Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society

1ppm = Analytical Chemistry e. It is the science of determining what matter is and how much of it exist. It concerned with the identification (qualitative) and qualification of matter. Qualitative AC -- about the composition of sample. Quantitative AC-- about the amount of the sample. Sample– Bulk material containing the specie of interest. Analyte – The specie of interest. Matrix – Part of a sample containing analyte. Different Methods of analysis 1. Classical or Traditional (old tech.)  Volumetric Methods (Titration)  Gravimetric Methods Modern or Instrumental (more realiable, use of machines)  Electroanalytical methods  Optical/Spectroscopic methods  Chromatographic Method (separate multi-compounds) % composition a. % - or x 100 Or x 100 b. % x 100 c. % C2 = final concentration V1 = initial volume V2 = final volume Chemical Equilibria: A. Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant (Keq) aA + bB ⇌ cC + dD Keq = d. PPM (parts per million) B. Acid – Base Equilibria HarveyArcilla&ErrolSecapuri|2012 = number of moles = total number of moles Diluting Solutions: C1V1 = C2V2 C1 = initial concentration PPB (parts per billion) 1ppb = A. Molarity (M) M= B. Molality (m) m= C. Normality (N) N= Equivalent weight = Conversion of M --> N : N=Mxf D. Mole Fraction ( ) x 109 x 106


Units of Concentration: 1.

Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society
= The Arrhenius Theory  Acids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in solution.  Bases are substances which produces hydroxide ions in solution. The Bronsted-Lowry Theory   An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor. A base is a proton (hydrogen atom) acceptor. An acid is an electron pair acceptor. A base is an electron pair donor. Ka or b = Ca or b α α = degree of dissociation Titration •A quick, accurate and widely used way of measuring the amount of substance. Components of the Titrimetric determination •Titrant – a standard reagent of known concentration that reacts with the analyte. There action and its stoichiometric relationship with the analyte must be known. •Standards –a compound of ultra pure purity that is used to standardized the titrant. •Indicator – a compound that detects the presence of excess titrant. It must not interfere with the reaction of the titrant with the analyte. Primary Standard •Is an ultrapure compound that serves as the reference material for a titrimetric method of analysis. Secondary standards •Titration standards with less purity than primary standards but can still be used in for standardizing titrants. Back Titration – A process in which the excess of a standard solution used to consume an analyte is determined by titration with a second standard solution. Errors in Chemical Analyses Accuracy – closeness of the measurement to the true or accepted value. Precision – Closeness of each results obtained in the same manner. Absolute (E) and relative errors(Er) E = xi - xt E= x 100

x 100

c = initial concentration of acid or base

The Lewis Theory  

Strong Acids – 100% dissociation of H+ Strong Bases – 100% dissociation of OH Weak Acids – H+ not completely dissociated Weak Base – OH not completely dissociated Acidity Constant HA(aq) (acid) Ka = [H+] = [A-] = dissolved species [HA] = un-dissolved species [H+] = pH = -log [H+] pH pH < 7 pH = 7 pH > 7 Basicity Constant BOH = B+ + OH[BOH] = un-dissolved weak base [B+] = [OH] = dissolved species [OH-] = pOH = -log [OH-] Degree of Ionization (α) Stronger acid or stronger base = Greater % ionization %α= x 100 Acidity Acidic Neutral Base = H+(ag) + A-(aq) (conjugate base)


Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society
Mean – or average. The sum of all data divided by the number of data points. = •Median – middlemost value along a distribution of data. Confidence Limit (CL) •An estimate of the range within which the true value might fall within a given probability CL = Chromatography  Derived from the Greek words chromos (color) and graphein (to write). Used to separate components of a given mixture. Stationary phase – none moving component (solid or liquid bonded to a solid support). Mobile phase – moving component (liquid or gas). ±t

Components of Chromatography 

Gravimetric Method of Analysis •Quantitative method in which the mass of a pure compound (product) is used to determine the quantity of the analyte from the original sample. Types of Gravimetric Methods •Precipitation Gravimetry –The analyte is separated from a solution of the sample as a precipitate and is converted to a compound of known composition that can be weighed. Volatilization Gravimetry –The analyte is separated from other constituents of a sample by conversion to a gas of known composition. The weight of the gas serves as a measure of analyte concentration. Electrogravimetry –The analyte is separated by deposition on an electrode by an electrical current. The mass of the product then provides a measure of the analyte concentration.

Reference : Sir. Jonyl Garcia’s lesson (A.Y. 20112012) HarveyArcilla&ErrolSecapuri|2012

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