Amity School of Business

Amity School of Business
BBA, Semester I

Computer In Management Arpan Sinha

1

Amity School of Business

Module - 2
Computer Network

2

Amity School of Business

What is a Network ?
• A Network is a Connected System of Objects or People. • Computer Network – It is a Collection of Computers and Other hardware devices connected together so that network users can share hardware, software, and data as well as electronically communicate with each other.
3

Amity School of Business

Uses of Computer Network
• Simultaneous Access • Sharing of Peripheral Devices • Streamlined Personal Communications • Easier Backup Process

4

Amity School of Business

Network Computer

5

Amity School of Business

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Network
• Advantages
– File Sharing – Resource Sharing – Increase Storage Capacity – Increase Cost Efficiency

• Disadvantages
– Security Issue – Rapid Spread of Computer Virus – Expensive Setup – Dependent on Main File Server

6

Amity School of Business

Components of Network (Networking Hardware)
To Establish a computer Network various hardware are required ; To Connect multiple network together or to connect a computer or network to the internet. Some of the most common types of networking hardware's are :

7

Amity School of Business

Component of Computer Network
            Network Interface Card (NIC) Modem Hub Switch Router WAP Bridge Gateway Repeater Multiplexer Wi-Fi Bluetooth

8

Amity School of Business

• Network Adaptor or NIC (Network interface Card)
– It is used to connects the PC physically to the Network in order to send outgoing data from the PC and to receive all incoming data sent via network to PC. – To connect a PC to an Ethernet (IEEE802.3 i.e. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering) network using twisted pair cabling with RJ 11 Connector and Ethernet network adaptor with RJ 45 Connector would be used.
9

Amity School of Business

• Modem
– It is the term used for a device that connects a computer to the internet. – The name Comes form the term Modulation and Demodulation. – Modulation refers to converting digital signals to analog form so they can be transmitted over analog media such as telephone lines. – Demodulation refers to the translation from analog form back to digital form.

10

Amity School of Business

• HUB
– It is least sophisticated and transmit all data received to all network nodes connected to hub. Consequently, with a hub, the network capacity is shared among the nodes.

• Switches
– A switch is “smarter” than a hub and offers more bandwidth. A Switch identifies the device for which the data is intended and sends the network data to that node only. – It allows each node on the network to use the full capacity of the Network.
11

Amity School of Business

• Routers
– Routers are even smarter-they pass data on to the intended receipt only. – They can plan a path through multiple routers to ensure the data reaches its destination in the most efficient manner possible. – It used in LAN,MAN and Internet.

• Wireless Access Point
– It is a device that functions similar to a hub, but it is used to connect wireless devices to a wired network
12

Amity School of Business

• Bridge
– A bridge is a device that connect two network based on similar technology. Such as a LAN in one city and a similar LAN in another. – It can also be used to partition one large LAN in to two smaller ones. Wireless Access Point – It is a device that functions similar to a hub, but it is used to connect wireless devices to a wired network.
Computer 1 Computer 2 Computer 3 Computer 4 LAN A Bridge LAN B Computer 1 Computer 2 Computer 3 Computer 4
13

Amity School of Business

• Gateway
– A gateway is a device to connect two dissimilar network, such as two networks using different networking communications Protocols.

• Repeaters
– Devices that amplify signals along a network. – Due to loss of signal strength it is often necessary to use a repeater to boost the signal.

• Multiplexers
– Combines the transmissions from various devices and sends them as one message.

• Concentrator
– Type of multiplexer where individuals messages are active instead of being sent as a single message.
14

Amity School of Business

• Communication Protocols
– It is an agreed upon standard for transmitting data between two devices on a network. – Protocols specify how devices physically connect to a network, how data is packaged for transmission, how receiving devices acknowledge signals and how errors are handled. – Common Protocols Ethernet and Token Ring (wired networks) Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (wireless) TCP/IP and WAP (Internet)
15

Amity School of Business

• Ethernet
– Most widely used in wired networking protocol developed in 1970 – Used in LANs – Speed 10Mbps – 10Gbps – Ethernet uses a set of procedures known as CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection)

16

Amity School of Business

• Token Ring
– – – – – LAN protocol developed by IBM Used with ring networks Uses a packet – Token (data + address) Token carries data to recipient. If token is free, any computer can take it and attach message to it and send it. – Eliminates collision. – Speed 4-16 Mbps

17

Amity School of Business

• Wi-Fi (802.11)
– Wireless Fidelity – Developed in 1990s – Standard for wireless networks in the home or office and connecting to Internet. – Connection to Internet via Hotspot – geographical area covered by Wi-Fi wireless access point. – Designed for medium range data transfers. – Speed – 11 Mbps – 100Mbps

18

Amity School of Business

• Bluetooth
– Wireless technology using radio waves frequency band of 2.4GHz – Designed for short range communication (less than 10 meters) – Appropriate for communication between mobile devices, computer and peripheral devices. – Speed – upto 3Mbps – Two Bluetooth enabled devices recognise each other and establish a piconet. – 8 devices can use the same piconet – One device – Master and others slaves
19

Amity School of Business

• TCP/IP
– Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol – Protocol for Internet developed in 1970s

• WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
– Standard for delivering content to mobile devices, smart phones and pagers. – Uses cellular telephone network. – Content can be web content, email – Uses WAP enabled browser - microbrowser
20

Amity School of Business

Types of Networks
• LAN (Local Area Network)
– It is a network that covers relatively small geographical areas. Such as home, office building or school. – Privately owned networks with in a campus or building of up to a few kilometer in size – The device on the network can be connected with either wired or wireless communication media. – It distinguished from other kinds of network by three Characteristics - Their size, Their Transmission technology and Their Topology.
21

Amity School of Business

• MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
– It is basically a bigger version of a LAN and normally uses similar technology. – The best known example of a MAN is the cable television network available in many cities. – It might cover a group of near by corporate offices or a city and might be either private or public. – It support both data and voice.

22

Amity School of Business

• WAN (Wide Area Network)
– This network covers a large geographical area, often a country and continent. – It consists of two or more LANs, which could be relatively closer to one another or far apart. – It may be publicly accessible, like the internet, or may be privately owned and operated

23

Amity School of Business

PAN (Personal Area Network)
• A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are : – personal computers – Printers – fax machines – Telephones – PDAs – scanners, and even video game consoles. • A PAN may include wired and wireless connections between devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared 24 communication typically form a wireless PAN.

Amity School of Business

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
• A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. • A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN 25 has a topology more complex than point-to-point.

Amity School of Business

Types of Transmission Media

26

Amity School of Business

Network Topologies
• Bus Topology • Star Topology • Ring Topology • Tree Topology • Mesh Topology
27

Amity School of Business

• Bus Topology
– It has no central hub. – It consist of a central cable to which all network devices are attached. – It is similar to ring networks except that the ends are not connected.

28

Amity School of Business

• Star Topology
– It is a oldest topology for Computer Network – It consists of a central device to which all the computers and other devices in the network connected, forming a star shape. – It provide the facility of time –sharing i.e. Centralized computing

HUB
29

Amity School of Business

• Ring Topology
– It is a less common alternative to the star and bus topology. – It do not have central hub. – The computer and other network devices are connected in a ring formation from one device to next. – Data travels from one device to another around the ring in one direction only using token passing.

30

Amity School of Business

• Tree Topology
– Also known as a 'Hierarchical topology‘. – It is a combination of Star and Bus topology. A typical scenario is: a file server is connected to a backbone cable (e.g. coaxial) that runs through the building, from which switches are connected, branching out to workstations.

31

Amity School of Business

• Mesh Topology
– In this topology only one possible path from one node to another node. If any cable in that path is broken, the nodes cannot communicate. – It uses lots of cables to connect every node with every other node. – It is very expensive to wire up, but if any cable fails, there are many other ways for two nodes to communicate.

32

Amity School of Business

Thank you

33

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful