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Bathrooms Are Gross, So Let's Redesign Them

Molly Danielsson & Mathew Lippincott

art, education & activism for ecological sanitation: grassroots mobilizing to legalize sustainability: restroom advocacy & emergency sanitation:

Cloacina.org RecodeOregon.org Phlush.org

Image: Wikimedia

Image: Unimax supplies

steam shower

Image: Philippe Stark, Sstropp steam shower

Water Miser with navy valve image:Alson's

thermostatic pressure balanced shower mixer
image: Moen

Shower Squeegee

Toto Aquia dual-flush wall-mounted toilet

Feces: based on 843g/week, pg 2358 Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 11: 1998 Urine: based on 2 pintsday pg 118 Integral Urban House, Helga Olkowski et. al. Farallones Institute: 1979

Water: based on .9 gal/flush 5 flush/day Caroma dual-flush toilet, Caromausa.com: 2010

“Infrastructure” 49.1m and “Operational Issues” 50.5m pg 240 & 241, City of Portland, OR FY2010-2011 budget 13.9m cost of treatment plant: <http://www.portlandonline. com/bes/index.cfm?c=29323&a=265796>

Biotic Layer

560 billion tons Carbon in living things on land.

Organic Layer Top Soil 2500 billion tons carbon in organic layer, topsoil, and subsoil.

Subsoil Parent Material

Atmosphere: 760 billion tons tons carbon Geologic Pool: 5000 billion tons carbon Oceans: 38,000 billion tons tons carbon

credit: Ian Bryson, Flickr

sludge scan from colors

source: Colors Magazine 82 James Mollison, Moosburg, Germany.

source: Susana Secratariat (sustainable sanitation on flickr)

domestic septage regulations and inspection guidance, pg15, EPA Rregion 6 Robert Houston and Jana Harvill

Garden: “Intensive Vegetable Production” Journal of the NewAlchemists 4 pp. 47-55. 1977. “A Study of the Energy Efficiency of Intensive Vegetable Production” Journal of the New Alchemists 5 pp. 62-68 1979.

Septic Tank with Urine Diverting Toilet
Costs: $3,900-6,500 for retrofit with existing septic. $150-300/ year for once a year pumping of urine and septic. Impact: Reduces nitrogen in effluent by 80%. Potential: Low cost means to meet strict nitrogen standards. Urine can be used as fertilizer. Problems: Requires plan for beneficial reuse. Holding tanks not allowed

Source: VERNA Ecology Inc.

Source: SEI Source: EKBO

Source: Qiang Zhu 2006.

Image:Clivus Multrum USA

Image:Clivus Multrum USA

credit: Biolan

credit: David and Pearl Omick.

credit: David Omick.

Graywater Reuse

San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011

Graywater Reuse
San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011 Photo Credit: Josh Lowe

Source: Jetsgroup 2009.

Source: GTZ (Editor) (2005): Vacuum Technology (Low Pressure Systems). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH.

Source: GIZ technical data sheets for ecosan components. Datasheet 004: Ecological housing estate Luebeck Flintenbreite

Wostman Ecology's Vacuum Flush ''EcoVac"

2" piping allows for easier installation

Roedigger 2007.

Gloskow, Poland. vacuum station. Roedigger. roevac. com

Vacuum Sewers along the Rhine in Germany. Roevac.com

Flush Toilets: pumpout systems

Hidenori Harada 2010

Portable Dry Toilets
Cost: 10-20% higher than portable chemical wet toilets. Impact: All nutrients can be reused through composting instead of adding to treatment plant. Potential: Lower treatment costs. Diversifies income for dry toilet installers. Problems: Limited treatment facilities in Oregon.
Biocappi portable dry toilets. Yverdon, Switzerland. Photo by Molly Danielsson.

1m3 portable dry toilets, Lausanne, Switzerland.

FEMA's plan

www.sewersmart.org funded by Association of Bay Area Governments' (ABAG) Pooled Liability Assurance Network (PLAN)

Executive Editors Molly Danielsson and Mathew Lippincott, 2012

http://www.composttoilets.co.nz/index.php/home/pics-052/

"I don't know that the person who introduced cholera in Haiti, the U.N. peacekeeper, or [U.N.] soldier from South Asia, was aware that he was carrying the virus . . . it was the proximate cause of cholera. That is, he was carrying the cholera strain. It came from his waste stream into the waterways of Haiti, into the bodies of Haitians."
-Bill Clinton, Special Envoy to Haiti, March 2011

SOIL in Haiti

Image Credits: SOIL Haiti on Flickr

Image Credits: SOIL Haiti on Flickr

Image Credits: SOIL Haiti on Flickr

CC-attribution only Flickr user mtsrs

Sanitation in Sanaa, Yemen

Source: GIZ technical data sheets for ecosan components. Datasheet B5: Traditional Dehydration Toilets of Yemen

a variety of solutions

Molly Danielsson & Mathew Lippincott

art, education & activism for ecological sanitation: Cloacina.org

Grassroots mobilizing to legalize sustainability: RecodeOregon.org

Public restroom advocacy & emergency sanitation: Phlush.org

Flush Toilets: The Aquatron

credit: Aquatron

230 liters wastewater per person per day (60 gallons): USEPA 2002: EPA/625/R-00/008, Onsite Treatment Systems Manual, 3.31. 40mg/L nitrogen transported to aquifer: based on 10-40% removal N during infiltration USEPA 2002, Figure 3-17 Human excrement production: 843g/week feces: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 11: 1998, 2358 2 pints/day urine. Gotaas, Composting-Sanitary Reclamation of Organic Wastes. World Health Organization, Monograph No. 31. Geneva: 1953. Nitrogen transport to aquifer from manure spreading, 5-87mg/L, averaging to 46mg/L: Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 2009: SH/SWA H01-2009, Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems in Subdivisions, Pg 18. 58 liters manure per 1000kg beef cattle: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2003: ASE D384.1 FEB03, Manure Production Charateristics, page 683. Full grown Steer 750lb (340kg): Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service: AGEC-579, Steer-Heifer Feeder Cattle Basis by Weight Groups