Parque Nacional M a n u t h r o u g h t h e BIODIVERS T Y PROGRAM of the Smithsonian Institution, Programa BlOLAT for the project 'Ictiofauna de1 Parque Nacional Manu' f r o m 19881993. Research facilities were provided b y the M u s e o d e Historia Natural d e la Universidad Nacional Mayor d e S a n Marcos, a n d t h e Smithsonian Institution. W e t h a n k I. Samanez, F. Chang, F. R o d n g u e z a n d A. Vásquez for heIp in collecting specirnens of the n e w s p e a e s . Population samples of comparative o u t g r o u p glandulocaudines w e r e m a d e available b y a w i d e variety of people a n d institutions previously t h a n k e d i ~ e i t z m a n Fink n & (1985: 11-12), Weitzman (1987: 120), Weitzman e t al. (1988: 426), Menezes & W e i t z m a n (1990: 425), a n d Weitzman e t a1 (1994: 63). T h e osteological drawings were prepared b y Diane M a h a n e y o f Alexandria, Virginia. Lisa Palmer, Division of F i h e s , prepared x-ray negatives a n d cleared a n d stained specimens. A n t o n y Harold, Thomas A. Munroe, Richard P. Vari, a n d t w o journal reviewers r e a d the manuscript. AI1 offered valuable suggestions.

Literature Cited Bushmann, P. J. & J. R. Burns. 1994. Çocial control of n male sexual maturation i the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei. J. Fish Biol., el: 363-272. Fink, W. L. &S. H. Weitzman. 1974. The so-called cheirodontin fishes of Central America with descriptions of two new species (Pisces: Characidae). Smithsonian Contr. Zool., 172: 1-42. Fink, W. L. & M. L. Zelditch. In press. Phylogenetic analysis of ontogenetic shape transformations: a reassessment of the piranha genus Pygocentrus (Teleostei). Syst. Biol. Fowler, H. W. 1913. Fishes from the Madeira River, Brazil. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 65: 517579. Géry, J. 1963. Tyttochorax madeirae and other xenurcbryconine characids. Trop. Fish Hobbyist, 12 (2): 11-15, 59, 62. - 1965. Poissons Characoides Sud-americains du Senkenberg Museum, 11: Characidae et Crenuchidae de L'Igarapé Pr@to(Haute Amazonie). [Finl. Senckenbergiana Biologica 46: 195-218. Glantz, S. A. & B. K. Slinker. 1990. Primer of applied regression and analysis of variance. McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division, New York, i-xviii, + PP. hdiges, W. 1950. Microbrycon cochui spec. nov. eine neue Art der sudamerikanixhen Glandulocaudinae. Zool. Anz., 145: 305-309.

Loubens, G., L. Lauzanne & B. Le Guennec. 1992. Les milieux aquatiques de Ia région de Trinidad (Béni, Amazonie bolivienne). Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop., 25: 3-21. Menezes, N. A. & S. H. Weitzman. 1990. Two new species of Mimagoniates (Teleostei: Characidae: Glandulocaudinae), their phylogeny and biogeography and a key to the glandulocaudin fishes of Brazii and Paraguay. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 103: 380-426. Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de. 1939. Alguns novos dados ictiologicos da nossa fauna. Boletim da Biologico, Club Zoologico do Brasil, %o Paulo, new series, 4: 358-363. Schultze, H., & G. Arratia. 1989. The composition of the caudal skeleton of teleosts (Actinopterygii: Osteichthyes). Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 97: 189-231. Weitzman, 5. H. 1966 Review of South American fishes of subtnbeNannostomina. Proc. U.5. Natn. Mus. 119 (3538): 1-56, - 1987. A new species of Xenurobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from the Río Mamoré basin of Bolivia. Proc. Biol. Çoc. Washington, 100: 112-120. Weitzman, S. H. & S. V. Fink. 1985. Xenurobryconin phylogeny and putative pheromone pumps in glandulocaudine fishes (Teleostei: Characidae). Çmithsonian Cont. Zool., 421: 1-121. Weitzman, 5. H., 5. V. Fink. A. Machado-Allison & R. Royero L. 1994. A new genus and species of Glandulocaudinae (Teleostei: Characidae) from southern Venezuela. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, 5: 45-64. Weitzman, 5. H., N. A. Menezes, & M.J. Weitzman. 1988. Phylogenetic biogeography of the Glandulocaudini (Teleostei:Characiformtis,Characidae) with comments on the distnbutions of other freshwater fishes in eastern and southeastern Brazil. In: Proceedings of a Workshop on Neotropical Distribution Patterns. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 488 pp. Weitzman, 5. H. & R.P. Vari. 1988. Miniaturization in South Amencan freshwaterfishes;an overviewand discussion. Proc. Biol. %c. Washington, 101: 444465. Zarske, A. 1993. Nannostomus nitidus- der Schmuckziersalmler. DATZ - Aquanen und Terrarien, 46: 694695. Zelditch, M. L. & W. L. Fink. 1995. Allometry and developmental integration of body growth in a piranha, Pygocentrus nnttereri (Teleostei: Ostanophysi). J. Morphol., 223: 341-355. Zelditch, M. L., W. L. F i k & D. L. Swiderski. In press. Morphometries, homology, and phylogenetics: quantifid characters as synapomorphies. Syst. Biol. Receivd i3 August 1994 Revwd 18 January 1995 Accepted 16 January 1995

Ichthyol. Explor. Fr~hwaters. 6, No. 2. pp. 149-170.21 figs.,6 tabs., August 1995 Vol Q 1W5 by Verlag Dr.friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, FRC - 1SSN W%9902


Three new cichlid species from southem Amazonia: Aequidens gerciliae, A. epae and A. michaeli
Sven O. Kullander*

Aequidens gerciliae, new species, is collected in the upper Rio Anpuanà and is distinguished from similar species by its high lateral scale count (25). the usually very wide lateral band, and the dark lower head of adults. It is sympatric with a distinctive population of Aequidens tetramerus, similar to A . tetramerus reported hom the Madre de Dios drainage in Peru. Aeqiiidens epae, new species, is collected in the lower Rio Tapajós and distinguished by having the dark bar above the midlateral spot caudad slanting. Aequidens michaeli, new species, is collected in the lower Rio Xingu and is notable for severa1 colour pattern characteristics including the lack of a sc-calld cheek spot. With A . gerciliae there are eleven endemic fish species reported hom the upper Rio Anpuanà.


Aequidens Eigenmann & Bray is a widely distribu t e d cis-Andean South American g e n u s w i t h twelve species currently considered valid, a n d a b o u t ten undescribed species. T h e genus is dealt w i t h to s o m e length b y Kullander (1984a, 1984b, 1986), Kullander & Ferreira (1991) a n d Kullander & Nijssen (1989). T h e three species reported bel o w were chosen for description in o n e paper a s they a r e relatively similar to each other a n d belong t o three adjacent south bank A m a z o n hibutaries i n Brazil. O n e species has been analyzed ecologically (Soares, 1980) a n d another species w a s recently i n h o d u c e d a s aquarium fish (Stawikowski, 1991). Aequidens species separate into a n u m b e r of morphological groups. O n e group, consisting of A . p l l i d u s (Heckel) and A . tubicen Kuiiander &

Ferreira, w a s diagnosed b y Kullander & Ferreira (1991), referring t o a high n u m b e r of vertebrae (14+13=27; i n other Aeqiridens generally 12+13=25 o r 13+13=26) a n d three colour pattern characters (lateral band positioned m o r e dorsally a n d the midlateral spot positioned m o r e postenorly than in other Aequidens species, a n d the caudal s p o t preceded b y a large light s p o t a t the dorsal margin of the caudal peduncle). T h e species described in this paper share w i t h A . pnllidus a n d A . tubicen the possession of elaborate cheek ornarnentation, referred to a s buccal stripes, m a d e u p of b l u e o r green iridescent spots o r stripes o n the cheek a n d giii cover. This o m a s mentation i aiso found in A . d i u d e m (Heckel), A . pztricki Kullander, A . rnetne Eigenmann, t h e undescribed P e r u v i a n species referred t o a s A . diaderna b y Kullander (1986) (cf. Kuiiander & Ferreira, 1991), b u t n o t in a n y of the other Aequi-

' Departrnent of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50M)7,5-10405 Stockholm,
Çweden. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaterç, Vol. 6, No.2

Weitzman h Ortega: Tyttochnrnx tnmboptensis

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful