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Matter and Numbers (lead 0sigfig!

) extensive (amt matters): mass, volume intensive: density, color, texture, boiling pure substances: element-1 element, cant be broken down (C, O2), molecule-2+ atoms chemically combined (H2, H2Osmallest bit), compound-2+ different atoms chemically combined (C2O, H2O) mixtures: physically combined; hetero: separated(oil/water).suspension: particles are big enough that they separate out (sand/water) homo: mixed/dissolved; solution-particles do not reflect light. colloid-light is spread/dispersed (fog) The Atom mass # = protons + neutrons atomic # = protons = chemical symbol charge = # protons - # electrons e- configuration: staircase=gainers (gain until isoelectronic [same # e] w/ noble gas) staircase=losers; element loses 4 or fewer e- to become isoe-ic; OR 1) remove e- from highest principle energy level (highest coefficient; p b4 s) 2) full, half-filled, or empty d-orbital Nomenclature ionic compound: start w/ metal (pos 1st) covalent compound (2 nonmetals): name 1st element w/ prefixes (except mono), take root of 2nd element followed by ide using prefixes [mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca]; [#]hydrate acids: -ate-ic, ite-ous. hydroic: HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2S, H2Se, H2Te, HCN HO F B R I N Cl; P4 S8 (when by itself) Reaction Types (*=bold choice) *synthesis: metal+nonmetalionic cmpd combustion: __+O2CO2 +H2O decomposition: reactantprod+prod -chlorate: Sn(ClO3)4SnCl4 + 6 O2 -carbonate: K2CO3K2O + O2 -bicar: Zn(HCO3) 2 ZnO+2CO2+H2O -ammonium: NH4ClNH3+HCl (acid) *single replacement: element+ionic cmpd new element+new ionic cmpd (or NR) double replacement: 2 ionic cmpds 2 new ionic cmpds; reactants always aq; if all 4 aq, NR. ionic-take apart into ions -net-ionic: Al+3(aq)+3OH-1(aq)Al(OH)3(s) excess reactant: start factor label w/ limiting & x by mol ratio, gets *used up*

The Mole (atomic weight=MM) 6.022x1023 atoms in one mole % composition by mass: # atoms by mass and by total mass (all added) empirical formula: change %g, g mol, everything by smallest # mol molecular: given mass MM; EmpF weighted avg MM: (MMA)(AbundanceA [.%])+(MMB)(AbundanceB)= ? g/mol Stoichiometry balance eq, convert given info to mol, by mol ratio, convert to required units. % yield=got/shouldagot Periodicity horizontal=periods, vertical=groups d-block=transition, f-block=inner-trans. 1A=alkali (except H), 2A=alkaline earth, 7A=halogen, 8A=noble gases, borders 2 sides of staircase=metalloids (except Al) leftright: nucleus gets stronger. top bot: more completed energy levels of eatomic radius: distance from nucleus outermost e-; decreases/increases electronegativity: ability of atom to pull eto its nucleus; increases / decreases ionic radius: radius of most common ion formed; 2x decrease /increase ionization energy: energy required to remove 1 e- from a neutral gas atom; general increase /decrease second+ ie: energy required to remove 1 e- from +1 ion; count e- needed to NB, then add 1 to get the highest IE metallic properties: ease with which an element loses e-; decrease/increase Lewis Dot Structures valence e-s are e-s in outermost/highest energy level ionic compounds do not share: Na Cl covalent: add up all valence e-, determine central atom (1st listed, unless H is 1st), distribute e- so all get 8, except H gets 2 single bond-1 pair e-; double=2 pairs resonance: one extra e- pair resonates ex) O S O O S O under the octet: only B; ex) BeCl2, BCl3 over the octet: central atom in 3rd period & greater can exceed octet-d orbital available; ex) PCl5, SF6 free radicals: odd # e-, very reactive; higer e-neg gets 8 e-, lower gets 7 (NO) bond angles: tetrahedron-109.5; e- bond atoms & repel other e-. lone pair-107;

pair only has 1 job-to repel other e-; other e- get pushed down. 2 pairs-104.5 bond angles based on VSEPR: valence shell electron pair repulsion; e- pairs around central atom orient themselves as far away from each other as possible! polarity: polar molecules are CHARGED (have a positive and negative end); based on e-neg: ability to pull e- in chem. bond nonpolar: elements in cmpd all the same -compound contains only C and H -things touching central atom=identical polar: if it is an ion (no deltas needed!) delta=partial ex) charge; needed for polar mcs ONLY Condensed States (liquid or solid) london dispersion: nonpolar mc + polar mc; also noble gases if forced. form temporary dipoles (distribution of charge uneven; e- bounce back and forth) ex) Cl Cl Cl Cl dipole-dipole: polar mc + polar mc; the dipoles are permanent; ex) H Br hydrogen bonding: subset of dipoledipole; when H ex) with O, N, or F (based on huge difference of e-neg) ionic bonding: metal ion + nonmetal ion one atom loses, other=isoe-ic w/ NB metallic bonding: metal ion + metal ion electrons move freely-delocalized; nuclei compete for e- attraction. plug-creates ripple effect through the wire (e- repel), makes a current and conducts electricity! network solids: single, giant molecule; series of covalent bonds-cont. network ion-dipole: ionic cmpd + polar cmpd neg side of ion is attracted to pos side of polar mc with a dipole; strong attraction like dissolves like: np + np, p + p strong attraction, will dissolve/mix dipole-induced dipole: polar + nonpolar each pos end on mc bonds to neg end; slight attraction will form, deltas are small ion-induced dipole: ionic + nonpolar ion causes dipole, disturbs arrangement of e- in nonpolar mc; weak attraction SOAP.nonpolar end bonds w/ oil,

while polar end bonds w/water surface tension: every atom in H2O involved in H-bonding, making a net at surface of water-can support light things ice properties: less dense, higher volumeH-bonding creates gaps b/w mcs in ice melting/boiling: stronger forces, higher melting/boiling pt & melts/boils slower phase diagrams: SL: melt LG: boil GS: deposit SG: sublime GL: condense LS: freeze Gas Laws C=273.15 + K L=mL/1000 atm=mm Hg/760 mm Hg=760 atm 14.7 PSI = 29.92 in Hg = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1atm = 101.325 KPa kinetic molecular theory: O=true 1) mc of gas are dimensionless pts 2 mc of gas are in constant, random, straight-line motion 3 * higher temp, mc gas moves faster 4 collisions b/w mc gas are elastic (no energy lost) 5) mc of gas do not have attractive or repulsive forces Boyes Law: pressure , volume Charles Law: temp , volume Gay-Lussacs Law: temp , pressure combined gas law: nothing held constant, use gas laws/stoich! units: L, K, and atm ideal gas law: PV=nRT R=.08206 atm, L, # mol (g/MM), K Daltons Law: Ptotal= Ptoxic gas+Pwater vapor Grahams Law:

Solutions ^high MM, low rate^ M of solution: mol soluteL solution how much solute in sol: mol=ML how to prepare given sol: __ g + enough water to make __ L of solution coligative properties: properties of solutions, depend on # particles of solute -boiling pt elevation: more solute, higher boiling pt. (more bonds to break) -freezing pt depression: solute mixes w/ solvent particles, need to get them out of

solution; lower temp., slow solute mcs down, solute mcs attract to each other T=Km# particles of solute K=freezing/boiling pt constant m=molality=mol solute/kg solvent osmosis: movement of water across semipermeable membrane from higher concentrationlower concentration Thermodynamics (1 kcal=4.18 kJ) calorimetry: heat is exchanged heating curve:

q=heat, c=specific heat=heat required to raise 1 g of a substance 1C (cal/gC) Hfusion: heat required to melt 1 g of a substance; H vaporization: heat required to boil 1 g of a substance (cal/g) same phase: q=mcT (final-initial) melting; q=mHfusion boiling: q=m H vaporization exothermic-substance gives off heat tea problem:

G=HT temp in K, change J to kJ if positive, reaction is not spontaneous if negative, reaction is spontaneous set G to zero to find the change point (temp. at which reaction goes from spontaneous to nonspontaneous and v.v.) bond energy: different way to calculate H: balance equation, multiply energy value by coefficients; add together, H=reactantsproducts (in kcal) Equilibrium collision theory: for a reaction to occur, mcs must collide with sufficient energy and at appropriate angles factors-rate of rxn: 1) temp , rate 2) concentration: [ ] , rate 3) surface area: SA , rate 4) nature of rctnt: lower act. enrg., rate 5) catalysts: lower act enrg, are not eaten! 2 types: homogeneous (same phase; ex: Cl in ozone depletion), heterogeneous (different phases; ex: catalytic converter) rate equations: rate=K[A]coeff[B] coeff aA+bB=cC+dD [ ]=M liquids and solids are not included in eq.! Ksp=solubility product constant/solid dissolved in water ex)

strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 (will all go to products side; disassociates completely) strong bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH weak bases: NH3, NH, NH2 110 -14 = [H3O+1][OH-1] pH = -log [H3O+1] 14 = pH + pOH [H3O+1]= 10-pH neutralization: 2 solutions MA LA #H= MB LB #OH Mconcentrated Vconcentrated = Mdilute Vdilute

chicken soup problem:

enthalpy: H of reaction; balance equation, multiply coefficients by H values, add up reactant/product side, H=productsreactants entropy: products are more disordered, entropy of reaction is increasing 2 factors: states of matter-GL, decrease # mc-7mc5 mc, decrease (neg. entropy) -balance equation, multiply coefficients by S values, S=products-reactants spontaneity:spontaneous reaction: continue on its own once started exothermic endothermic

Le Chateliers: if stress placed on rxn at equilibrium, it will adjust to compensate -shifts away from added, shifts towards removed (solids or liquids will NOT affect the equilibrium; only aq and g) -increase in pressure, rxn shifts to the side w/ fewer gas mc -decrease in pressure, rxn shifts to the side w/ more gas mc Acids and Bases Arrhenius: acid-something that produces H + ions when mixed with water (HCl) base-something that produces OH ions when mixed with water (KOH, H3PO4) Lewis: acid-e- acceptor (gainers, pos. ions) base-e- donor (losers, metals) Bronsted-Loury: acid-proton donor (H+) base-proton acceptor (neg. ions, NH3, H2O) *amphoteric=can be acid or base