is set before you. 20. The bread was broken and set before them.
5.

LESSON XXXV
THE VERBS IN
The
this verb.
(1)
/it,

larrjp.t

following points should be specially noticed in connexion with

This

Aorist in use.
verb.
'

is one of the few verbs which has both a 1st and a 2nd These tenses always difiier in meaning in the case of this

ibael

' *

dpTi

\i0ov po\iiP "about a stone's oast." ^ "now, at this moment." inroirbSiov -ov, t6, "a footstool."

^tiffou

"sit down."

larrifii

U3

The Present, Imperfect, Future and 1st Aorist tenses of the active voice of ta-n)ij,i are transitive and mean " I cause to stand " or " I place " etc.
The Perfect and Pluperfect are intransitive and are used in the sense of the Present and Imperfect with the meaning of " I stand " etc. The 2nd Aorist is also intransitive and means " I stood." The Passive is used in the sense of " I am caused to stand," " I am placed," hence simply " I stand."
Practically the only passive tense used in the N.T. is the 1st Aorist.
(2)

In the tenses in which there

is

reduplication (the Present,

and

the Perfect) the first er is omitted and a rough breathing put in its Present torij/ii for ctioti/^i, Perfect corijita for o-t'ori/Ka. place The breathings should be watched with special care in the case of
:

There is a rough breathing on all the moods of the Present and Perfect tenses, and a smooth breathing on the augmented tenses of the 1st and 2nd Aorist. The Present Middle and Passive is only given for completeness, and need not be learnt at first. Notice that in the 1st Aor. Act. the usual <r, and not k, is found.
this verb.

114

tarrifu

EXERCISES
Exercise 35
Learn the parts of la-nnu
^alva
(48). (63), 7rd<rx<o (73),

115

dyyeXXm

(33), (jyaiva (38),

Learn Vocabulary
1.

29.

A
TOTC TtapaKaii^avei aiirov 6 SidfioKos
eis

t^k &yiau iroKiv nal

e(TTr)artv

aiiTov effi

to irrepvyiov^ tov lepov,
3.
el

2.
triiv

ravra Se avrStv \a\ovvTiov avTOS
avTots earaTa tov avdpairov tov

eoTT] ev fieaa aiirav.
TedepaTrevfjievov.
€fiepl(rdi]' TTots

e^Xe^av

4.

de 6 ^aravas tov ^aravdv
fi

ovv OTaOrjcreTat

^atriKeia aiiTov;

5.

eK^dWet, e<^' eavTov to vvv TrapayyeXXei 6

6fos TOif dv6panois wdvTas TravTaxov iieTavoelv, fca6'

on

earrjirev ^fiipav

6. 6 iapuraios trraBeXs iv § /ifXXfi Kplvfiv Tqv oiKovp.ivriv ev SiKmoo'VVti. TaiiTa irpos eavTov TrpoanjvxeTO. 7. 6 8e TeXdivrjs paKpodev^ earats ovk

^9e\ev

ovde Toiis d(l>dd\p^vs eirdpai els Tov ovpavov.
9.

8.

6

de

^Irjirovs

'

iardOri ep.irpo(rdev tov f^yep^ovos.

Se\s

be ra

peydkji

Kvpie

p-q

arTTjo-rjs

avTols Tavrqv tt/v

yovOTa expa^ev ^tavrj apapriav. 10. ^era Tavra

dvearri '\ovbas 6 roXtXaiOf ev rals f/pepais Trjs OTToypa^^s^ Koi dTreoTTio'e

\aov

OTrltrat

avTov.

11. el Mcovtreas Koi t5>v TrpofprjTav oiiK dKOVOvaiv, ovd^
TreitrBr^irovTai,

edv TLS eK veKp&v dvatTTjj
e^ovTi
Trfv x^lpa'^'E.yetpe

12.

eitrev he

ra dvhpi

r<a

^pdv

kw. aTrf^i els to peaov

koi dvaa-Tas eorij,

B
1.

avSpairefTis pe KareaTTjirev KpiTTiv
prf

rj

pepKTTfjv*

e<j)'

ipds;

2.

ovSelr

bvvaTat eXdelv irpos pe edv
dva(rTrjiT<o

6 TraTrjp 6 irepylras pe eXxucri; avTov, kol
3.
rj

airov iv

tjJ

ear^dTji fjpepa.

prjTrip

Kol oi dSeX<j)ol avTOv

eioT^Keto'av e^at ^rjTovvTes

avTa XdKrjaat.
6.

4.

ol viroKptToi (^tXoOcrtv ev Tois

ovvayayoLS earatTes TrpotrevxecrOm,
be avTTJ xV-po. dvearrjo'ev aur^i/.

oir<os (fyavStatv tois

dv6panois.
prjToos^

5.

bovs
ev

to be Trvevpa
7.

Xeyei

on

v(TTepois KOtpois aTroaTTjo'ovTai Tives Trjs TrlaTetas*

ttws Spoiao'topev Trjv
;

^amXeiav tov
XaXe'iTe ev tSi

6eov, ^ ev rlvi avTrp> jrapaPoXrj BSipev
9.

8.

d

be

Irjirovs

eirCXa^opevos waiblov eoTfjirev avTo nap' eavTa.

jropeveade koi (rradevTes
10.

Upa t^ Xam

irdvTa Ta pr/poTa T^r fw^r TavTr/s.

kol

KOTo^aivovTiOV avTav eK tov
'

opovs everelXaTO^ avToZs 6
'

Irja-ovs

Xeyav

TTTepiyiov -ov, t6, "pinnacle."

paKpbBev "afar off."

s *
*

iwoypa^

-^s,

!),

"enrolment."

' pj/rus "expressly." pspuTTys -ov, 6, "a divider." ivereOMTo, 3rd sing. Ist Aor. Mid. from ivT^XKu.

8—2

116
MijSei/i etnrjTe

OTHER VERBS IN

/it

11.

OLS

to opafia etos o5 6 vios tov dvBpairov eK vcKpatv avacrTJj, KOI 7rape(mj(T€v iavTov ^avra fiera to iraQeiv avrov ev ttoAAois
12. 13.

TfKpjqp'iois.

Koi

ir

poaeKdav

fj-^aro Trjs

(Topov^,

ol

^a^rra^ovTes

eonjcrax.

(cm ivrtjaav paprvpas ^fvSfls Xiyovras 'O avOptonos ovtos
14.

oi Traverai \dkS>v prjpara Kara tov tSttov tov &yiov.

ayayovres 8e

avTovs earrja'av ev rw avueSplco,
1.

I will cause thee to stand before

Caesar for

my

2.

The

righteous shall stand in the

kingdom

of their Father.

name's sake 2. 3. Paul

therefore stood before Festus. 4. The priests caused the publican to stand in the midst of the marketplace. 5. But Peter stood up and preached the word to the multitude. 6. He is not here, for he has 7. Who appointed thee to be the ruler of this risen 3 from the dead. people ? 8. Then we arose and departed from the city. 9. You made the king to stand in the Holy Place. 10. In the last days many departed from the faith. 11. We stood without*, wishing to see the prophet. 12. Stand on thy feet and take up thy bed. 13. We hope
to stand before the
lifted

Lord in that day.

14.

Then the

spirit of the

Lord

me up and caused me to stand on the waters. 15. After these things many robbers arose and led away much people after them. 16. If any man believes in me I will raise him up at the last day.
commanded the soldiers to stand apart from the multitude. shall we stand in the day of his wrath* ? 19. And standing up he cried with a loud voice, " Stand apart from these men, and make them to stand beside the king." 20. Those that heard these things
17. 18.

We

How

stood

still.

LESSON XXXVI
OTHER VERBS IN
The verb
ti//«
,xt,

o.'8a

occurs in the

New Testament

only in compounds, the

most common of which are
d<j)iripj,

fnivitfp,t

"I send away, I let go, "I understand."
irjpi.

I forgive."

The
1 2

verbal stem of
tropSs -ov,
ii,

is

L

The rough breathing passes

to the

"a

bier."

8
*

"for the sake of" (vexa followed by a Genitive. "has risen" 2 Aor. iylirTriiu. " without "?f(.i. » " wrath "(ipy^.^s,^.

alBa
reduplicating syllable

117

i in the Present and Imperfect, and the stem lengthened before the ending as in rldrjint. All parts of the verb have therefore a rough breathing. The forms of dipirjfu given below are those which occur most frequently in the New Testament. Some of them such as the 2nd sing, and the 1st and 3rd pi. of the Pres. Ind. are formed as if from dcjyla or a tendency on the part of the verbs in in to assimilate their d(^ca) endings to those of the verbs in m is very marked in the New Testament. Note that in the Imperfect the preposition and not the stem receives the augment.

vowel

is

m

:

Prea. Ind. Act.
{a(j)Lr)fii,)

3rd sing. Imperf. Ind. Act.
Pres. Inf. Act.
a(j)ievai
.

^(jiie

d0«r

3rd
d<j)UT€
d<l>tov<ri

pi. Pres.

Ind. Pa&s.

d(j)ifvTai

or

d^eavrat 2nd Aor. Imperat. Act. 2nd sing,

acjjes

2nd

pi.

a(j)fr€

2nd Aor. Sub. Act. d(j)S> etc. 2nd Aor. Part, dc^clr d(j>ei<ra d^iv
Future Active. Future Passive,
1st Aor. Act. 1st Aor. Pass,
d<j)ri<ra

dtjiedria-oiiai

a^Ka
dtfiidrjv

The forms of olba
are as follows
oiSo is

"I

know" which

are found in the

New Testament

a Perfect whose Present «So)
Pluperf.

is

not in use.
Subj.
Inf.

Perf. Ind.

Imperat.

Part.

olba
olbas
olSe
otBa/iev
jjdeifiev

eiotim
ei'Sof

oiSarc, UTTe
otSaa-i, "(ra(ri

lore

vSfurau

bivafjuu

"I

am

able" and iniirraiiai "I
torij/ij.

know"

are conjugated like the

Present Passive of

118
Present

OTHER VERBS IN
Imperfect
riBvvdiiriv

/it

Infinitive

Participle

hvvafnu
hvvairai, hivrj

8ivaa'0ai

Svvdfuvos,

t},

ov

rfdwatro
ijbvvaTo

Bvvarai

Swd/teda BvvaaSe

rj^vdfieda
TiBvuacrBe

Bwavrai

rjdvvavro

Notice that the Imperfect has a double augment. The Aorist r)Bvvr)driv also generally has a double augment. (in stems There is also another class of verbs in ju which inserts ending in a vowel vw) between the verbal stem and the endings of the

w

Present tense.

Stem
oeiK

Pres. Ind. Act.

BelKvvfu
oXXv/xe (SXvu/it)

ax

Qavwiu
These verbs tend generally in the N.T. to assimilate themselves to verbs in a. Such fu forms as do occur are similar to those of TiB^fu, allowing for the stem vowel v instead of e.

Exercise 36
Learn the parts of Learn Vocabulary
I. (cai
d^lT)'fu,

(49),

Svvafuu (10), Sfixwui (60), ypd<pm

(7).

30.
a<f>(Te

vvv Xcyo) Vjuv diroaTrjTe anit t5>v dvOpairtev tovtcov rol
6 8e
lijirovs eiirsv

aiiTovs.
fiiiiv

2.

avrw *A<^6S
Tore

apri^ gvt(o

yap npeirov
3. 4.

€<rTiv

nXrjp&frai natrav BiKouxrvvijv.

d<j>iria'tv

avrov,

rdre trvvriKav
tls dvvarai

ol fiadrjral Srt

wepX 'Iwdvov rov ^aTrriarov
el fifj els,

eiirev aiiTois.

a^iEvai dpapTias
Tj

6

6e6s;

5.

oi

8e

ev6ea>s d(j>evTes rd
fifiSiv,

BUrva
ij/icis

Ko\ov6i]<Tav aira.

6.

xai

a(jies

^fuv ra 6<pti\^fiaTa
7.

i>s

Kai

dfjyrjKafiev

Tois ofjteiKeTms

fjjiaiv.

edv yap

d<fi^Te

toIs

dvOpmnois rd
8.

napaiTT&fuiTa avrStv,
Tis
el,

d<^r)(Tei.

xai Vjiiv 6 narifp hjxSiv 6 ovpdvios.

olBd

(re

6 dyios tov 6eov.
Kdtrfiov.

9.

rdre BeUvvtriv aiirm 6 dta/3oXoc 7rd(ras rar
7r\avdcrde
p,r)

^asrCKelas tov

10.

elBores rds ypatjids

it^lSe

txjv

Biva/iiv TOV 6eov.

11. e<eivois Be rois %^a> iv vapafioXais
prj

ra irdvTa yiyverai,
u<jiievTai

iva OKOvovTes aKovao-iv nal
aroi ai

avviaxriv.

12.

ddptrei t4kvov,

dp.apTlm.

13.

t'i

on
jjBei

i^rjTe'iTe jxe;

ovk ^Bevre

on

ev toXs tov irarpos

fiov Bel elvai p.e;

14.

Be xai 'lovBas 6 wapaBiBovs mirhv t6v tottov.

THE OPTATIVE MOOD
16.

119

o-oi OTi riKov(ras fiav, iyi> 8e ^Siiv on navTore fuw ravraeypa^avfilv ivae'iBjjTe OTL ^mjv e^ere alaviov, 17. 6e\<a 8e vfias etBevai on iravros dvbpos rj Ke<j>cL\rj 6 Xpiaros etrn. 18. Km oi/K ^(juev ra Scu/iovia XaXciv on jjSeurav airov.

ndrep, evxapuTTa
16,

aKOvets.

1. Master, we know that thou art true. 2. God will forgive all our sins if we believe on' his name. 3. Then the priests understood that he had spoken this parable against them. 4. But since they did not know this, they arose and went to Jerusalem. 5. Did ye understand all these things ? 6. I forgive thee all that debt. 7. I write

8. Let these men worship the God of their fathers. 9. How shall 10. He suffered not the men who had been I forgive thee for this ? 11. Know well that the Lord will not allow healed to follow him. thee to err. 12. I am not able to understand this unless^ thou teach

this to

you that ye may know that ye are saved.

alone that they

may

me.
shall

13.

Who

is

able to

know

all his faults

?

14.

They knew that
all

their soldiers

were of good courage.

15.

Know

that

your faults

be forgiven.

LESSON XXXVII
THE OPTATIVE MOOD. PERIPHRASTIC TENSES
The Optative Mood
is used very rarely in the New Testament. forms are given in the table of verbs on pages 143—148. It generally expresses a wish

The
Its

Optative

Mood

Example

:

boy, mayest thou become

more fortunate than thy

father.

S

nal, yivoto Trarpof eiTv\c(rTfpos.

Luke It is also used in dependent questions in the writings of St sometimes with the particle av.
Examples
:

they began to discuss among themselves which it should be of that should do this. them airav 6 tovto KQi avTo\ rjp$avT0 (rufi^reiv Trpbs iavroiis to tIs Spa elr) e| Lk. xxii. 23. irpdiTiTeLU. p4\\<ov

And

1

'!on"

eis.

'

"unless"

ei /iV-

120

PERIPHRASTIC TENSES
while Peter was doubting within himself what the vision should seen, behold the men that had been sent by Cornelius...
etr)

And

be which he had
ojs

stood before the door.
Se iv eavra bajTTopei 6 Tlerpos ri &v
oi aTretrraX/ieyot vtto

to Spafia b etdev, l8oi

oi

avdpes

tov Kopvrf\iov

,

,

.eireo'TTja'av

eVl tov 7rv\S>va.

Acts

X. 17.

See the author's Syntax of N.T. Greek, paragraphs 131, 160, 161.

Periphrastic Tenses
In New Testament Greek tenses are sometimes formed, as in English, of a part of the verb "to be" and a participle. They are called " Periphrastic Tenses " because they are expressed in a roundabout way iwepi.(j>pa^eiv).

The commonest Periphrastic Tenses are The Periphrastic Imperfect formed of the Imperfect of
:

elvw,

and the

Present participle

And Jesus was Km rjv Ttpoayav
The
Perfect participle
:

going before them.
avTovs 6
'l7)(roSs.

Mk X.

32.

Periphrastic Perfect formed of the Present of elvm and the

The people
prophet.
o
fluai.

will stone us, for

they are persuaded that John

is

a

\abs KOToKidatTei

rjfids,

neTreitrpJvos

yap

iarriv

'l<oavrpf

TrpoKJirjTTjv

The

Lk. XX. 6. Periphrastic Pluperfect formed of the Imperfect of tivai and

the Perfect participle

And John was
Koi
jjv

clothed with camel's hair.

6 'ladpTis evSeSviuvos rpi^as Ka/t^\ov.

Mk

i.

6.

The

Periphrastic Future formed of the Future of elvai and the

Present participle. This form of the tense has the force of a Future continuous, with the sense of continuity emphasised.

From

henceforth thou shalt catch men. dwo TOV viv avBpanovs taji ^coypiov.

Lk.

v. 10.

Exercise 37
Learn Vocabulary
1.

31.
fioi

Ihov

i]

bovKi]

Kvpiov yivoiTo

kotA to

prjiid <tov.
fii)

2.

Kni irdvTes
aiiTos fin 6

8te\oyi^ovTO ev Tois KapBlais airav wfpi tov 'icadvov,

noTe

EXERCISES
XptOTOf.
0)(Xov
3.

121
els ctTrayKeiav.
eirj

ro apyvpiov irov triv

<roi

eit)

4.

aKoitras Sf
de

biairopevofiivov^

iwvvOdveTO
e^a> rfj

rt

av

tovto.
6.

5.

6

Beos

Ttjs

virofiovrjs

8^ ^ viiiv to
9.

airo

(jjpovfiv iv oKKrjKois.

Kai

ndv to wXrjBos ^v
7.

TOv Xaoi)

TT potrev^Ofifvov

&pa rod
8.

Bviud/jiaTos^.

Koi ^v oXj;

f)

iroXii enia-vvrjyiievri irpos Trjv Ovpav.
rSiV idvSiV. ^o\r).
fioBTjTal

'ifpovcrdKrip. la-rai irarovp.ivri

ino

eirrjpaiTav 5e

avrbv

oi p-adr^rai

avTov tls avrrj
11.

e'lrj

rj

irapa-

10.

ov yap

eanv
el/u

iv yaivi(f* ireirpayjievov tovto.
12.
eiTrev

koi rjirav ol
eTri

Icadvov vrjartvovTss.

be 6
13.

XiavKos 'EcrTMff

tov

^rjiuiTos^

KaiVapds

oS pe Set Kpivetrdai.

^v yap SMctkiov airovs
14.

as e^ovaiau e^^av koi ovx i>s oi ypappareXs avTav. pevos eva tS>v nai&av invvBdveTO Ti &v eo) TavTa.
1.

koi irpoa^KoKea-d-

Then the blind man asked what this might be.
3.

2.

The disciples

of Jesus were eating and drinking.
before
5.

many

witnesses.

4.

May it
way

This thing has been done happen to us according to thy will.
6.

Thou

shalt be walking the

of righteousness.
7.

The

disciples

disputed
9.

who should be the
all

greatest.

Mayest thou become more

8. May all the workers of iniquity perish. the multitude was gathered together to the sea. 10. We 11. May I become more like desire to know what this saying may be.

blessed than thy father.

Then

to thee,
^ '

Lord.
^
Sifri

SiaTopeuo/i^ov "passing by."
Svpla/ia, -aTos, t6, "incense."
-oTos, t6,

from

SlSuiu.

* ytavla -at, ^, "a,

corner."

' §rjiia

"a judgement

seat."

122

VOCABULARIES

VOCABULARIES

123

Vocabulary 3
ayyeXos, ou
dde\<li6s, ov

(angelos)

angel, or messenger,

(same word.)

(adelphos)

brother.

avdpcoiroSf ov

(anthropos)
(artos)

man.
slave.

(anthropology.)

apros, ov

bread, plural "loaves."

SovKos, ov

(doulos)

Odvarof, ov
Seos, ov

(thanatos)
(theos)
(kai)

death.

God.
and.
world,
lord.

(theist, theology.)

Kai

Koa/ws, ov
KvpLos, ov

(kosmos)
(kurios)
(laos)

(cosmic.)

\a6s, ov

people,

(laity.)

Xdyos, ov

(logos)

word, reason. (The termination "logy" in such words as "theolaw.

vofios,

ov

(nomos)

logy" comes from this word.) (The termination "nomy" in

such words as " astronomy" comes

from this word.)
oKos, ov
cprjfios,

(oikos)
fern, fern,

house.
desert.

ov

(eremos)
(hodos)

686s, ov

napBivos, ov fem. (parthenos)

way. maiden, virgin.
It should be
It is useful

N.B.
to learn

The

ov is the termination of the Genitive case.

learnt With the

words thus

ayyeXos, dyye'Xou

"an

angel."

nouns in this way because the termination of the Genitive shows to which declension they belong. All the nouns given above are masculine with the exception of the last three. For a further explanation see the next exercise.

Vocabulary 4
apyvpiov, ov
fitfiKlov,

(argurion)
(biblion)

silver,

money.
(Bible.)

ov

book.
devil,
tree.

Saifioviov, ov

SevSpov, ov

(daimonion) (dendron)
(ergon)

demon.

^

epyov, ov
evayyc\u>v, oi

work.

(euangelion)

Gospel (evangelist, evangelical, the ev in the Greek is transliterated
into "ev" in Latin).

L24<

VOCABULARIES

125

Vocabulary 6

dWd
diro
^aTTTUTTTjs, ov

but.

from,
for.
rjs

baptlst.

yap
yXSo-o-a,

by a Genitive case.) (same word.) (never used as the first word in a sentence.)
(followed
(glossary.)

tongue, language,

8e
,8e(r7rdTi;s,

but,and.
ov

(neverusedastbeflrstwordinasentence.)
(despot.)

master,
glory,
to, into,

So^a,

rjs

(doxology.)
(followed

fU

«,
iv

e^

by the Accusative case.) by the Gen. case; the second form is used before a word beginning with a vowel.) (followed by a Dative case.) in, on.
out
of.

(followed

6d\a(T(ra,
/laflijTTjf,

r/s

sea, lake.
disciple,

ov

(mathematics.)

veavias, ov
ov, oiiK,

yoimg man.
not.

ovx

(the last

oSv

therefore, then,

two forms used before a vowel.) (never used as the first word of

a sentence.)

npo
irpo(l>fiTtjs,

for, before,

(followed

by a Genitive

case.)

ov

prophet,

(same word.)
(followed by a Dative case.)

a-iv

together with,

Vocabulary 7
dya66s,
t/,

ov
ij,

good,
ov

dyamiTos,
alavios, ov

beloved,
holy.
.

ayios, a, ov

eternal,
just.
last,

(aeonian.)

SUaios,

a,

ov ov

(axoTos,

r/,

(eschatology.)

CTfpos, u, ov
i&ios, a,

difierent, or other,

(hetero-doxy.)

ov
ov

one's own.

KOKOS,

7],

bad.

(cacophony.)
d wovr/pos the Evil One,

nuTTos,

7),

ov

faithful.

novripos, a, ov

wicked,
first,

wpSrros,

t),

ov

(protagonist.)
is

Note that alavios has only two endings. The masculine ending used with feminine as well as masculine nouns.

126

VOCABULARIES

Vocabulary 8
aya
*avayi,va>irKa
*a7roKTftJ/o»

I drive, lead, or bring.
I read.

IkiU.
I release.

avros,

Tjf

u

he, she,

it,

also himself etc.

(see next exercise.)

I baptise.
SlSdtTKlO

I teach.
I glorify. I cast out.

CKfivos,

rj,

o

that,

(see next exercise.)

Jesus.
'lovSaios, ov 'laavrfs
i£)jpu(T<r<o

a Jew.
John.
I preach, or proclaim. I cry aloud.
this,

Kpd^a
oStos, avrj], tovto

(see next exercise.)

neiOa
TTC/Xn'tU

I persuade.
I send.

*w€pi7rarea)
'^(rvvdyai
vcdf,

I walk about.
I drive together.

ov
I depart. I bear, or carry.

*i7rdy(B
<^epa>
ffalpia

I rejoice.

The verbs marked *
in which they are

are compounded with prepositions, augmented see page 22.

for the

way

Vocabiilary 9
dn-doToXof, ov
Sid

an apostle. "through" of place or time, "by means of" when followed by a Genitive, "on account of," "because of" when followed by an Accusative.
a teacher.

dtddo'fcaXos, ov
'

'Iijo-oOs

is

declined as follows :

Nom.

'IijiroBs,

Voo.

'IijffoB,

Aoo.

'IijffoOi',

Gen. Itjo-oC, Dat. 'IijiroS. It often has the article before not be translated in English.

it

:

this article

must

VOCABULARIES
epyartjs, ov

127

fvBis
dpouos, ov
'lepotTokvfia, av\

'lepova-dKrui

)

a workman, a labourer. immediately. a throne, (same word.) (Neuter Plural Jerusalem. |(incieolinable feminine noun.)
fruit.

Kapnos, ov
KpiTtis,
XlyOTT/ff,

ov ov

\l6os, ov

a judge, (critic.) a robber. a stone, (lithography.)
I loose,

Xvco
juera

"together with," "in company with-"

when followed
by an

by a
olKoSecrvorr]!, ov

Genitive, "after"

when

followed

Accusative,

a householder,
heaven.

ovpavoSj ov
d<j>6a\ii6s,

ov

ox^os, ov
Trpeir^vTepos, ov
irpos
TeXfflvi/s,

an eye. (ophthalmic.) a crowd, or multitude, an elder, (presbyter.)
" towards," "to" when followed by an Accusative, a tax-gatherer, a publican,

ov

TOTTOff,

ov

a place,

(topic.)

viro
VTroKpirljs, ov

"by" when followed by a
a hypocrite,
time,

Genitive,

(same word.)

Xpovos, ov

(chronology, chronic.)

Vocabulary 10
aypos, ov
dSiKLaj as

a

field.

(Latin "ager," hence agriculture.)

injustice, wickedness.

ifiaprcoKos, ov

*d7repxop'M
*dT70<pivopMi

I

a sinner. go away,
answer,

I depart.

I

(generally followed
(generally followed

by a noun

in the

Dative.)
anTOficu
I touch,

by a noun in the

Genitive.)

dpviofuu
Sexopai

I deny. I receive. I

*hUpxoiuu,

go through, I go about.

fpyd^ofuu

I work.

128
epxo/iai

VOCABULARIES

VOCABULARIES
ircipd^a
TTTifD^os,
rj,

129

I tempt.

OK

poor.

Sa/idpeta, as
<rv

Samaria.
thou.
blind.

Tv<j)\6s,

tj,

ov

vpeis

you.
I

*v7raKoia

obey,

(followed

by a Dative of the person

obeyed.)

wSe

here.

Vocabulary 12
adtK€Q>

I injure. I open.

*dvoLyo>

Spxa
^

BuzKovea
blUKOVOSy ov

(followed by a noun in the Genitive. The Middle Voice means "I begin," see Voo. 11.) I serve, (followed by a Dative.) a servant, a minister, (deacon.)
I rule,

I pursue.
e'Xfe'o)

I have

mercy

on.

(eleemosynary.)
(eulogy.)

€v8vai

I put on.
I bless, I praise,
a,

eiXoyca
e^Bpos,

ov

hated, as a
I

noun "an enemy.''
(followed by an Accusative.)

*KaTOiKea>

dwell

in, I inhabit,

on
*irpo(l)riTtia

because,
ov

(also "that,"

seepage

53.)

I prophesy.

fro^osi

rj,

Vocabulary 13
I sanctify.

dyopd^d)
*a9rd'yct)

I buy.
I drive

away.
(apocalypse.)

*dnoKdKv7rTa>

I reveal,
I carry.

^aoTa^a)

iyyi^a

I

draw

near, generally followed

by a noun in the

Dative.

^eKKonra
1

I cut

down.
this verb generally

Although not really compounded with a preposition has the form SitikSvovv in the Imperfect.
N.

130
eXjri'fiB

VOCABULARIES

VOCABULARIES

131

Vocabulary 15
aSvvaTos,
t),

ov

impossible.

A'yvjTTos, ov (fern. )
aXpio

Egypt.

I take up, I take

away.

*a7rayye'XX(»

announce. Bethlehem,
I

(indeclinable.)

Svvaros,

17,

ov

possible.

»»;
'TUpaSrjs,

while, until.

ov

Herod.
Joseph,
(indeclinable.)

KatpoSf ov

time, season.
I

*KaTaKpiva)
kXiVtj, tjs

condemn.

a bed, a couch.
Cornelius.

KopvrjKios, ov
Kafirj, rjs

a

village.

Mapidp.

Mapla, as\ a,
pA^iupa, as
oirioo)

Mary,

(ii^declinable.)

a sword.
after, behind,

(followed

by a Genitive

case.)

0T€

when.
I owe, I

ought (when followed by an

Infinitive).

TrdvTa

all things.

napa

when followed by an Ace. case "to the side of,'' "beside" (of places), when followed by a Genitive case "from beside," "from" (of persons), when
followed by a Dat. case "near," "at the house of" (of persons).

•jrapaKvTLKOSj ov
TTOTrjpiov, ov

a paralytic. a cup.
I sow.

(Tireipa

aravpos, ov
OTpaTiaTtjs, ov
<l>atva)

a

cross.

a soldier. I manifest, I show. a Pharisee.
I destroy.

^apio'atos, ov
KJiBeipio
(f)v\fi, r]S

Xnpa, as

a tribe. a widow. when, as.

132

VOCABULARIES

Vocabulary 16
attov auavos, o

an

age.

dXfKTmp oKeKTopos, 6
dfiTTcXav dfiTreXauos, 6

a cock,
a vineyard,

Spxav apxovTos,
dtrrrip diTTepos, 6

6

fl<av (Ikovos,

fj

a ruler, (monarchy.) a star, an image,
hope,

ijyf/xtoi' fiye/iovos,

6

6vpa, as,

fj

\ap.rrds \afi7rdBos,
fiT/V

fj

lujvos, 6

vv/KJiios, ov, u

a leader, a door, a lamp, a month, a bridegroom,
night,

VV^ VVKTOS, ^ oSovs oSdiToy, 6
Trals waiSos, 6

or

fj

a tooth. a child, a boy or
Peter,

girl,

(pedagogue.)

nirpos,

ov,

(5

noiiiT}v Ttoifiivos, 6

(rakiTiyi a-akwiyyos, 6

a shepherd, a trumpet,
flesh,

<rdp^ aapKos,

tj

moTTip iraynjpos, 6
rpels
<l>v\a^ (fyvKoKos, 6

a saviour,
three,

a guard.
I call, I

make a

noise, (of a cook) I crow

xdpis X"P"'°'i V

grace, favour.

^iTav

;(tT£i'or, 6

a garment, especially an under garmen
or shirt.

Vocabulary 17
mp.a
aifJuiTos,

to

blood,

(haemorrhage.)

dvr]p dvSpos, 6
a<l>€<ns

d^iaeas,

tj

a man, a husband. remission, forgiveness.

$anTurp,a ^anTio'iiaros, to

^avCKtvs ^aaikeas, 6
yivos yfvovs, to

baptism. a king.
a race, a nation, a generation. a knee. a letter (of the alphabet).

yovu yovaros, to
ypdiifia ypd/iiiaTos, to

ypafijxareii ypap.p.aTi(os, 6

a

scribe.

VOCABULARIES
yvvii

133
(gynaecology.)

yvvaKos,

fj

a woman, wife,
a year.
ro
will.

eras erovs, to
SfXrjfjui 6e\r]fiaTos,

6pi^ rpixos,

fi

dvyarrip Bvyarpos,

fj

a hair. a daughter.
a
fish.

lx6vs IxBvos, 6

Kvav KVVOS, 6
KtaKJjOSf
17,

a dog.

(Cynic.)

ov
T) i)

dull, deaf,

dumb.
(Latin " mater.")
(Latin "pater.")

IKTavoia, Of,

repentance.

p.^Trjp prjTpos,

a mother.

oSs cords, TO
waTrjp irarpos, 6
TTvevfia TTvev/jiaTOSj

an
to

ear.

a father.
spirit,

wind,

(pneumatic.)

iroKis iroXeaSj

fj

wovs

7ro86s, 6

irvp n'vposy to

Tepas TepaTos, to

vSap vSaros, to
<j)5)s (jxarros,

a city, (politics.) a foot, (chiropodist.) a fire, (pyrotechny.) a wonder, a miracle. water, (hydraulic, hydropathy.)
light,

to
V

(phosphorus.)
(chiropodist.)

Xfip

X"P°h

a hand,

Vocabulary 18
aXrjBfis, d\rid4s

true.

dvatTTatns dvaaTd(rfas, ^

resurrection.

dpxupevs dpxtfpeos,
dadfvfjs, es
a^piui/, a<f>pov

6

a high priest. weak, sick.
foolish.

yovfvs yovinK, 6
AaveiS, Aa/3/$, o

eBvoS ^dvQVS, TO
fl
els, fiia,

a father, an ancestor, in the pi. parents. David, (indeclinable.) a race, in the pi. the Gentiles.
if.

ev
,

one.

than.

f

tepevs iepeas, 6
Kpljia KpifUlTOS, TO
Kpiaris Kpiircms,
fj

,

,

a

priest.

a judgement, a sentence, a condemnation. a judgement. more.
great.

lidWov
pxyas, /ifyoKri, fieya

134
litjSeis, HJjbeiila, fitjbfv

VOCABULARIES
no one (with the Imperative, Infinitive
etc.).

no more.
VfKpos,
a,

ov

dead,

(necropolis.)

ovofia ovoptaTos, to

opos opovs, TO
ovdels, oi/befila, oitbev

(synonym.) a hill, a mountain, no one. (with the Indicative.)
all,

a name,

was, naira, irav
irioTis ir'urreais,
rj

every,

faith.

TToXuf, 7ro\X^, iroXt!
prilia pTjpaTOS,

many, much,
darkness.

(polygon.)

to

a word, a saying,

iTKoros tTKorovs, TO
o-JTf'p/ia

trwepiioTos, to

UTOpa
vyifjs

(TTOfiaTOS,

TO

aafia (raparos, to
vyiis

a mouth, a body,
whole, healthy.
(hygienic.)

Vocabulary 19
aKadapTos, ov
*a/i^(^aXXo>

unclean.
I

throw round,

I

that, especially 'Avavias, 6

throw on used of a

this side
net.

and

Ananias.

'AvSpeas, ov, 6

Andrew.
Galilee.

FaXtXaid, ay,
*8ia(rrreip(a

fj

I scatter abroad, I disperse.
I go into, I enter. go out. I preach the Gospel.

*fl(repxopai Fut. ela-cKeva-opm

*e^epXopM
1

I

evaYy(\i(opai
'WXfias, 6

Elijah.
6

MavoTjS,

eios,

Moses.
I

*jrapayivopai

become
I

near, I

am

present, I approach,

*napdyio
nfvTaKi(r)(i\ioi
TTCOS

go to. I pass by.
five

(lit.

I lead past.)

thousand, how.
6

SaTavas gen. Sarava,
Si/Acoi/
1

Satan.

Sipavos, 6

Simon.

This is a compound word and is augmented like a verb oompounded with a preposition. 1 Aor. Mid. eiayyeKiaipriv.

VOCABULARIES
<r7r€ipa(r(rta

135

136
ITVVd
TIS Ti
ris Tl
',

VOCABULARIES
ov, TO

a council. (Sanhedrin.) who? which? what? a certain person, a certain thing.

Vocabulary 21
oKrjBas

VOCABULARIES

137

Vocabulary 22
dyaWida

138

VOCABULARIES
From
this point verbs

compounded with a preposition

are no longer marked.

VOCABULARIES
e^o)

139

140
8f|toi, a, ov

VOCABULARIES

VOCABULARIES
iravTa^ov
napio-nifu

141

everywhere. In the Transitive tenses "I cause to stand
beside," " I present."
I cease.

naioiiai
reKfirjpioVj ou, to

a certain proof,
last,

va-repoSf a, ov

false.

Vocabulary 30
aKoXovBia
d(j)iTffU

I follow,

(followed

by a

Dative.)

I let go, I let alone, I allow, I forgive.
I

SflKVVfU

show.
(Eucharist.)

fv6eas
ev-)(apuTria>

immediately.
I thank. I I

daptreca

am

of good courage.

ojba
ovpdvios, a, ov
o^iiKeTTis, ov, 6
otjifiXrjpaf arof,

know.

heavenly.
to

a debtor. a debt.
always.

TrdvTOTC
irapdirTatpOj aTOSj to
7r\avdop.ai

a

fault,

a transgression.
(planet.)

I err.
fitting.

npinov
(Tvvir]iu

I

Tare

then,

understand. (at that time.)

Vocabulary 31
dXX^Xovr,
as,
fi

a

one another.
destruction.
I discuss.

(Nominative not in

use.)

aTtaXeia, as,

SiaKoyi^opai
hiairopivop,aL
eirepayrdto

I

make my way

through.

I ask.

cTncvvdya
vr)tjT€vai

I gather together to.
I fast.

naTia
Trpoa-KoKeaj
virop.ovr),
(fipoveto
rjs,
f/

I

trample on.

I call to, I

summon.

patience.
I think.

TABLES OF VERBS
THE REGULAR VERB
As there is no single verb in Greek which is found in every tense, has been found necessary in the following table to give tenses from several verbs in order to present it complete. The tenses of the verb Xum are given as far as possible, and the tenses which do not occur in that verb are supplied from the verbs
it

TrdiTxa, yiveirdai, (nreipeiv.

are

The names of the commonly called

tenses given in brackets are those by which they
in

Greek grammars.

They

are however in

many

cases misleading {Short Syntax, sections 83, 84).
It is unfortunate that

to use the
verb.
It

we are compelled by the uses of grammarians name "tense" in connection with the forms of the Greek directs our attention too much to the time of the action of

it was the state', rather than the time ', that was most prominently before the mind of a Greek. The time of the action of the verb is often left to be inferred from the context, and cannot be certainly told from the form of the verb. This is almost invariably the case with moods other than the Indicative, and is sometimes the case in the Indicative mood itself. To the Greek mind the forms to which we give the names " Present and "Imperfect" denoted continuous or repeated action. The forma to which we give the name "Perfect," or "Pluperfect" denoted action complete at the time of speaking, the results of which were regarded as still existing. The forms to which we give the name "Aorist" denoted a simple, indefinite action, and were always used where no stress was laid on the continuity, completion, or incompletion of the action denoted by the

the verb, whereas

verb.

The Future
tenses of the

in all its moods,

tense in Greek, as in EugUsh, refers to future time and is thus an exception to the principle that the
in

moods other than the Indicative do not denote time
'

Greek.
See pages 177, 178.

THE REGULAR VERB
Tenses denoting continuous or repeated action
Active Voice
(1)

143

In Present time.

(Freseut Indicative)

In Past time. (2) (Imperfect Indicative)
e\vov
eKvfs

\va
"Kveis
"Kiel

eKve
iXvere

Xiofiev
"Kvere

\vov(Ti
(3)

eXvov
(Present Subjuuetive)

At a time denoted by the

(Present Imperative)

context; (Present Optative)
Xvoifu

Xu7/S

\vois

Xvere
\viT<o(rav or \vovTa>v

\vri

Xvoi
Xvoififv

Xvoifiev
Xut/Tf

Xvoire \voiev

Xvao't

(Present Infinitive)
Xiieiv

(Present Participle)

\v0P, Xvovtra, \vov
\vovTos
K.r.X. (see p. 72).

(1)

Middle and Passive Voice In Past time. In Present time. (2)
(Imperfect Indicative)
eXvofiTjv

(Present Indicative)
Xuo/iai
XiJi;

or Xuet

c'Xuou

Xverai
Xud/icfla

eXuero
eXvofieda

Xveo-Bf

Xvovrai
(3)

eXvovTO
(Present Subjunctive)
Xiafiai
Xu.17

At a time determined by the

(Present Imperative)

context. (Present Optative)
Xvoifiriv

\vov
\v4it6(o

Xvoto

\vea-de

Xuijrat

Xuotro
Xvoi/ieOa
XvoLtrde

Xvea-BuTav or \veir6av

XvafJteOa

XvrjaBc
Xiiavrai

XvOlVTO
(Present Participle)
Xvofievos,
I),

(Present Infinitive)
"KveirOai

ov

144

THE REGULAR VERB
Tenses denoting action in Future time

THE REGULAR VERB
(2)

145

At

a time determined by the context.
(First Aorist Subjunctive)
Xucro)

(First Aorist Imperative)

(First Aorist Optative),

Xv(TOV

Xitrmfu
\v<raLs or Xucetac
\va-aL or XvtreLe
Xvcraifiev

\v(raT€
\v<rdTa>(Tav or \v<rdvTav

Xvarji

XuoTjTe
Xvo'OKrt

Xvcotre Xvaaiev or
Xutrefai/

(First Aorist Infinitive)

(First Aorist Participle)

\v<Tai

Xiaas, Xio'aa'a, XC(rav
XixravTos k.t.X. (see p. 73).

(Second Aorist Imperative)

(Second Aorist
Subjunctive)

(Second Aorist
Optative)
Trddoifu

wd6e
TToBere

n-dSa
irdBrjs

ndOois
irdSoi

ndSrj
irddafiev
TrdSrjre

iradeTaaav or iradovTav

ndOoifiev
irdBoiTc

Trddao'i

TrdSouv

(Second Aorist Infinitive)
naSetv

(Second Aorist Participle)
Tra^coi/, 7raSov(ra,

iraSov

irddovTos K.T.X. (see p. 72, as Xvav).

Middle Voice
(1)

In past time.
(Second Aorist Indicative)
eyevofiTjv

(First Aorist Indicative)
iXvadfj-riv

eXvcra
iXviraTO
e\v(rdiifda
iKv<ra(r6f

eyevov
eyivsTO
eyevo/ieBa

cyiveade
iyevovrq

eXvaavTo

10

146
(2)

THE REGULAR VERB
At a time determined by the
(First Aorist Subjunctive)

context.
(First Aorist Optative)

(First Aorist Imperative)

Xvtrai
\vird(r6a>

XviTa/jim

XviTOLO
XvcrrjTcu,

\vcratr6e

XitroiTO
\v<raiiie6a

Xvtrdo'&atrav or \v(rd(rOa)v

XvaafieBa
\v(r<i>VTai

\virauT6e
\v<raivTO

(First Aorist Infinitive)

(First Aorist Participle)

\va'a(r6at

Xvaafievos,

r),

ov

(Second Aorist
Imperative)

(Second Aorist Subjunctive)
yivafitu
yevrj

(Second Aorist
Optative)
y€VOLfl7)V

yevov
yeve<T6a>

yevoLo

ycvecdc
ym>c<r9ttMrav or yevcirBcav

yevijTai

ydvoiTO

yevafieffa

ycvoifuda

yevriadc
yevoatrai

yevourdf
yevoivTo

(Second Aorist Infinitive)

(Second Aorist Participle)
yevofievos,
17,

yeviaSai
Passive Voice
(1) (First Aorist Indicative)

ov

In Past time.
(Second Aorist Indicative)
itrirapipi

eKvOr/p
ikvBijs
eKvari
eXvOTjfiev

c(nTaprjs

eandprj
etrndprjfiev
itrirdprp'e

e\v6t)Te

eXvorjaav
(2)

€trirdpr](rav

At a time determined by the
(First Aorist Subjunctive)

context.
(First Aorist Optative)

(First Aorist Imperative)
XvBtiti

\v6&
\v6tjs

\vdeLJiv
XvBeirjS
Xydeirj

Xydrfrm
XvBiyrf

Xvdxi

\v6riratrav or \vB4vtwu

\vd&p,ev

XvBfiripev or XvdfXpev
\vdeir)Te or XvdcTre
XvOfiTjtrav or XvBeitv

XvO^Tt
\v6S)(Ti

THE REGULAR VERB
(First Aorist Infinitive)
(First Aorist Participle)

147

148
(3)

THE REGULAR VERB
At a time determined by

CLASSES OF VERBS
.9

149
S
_

a °

*<

3

«>

-a

s

g

1

&

»>

I.

I.

J- J-

I-

^

a

&

1-^

is

3- a.

|if s o
fc

?.<S

b

b

t:

a

So

§
«e
Si

o ^ S

S t
-fe

150

CLASSES OF VERBS

a
.5

S
js

"O

§««
g

S

ffl

'ǤmSP'''IS
J

<s

b

.a

o

'^;5a

is3

£ S

<SJ

a£g a
agisg.

^-JS^.
;,

^
2

as

.ss

;f^

.

.?"

I^g-

5

-e

a °

I

«

§-

I

S

i.

"I

° £

I

V

?: ?:

^ #

I

II

""
I

^^g
OS

S

a „

.

^

5!

iy

"IB

i=?

KS

"to

•«»

2
a

.La

*»«

«

**

ft

-S -g

"B

-to

tl*

*to

»to

^
.2

"to *«<

lit b
iCiti iCi

4} ub b
u

Mi
-€ « "€«
3
CO
I—

* t4 ra-a-Sv
<« CS

|i btig bC

I
S §

It ub
g 3

S^

b ? a

a

a
.3
.3 ,3 "a.

S

"<ib

«Mb

N 6-K
-e-K

-6

^1

t

s

-B"iS«

JJ Mb

CLASSES OF VERBS

151

•2.

s>

I BO
s

a
f^

S
;

5 a o Si "
C 3
.S -S

^

8
"S
fe

„ b .«

.i

<a.

^

^I >

i b
Cc4

&
S
K

,
a.

<a b

a -3

«

C3

s

0*3.

152

CLASSES OF VERBS

g-^^-i
a
<u

a

§

-i-i
';: :d

-s

^1

..sis'!
«
93

w

„p. "^ -^

«j„

»-^

p-

"^

.d

S

5
fe

g

S
-*^

taSgo
P^

o
-^

§: a. 5:

a^s^l"

a.

^gl^g*
^
Si

M«ao 3-^ B

d i

a. b^

I

1 1 <Q.S

o

-S

'J

1

^

*"=

0«-eT3aB-

o

SB

^

"si
:S

,

I'll!}

'i ih! illi
»

*

W*
M 3

^,33 o3a«Sg
4

~a3 ga

o a C

M^sa ,3aa ^"S'O
^

S3bi<-

'£"ab|

<5>'-3R

GLASSES OF VERBS

153

<s
a.

©HI

Hmao
-It Q. Q. -©.

sSS

*

•e-

-^ .S

•J.

-So

3-3-3-

-5

8
c3

1^

>

APPENDIX
PREPOSITIONS

I

Prepositions are words joined with, and nearly always placed before, nouns or pronouns so that the preposition with the noun or pronoun forms a phrase equivalent to an adjective or adverb.

Examples

:

Phrase equivalent to an adjective^ The king of Britain.

"Of"

is

equivalent to an adjective.
Majesty.''

a preposition, and with the noun "Britain" it forms a phrase Compare the expression "His Britannic

Phrases equivalent to an adverb

He
The phrases "for
In English
all

They
six

walked for six hours. sat by the sea.

hours" and "by the sea" are equivalent to

adverbs, for they qualify the verbs "walked"

and

"sat."

prepositions are followed by a

noun

or pronoun in
it is

the accusative case, or "govern" an accusative case, as sometimes.
Prepositions were originally adverbs, and are so
verbs.

expressed

still when they are Most of the local and other relations which are now expressed in Greek by a preposition followed by the Accusative, Genitive, or Dative case of a noun or pronoun were originally expressed by the use of a suitable case of the noun or pronoun alone.

compounded with

In the language from which Greek

when standing by
other relations.

is derived there were cases which, themselves, sufficed to denote local, temporal and

accusative case denoted extension, or motion towards. ablative case denoted separation, or motion from. locative case denoted place where, or rest at. instrumental case denoted the means by which an action was accomplished, and it also had an idea of association. In that form of the Greek language with which we are acquainted

The The The The

PREPOSITIONS

155

we find the form which we call the Genitive case used to express the meaning of the Ablative case as well as its own proper meaning. The form which we call the Dative case expresses the meanings of
the Locative and Instrumental cases as well as its own. are therefore justified in saying, as a practical rule, that the Grenitive in Greek denotes motion from, and that the Dative denotes

We

rest at, and can also be used to express the instrument of an action, although these are not the proper original meanings of these cases.
already stated the Accusative denotes motion towards. These cases called in the help of adverbs to make their meaning more precise, and, when these adverbs had become fixed in this use by custom, they were treated as a separate part of speech, and called Prepositions. Prepositions do not properly speaking "govern" the cases of the nouns which they precede. The case is really the governing element in

As we have

the expression
sense in which

:

the preposition only serves to
used.

make

clear the exact

it is

But as language developed the prepositions mastered the

cases.

As
stag,
self

the horse in the fable called in the

man

to help

him

against the

and allowed him to get on his back, and then found that he himhad lost his liberty, so the cases called in the help of the prepositions, and then found themselves weakened and finally destroyed. In English, French, Italian, and to some extent in modern Greek the cases have disappeared, wholly, or in part, and the prepositions do the work which they once did. For example we say "of a man" where the Greeks said avdpmnov and "to a man'' where the Greeks said
dvBpamto.
are used with the case of a
Classical Greek.

In the New Testament we can see this process going on. Prepositions noun where the case alone sufficed in

express the instrument

For example the simple Dative was used in Classical Greek to but in New Testament Greek ev with the
;

Dative

is

so used.
:

Example

Kvpte, €L Trard^ofiev ev fia^atpa;

Lord, shall

we

strike with the

sword?

Lk.

xxii. 49.

In estimating the meaning of a prepositional phrase (i.e. a preposition followed by a noun) the proper course to adopt is first to consider the force of the case of the noun and then to add to this the root meaning of the preposition. The combination of the two ideas will generally explain the meaning of the phrase.

156

PREPOSITIONS
it will

If the proper force of the case is kept in view

explain

how

same preposition can have such wholly different meanings with different cases. The meaning of the case is really far more important than the meaning of the preposition. We may see the joint influence of the case of the noun and the root meaning of the preposition best by considering some preposition that
the
is

used with

all

three cases.
it

For example napd means "beside."

When When When

it is

used with the Accusative
of.

denotes motion to beside or

motion alongside
it is

used with the Genitive it denotes motion from beside. used with the Dative it denotes rest beside and is translated "near," or "with."
it is

Examples
Accusative.
8vo dde\<l)ovs.

irepnraT&v 8e irapa

TrjV

6a\a(T<rav

Ttjs

TaKiKaias eidev

And

walking along the side of the sea of Galilee he saw two brethren. KOI epi^av airoiis irapa roiis woSas airov. And they cast them at his feet.
iyivero avBptoTros (iTTfOTaX/ifi'oj Trapa 6eov.

Genitive.

There came into being a
I receive not glory

man

sent from God.

do^av Trapa dvBpairav ov Xafi^avta.

from men.
eoTTjtrev

Dative.

einXa^opevos TraiSlov

avTo Trap* eavTa,

Taking a child he placed him near him.
KQi nap' aiiT^ ijifivav Trjv rjp,epav
iK.eivJ)v.

And
The

they remained with him that day.

Prepositions connected with one case only
uses of the prepositions given in the following tables are those

which occur most frequently in New Testament Greek. The use of Classical Greek is somewhat different. The meaning printed in black type after each preposition may be regarded as indicating the root meaning of the preposition it also generally indicates the meaning of the preposition when compoimded with a verb etc. The student is advised to master these meanings thoroughly by learning them by heart, and to pick up the derived meanings in the course of his reading, remembering what has been stated above as to the importance of the meaning of the case in deciding the meaning of a prepositional phrase.
;

PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions connected with the Accusative only.

157

avd
fis

up.
into.

(Frequent in composition with verbs, but rare
before a noun.)

Prepositions connected with the Genitive only.

avn
QTro

over against, instead

of,

in return

for.

away from

(from the exterior).

(from the interior). out of in front of, before of time or place. Prepositions connected with the Dative only.
cK
irpo

ev
a-iu

in of time or place. together with.
J^otes

on the above prepodtions

ava occurs in the English word analysis iivoKvais) a thorough
loosing or loosing up.

The

likeness between the prepositions avrl, airo, ix, irpo, iv
is

and the

Latin prepositions ante, ab, ex, pro, in

obvious.

They occur

in such English
to,

words as "antipope'' a bishop set up
a,

over against, or as a rival

the Pope, "antipathy" a feeling against a
taking away, "expulsion" a driving

person or thing, "abstraction"
(riv is

out, "propulsion"' a driving forward, "intrusion"' a thrusting in.

found in

many English words such as "sympathy,"" "symphony"

{avinraBiia, (rvnt^avla).

Prepositions connected with the Genitive and Accusative
bia

through.

Kwrd

down.

With the Ace. on account of, owing to. With the Gen. through, throughout, by means of. With Aco. down along, during, with regard to,
according
to.

fiera

among.
around.
over.

vepl

With Gen. down from, down upon, against. With Ace. after. With Gen. with, among. With Ace. about, around, of place or time. With Gen. about, concerning, on account of.

\nr4p

in-d

under.

With Ace. above, beyond. With Gen. on behalf of, for the sake of, concerning, With Ace. under. With Gen. under the influence of, hence "by" of
the Agent after Passive verbs.

158

PREPOSITIONS
Notes on the above prepositions found in such words as "dialect" a language spoken through a district, " diagram " etc. found in "catastrophe" which means a turning upside down. found in the word " metaphysics" that science which is above
or

hta

is

Kara
Iiera

is

is

It is also

beyond the science of physics. found in the words "metaphor," "metamorphosis," but there it has the sense of change, of transference from one state

irepi

is

imip

is

to another, which it commonly has when compounded with a verb etc. in Greek. "Metaphor" means the transference of a word properly referring to one set of objects to another " Metamorphosis '' means a change of form. set of objects. found in such words as "perimeter" the length of a thing all round, "peripatetic" a man who walks about. the same word as the Latin "super." It occurs in such

English words as "hypercritical," over

critical.

Prepositions connected with the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative
ivl

upon.

irapa

beside.

npos

towards.

With Aco. upon (placed on), up to, as far as. With Qen. on, in the presence of, in the time of. With Dat. on, at, on account of, in addition to. With Ace. to the side of, beside, beyond, contrary. With Gen. from beside, from (of persons). With Dat. near (generally of persons). With Ace. towards, up to, in reference to, with
regard
to.

With Gen. from. (Very With Dat. at, close to.

rare in N.T.)

Notes on the above prepositions
fVj
is

found in the words "epitaph" an inscription on a tomb, "epigram" a writing on a given subject.
found in the word " parable" the placing of one thing beside another for comparison.

irapa

is

Prepositions compounded with verbs etc.

In English certain words which are generally classed as prepositions are joined with verbs and nouns to form compound words.

Examples

undertake, overtake, outbid,
overcoat, outrigger.

PREPOSITIONS

159

But very frequently these "prepositions" are written after the word with which they go, and separately from it. In this case it is plain
that these so-called "prepositions" are really adverbs.

Examples:

They went away.

We

took over the business. This coat is quite worn out.

In Greek the "prepositions" are generally joined to the words which they qualify, and form compound words.
I

send away,

aTrotrreXXo).

I drive together, or

gather together, avvaya.
trvvayayrj.

A synagogue (a gathering together),
An
assembly (a body of men called
out, ekXektos.

out), ekkXtjo-io.

Chosen

In some cases two " prepositions" may be joined to one word I pass by opposite to. avTiTrapipxpfiai
Consider the force of the "prepositions" in the following com-

pound words:
avep^Ofiai

dnepxpiuu
SiepXOiim
el(T4p-xpp.aL

e^cpxa/iai
iiTip)(op.ai

napipxofxai
Trpocrfpxop.ai

(TVv€pxop.ai

KaTa^alva
irpo^alvd)

go up. away. I go through. I go into. I go out of. I come upon. I go by the side of. I go towards (especially of going towards people). I go with. I go in. I go down.
I

I go

I,go before.
I

diTtXeyw
V7r€pex<0

speak against, I contradict.

I have over, I excel.
I

remain under,

I endure.

Notice also
aTTOKaXuTrro}
€irifTTp4^<a

I

cover

away from,

I uncover, I reveal.

I turn towards, I turn again, I return, I repent. I call upon, I

€7riKa\4ofiai

surname.

wpoaKoKfOfUu
wpoirKVvea
Trpocrev^o/iai

I call to myself, I I kiss

summon.
worship.

my
to.

hand

to, I

I

pray

160

PREPOSITIONS

In all these examples of compound words the "prepositions" have the same meanings which they have when they are used before the case of a noun or pronoun.
Certain of them however have a somewhat extended or different meaning when they are used to form compound words. For example dvd in composition means not only "up" but also "over again," "anew" (the Latin "re") and also "back," and "to and fro."
ava/SXeVo)

means not only "I look up" but

also "I look anew," or

dvajTin-To)
lifTa in

"I receive my sight.'' means "I fall back," or "I recline."

composition generally has the sense of change or alteration.
I pass I

jicTa^aiva

fieravoim
fierdvoLa

from one place to another, I remove, I depart. change my mind, I repent.

repentance.

irapd from its

meaning

of "beside" or "along" gets a further sense of

passing on one side and so of averting, neglecting,
transgressing.
vapepxofiai
I pass

wapaffaiva

I

by the side away. go by the side of,

of,

I pass

from the side

of,

I pass

I violate, I transgress.
off,

napaiTeopm
irapaKoim

I avert

by

entreaty, I beg

I refuse, I excuse myself.

I hear amiss, I disobey.
its

vno from
vnaKoia
viraKor)

meaning "under" gets the sense of subjection or
feriority.

in-

I list«n to, I obey, I

submit

to.

obedience.
I order

vnorda-a-ofioi

myself under, I submit
as
djrd,

to.

Certain
action of

practically lose their local

Kord, o-w sometimes meaning in composition and denote that the the verb with which they are connected is to be regarded
Sid,

"prepositions" such

as fully accomplished.

Some such compound words
dnoKTeiva)

are

:

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

161

The following compound verbs which differ greatly in meaning from the simple verbs from which they are formed should be carefully
learnt.

dvayivatrKto

I read. I
I I

ajTOKpivoum
eirayyeXKofiai

jrapayyeWa napaKoXia
virayco

I

answer (I give a decision from myself). promise (I announce concerning myself). command (I pass a message along a line). caU to my side, I summon, I admonish,
entreat, I comfort, I encourage.

I exhort, I

I

withdraw myself,
is

I depart.

(I

drive or

draw under.)

vwapx^i-

He

(he begins below, he commences).

Notice also the derived nouns inayyekia a promise, irapayyeXia a

command,

6 TlapdKXrjTos the Advocate, or the Comforter.

APPENDIX

II

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Conditional Sentences are sentences which contain a subordinate

and a principal clause which states the result of the fulfilment of this supposition. The subordinate clause is called the protasis, and the principal clause is called the apodosis.
clause which states a supposition

Example
is

:

If

you do

this
is

you

will

become

rich.

Here "If you do this"
the Apodosis.

the Protasis, and "you will become rich"
"if."
el

The The

Protasis
particle

is

introduced by
is

ei

ilv is

regularly joined to

in the Protasis
ci

when the
liv

verb in the Protasis
forras idv, ^v, av.

in the Subjunctive

mood:

combined with

Protasis is p.fi and that of the Apodosis is oi. Testament, however, oi is sometimes found in a Protasis, especially when the verb is in the Indicative mood. The construction of Conditional sentences varies according as the time of the supposition is Past, Present, or Future. Future suppositions and one class of Present and Past suppositions

The negative of the

In the

New

have already been treated
N.

of,

and

will

cause no

difficulty.

11

162
:

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Examples Supposition in Present or Past time implying nothing as to the fulfilment of the condition. The Indicative mood is used in the Protasis just as in English ; any part of the finite verb may stand
in the Apodosis.
If thou art the son of God,
el

command

this stone...

vl6s

€L

Tov Oeov,

elire

For
ei

if

Abraham was
'A^paa/i, i^

justified

ra \W(^ TOVTt^... Lk. iv. 3. by works, he hath whereof to glory,
ep^ei Kav)(riiia.

yap

epyav ibKamOr],

Bom.

iv. 2.

Supposition in Future time. Either el with the Future Indicative in the Protasis and the Future Indicative or some other form expressing future time in the Apodosis, or eav with the Subjunctive in the Protasis

and the Future or some form expressing future time in the Apodosis. The latter form is the more common. Note that in English we seldom use the Future in the Protasis of such sentences as these, but the Present, which has acquired a certain future sense.
If

we deny him, he

will

deny

us.
fjfjids.

el dpvrjirofieda,

KOKelvos dpvrjaeTat

2 Tim.

ii,

12,

If all shall be offended in thee, I never will be offended.
el

Trdvres (rKavhdKur6r]<rovTai ev

(rot,

eya ovSeTrore trKavSoKurBriaoiuu. Mt. xxvi. 33.

If

thou wilt thou canst make
fie

me

clean.

edv 60^7]! hvvairai

KaBaplfrai.
fall

Mk
fioi.

i.

40.

All this will I give thee, if thou wilt

down and worship me.
Mt.
iv. 9.

Tavrd aoi Trdvra
If I

doxro),

edv Tretrav Trpoa-Kvvrjarjs

must
Serj
fie

die with thee, I will never

deny

thee.

edv

avvairoBavelv

iroi,

oil

firj

<re

dirapvrfO'Ofi.ai.

Mk xiv.
It will

31.

the sentences given above nothing is implied as to the fulfilment or non-fulfilment of the condition stated in the Protasis.
all

be noticed that in

But

in

condition is not, or

some conditional sentences was not fulfilledPresent time

it is

distinctly implied that the

Examples.
If

you were wise, you would not do

this.

Past time
If

you had been

wise,

you would not have done

this.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

163

different

In Greek such sentences as these have a construction which is so from that which is found in English that it demands special

attention.

The form which such sentences take in English is no guide whatever to the way in which they should be translated into
Greek.

The rules given below must be carefully mastered and membered.

re-

that the condition

the Protasis states a present or past supposition implying is not or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses of the indicative are used both in the protasis and the apodosis. The verb in the apodosis nearly always has the adverb av.

When

The Imperfect denotes continued action. The Aorist simple fact. The time of the action is implied in the context rather than expressed by the tense of the verb^.
Examples.
This man,
Present time
if
:

he were a prophet, would know who and what the
fj

woman

is...
fi rjv

ovTOS

npo^rjTTjs, eyLvaxruev hv ris Koi TTOTOTr^

yvvrj...
vii. 39.

Lk.
If
thee,
€1

thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that speaketh with thou wouldst have asked him... fjSfis Trjv Sopeav tov 6eov, koi tIs iariv 6 Xiyav a-oi,...<rv &v i/TTjcrar

avTov...

Jn
If ye believed
El

iv.

10.

Moses ye would beheve me.
Mojuo-ei,

yap eirurTcvere
:

iiriaTCveTe &v ijioL

Jn

V, 46.

Past time For the Lord of Glory.

if

they had known, they would not have crucified
ri}!

« yap

eyvaa-av, oiic &v tov Kvpiov

.1

Sdfijs iaravpaxrav.

Cor.

ii.

8.

The following are further examples of suppositions contrary to fact or unfulfilled conditional sentences taken from the New Testament.
1

(But as a rough rule

it

may

be said that the Imperfect expresses an

unfulfilled condition in present time,

and the Aorist expresses an

unfulfilled

condition in past time.)

11—2

164
1.
17

ACCENTUATION
0a(ri\eia
f] rj

efirj
fj

ovk eariv ck tov Kotrfwv tovtov,
oi

el eic

tov

KOfrfigv

TOVTOv

?jv

fiaiTiXfia
2.

ififj,

vnjjpirai oi

cfioi

fjyavi^ovTo av tva

jifi

napahoBa
ijp,e6a

Tots 'JovSaiois,

€1 IjfieBa

iv rais rjiiipus tS>v
n-poipryrav.
3.

waripav
jffiei

r]p,S>v,

ovk av

KoivavoX iv
<j)v\aKJJ 6

T&

atfian

t&v

fl 4.

o oiKobeirnanis wola
fie

KXfimjs

ep)(eTai, fypfiyoprjafv hv.

el

rfyawari

e\apr]Te hv

oTi iropfvopai

vpos tov

Trarepa.

5.

el

yap eyv&Keere

tI eariv
6.

*EX€os deKa
Xopa^eiv,

KOI

oil

6v(Tiav, ovk

hv KarehiKOireTe tovs dvainovs.

ovai

o'oi

ovai

croi

Bri6<rai8dv, ori el iv Tvptf Kai Si8S>vi iyevovTO ai Svvdfieis ai yci/d-

ftevat iv v/uv,

waKai &v iv O'aKKa
el

xal o'lroda iieTev6i}<rav.
8.
ft ifie jjSeiTe,

7.

Kvpie, el ^s

&Se, OVK hv aireBavev 6 dSeXcjyos

p.ov.

Kal tov waripa pov
el

hv

fjdeiTe.

9.

rii0\oi ^Te ovk hv ei)(eTe dpapriav.

10.

6 deos warTjp
11.
el eTt

vpatv ^v, Tiyarrare hv ipe, eyat yap ck tov Beov i^rjXdov Ka\ ^K<a.
avSpcDirois rjpeirKov,

Xpurrov SoSXos

ou<c

hv

fjprjv.

APPENDIX

III

ACCENTUATION
There are three accents in Greek, the Acute accent
',

the Grave

accent \ and the Circumflex accent *. The Acute accent can stand on any of the last three syllables of a

word, the Circumflex accent can only stand on one of the last two syllables of a word, the Grave accent can only stand on the last syllable
of a word.

A word with an Acute accent on the last syllable is said to be oxytone or sharp toned, if the accent is on the last syllable but one the word is said to be parozytone, if the accent is on the last syllable but two the word is said to be proparoxytone. A word with a Circumflex accent on the last syllable is said to be perispomenon, if the accent is on the last syllable but one the word is said to be properispomenon. A word with a Grave accent on the last syllable is said to be
barjrtone or
flat

toned.

The
is short.

last syllable

but two cannot be accented unless the last syllable

If the last syllable but one contains a long vowel or a diphthong and

at the same time the last syllable

is short,

the last syllable but one

is

ACCENTUATION OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
accented with a circumflex accent,
if it

165

has an accent at

all,

except in a

few special words.

A word which has an acute accent on the last syllable changes this a grave accent unless it is the last word in a clause or sentence. For purposes of accentuation final oi and at are reckoned as short vowels except in the Optative mood.
to

Examples

:

avdpamoi,

vfja-oi

:

but

iroirjo-oi

(Opt. Mood).

Accentuation of Nouns and Adjectives
The
place of the accent on the Nominative singular

must be

learnt.

All other cases are accented on the

same

syllable as the

Nom.

sing, as

far as the length of the last syllable permits.

Examples

:

avdpiajros,

dvdpanov,

npayfia, 7rpdyp.aTos, jrpayp.a.Tmv.

Exceptions. (1) The Gen. and Dat. of Oxytone nouns of the and 2nd declensions are circumflexed.

1st

Examples

:

dpxhj ^PXV^: "PXTIj "PX"^"! "PX^'^' 6f6s, 6cov, 6ea, 0fS>v, 6eois.
SiKr), SikSiv.

(2)

The Gen.

pi.

of all nouns of the 1st declension is circum-

flexed.

(3)

syllable of the Gen.

Most monosyllables of the 3rd declension accent the and Dat. in both numbers.
:

last

Example

SXs, &\6s, &\i, aKav, i\a-l.

Accent of Verbs
Verbs throw back their accent as
syllable will permit.
far as the length of the last

Examples

:

Sov\eva>, SmiXevovai, 8oi\eve, eSou'Xfuoi/.

The accent
Example
:

of a verb

compounded with a preposition can never

precede the augment.
Trapelxov,

not Trdpeixov.
23, 24.

For the accentuation of contracted verbs see pages
Exceptions.
(1)

Participles in inflection are accented as nouns.

Example
(2)

:

^nvkevcov, neut. ^ov\evov, not /SouXfuoi/.

The

1st Aor. Inf. Act., the

2nd Aor.

Inf. Mid., Perf. Pass.

1

66
and
Part,

ENCLITICS
and
:

Inf.

Infinitives ending in vw, accent the last syllable

but

one.

Examples

/SovXcfo-ai, yevi<r6ai, \eXvor6ai, XeXu/ievos,

laravai, hibovai, \eKvKivai.
(3)

The 2nd Aor.
:

Act. Part,

sion, except the 1st Aor. Part. Act., are

and Participles of the 3rd declenaccented like Oxytone adjectives.

Examples
(4)

Xmayv, Xvdels, \f\vKac.

Inf. Act. ending in eiv and the 2nd sing. 2nd Aor. Imperat. Mid. ending in ov have the circumflex accent on the last

The 2nd Aor.

syllable.

Examples

:

einelv,

ytvm.

Enclitics

An
as
if it

Enclitic is a

word which loses its own accent and were part of the preceding word.
Enclitics

is

pronounced

The

which principally occur in the N.T. are

:

oblique cases of the Personal pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person singular /te, fiou, ^ot, crt, <rov, <roi.
(1)
:

The

(2)
TTorCj
TTOVf

The
iro)Sy

Indefinite pronouns ns,
etc.

n

and the Indefinite adverbs

The Pres. Ind. of tl/u I am, except the 2nd person singular. (3) The word before an Enclitic does not change a final Acute accent
to a Grave accent.
If the last syllable of the preceding

word

is

accented the accent of

the Enclitic

is
:

dropped.
(ro<l>6s

Examples

ns, KaXdr eori.
last syllable

If the preceding

word has an Acute accent on the

but

two, or a Circumflex accent on the last syllable but one, it receives an Acute accent from the Enclitic on the last syllable as a second accent.

Examples
one,
it

:

&vdpair6s ns, ovtos fori.

If the preceding

word has an Acute accent on the

receives no second accent.

A

last syllable but monosyllabic Enclitic here drops
it.

its accent,

a dissyllabic Enclitic retains
:

Examples
Parts of

Xoyos ru, Xdyot nves.

ei'/ii

coming

after oi retain their accent.

Example

:

ouk iarlv oStos ayaSbs avdpanos.

WORDS DIFFERING

IN ACCENT

OR BREATHING

167

Proclitics

A
f I, iv,

Proclitic is a

word which has no
ti,

accent.
6,
rj,

The most important are the
and the words
as, oi.

Articles

oi, al,

the prepositions

e is , e k

Words
aWd

differing in accent or breathing

APPENDIX IV
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1.

PARTS OF SPEECH
all

Bt parts of speech we mean the various classes under vfhioh words used in speaking and writing may be arranged.
The names of the parts of speech are as Noun. Pronoun. Adjective.
Verb.
follows
:

Adverb.
Conjunction.
Interjection.

Preposition.

The

Article, definite

and

indefinite, is also

sometimes classed as a

separate part of speech.

A Noun is the name
Examples
:

of anything.

(Latin nomen, name.^

John, boy, sweetness. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. (Latin pro, for nomen, name.) Examples I, you, they, who, that. An Adjective is a word joined to a noun to limit its application. (Latin adjectvm,, a thing thrown to.)
:

A

Verb

Examples Good, many. is a word by means of which we can make a statement, ask a question, or give a command about some person or
:

thing.

(Latin varhum, a word, so called as being the principal

An

word in the sentence.) Examples I run, we see. Adverb is a word joined to a verb, adjective or other adverb
:

to qualify its meaning.

A

Examples Slowly, very, there. Preposition is a word joined with, and generally placed before a noun or its equivalent ', so that the preposition together with the noun forms a phrase equivalent to an adverb or adjective.
:

(Latin praepositum, placed before.)

A

Examples At, with, by. Conjunction is a word that joins together sentences, clauses or
:

words.

(Latin conjicngo, 1 join.)
:

Examples

And, but,
1

for.

See page 184.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

169

An

Intekjection is a word thrown into a sentence to express a feeling of the mind. (Latin interjicio, I throw in.) Examples Hallo, ha. The Definite Article The and the Indefinite Article A are always joined with nouns like adjectives.
:

2.

PARSING

intended for older students it has not been thought necessary to adopt the method of deriving the reason for the names of the different parts of speech from examples. This is excellently done in a little book called How to tell the Parts of Speech, by the Rev. E. A. Abbott, published by Seeley, which the
this
is

As

took

student
to get.

who

is

altogether unacquainted with this subject is advised

A

few rules and examples are however given which

may be

of

assistance in determining the parts of speech.

The first principle to be remembered is that no word should ever be parsed without careful reference to the function which it performs in the sentence where it occurs. In English many words having exactly the same form must be
regarded as entirely different parts of speech, according to the place which they occupy in the sentence, and must be translated by wholly different words in Latin and Greek, according as their meaning varies. For example the word that may be (1) demonstrative Pronoun. demonstrative Adjective. (3) relative Pronoun. Con(2) (4)

A

A

A

A

junction'.
(1)

That

is

the man.
(4)

(2)

Give

me

that book.

(3)

This

is

the book

that I want.

He

said that this

was the book.
be
(1)

(4)

He came that
(2)

he might find the book.
Again, the word considering
participle.
(1)

may
(2)

A

verbal noun.

A

Considering

is

slow work.

He went away

considering the

matter.

Many words may be nouns
they occupy in the sentence
>

or verbs, according to the place which

Con8i<1er tho
tliut

meaning
that

said that that

man

of the word that in the following sentence, said was false.

He

170

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Some snch words are : Bite, fly, rose, scale and sign. Other words may be adjectives or nouns, such as Base,
:

last, stout,

spring, kind.

Other words may be adjectives or verbs, such as: Lean, clean, blunt,
idle, free.

Keniembering then always to consider the word in connection with the student should ask himself the following questions before parsing a word. They will help him to find out what part of speech it is.
its sentence,

(1)

Is

it

the

name of anything 1 Then it is a noun.

Can a noun which is mentioned or thought of before be (2) substituted for the word without altering the meaning of the sentence ?

Then
(3)

it is

a pronoun.
:

Does it answer any of the questions What kind? Howmanyl How much! Which! Whose? In what order? with regard to some noun 2 Then it is an adjective.
(4)

Does Does

it

make a statement, ask a Then it is a verb.

question, or give a

command

(5)

it

answer the questions How ? When ? Where ? Then it is an adverb.

Note.
adverbs.
(6)

The words How?
it

When? and Where?

are themselves

Docs

phrase which

is

stand before a noun or its equivalent making with equivalent to an adverb or adjective ?

it

a

Then

it is

a preposition.

(Another test of a preposition is that it is a word which is not a verb but which can stand before him and them, but not before he or
they.) (7)

Does

it

join sentences, clauses or words

?

Then

it is

a conjunction.

The words
The

man

went
left.

guiokli/

in the following sentence are parsed as an example. down the street and did not turn to his righx hand-

or to his

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

171

THE

172

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

8.

NOUNS

There are four kinds of nouns
to

Proper Nouns. A Proper noun is the name appropriated (1) any particular person, place or thing (Latin propriut, belonging
Examples: John, Mary, London, England.
(2)

to a person).

Common Nouns. A Common noun
common
Boy,
town, country.

things of the same kind have in
to
all).

is the name which all (Latin communis, belonging

Examples
(3)

:

girl,

Collective noun Collective Nouns. number of persons or things forming one body. Examples : Committee, jury, army.
(4)

A

is

the

name

of

a

Abstract Nouns.

An

Abstract noun

quality, state, or action considered apart

is the name of some from the person or thing in

which it is embodied (Latin absiractus, withdrawn). Examples: Goodness, whiteness, purity, servitude,
walking.

running,

Number, Gender, Case
Number. Nouns are inflected or changed in form to show whether they are singular or plural in number. A noun in the Singular number is the name of a single person
or thing, unless it is a Colleotive noun (see above). noun in the Plural number is the name of

A

more than one

person or thing.

Examples

Singular

Plural

Horse

horses

Man
Ox
Gender.

men
oxen.

In English all names of men or male animals are in the Masculine gender, all names of women or female animals are in the Feminine gender, all names of things without life are in the Neuter gender. Nouns used to denote pei-sons of either sex such as parent, sovereign, are said to be of Common gender. In Latin and Greek, although all names of men and male animals are Masculine, and all names of women or female animals are Feminine, names of things without life may be Masculine or Feminine in gender

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
ag well as Neuter.

173

The gender of a noun is generally determined by the ending of the Nominative Singular. Case. Nearly all traces of case-endings have disappeared from English nouns. The only surviving ending is that of the Possessive
or Genitive case which is formed by adding 's to the end of a the singular and s' to the end of the noun in the Plural.

noun in

Example

Nominative
horse

Possessive Singular
horse's

Possessive Plural
horses^

4.

ADJECTIVES

In English, adjectives are never inflected, but have the same ending whether they qualify singular or plural, masculine or feminine nouns. In Latin and Greek they are inflected to show gender, number,

and

case.

6.

VERBS

Verbs are of two kinds
(a)

—Transitive and Intransitive.

Transitive Verbs. Transitive verbs are so called because they denote an action which necessarily affects or passes over to some person or thing other than the subject of the verb (Latin
iransire, to

pass over).

Examples: I throw, I tahe. These statements are not complete; we ask immediately. What do you throw or take? The name of the person or thing affected by the action of the verb must be supplied in order to make a complete sentence / throw a ball, I take an apple. The name of the person or thing which is affected by the action of the verb is called the direct object. A transitive verb is one which must have a direct object expressed in order to make a complete sentence. Intransitive Verbs. Intransitive verbs are so called because they denote an action which does not aftect or pass over to any person or

thing besides the subject of the verb.

Examples

:

I stand,

The sun

shines.

These sentences are comi)lete

statements in themselves.
(5) its

Active Voice.
is

subject

A verb is said to be in the Active voice when spoken of as acting or doing something (Latin ago, I act).

174

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Passive Voice. A verb is said to be in the Passive voice whan spoken of as suffering or being acted upon (Latin patior,

its subject is

I suffer).

Examples

:

Active, I love, I was hearing.

Passive, I am loved, I was being heard. N.B. Only Transitive verbs can have a Passive voice. There are certain verbs such as I fall, I dip, etc. which do not speak of the subject as acting these are however regarded as Active verbs because they are Intransitive.
;

(fl) Deponent Verbs. In Latin and Greek there are many verbs which are called Deponent verbs. These are verbs which have the form of Passive verbs, but which are Active in meaning. They are called Deponent because they have laid aside (Latin

depono) a passive sense and assumed an active.

Examples

:

patior, I suffer.

airoKplvojuu, I answer.

{d) The English Passive voice of any verb is formed by using the proper tenses of the verb to be with the Passive Participle (which usually ends in ed) of the verb of which we desire to form the Passive
voice.

Present simple Active Present simple Passive Past simple Active

I love. I

am loved.
was
loved.

I loved. I

Past simple Passive Future simple Active Future simple Passive

I shall love.

I shall

be loved.

This formation must be carefully distinguished from the use of the same Auxiliary verb to be with the Active PartxciMiB which forms the Continuous Active tenses of the verb.
Present continuous Active Past continuous Active Future continuous Active
I

am
was

loving.

I

loving.

I shall be loving.

The student should be able to tell readily what voice, tense, and person any English verb is in ; unless he can do this he cannot possibly translate from another language with accuracy. It is good practice to go through the tenses of an English verb, first in the Active, and then in the Passive.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
(e)

175

Auxiliary Verbs.

Auxiliary verbs are verbs which are used

as aids (Latin ausnlia) to enable other verbs to form moods which cannot be expressed within the compass of one word.

and

tenses,

Examples
sent.

:

I

shall

go.

I

would have

gone.

I

shall have been

In English the use of these verbs is very common, no tense in the Active Voice except the Past can be formed without them, and they are used in every tense of the Passive voice. In Latin and Greelc they are rarely used. The only verb used in these languages as an auxiliary verb is the verb io he.

used in the

Impersonal Verbs. Impersonal verbs are verbs which are not first and second persons, but only in the third. Examples It rains, it snows.
:

The Copulative Verb, Verbs
The verb
(1)
to he

of Incomplete Predication.
:

has two meanings

It is used in the sense of to exist as in the sentence
It is used to join together

Ood

is.

two nouns or noun equivalents which (2) denote the same person or thing when the person or thing denoted by the one is said to be identical with the person or thing denoted by the
other.

Examples
This
is he.

:

William was Duke of Normandy.

I

am

the governor.

As the nouns or noun equivalents joined together by the verb to be denote the same person or thing, they must always be in the same It is grammatically incorrect to say / am him. It is me, because case. and me are in the Accusative case, and / and it are in the

Mm

Nominative

case.

It is necessary to observe this rule very carefully in Latin and Greek where the Nominative and Accusative cases generally have
different forms.

This rule

is

sometimes stated as follows
'

" The verb 'to be

takes the same case after

it

as before

it."

The verb to he may also join together a noun or a noun equivalent and an adjective, making a sentence which asserts that the quality

176

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

denoted by the adjective is an attribute of the person or thing denoted by the noun or noun equivalent. This adjective always agrees with the noun in number, gender and case, in such languages as Latin

and Greek.
Examples
:

The king

is

proud.

He

is

good.

To

err is

human.

From its power of joining nouns to other nouns or adjectives the verb to be is called the Copulative Verb. (Latin copulo, I link.) It is also called a verb of Incomplete Predication because it does not make sense when it stands by itself (except when used in the sense of to exist), but requires to be followed by a noun or an ad|ective which
is called

the Complement, becaiise it fills up the sense (Latin compleo, Ifll up). There are other verbs of Incomplete Predication besides the verb
to be,

some Intransitive and some
are
:

Transitive.
etc.

Such verbs

Intransitive — become, seem, appear,

Transitive
etc.

—make, declare, choose, think, consider,

a verb of Incomplete Predication is Intransitive, or Transitive voice, the Complement refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence, and must therefore be in the

When

and in the Passive
Nominative
case.
:

Examples

Peter became an Apostle. This place seems healthy. He is called our king.

But when a verb of Incomplete Predication is Transitive and in the Active voice, the Complement refers to the same person or thing as the object of the sentence, and is therefore in the Accusative case.
Examples
:

They made him

captain.

We choose you king.
You
This principle
is

consider

me

happy.

obviously of great importance in Greek and Latin.

(/)

Person and Number.
of the verb
is

The First Person
of himself.

used when the speaker

is

speaking

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
The Second Person
another person or thing.
is

177
is

used when the speaker

speaking to

The Third Person
another person or thing.

is

used when the speaker

is

speaking of

Examples

:

1st person, I love.

2nd person, You.

love.

3rd person,

He

loves.

The use of the Singular Number denotes that only one person
thing
is

or

being spoken about. The use of the Plural Number denotes that more than one person or thing is being spoken about.
Ride.
Note.
in

The verb agrees with
The

its subject in

Number and Person.
is

Plural of the second person
is

You

almost always used

modern English instead of the second person Singular, even where
being spoken
to. to.

only one person

But in Latin and Greek the Singular
person
is

is

always used when one

being spoken

Tense. Tenses are forms which verbs assume to show at {g) what time the action of the verb is represented as taking place.

The times when the action may take place are
(iii)

(i)

Past,

(ii)

Present,

Future.

The tenses
the action
is

in English have further subdivisions to

show whether

continuous or in progress, (2) indefinite or simple, (3) perfect or completed. Below is a table of the Tenses of an English verb in the Indicative Mood with the corresponding tenses of a Greek and Latin verb, given, where possible, with the names by which the tenses are generally
(1)

represented as being

called in Latin

It will be seen that there are

and Greek Grammars. more tense-forms in English than

in

Latin and Greek. The Latin and Greek Present stands both for the English Present Continuous and Present Simple, and the Latin and Greek Future for the English Future Continuous and Future Simple. The Latin Perfect has two meanings, one of which corresponds to the English Past Simple, and the other to the English Present Perfect
or Perfect, as
N.
it is

generally called.

12

i78

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

TIME
STATE

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
The use
is

179

of tenses formed with may, might, should, would, etc. in a most unreliable guide to the use of the Subjunctive and Optative in Latin and Greek.

English

(i) Participles are verbal adjectives resembling Participles. verbs in that they can have subjects and objects, tenses and voices, and resembling adjectives in that they can qualify nouns.

in ing,

There are two Participles in English the Active Participle ending and the Passive Participle ending generally in ed or rf. Examples: Loving, Loved.

There is also a Past Active Participle formed with the auxiliary having and the Passive Participle.

Example: Having

loved.

The Past Passive Participle is formed with the auxiliary verbs having been and the Passive Participle.
Example
:

Having been

loved.

The Present

Participle Passive is being loved.

There is no Past Participle Active in Latin except in the case of Deponent verbs, nor is there any Present Participle Passive. Both however are found in Greek. As the verbal noun or Gerund in English ends in ing as well as the Active Participle care must be taken to distinguish them. If the word is a Participle, it can always be replaced by such a clause beginning with a Conjunction or a Relative. When it is a verb-noun it cannot be replaced by a clause.

Examples (1) Skating is a fine exercise. Here skating is a verb-noun and the subject of the sentence.
:

(2)

I like to see the boys skating.
they are skating,

Here skating can be replaced by the clause when and is therefore a Participle.
(3)

There is a dancing bear. Here dancing can be replaced by the Relative clause that
Therefore
it is

is

dancing.

a Participle. Participles are also used with auxiliary verbs to form certain tenses of the verb as shown above.

12—2

180

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

U) Verbal Nouns, Infinitive, Gerund. The so-called Infinitive Mood to go, to see, to hear is really a verbal noun. The other verlsal noun in English is called the Gerund, and ends in
ing

—going, seeing, hearing.

Verbal nouns resemble verbs in that they can have a subject and object, tenses and voices: they resemble a noun in that they themselves can be the subject or object of another verb.

an

Examples of the use of the
(1)

Infinitive.

As Subject— To
is

err is

human.

Here

to err is

the subject of

the sentence.

As

Infinitive stands as

explained more fully in section 12, sentences in which the a Subject are more usually expressed in the

following form' with

au anticipatory
:

it

standing as the grammatical

subject before the verb
It is

hvman

to err.

It is

a pleasure

to see yojj.

It is advisable to

make

haste.

may be
is

of an Infinitive standing as the subject of a sentence expressed aa in the following example To forgive such crimes difficult, or It is difficult to forgive such crimes.
:

The object

Here swh crimes is the object of to forgive. The only way in which the subject of an Infinitive standing
subject of a sentence can be expressed in English
in front of it
is

as the

by inserting /or

and making

it

depend on the predicate of the principal
to forgive such crimes.

clause
(2)

:

It is difficult for

a king

As

Object

The^/ wish to live.

Here

to live is

the object of they

wish.

I wish him
him
to live is

to live.

Here

him, is the subject of to live

and the clause

the object oilwish.

I wish him
of to see

to see you. Here him is the subject, and yow.the object and the clause him to see you is the object oi I wish. The use of the Gerund is seen in the following examples
:

As As
(3)

Subject

— Playing the violin a delightful occupation. Object— He loves playing the violin.
is

The

Infinitive is also used after certain

nouns and adjectives

in an explanatory or epexegetic sense.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Examples
I have not the heart to do it. not worthy to gather up the crumbs under His table. It is time to depart. He was not able to answer a word.
:

181

We are

The Infinitive and the Gerund must be always treated as verbal nouns, and then their use, in the various constructions in which they occur, will explain itself. The English always found with the preposition to in front of it. This preposition is no part of the Infinitive, but is a relic of the Dative case of the verbal noun in Old English. The force of the preposition has become so weakened that its presence in the sentence is generally quite neglected, and another preposition may even be put in front of it, as for example What went ye out for to see? This Dative case of the verbal noun originally expressed purpose, and this use still survives in such sentences as I came to see ymc, He
Infinitive is nearly

Notes ou the form of the English Infinitive.

went to hear the hand.

The proposition
can, shall, hid,
let,

to

may

be omitted after certain verbs such as may,

make,

etc.

/ can do this, Let him go. Make him stay. Contrast with these the following examples, I am able to do Allow him to go, Force him to stay.
Examples
:

this.

6.

SENTENCES

sentence or a question.

A

is

a group of words expressing a statement, a command,
least

(Abbott.)

Every sentence must consist of at
(1)

two parts
is

:

The Subject

—the name of that which

spoken about*.

' The definition of the Subject of a sentenoe given above is not satisfactory. In the sentence Caesar conquered the Gauls, the Gauls are spoken about quite as much as Caesar. It is however the definition generally given. Dr Abbott suggests the following definition: " The Subject of a verb in a stating sentence is the word, or collection of words answering the question

asked by putting

Who

or

What

before the verb."

182

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The Predicate the word, or group of words which expresses (2) the assertion that is made, the command that is given, or the question that is asked about the subject.
N.B.
the verb.
If the verb in the Predicate is Transitive it

The

includes the extensions of the verb

Predicate is not necessarily identical with the verb, it and the objects, if any, as well as

must have an

Object.

object of a verb is the name of that towards which the action of the verb is directed. In considering a sentence, first pick out the verb. The best way to find the Subject is to ask the question who ? or

The

what

? before

the verb.

The
what?

best

way
:

to find the Object

is

to ask the question

whom ?

or

after the verb.

Example

Caesar conquered the Gauls. Therefore Caesar is the Subject. Caesar conquered whom ? answer the Gauls. Therefore the Qauls is
Wh,o conquered? answer Caesar.

the Object.

Either the Subject or the Predicate can be omitted when it can be supplied from the context. It is therefore possible for a sentence to consist of only one word.
easily

Examples

:

Go.

Come.

(Subject omitted.)
!

Who
The omission

did this

I.

(Predicate omitted.)

Latin and Greek because the forms of the verbs in these languages leave no doubt as to the number and person of the subject. It only occurs in EngUsh in the Imperative mood. When any part of the sentence is omitted it is
of the Subject often occurs in

sometimes said to be understood.

Eveiy sentence must
(1)

fall

into one of five forms

:

Subject and Intransitive Verb.
:

Example

Subject The sun

Predicate
shines.

(2)

Subject, Transitive Verb, Object,
:

Example

Sdbjbct

Pbbdicatb

Verb
Caesar
conquered

Object
the Qauls.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
(3)

183

Subject, Transitive Verb,
:

two

Objects,

Example

Subject

Predicate

Verb
Socrates
(4)

Indirect Object

taught

Plato

Direct Object phUosophy.

Subject, Copulative

Verb or Intransitive Verb of Incom-

plete Predication, Predicate

Noun

or Adjective.

Bxamijle

Subject

184

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
7.

EQUIVALENTS

and the Adverb may be replaced by other do the same work in the sentence. A word doing the work of a different part of speech, or a, group of words doing the work of a single part of speech, is called an

The Noun, the

Adjective,

parts of speech which can

eoiuivalent.

A group

of words forming

an equivalent, and not having a subject

or predicate of its own, is called a phrase.

In the above example the words the great

Roman

general, in-

habitants of modern France and at the siege of Alesia are all Phrases. group of words forming au equivalent and having a subject and

A

predicate of its

own

is called

a subordinate clause.

Example: Caesar, who was a great Roman general, completely conquered the Gauls, who inhabited modern France, when he took Alesia. Here all the groups of words in italics are Subordinate Clauses.

NoPN Equivalents. A noun
(1) (2)
is

equivalent

may be
Sleeping

A pronoun. You are happy. / am miserable. A verb-noun, an Infinitive or Gerund. I like to run.
An
adjective.
axiA foolish

pleasant.
(3)

Both vnse
(4)

know

this.

A clause, generally called a noun or substantival clause.
I see that

That you have wronged me doth appear in you know him.

this.

Adjective Equivalents.
(1)

An

adjective equivalent

may be

A verbal adjective or participle, or a participial phrase. A loving mother. A loved spot. We saw a man carrying wood.
A noun in apposition.
Qmen
Victoria.

(2)

Edward

the peacemaker.

(3)

A noun preceded by a preposition,

or in the possessive case.

The Houses of Parliament, Maid^ Causeway. The King of Britain. (Compare His Britannic Majesty.) Dogs /or hunting.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
(4)

185

An

Adjectival Clause.

The horse which I saw is there. At evening when the sun did set.

Apveeb Eqpivalbnts.
(1)

An
by a

adverb equivalent

may

be

A noun preceded

preposition.

He lives in the woods. He walked for six Iwurs.
(2)

A

noun sometimes

qualified

by an

adjective, but without a

preposition.

He died

last night.

They went home.

We hope to live many years.
(3)

An

Adverbial clause.
I will see

you when you come.

I

have come

m ordar to see him.
if you com^.

I will see
(4)

you

A participle or a participial phrase. We stood amazed.
Hearing this I went home. The sum hamng set we went to
rest.

(5)

An

Infinitive.

We came
He
is

to see the spectacle.

too foolish to be trusted.

8.

SENTENCES SIMPLE AND COMPLEX
sentence
is

A simple
and a

a sentence which contains a single subject

single predicate.

A

clause and one or

complex sentence is a sentence which contains a principal more subordinate clauses depending on it, or on one

another, as noun, adjective or adverb equivalents.
It will be found convenient to keep the name sentence for complete statements occurring between two full stops. Groups of words forming part of a compound or complex sentence, and having a subject and predicate of their own, should be called

clauses.

186

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Groups of words forming aii equivalent to some part of speech, and not having a subject and predicate of their own, should be called
phrases.

Two or more clauses which are not dependent on one another, but which make equally important and independent statements, are said to be combined by coordination, and to form a compound sentence. Such clauses are generally joined together by the coordinating conjunctions and, but,
or, for, etc.

E:cample

:

You do

this,

and I do

that.

Example of a Complex Sentence.
captain drew near to the coast, he sent some of his men to land in order that he might get help, if the other ships, which had not yet arrived, should need it.
(1)

When the

Main Clause
:

:

he sent some of hit
:

men

to

land.

Subject
(2)

He.

Predicate

Sent some of his
iiear to the coast

men

to land.

when
is

the captain

drew

It tells us
(3)

an Adverbial Clause qiialifying when he sent the men.

sent.

in order that he might get help is an Adverbial Clause qualifying sent.
It tells us

why he

sent the men.

(4)

if the other ships should need it
is

It tells us under
(5)

an Adverbial Clause qualifying get help. what conditions he would need the help.

which had not yet arrived is an Adjectival Clause qualifying ships. It tells us more about the ships.

9.

SUBSTANTIVAL OB NOUN CLAUSES
Noun Clause is a clause which stands in the noun to the principal clause or to some other clause in

A
(1) (3)

Substantival or

relationship of a

a complex sentence.

lie

As Subject. That he is coming is certain. As Object. He said that he was king. (Statement.) commanded thfit bread should be set before them. (Command.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

187
(Petition.)

He besought him that he might be with him. Do you know who he is ? He asked how it happened. \ (Questions.) Tell me wliere he lives. J You see how unjust he is. (Exclamation.)
"|

(3)

As Complement,

or Predicative

Noun.

My
(4)

hope-is that

you may

succeed.

In Apposition to another noun. I had no idea that you would oppose me. a a

When
is

Noun
Noun

Clause which

is

the object of a verb states a

fact, it

generally called a

Dependent Statement.

When
is

Clause gives the words of a

command

or petition, it

generally called a

Dependent Command or Petition.

When a Noun Clause begins with an interrogative or exclamatory word such as who, what, where, whether, if, how, it is generally called a Dependent Question or Exclamation. All the Noun Clauses given above with the exception of the Dependent Questions and Exclamations are introduced by the conjunction that and contain a finite verb. In certain oases however an infinitive or a gerund may be used in Noun Glauses instead of a clause introduced by tliat and containing a finite verb. This is natural because the infinitive and gerund are
verbal nouns.

The

infinitive is

used frequently in

Latin, it is therefore important to see
prevails in English.
It is
(1)

Noun how far

Clauses in Greek and the same construction

used in English as follows

:

As

Subject.

To

err is

human.
to see

It is
(2)

a pleasure

you.

(See section 12.)
\ (Statements.)

As

Object.

I declare

him

to he guilty.

We believe him
(3)

to he innocent, j
to

He commanded them
As Complement

go away.

(Command.)

or Predicative Noun.
to succeed.

My hope is
The use
after

of the infinitive in a dependent statement is only found a few verbs in English, such as / declare, I assert, I proclaim.

188

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
clause introduced by that is by far the most common etc. expressing a dependent statement in English, and can be used of

I believe,
way
after

A

in

any verb. The infinitive is frequently used in dependent commands or petitions English, and indeed is the most usual way of expressing them. There are certain verbs such as I wish, I hope, I am able, I can, etc.

which always take an Infinitive as their object. These are sometimes called Modal Verbs because they are considered to add to the verb new ways of expressing its meaning.

Examples

:

I

wish

to see the king.

We hope to live many years.
They can do nothing without you.
The use of the Gerund
Subject
Object
: :

(See 5/.)

is

seen in such sentences as

Healing
I

the sick is

a noble work.

deny vsing

the expression.

10.

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES

Adjectival clauses are introduced by the relative pronouns Who, That, and their equivalents when, where, such as, etc. and qualify some noun in another clause just like an adjective.
Which,

This This

is
is

the the

man who sent me. man whom I saw.

We will do this in the evening when we meet.
This is the place where I was horn. I can sell you a house such as yov, require.

The word to which the relative pronoun refers, and which the clause which it introduces qualifies, is called the antecedent. In the first two sentences the word the man is the antecedent, in the others evening, place, and house. A Participle qualifying the Antecedent may take the place of an
Adjectival Clause.

We may write
I
I

saw a man clinging to a mast, or saw a man who was clinging to a mast.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
11.

189

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

Adverbial Clauses are clauses which stand in the relationship of
an adverb to the verb in another clause.

Example

:

I will

do this on condition that you do

that.

Here the clause on condition that you do that qualifies the verb / will do just like an adverb. The sentence might have been written I will do this conditionally.
:

Example

:

I

wUl do

this

when to-morrow

comes.

Here when to-morrow comes is an adverbial clause qualifying I will do. The sentence might have been written I will do this to-morrow.
:

Adverbial clauses
(1)
(2)
(3)

may

be divided into eight

classes.

Final Clauses denoting purpose.

Temporal Clauses denoting time when.
Local Clauses denoting place where.

(4)
(5) (0) (7)

Causal Clauses denoting cause.

Consecutive Clauses denoting consequence.
Conditional Clauses denoting supposition.

Concessive or Adversative Clauses denoting contrast.

(8)

Comparative Clauses denoting comparison.

Examples of Adverbial Clauses
(1) (2)
(3)

(4) (5) (6)

(7) (8)

He ran thai he might get home soon. He ran when he got on the road. He ran where the road was level. He ran because he was late. He ran so that he got home soon. He ran if he was late. He ran although he was early. He ran as he was accustomed to do.

The names given to the various kinds of Adverbial Clauses in the above list are names commonly given to them in Grammars. They are given here for that reason, and not because they have anything

190
to

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

recommend them in themselves. Some of the names are pedantic and obscure, and it is much better to speak of the clauses of classes Consequence, 1, 2, 3, 5, as clauses denoting Purpose, Time, Place, and

respectively.

may be used to express some kinds of Adverbial Care is often needed to distinguish such participles from those which take the place of Adjectival Clauses (see 10 above). If the participle can be resolved into a clause consisting of a conjunction and a finite verb it is used in place of an Adverbial Clause, but if it can be resolved into a clause introduced by a relative pronoun
Participle

A

Clauses.

it is

used in place of an Adjectival Clause.
:

Example (1) Knowing this, I returned home. Here knowing this obviously means since I knew
an adverbial clause denoting cause.

this

and

is therefore

saw a man clinging to a spar half a mile from shore. a spar might be replaced by who was clinging to a spar. This is a clause introduced by a relative pronoun and clinging to a spa/r must therefore be described as an adjectival clause.

Example (2) Here clinging
:

I

to

Example

(3)

:

Seeing the

man

running away, I went after him.

This might be equally well expressed as follows Since I saw the man who was running away, I went after him. When the sentence is put in this form there is no difficulty in analysing
it.

Even Eelative Clauses
cause or purpose.

are sometimes adverbial

if

they express

Example
in pvmishing

(1).
its.

We disliked our master who seemed to
Here who seemed
is

take

a

pleasure

equivalent to hecarise he seemed,

and

is

an adverbial clause of cause.

Example (2). They sent. men who should spy out the land. Here who should spy out the land is equivalent to in order to spy out the land, and is an adverbial clause of purpose. In analysing complex sentences pay very little heed to the foem, but be sure to find out what the meaning of the clauses is by putting them into other words if necessary.

ENGLISH GEAMMAK
12.

191

PREPARATORY IT AND THERE
is

.special

This construction mention.

so

common

in English that

it

seems to require
;

as English

is nearly always put before the verb in English indeed, nouns have no case endings to distinguish the subject from the object, the order of words in a sentence is the only way in which the subject can be distinguished from the object. But in certain cases, especially where the subject of the sentence is in the infinitive mood, the subject is placed after the verb. Then the pronoun it is placed before the verb to act as a preparatory subject and to show that the real subject is comiug.

The

subject

It is good to walk in the way of righteousness. Here the real subject is to walk in the way of rigkteousness, and is good is the predicate. It is the preparatory subject, or the grammatical subject as it is sometimes called. The adverb there is used in the same way especially when the verb

Example

:

in the sentence is part of the verb to he.

Example

There was once a boy who lived on an island. In this sentence the subject is a hoy. There should be parsed as a
:

preparatory adverb.

Neither of these constructions exist in Latin or Greek. The Latin or Greek for the examples given above are as follows

Bonum
KoKov
e'oTi

est

Ttepiwarfiv ev
fuit

ambulare in via justitiae. rfj oSa Trjs SiKaioaivrjS.
Trail bs Karu/cci vijaov.

Olim

puer qui insulam habitabat.

^v wore

ENGLISH-GEEEK VOCABULAKY
The numbers refer
I abide, I
to the

Vocabularies

n4va

1

I ate, €(j)ayov

14

I 21 above, iwep with Ace. 21 according to, koto foil, by Ace. Acheldama, 'Axe\Saiidx 26 I

am able, Sivafuu am about, fieXKa

11

bad, KaK^s

7

20

19 with Ace. 9 ; oirla-a 15 age, aliiv 16 all, Ttas 18 all things, Travra 15 I allow, ida> 22; ai^ii/^t 30 always, irdvTOTe 30 Ananias, 'Avavlas 19 and, Kai 3 8e 6 Andrew, 'AvSpcas 19 angel, ayyeXos 3 Ajinas, 'Avyas 20 I announce, dirayyeKka 15 I answer, anoKpivofiai 10 answer, airoRpuris 20 I am anxious, fifpiiivda 25 I am anxious beforehand, npojupip-vdo) 27 Apostle, ajrdoToXos 9 I appoint, Kadiarrifii, 29 I approach, irapayivopm 19 I argue, arvv^rjTea 26 I arise, dviaraiiai 29 as, KoS&s 23 as much as, So-oi 20 I ask, aiT-cQ) 2 eTrtI ask a question, iparrda 22 pardta 31 assembly, eicKXijo-ia 5 I am astonished, e'/cn-Xijo-o-o/jai 20 daixfi4op,ai 26
afraid, <l)o^4ofiai
after, jierd
; ;

am

8 baptism, ^ajmiT/ia 17 Baptist, 'BartTurrfjs 6 I bear, (^cp&i 8 I bear witness, p.apTvpia 2 beautiful, xaXos 11 I become, -y/i/o/xai 21 bed, kXiVij 15 before (preposition), irpo 6 TTiov 28 efiirpoadev 29 26
I baptise, jSoTrrifeo
;

; ;

fV<B-

TrpiV

I beg, heopAu 11 I begin, apxc/juu

1

beginning, dp^T 5 on behalf of, iirep with Gen. 21 I behold, 6ea>p4(o 2 behold! ISoi 21 I beUeve, n-urreie> 1 beloved, dyairrjros 7
I benefit, eS iroUa>

24
11

I beseech, dc'o/^ai beside, irapd 15

Bethlehem,

BijdXce/i

15

I betray, n-apafit'Sia/u 27 I bid, keXcuo) 11 I bless, evKoyiio 12 ; KareuXayea>

28
blind, 1-0^X6! 11 blood, alfia 17 boat, TrXoIov 4

body, o-mjua 18 book, jSt^Xiov 4
I

am

iDorn, ycvi>aa>

22

bread, Spros 3

ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY
I break, K\aa>

193
18
11

28

condemnation,

Kpi/ia

bridegroom, vv\i^los 16 I bring, tiya 8 I bring forth, tIktoi 14 I bring in, cltraym 23 brother, abeK<\)6s 3 I build, oiKoSo/ieo) 10 I burn, Kaio> 28 but, aK\a, 84 6 I buy, dyopdfo) 13 by, vno 9
by-

I confess, ojuoXoyem I continue, pevto 1

Cornelius, Ko/jv^Xior 15 couch, kXivij 15 council, avvehpiov 20 I am of good courage, Bapa-ea cross, (TTavpos 15 1 crow, (fxavcai 16

30

crowd, o;(Xos 9
I crucify, o-raupdo)
I cry, /Sddo)

22
8 13

means

of,

8td

with Gen. 9

22

Caesar, Kaia-ap 27 Caesarea, Kaia-apela

I cry aloud, xpafto cup, n-oTrjpwv 15

26

I

cut down, exKOTTTca

Caiaphas, Kmdipas 20 (jjavea 16 I call, KoXfo) 2 npoaI call upon, iviKoKiofiai 21 KoKeo} 31 I came, ^\6ov 14 fiaoTa^a) 13 I carry, 0epo) 8 I carry to, elat^ipat 28
; ; ;

I carried, ijveyKov I cast, |3aXX<B

14
piirrto

darkness, o-Kdros 18 daughter, dvydrrip 17 David, Aauei'S, Aa^i'S 18 day, fifiepa 5 dead, vcKpos 18 deaf, Koxjios 17 death, ^dvaros 3

1

;

21

a debt,
debtor,

d<^f iXij^a

oast, ^o\ti
I cast out,

28
eK^dXXto 8

d(/)fiXeV7jr

I defile, Koivdo)
I delay, (he'XXcd

30 30 23
21

29 a certain man, ns 20 Trais 16 child, TcKvov 4 child, young, iratSiov 4 I choose, €K\4yopai 21
I cease, iravop^i
;

demon, Sai/;tdi'wi/ 4 deny, apveopm 10
I depart, VTrdyco 8
;

dnepxapm 10

church, ekkXi/o-io city, irdXis 17
I cleanse,
I

6

avax(opea 20 departure, e^oSos 22
desert, fprip.os 3 I desire, evidvpia I destroy, (^Beipa

KaBapi^a 13 clothe myself, nepi^aWofiai 25

20
15
;

djroXXuti)

cloud, vf^eXj] cock, akfKTiap
I

20
16

24
2
devil,

;

KOT-aXijo)

25
4
;

destruction, djrmXeja 31
fiai/ttdi/iof

I comfort, irapaKoKito

fiidjSoXor

11

come, fpxopxu, iropevofim 10 I come upon, eirep^oiiai 20 to come to pass, yiveadai 21 I OO&mand, xeXevci) 11 napayyeXXffl 11 ; eWeXXo) 29
;

I die, dnodvricrKa 1 diflerent, erepos 7 disciple, padrjTrjs 6

commandment,
I

evroXri

5

I

29 condemn, KaraKpiva 15
compare,
N.
ofioido)

I discuss, irui'fi)T€o) 26 ^OpLQL 31 disperse, Siao-n-et'pffl 18 I disregard, dBerea 24 I divide, pepl^a 29

;

StaXoyi-

13

194

ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY
favour, x^P'^ 16 field, dypds 10; x*"/"'""
fill,

division, irxia-iia 21 I do, TTOieo) 2 ; irpairiTa

13

27

'

dog, KVtOV 17 door, 6vpa 16 down, Kara, foil, by Gen. 20 I drag, <rvpa 26 ; cXkvo) 29 I draw away, airoirnia 26 I draw near, eyyi^a 13 I drink, ttiVoi 14 I drive, Sya 8 I drive away, aTrdya 13 I drive together, avvdya 8 dry, lijpor 29 dumb, Kacjios 17

7r\t]p6a>

22
1

I find, evpiiTKtt)
fire,

TTup

17

fish,

vparos 7 ix^us 17 fitting, npiiTov 30
first,

dwell

in, Karoifceiu

12

ear, o^r 17 earth, y^ 5

thousand, TrerTaKtirxiXioi 19 14 flesh, <rdp^ 16 I follow, oKoKovdia 30 food, rpo^T] 21 foolish, a.<f)pfav 18 foot, TToOff 17 for (conj.), ydp 6 for (prep.), irpo 6
five
I flee, (jjevya

I eat, ia-Sica 1 I eat with, a-weadia 26 Egypt, AtyuiTTOj 15 elder, Trpetr/SuTepos 9 Elijah, 'HXci'aj 19 I endure, wpoa-KapTepdco 20 enemy, ex^pAs 12 I enter, clvipxojxai 19
I err, n-Xavoo/iai 30 I escape, iK<^evya 26 I establish, KaSlarijiu 29 eternal, aiuviof 7

I forgive, a<f>ir]pi 30 forgiveness, atjjecrK 17
forty, T€(Taapd<ovTa
free, i\ev6cpos

19

11

from, oTrd 6
fruit,
fulfil, irXripoa)

KapTos 9 22

Galilee, raXiXam 19 garment, ipdriov 4 ; x^rd)i' 16 I gather together, eVio-vi'd'yai 31

generation, yevor 17 Gentiles, to e^i/t) 18
I give, 8iSa>iii 27 I give back, dnoSiSaiu I give up, napabibap.1 I glorify, So^dCio 8 glory, Sd^a 6

even

as, xadcof

23

every, iras

18

everywhere, n-ai/ToxoB 29 the Evil One, 6 wovtipos 7 I exalt, v\fro<u 22 I exhort, irapaKoKia 2 eye, 6(j>daKp,6s 9

27 27

I go, epxop,ai, wopevo/iai 10; /Saivca 14 1 go about, bUpxojiai 10

npoaaiTov 4 faith, TTitms 18
face,

faithful, iruTTos

7

I fall, ttiVto)
false, ^JAevSrjs

14 29

I fast, vfiarcva 31 father, n-arfip 17
fault, irapanrafjux

30

go away, dTrtpx"/'"" 10 go into, flarepxofiai 19 eio-iropfvop,ai 28 I go out, f^fpxoiiai 19 fRiropevopw. 26 I go through, SUpxopm 10 I go towards, npoaripxop^i 20 God, fltds 3 gold, xpva-os 26
I

I

;

;

ENGLISH-GEEEK VOCABULARY
good, dya$6s 7; KoXos 11 Gospel, evayyeXtov 4 Gospel, I preach the, euayyeXi'fo/iai

195

10
grace, x"P'*
great, /iiyas

if. El' 18 image, «V<bi/ 16 immediately, evOvs 9 evBias 30 impossible, dSwoT-of 15
;

^^ 18

in,

e'l/

6

a Greek, 'EUi/k 23 I guard, (fivKdorira 13 guard, <j>vKa§ 16 had, eo-xov 14 17 hand, x"'p 17 hated, ixBpos 12 I have, ?x<" 1 I have mercy on, iKeka 12 he, she, it, avros, airfi, avTo head, K60aX^ 5
I

inhabit, KarotKcta 12 I injure, dSiKea 12
injustice, dStKi'a 10 I inquire, irvuSdvofuu into, els 6

22
21

I invoke, imiidK4op,ai
Israel, 'lo-paijX

hair, dpi^

10

8

heal, Bepaireitt)

11

;

lao^ai

22

healthy, iyi^s 18 I hear, aKova 1 heart, Kopbia 5 heaven, oipavos 9 heavenly, oupavios 30 I give heed to, npoa-exio

James, 'idna^os 26 Jerusalem, 'If po(rd\u/ia, 'lepov(r(xKr}fi 9 Jesus, 'Iijo-oSs 8 Jew, 'lovbaios 8 John, 'Imdvi;; 8 Joppa, 'loTTTT?; 20 Jordan, 'lopSavr/s 11 Joseph, 'la>a-fi<j) 15 journey, I make a, iropeio/iai 10 joy, yapd 5
I judge, Kpiva. 1
g'udge, KpiTTis

26

14 here, SSe 11 ivedSe 25 Herod, 'H/jmSi/s 15 I hide, KpvTTTa 13 high-priest, dpxifpfvs 18 hill, Spos 18 himself etc., avrdr 8
I held, ea-xov
;

9 18
;

judgement,
just, hlKOlOS

Kpip.a

Kp'uris

18

7

I justify, SiKaidra 22
I

keep

safe, njpeo)

2

I kill, aTTOKTEll/O) I kindle, Kai'm 28 king, ;3a(riXeuf 17

8

I hold, Kparittt

20

holy, ayios

7

honour, rt/i^ 28 I hope, ikiri^tt) 13 hope, ikiris 16 hour, fipa 5 house, o'koj 3; olnia 11 householder, oiKoSeo-irori/s 9 how, n-air 19

kingdom,
I

iSao-iXfia

5

knee, ydvu 17

know,

yivaxTKO)

14 ; iiriyivafTKa

23; o'Sa 30

known, yvairros 26
I labour, noind^w 20 labourer, epydTqs 9

humble, Ta7reii»o<» 22 husband, dvifp 17
I

hypocrite, vreonpiri]!
I, eyo)

9

lake, ddXa<r(ra 6 lamb, d/iuos 14 lamp, Xa/;t7rdr 16

;

\vxyos 29

11

land, y5

^

196

ENGLISH-GBEEK VOCABULARY
Mary, Mapid/i, Mapia 15 master, Scarrorrjs 6 ejruTTdrtjs meat, rpncjiri 21 mercy, I have, f'Xcco) 12 middle, /jua-ot 29 minister, Siukovos 12 miracle, a-rj^eiov 4 ripas 17 money, dpyipiov 4 ; ra p^/jij/iara month, ftiji/ 16 more, //taXXoi' 18
; ;

language, yXSo-o-a 6
last, fo-xoTos

7

;

ua-Tepos

29

law,

vofios.

3

it is lawful, eleo-Tt 11 lawlessness, dvo/ila 26 I lay down, rWij/ii 28 I lay hold of, KaToiKan^dva
,

21

;

ewiKafi^dua 29 I lay upon, »7r(|3aXX(a 21 Lazarus, Adfapor 23 I lead, ^ya> 8 I lead in, fl<rdya> 23 leader, rjyejiitv 16 I learn, jiavBavfo 14 learner, liaBrfrf)! 6 I leave, KaToKeiira 14 leper, Xfjrpdj 13
I let alone, a^i'jjp
I

Moses, MmiJcr^s 19 mother, fiijrijp 17 mountain, opos 18 mouth, cTTopa 18 much, TToXur 18 26 multitude, o;(Xos 9 I must, see necessary mystery, p-vo-TTipiov 27
I multiply, irXrjdvva

30

let go,

aijtlrjju

30

letter,

ypdnna 17
17

light, (^ms
life, fa>i7

name,
,

ovop,a 18
o-Tti'dy

5

narrow,

20

like, oiiows

26 29
21

I

make

like, ojuotdo)

little,

fuKpos

I live, fao) 22 loaves, aproL 3

11 neighbour, 6 nXria-iov 26
net, S/Kruov

nation, yci/oj 17 near, e'yyiJs 20 necessary, it is, 8ei

20
28

/SXfVm 1 I loose, Xuo) 9 lord, Kvpios 3 I love, (j)i\i<M) 2 oyaTraoi 22 love, dyaTTTj 5
I
at,
;

look

new

veos 21 ; KOti/ds night, vii 16 t, vv§
',

no more, /xijkeVi 18 no one, /«;8«y, ouSf is
not, oi

6;

/i^

10
rpoc^ij

Lydda, AvSSo 20
Magdalene, MaySaX?;!']} 23 maiden, napBivos 3 I make, irqUio 2
manifest, (^avtpom 22 ready, ^Tot/ndfw 13 man, axflpwtros 3; dv^p 17 young man, veavias 6 I manifest, (jiaivm 15 <j}avep6a 22
I
I
;

nourishment, now, i/Cw 21
0,

a 14

make make

I obey, vwaKoiai 11 I observe, tij/je'cb 2 I offend, o-icai/SaXifa)
old, TToXatdr

13

21

on, Ejri

20
of, Sid

on account
one,

with ace. 9

n-oXus 18 things, ttoXXo 14 market, place, dyopd 28 marriage, ydjiog 11

many,

fls, uia,

iv

18

many

one another, dXXijXour 31 one's own, i8toi 7 I open, dvolya 12

ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY
other, eVfpos

1&7
21

7

I put upon,

fni^dWa

I ought, o0ciXa)

15
quickly, raxfas 13
race, ytvor 17 I raise, iyelpm

out

of, ex,

e^ 6

outside, t|o)

26
15
5

Wvos 18
1
;

I owe, d(j)ei\aj

avi(m)pi 29

parable, napa^oKr)
\e\vfifvos 28 pareuts, oi yovels

paralytic, TrapaXvriKos

15

;

napa-

enaipa) 29 I read, dvayiyvunrKtii 8 I make ready, kroipA^m

13

18 I pass by, napdya 19 patience, virofiov-q 31
Paul, navXof 11 pay, jiur66s 25 peace, elpfjvri 5 people, Xadf 3 I perceive, KaToKaji^avopm 21 I permit, t'dca 22 I persuade, neidai 8
Peter, airpos 16 Pharisee, iapia-aios
Philip, iiXHTTrof
I place,
ri'67;/ai

15

26 28

28

I place beside, napaTiSrjiu

place, TOTTOf

9

15 ?ower, i^ovaia 5 ; Siva/us 20 praise, cuXoyem 12 I pray, Trpoo-cuxoF"' ^^ I preach, Kr)pi<T<ra> 8 I preach the Gospel, evayyeXi^ofiai 10 I present, naplimifu 29 I am present, rrapayivoiiai, 19 priest, tf/jEiJs 18 prison, ^uXoK^ 27
prisoner, he<rp,uts

poor, 7rT<ox6s 11 possible, SuvaTos

1 Sexopai 10 8 ; ayoXXido) 22 I release, diroKia 8 I remain, pJua 1 npoiTKapTepiw 20 remission, a(j>f(ns 17 remove, d^tim^jui 29 rent, a-xi(Tp.a 21 I repent, peravoiai 29 repentance, perdvoia 17 the rest, oj XotTroi 21 resurrection, aKdoxao-ts 18 I reveal, aTroicaXuTrrw 13 reward, p.ur66s 25 on the right hand, Sepias 28 righteousness, SiKoioa-vvij 5 I rise, avltTTapai 29 river, 7roTa;idr 13 robber, Xijorijr 9
;

reason, Xdyof 3 I receive, Xa/i^avo)
1 rejoice,
x''ip'i>

;

rock, TreVpa 20 I rouse, iyeipa 1 I rule, ap;((» 12
ruler,

'

apxav 16
trd^/SaToi'

Sabbath,

4

sacrifice, Bva-ia

26

I keep safe, Trjpea 2 I said, fijrov 14 saint, aytos 7, see p. 20

26
8

I proclaim, KTjpva-a-ia

promise, inayyiKia 5
proof, TeKpriptov 29 I prophesy, irpo(j)TiTeia>

12

25 okas sis Samaria, Sap.dpeia 11 sanctify, dytdfo) 13 Satan, SaravSy 19
I salt, dXi'fo)
salt,

prophet, irpo(j>TiTrjs 6 publican, reXai/iji 9 I pursue, SttoKo) 12
I

put on,

cVSuo)

12

save, <rd>^a) 1 saviour, trarfip 16 I saw, elSov 14 I say, \4ya 1

13—3

198

ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY
I spoke, ein-ov 14 I cause to stand, icrTr)p.i I cause to stand
I

saying, p^^a 18 I scatter abroad, Siaa-neipa
scribe, ypaiifiaTeis scriptures, ypaxjtai
sea, BoKaaira

19

29

17
5

6 22

season, Kcupos 15
I see, ^Xen-o) 1 ; 6paa> seed, inrepp.a 18 I seek, Cv^ea 2 I sell, dnoBiSotiai 27
;

29 stand away, dKJtiaTripj. 29 I cause to stand up, dvla-TTjfu 29 I stand up, dviaraiJiai 29 star, d(rri)p 16 I steal, KXeVra) 23 I stone, Xidd^d), KoraXtdd^o) 26 stone, Xi'tfos 9
d<j>iaTripii

away,

I send, aTroffTeXXo) 1 Trip.na> 8 sentence, xpi'/ia 18 I separate, a<t>iaTrip.i 29 servant, SiaKovos 12 I serve, StaKovea 12 I set aside, dBeHm 24 I set before, jrapaTidrnxi 28 I set in order, Tda-a-a> 13 I set up, KaOia-Trjiii 29 seven, eTrra 23 sheep, npo^arov 4

strong, la-xvpos 21 stumble, I cause to, trKav8a\i(o> 13 I suffer, irda-x'^ 14 I suffered, en-oBov 14 I summon, npoa-KoKeui 31 I surname, eirucoKca 21 I surpass, ncpitrtrtva) 25 surpassing, irepia-a-os 26

sword, iid}(aipa 15 synagogue, avvayayrj 5
I take, Xa^/Sdi/w I 1

shepherd,
I

Trot/x^v

16
;

I shout, /Sodo)

22
Seiswiii

15 21 sick, a(r6evr)s 18
<j)alv<M)

show,

30

shrine, vadi

I am sick, do-dcveo) sign, (Trj/ieiov 4
I

28

25 dpyvpiov 4 ; Spyvpos 26 Simon, Si'/imw 19 I sin, dfiaprdvia 14 sin, &naprr'ia 5 sinner, dpaprcoKos 10 slave, SoiXor 3
silent, cruuTrdiu
silver,

am

I sleep, Kot/idoi 23 soldier, o-TpariaTris

15

Solomon, SoXo/xSv 21 son, «idr 8
soon, rapff'mf

13

take counsel with, o-UK/SouXeuo/lai 21 I take hold of, Kparea 20 I take up, or away, alpm 15 I take with, iTapaKap,^dva> 20 I tarry, /leXXu 21 I taste, yfvop.ai 25 taxgatherer, reXoivris 9 I teach, SiSdo-Km 8 teacher, SiSdo-KoXof 9 teaching, RiSaxv 20 I tear, tnrapda(r<o 19 temple, itpdi/ 4 tempt, neipd^ai 11 temptation, irtipaapAs 23 than, ^ 18 I thank, eixapia-rda 30 that, €Kfivos 8
then, TOTf 30 there, fK« 11 therefore, ouv 6 I think, Ko/ii'^o) 25

soul, yjfvxv 5 sound, ^(Bvi/ 5

15 2 I speak with, trvvXoKea spirit, Trvevjia 17
I sow, a-jrelpa I speak, XaXco)

;

(jtpovew

31

19

this, oJtos

8

thou,

(TV

11

ENGLISH-GREEK VOCABULARY
three, rptis
thrice, rpts

199
28

16

;

rpia 21

26
9
;

I weak, da6fv4a well, fS 24 I went, ^\6ov

am

throne, 6p6vos

14 27

through, Sid with Gen. 9 plnrai I throw, /3aXX(o 1
I

what kind ?
21
ap.<\>i-

ttoIos

throw round
9
;

(of

a net),

when, ore 15 where, ttoC 22
while,
e<os 15 who, which, Ss,
^, o,

/SaXXa 19 time, )(p6vos
to

Kmpos 15
;

10; Sime 25

(motion to), els 6 irpos 9 to-morrow, r/ aSpwv 25
1 toil, KOTTUlflB

who? what?

Ti'r,

Ti

20

20 20

whole (sound), iyirjs 18 whole (complete), SXos 20
wicked, jrovijpdi 7 wickedness, dSixia 10 widow, xw" ^^ wife, yuv^ 17 will, de\ripa 17
;

I told, e'jToi'

14

tomb,

p,vr]fielov

dvopia 26

tongue, y\S)tr<Ta 6 tooth, oSovf 16 I touch, aTTTopai 10 towards, npos 9
tradition, napaboais

24
31

trample on,
tree,

TroTeoi

transgression, irapairrmpa

30

ShSpov 4

I am willing, diXa wind, n-vfC^a 17 wine, olvos 14 wisdom, cro<l)ia 5 wise, (To(l)6s 12

11

15 18 truly, dX>)flfiJ9 21 trumpet, a-dXiriy^ truth, aX^dcm 5
tribe, 611X17

I wish, ^ovXojuai, dcXo)

11
;

true, aXridris

16

two, Suo

20

unclean, oKadapros 19 I understand, awlripi 30 until, 60): 15
village,
Kffl/ui;

15

vineyard, d/in-cXuv

16

napSivos 3 vision, opajua 25
virgin,

voice, ^tavTi
I

5

with (together with), o-uv 6 perd with Gen. 9 withered, $tip6s 29 witness, pdprvs 29 1 bear witness, paprvpia 2 woman, yuv^ 17 I wonder at, davpd^a 13 dap^eopai 26 wonder, Wpar 17 word, Xdyoff 3 p^pa 18 I work, epyd^opai 10 work, epyov 4 workman, epydnjs 9 world, KOfr/xof 3 rj oiKovpevrj 29 I worship, wpotrKvvia 22
; ; ;

walk about, ntpmaria 8 I wash away, awoKova 21 watch, <l>v\aKJi 27 water, uSmp 17 way, dSdf 3 I go my way, oboiiropia 21
we,
jjpeis

I write, ypd(j>a> 1 writing, ypaijjrj 5

year, exos 17 you, i^els 11 young, vfos 21

young child, nmhiov 4 young man, veavias 6
Zacharias, Zaxapiof 20

11

weak,

dtrSevris

18

GEEEK INDEX
The numbers
'Ayados 7
refer to the Vocahulariei

ayaWidco 22 dyairda 22
dydnT} 5 dyanrjTos 1

ayyeXos 3 dyiaf01 13

ayws 7
dyopd 28
dyopd^d) 13

d/iapra)Xw 10 apvos 14 d/ijTfXttii' 16 d/t(^(j3dXXQ) 19 dyaycyi/axTKO) 8 'Avawias 19 dvdo'raa'tff 18 dvaxapito 20 "AvSpear 19
di/Tjp

apviofiai 10

apros 3

dpxupfvs 18
&p\oixai. 11

apX^ ^^
3p)((ov

16

17

dypos 10 Syo) 8
ddfX(^os 3

avBpatTTOS 3
dviarrjfii 29 "Avvas 20 avoiyto 12 di'o^/a 26

28 18 d<TTrip 16 aCpiov 25 a^TOS 8
d(r0€V€a}
d(r0ev7js
a<^ftTis
d<l>irjp.L

17

12 ddtKLa 10 dSuvoTor 15
adtKco}

30 dtjlla-TTipj, 29
15
af^ptav

(iTrayycXXo)
aTrd-yo)

18

ddereo)
a£/ia

24
15

13

*A;^€X5a/id;^

26

AiyuTTTOff

dirapviopai 26
dn-epxoiiai 10 aTTO 6
dTroSiSia/u

17 aipa 15 airc'o) 2 alav 16 7 (iKddaproc 19 aKoKovdeo) 30
aiiui'ior

Baivo) 14
/SdXXcd 1

27

/SoTTTifw 8

diro6vrj(rKa 1

djroKaXvTTTO) 13

dnoKpivofiai 10
dn'dK/)(0'£ff

20

aKovo} 1

S\as 25
dXcKTfOp 16 dX^deia 5
dXtjBrjS

18

8 24 dn-oXouca 21 d7roXv6) 8 dnoo'Trda 28
airoKTeivai
d7roXc<rei

^dirTurpa 17 fiawniTTrjS 6 ^acriKela 5 /SatriXfur 17 /Saordfti) 13 BriBXefp. 15
jSt^Xioi/

4

^XcTTQ) 1

dXijdm; 21
dXifffl

dTTOcrrtXXm 1
djrdffToXor 9
airTop.ai

25

22 28 ^ovXo^ai
/Soda)

|3oX^

1

dXXd 6
dXX^Xour 31 ijiaprdva 14 dfiaprria 5

10
TaXiXai'a 19 yd/xor 1

dirmXcia 31

dpyvpwu 4
Spyvpos 26

ydp 6

GREEK INDEX
ytavaa 22
yeVof 17
yevofiai

201
eVdaSe 25
c'vreXXo)

8d|a 6
8o|af(o 8
doOXoff 3

29

25

evToXr) 5

yv 5,
yiyvirtTKa
yivofiat
yXfflO'cra

Svvafiat 11

14

yivaxTKa 14

21 6

Siva/us 20 Swaroff 15 8^0 20

evaniov 28 i^epxojuu 19
e^eari 11 e|oSor 22

c^ovala 5

yi/owTTof

26 yovevs 18
ydvu 17
ypd^fjut

22 eyyi^a 13 iyyvs 20
'Eara

17
5
1

ypajifiaTeis 17
ypacjni
ypd<f)<o

eyeipa 1 eyivero 21 eyo) 11 ^^Kos 18
«'

yvi/^

17

18

26 nayyekia 5 enaBov 14 iralpui 29 nipxojiai 20 eVeptBrdcB 31 eVi 20 TTi^dKXa 21
e|o>
IT ly i,yvai(TK(i>

eiSoi'

14 14
5

23

AaiSiS
Aavei'S
8e

18

flKmv 16

7rLdvp.e(o

20

SaifiovLov

4

etirov
elprjvrj

WiKoXeo) 21

18

6

elf

get 11

efr

6 18

30 hivhpov 4
8eLKVVp.l

eicrayw' 23.

eMpxoiiai 19
fltTrropevofiat
el(T<j)4p(o
e's

Se^idf

28

28

heojuu 11
hi(Tp.ios
fiecTTrdrT/ff

28
8

29 20 Wiffuva-yo) 31 tTrrd 23 ipya^ofiai. 10 fpydrrj! 9 epyov 4
7r(Xa/i/3ava}

wiarTOTr]!

26 6
10

6

e'it/3aXX<u

3 fpXopMi 10
eprfpios

bi)(opai
ac'«>

eKei 11
eKeii'Off

epatrdco

22

24

8

eadica 1

Sia 9 Sid^oXos 11
diaKoi'60>

eKuXtjaia 5

SlOKOI/Of

12 12

13 eVXeyo/iOt 21
eKKdn-TO)
eK7rXi7(r(roftat

eaxoTos 7 €(J")(pV 14 erepoE 7

SioKoyi^ofiai 31

inTTopeiofiai

20 26

eTOtfid^a 13
eroff

17

duur^eipa 19 diSacKOXof 9 SiSao'Ka) 8
SiSax"?

cK^eiya 26
eXeeo}

e3

24
10

12

eiiayyeXl^ofioL

i\ev6epos 11
cXkuo) 29
'EXX»;i'

Si8a.pt

20 27 10
5

23
13 16

SifpXOfiai
SiKaios 7

e'XTTi'fo)

euayyeXtov 4 fvBfas 30 eidus 9 fuXoyeo) 12
fvpltTKto
1

e'Xm's

StKa[0(rwi;

tfiTrpoadev

29

StKatdu 22 8Utvov 20
StdiKCtf

eV 6

cixaptarea 30 e^ayov 14 i^Bpos 12
ex<o 1

12

fvSva 12

202

GREEK INDEX
lUKpos 21
iu<r66s
GUI'

203
nepttro'eva
nepitra-os

6

25 20

fivTjiiciov

juxrrqpwv 27 WiovaTJs 19

oipdvios 30 ovpavos 9 our 17 oSrof 8 ou;^t 21
otpciKiTris
oijjflXrjua
6(j>e[\a>

25 26

irerpa
TTtrui

20
14 14
1

IleVpos 16
TTITTTO)

Naor 21
veavias 6

30 30
9

TTtiTTeiJa)

vfKpos 18
ve'or

15

irians 18 miTTos 7

21

6<l)da\fi6s

vc^cXi;
'

20
31 25 16

S;^Xoff

9 4

vr](TTev(i)
vo\),i^a>

IlaeSiov
Tratff

vdfioc

3

16

vv\i<^ios

waXator 21
iravra 15 TravTaxoC 29
TrdiTore

30 26 TrXfipoa 22 TtXi/O'IOI' 26 TrXoIov 4 TTuevjia 17
7rXai/ao/zat irXrjdvvaj
TTOlCb)
TTOip.TJV

viV, ruvt 21

2

vu^ 16
Sijpof

30

rroios

29
21

'OdotTTo^eo)
odoff

3

o8ovs 16
oiba
oiKi'a

Trapa 15 napa^oKr] 5 jrapayyAXo) 11 irapaylyvopm 19 irapaya 19

16 27 TToXtS 17 jroXXa 14 ffoXus 18
TTOvrjpos 7

30
11

27 napdboais 24
wapahiSa>p,i

oiKoSeaffonjr 9
-oiKofio/xco)

TrapaKaXeo) 2

10

irapaXap^dva 20
TrapdKeXvfievos 28 TrapaXvrtKo; 15

OtKOff

3

10 13 norrf)pwv 15 TTOC 22 TTOUff 17 irpda-aai 13
TTopevofiai
jroTa/ids

olKovfievr]

29

TTpeTTOV
TrptV

30

14 oXor 20 oiioios 26 ojuoeoo) 29
oivos

wapdnTtofia 30
irapaTLdrjpL

jrpeiT^VTfpos 9

28 29

26

irapBfVos 3
TTopicmj/it
Trar

wpd 6
TTpO^aTOV 4
npofiepLfivdoi

opoKayita 11
ovofia 18
oiriVffl

18 14 31 17

27

iracp^o)

Trpds

9

15

n-aTeeo
TraTrjp

opafia
cipof

25 6pam 22
18

npo(Tfpxopai 20 Trpotrev^opui 21
irpotre^o}

IlaOXos 11

26 20

Of 10
oiroc
OCTTIE

iravopm 29 neido) 8
TTCtpafo)

TrpocKaXcco 31
TTpoiTKapTfpia)

20 25

11

TreipaiTfios
Tre/xTTO)

23
19

ore 15

8

Sn 12
ou

7rfi'raKia';^iXioe

22 TrpotrtBTTOT' 4 wpo(j)rirfva> 12 •nrpo<f)rjTrjs 6
irpoo'KvveQ}

6
18

n-fpi/SaXXco
irepiTTorfO)

oiBeis

25 8

irpaTos 7 TTTW^^dff 11

204
nvvOdvoiiai 22 irvp 17

GREEK INDEX
(rxi(riia
0*0)^0)
(rS)[ia

21

^aiva 15
<j>avep6a)

1

22

n&s 19
'Vrjfia

crtoTrjp

18 16

^apco'aco? 15
^e/3(o
<ji€vya)

8

p'nrTO)

18 21

14
15

TaTreiKoto
rafffro)

22

*^(7T0J 26
(j>6eipa>

13

Sd^fiarov 4 irdXniy^ 16 Sa/xapeia 11
(rapl 16

Ta^eas 13
TCKiirjpiov

29

^tXeo) 2 ilXtJTTTOJ 26
^0|3eo/xa(

TCKVOV 4
reXtui/T/s

19

9

^djSos 19

Saravar 19 aijfieiov 4 Si/uov 19 fncoTrdai 25
anavdaKL^o} 13
(TKOTOS 18
SoXojLia)v
(ro<pia

Tepas 17
TecTfrapdKovrd 19 Tijpia 2

21

5

croipos

12 19

CTrapacrira)

15 (Twepfia 18 (TTOUpOS 15 oraupdo) 22
aTreipta

28 14 Ti/i^ 28 7-ir 20 Tif 20 TOTTOff 9 roTe 30 Tpels 16
Ti(9i;/i4

t'lkt(o

31 27 (j>v\a^ 16 ^uXdo'cro) 13 ^uXt) 15 (j}a>V€(D 16 <j)(0V7] 5 ^£s 17
<l)povea)

<jiv\aKr]

"Kalpa 8 ^apa 5

Tpta 21
rpi's

26
21

xdpis 16 xWp 17
;^IT(M1'
1

Tpo<pri

20 oTo^a 18
OTci/dff

Tu<^Xdj 11
'Y-yiijr

Xpij/iO

19

orparnoTjjf 15

11 6 erwayo) 8
(TV

udo)/}

18 17
11 8

(TVV

utdy 8
U/i€lJ

Xpovos 9 Xpva-os 26 Xutplov 27
'i'fuSijs

<Tvvayaryr) 5

UTrd'ya)

29

(Tvv^ovKevoiiai 21

un'aKOva) 11
iiTre'p

20 26 (TVV^rjTea) 26 irvvhjfu 30 (TVvXaXeco 19 trvpu 26
(rvvedpiav
<Twetr6ia>

21 9 9 31 29

vurd

VirORpiTT)!
V1T0p.0VT]

'Q 14 JS( 11

upa 5
co:

{Jorepoff
{ii^doi

15

22

CAMBBIDSE

;

PBINIED BY JOHN OLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

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