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Courant Mathematics and
Computing Laboratory
U.S. Department of Energy
Numerical Analysis and
The
J.
Scientific
Method
Climm and
D. H. Sharp
Research and Development Report
Supported by the Applied Mathematical Sciences subprogram of the Office of Energy Research,
U.S. Department of Energy under
Contract DEAC0276ERO 3077
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Mathematics and Computers
January 1986
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UNCLASSIFIED
„ ^, ^. ^ Mathematics and ^ Computers DOE/ER/03077270 UC32
Courant Mathematics and Computing Laboratory
New York University
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
J.
Glimm and
D.
H.
Sharp
*
January 1986
Supported by the Applied Mathematical Sciences subprogram of the Office of Energy Research, U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC0276ER03077
*
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM
UNCLASSIFIED
11
DISCLAIMER
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any arency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or Implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply Its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by The the United States Government or any agency thereof. views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
Printed in U.S.A.
Available from
National Technical Information Service U.S. Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22l6l
Ill
Contents
Page
Abstract
1. 2.
3.
1
2 4
The Computer Revolution The Method of Scientific Computing
The Grand Unified Scheme (GUS)
7 9
4.
5.
Front Tracking
Conclusions
References
12 12
17
6. 7.
Figure Captions
Figures
19
1
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD
J.
Glimm
1,2,3
Courant
Institute of
Mathematica] Sciences
New York University New York, N. Y. 10012
D. H. Sharp
Lx)s
*
Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, N. M. 87545
ABSTRACT
The computer has given
rise to a
new mode
of scientific practice,
and today computational science stands beside theory and experiment
as a fundamental tion
methodology.
The impact of
the computer revoluto
on science can be projected from current trends. The demands
will
be made on computing methodologies
be reviewed.
in
One
of the
demands
dologies.
is
an ongoing need for excellence
computational metho
Generic
difficulties
encountered
in
meeting these challenges will
be discussed. Recent work of the authors and others will be reviewed
in this context.
in pan by the National Science Foundation, grant DMS  831229. Supported in part by the Applied Mathematical Sciences subprogram of the Office of Energy Research, U. S. Department of Energy, under contract DEACX)276ERC3077 3, Supported in pan by the Army Research Office, grant D,\AG298501S3 4, Work supponed by the Department of Energy.
1,
Supponed
2,
2The Computer Revolation.
The ages of
history are demarcated as
fall
1.
much by
the rise and
fall
of ideas and
technology as by the rise and
puter age
is
of empires and nations.
In Jiis sense the
com
a turning point for
human
events as was the earlier industrial revolution
based upon mechanical energy. With a narrower focus,
the computer revolution
we
consider the impact of
on
science.
Turning points
in science are
marked by
the
introduction of
new
ideas and
new
tools,
and especially by developments which are
calculus, the electron microscope
both tools and ideas.
With the invention of
and
DNA
sequencing, one finds an ability to formulate, understand and solve a range of
this perspective, the
problems which had previously been inaccessible. Judged from
computer revolution
three examples.
will
have an impact on science
at least as large as did these
Very large
In
to
parts of science are described in terms of mathematical equations.
to these equations
most cases the solutions
numerical computation.
cannot be obtained without recourse
In the thirty years since the advent of
main frame com
puters, an impressive range of problems have been solved with the aid of computers.
Running a modern wind tunnel
to test airfoil designs costs
150 million dollars
per year.
ally
Supercomputers can explore a much larger range of ideas than can actutest facilities
be tested, and expensive
can be reserved for the most promising
designs.
In fact a broad reinge of two dimensional fluid flow problems are under
reasonable scientific control, due primarily to progress on numerical computation on
these problems.
The
list
of such successes could be extended to considerable length.
little
Lx)oking to the future, there can be
subfields of biology
assisted
is
doubt that the mathematization of various
impending.
As
indications
we can
cite the
recent computer
determination of the three dimensional structure of the polio and cold
viruses [37, 49J, computer simulation of the heart with natural and artificial valves
[46]
and algorithms for the analysis of
DNA sequences
[33],
Computers can
also be used as an experimental tool to explore the
in the
unknown,
Feigenbaum discovered universal order
behavior of chaos [20, 17] through
computer experiments, a development which has stimulated and rejuvenated several
3branchcs of mathematics jmd physics.
Computers can simulate experimentally
difficult
or unattainable parameter
ranges, such as the conditions in the interior of the sun or a few microseconds after
the big
bang origin of the universe. They can also simulate undesirable parameter
ranges such as occur in safety studies to avoid accidents in chemical or nuclear reactors.
There have been three types of
limits
proposed for the ultimate scope of the
computational method.
to be,
However,
it is
not clear
how
firm these limits will turn out
to set ultimate limits
it is
and
in the authors'
jvdgment,
it is
no more possible
in science
It
on
the scope of the computational
methodology
than
to set limits
on the
scope of future progress in theory or experiment.
has been proposed that funda
mental physical limits such as the speed of
puters.
light will limit the
speed of future com
However,
the development of parallel computers, which do
many operaclass of
tions concurrently,
may permit an end run around
known
as
this
problem.
A
com
binatorial problems,
NPcomplete problems, arc
to
effectively outside of
fall into
practical computation.
this class
The extent
which the important problems which
lie in this class
can be restricted to subproblems which do not
is
or can be
it
otherwise modified so as to be effectively computable
not known.
Finally,
in
has
been proposed that problems with producing complex computer code
and reliable form may provide an outer
tain types of
debugged
limit for the use of
computers
to solve certhis
problems.
Again there are several
in particular: portable
strategics
which may mitigate
problem.
We
mention
operating systems and software tools,
high level languages and standardized calling sequences and modular libraries to
allow interchangeability of reliable software components which can be used and thus
tested through time in a variety of applications.
There
scientific
is
no shortage of current
limits.
For
all
of
its
astonishing successes, In
computations provide much
less than science
and technology need.
most important
scientific applications, the solutions arc
undercomputed
is
relative to
the scientific requirements.
stantial
The gap between needs and performance
all
often subthis
(and includes almost
in
three dimensional problems).
Narrowing
gap
will
depend on progress
both hardware and computational methodologies.
To
4asscss the current achievements and shortfalls of specific computational
like trying to decide
methods
It
is
whether a glass of water
is
half full or half empty.
can
perhaps wryly be observed that those with responsibility for supporting and maintaining a
code tend
to believe that
is
it is
correct and adequate, those
who
use
it
tend
to believe that the
code
rather imperfect, but can nevertheless serve as a guide to
the wise scientist or engineer, and those
who
develop new methods tend to be
acutely
aware of the flaws
in existing codes.
2.
The Method of Scientific Computing.
What
arc the methodologies which define
scientifi';
computing as a
distinct
approach to science, complementing the traditional approaches of theory and experi
ment?
Scientific computing begins with
mathematical modeling, whereby essential
features of a scientific problem are expressed in terms of mathematical equations.
Typically, important
to carry out later
compromises and judgments are made
at this stage.
In order
computational steps, unimportant and sometimes important probto a
lem features must be suppressed. These judgments lead
sequence of models
which capture different aspects of the same problem. The different models may be
integrated hierarchically in that a fine scale
ters of a coarser
scientist or
model may be used
to set the
parame
model, or they may be integrated only
in the final
judgments of the
engineer using them.
After the mathematical equations have been formulated, they must be cast in a
form suitable for numerical computation. This usually requires
tized in
that they be discrc
one way or another. The key step
is
the formulation of a solution algorithm
is
to solve the discretized equations.
This step
so important that
it
often influences
the preceding steps of
model formulation and
testing
discretization.
The next stage
is
and validation of the solution algorithm. Validation
comparison with known analytic
may be accomplished by
solutions,
the following methods:
comparison with previously validated computations, comprrison with
experiments
laboratory
and internal consistency checks.
Such internal checks
include convergence under
mesh refinement,
ansilysis
of solution errors and analysis
5of diagnostic data.
Truncation errors and convergence rates can be analyzed
mathematically.
Occasionally there
may be
a mathematical convergence theorem
for the solution algorithm.
The
final stage in scientific
computing
is
to
use a validated and debugged code
for scientific or engineering purposes.
The preceding
as glib as
it
outline for scientific computing
would
strike
most practitioners
omits
all
discussion of difficulties.
We
focus on the difficulties inherent
difficulties defines the subject of
in the solution
algorithm stage.
Dealing with these
numerical analysis.
Typical methodological difficulties, as they manifest themselves to a user,
the following
show
symptoms: Slow convergence, nonconvergence, numerical
effects.
it
instabilities
is
and numerical simulation of spurious physical
Nonconvergence
normally
the sign of an incorrect algorithm, but in listing
tle possibilities,
here,
we have
in
mind more sub
such as solution convergence in an L norm, while solution values at
specific points (Z,^ convergence)
may be
invalid.
The
trap
is
easy to
fall into,
since
the solution value at
some
singular point (such as a crack tip)
may be
both the most
important and the least convergent part of the solution. The discretization process
is
a modification of the
mathemf
ical
equations and consequcntiy of the physics or
problem formulation which the equations represent. In some cases the original physical
process
is
unstable or only weakly stable to changes in the equations or equaIn such cases, there
is
tion parameters.
the danger that numerical discretization
errors
errors
may
grossly change the nature of the solution.
Even
for stable physics, these
may change
the solution quantitatively to an unacceptable degree.
The symptoms which
cally
a user
may observe
as a sign of
poor performance
typi
have their origin
in difficulties inherent in the original
mathemtical equations
and their solutions.
satisfactory
In general finite difference
and
finite
elcmrnt methods give
performance when computing smooth solutions
to regular
problems
in a
space of not too high a dimension.
t)'pes
We
first
want
to
emphasize two somewhat unrelated
of problem difficulties.
The
has to do with rapid solution variation, Isttc
6space or time derivatives and jump discontinuities or other solution singularities.
Such features are ubiquitous.
They
arise in
and give
rise to
boundary layers.
Chemical reactions are a
systems.
typical source of multiple time scales, also
known
as stiff
Problems with multiple material interfaces or shock waves have discon
tinuous solutions.
To
explain this point
more
fully
we
note that the shock width in
is
gas dynamics
is
of the order of a
mean
free path,
which
about 10~'
cm and
far
smaller than the macroscopic dimensions of typical flow fields.
dient within the shock might then be of the order of 10* or
units appropriate to the problem.
The pressure
gra
more using dimensional
Likewise a flame front width could be 10"^
cm
but such numbers are highly problem dependent.
fire flood, the
For example
in
an
oil
reservoir
flame width could be 20
feet,
and
still
small compared to macroscopic
dimensions.
factor of
10^''
Chemical reaction rates within a single problem can easily vary by a
because of their exponential dependence on activation energies. The
importance of discontinuities and singularities has long been recognized by the com
munity working on hyperbolic equations. However, they are
elliptic
just as
important for
problems such as steady
crack
tips,
state elasticity or multifluid incompressible flow,
due
to
corners and material or phase boundaries, a fact which appears to
have been given
less
emphasis than
class of
it
deserves.
difficulties
The second major
problem
we
discuss has to do with the
occurrence of a large or infinite number of essential degrees of freedom. Problems
having these features arise in the study of turbulence,
statistical
mechanics and
equations of state, quantum field theory and stochastic partial differential equations.
This class of difficulties
is
the
more
intractable of the two,
and the examples of
short of the sys
scientific studies [18, 21, 32, 34, 42, 44]
which can be cited
fall far
tematic needs for computational solutions in these areas due to slow convergence.
Looking ahead
to
our proposed methodology for the
infinite
first class
of problems,
we
also
observe that the problems with an
very
difficult
number of degrees of freedom are
that theoretical ideas
from a theoretical point of view, and
have not
yet provided the
capabilities or
means
to devise numerical
methods with the required enhanced
convergence properties.
7

3.
The Grand Unified Scheme (GUS).
As
a general principle,
we propose
the
maximal use of
analytic
knowledge of
solution properties.
solutions,
This principle has been successfully used in the czsc of smooth
where
the
known
solution
regularity
is
used to devise higher order
singularities,
methods which give accelerated convergence. For the case of solution
which give
rise to the first class of difficulties
mentioned
in the
previous section,
we
propose maximal use of analytic knowledge of those solution
singularities.
Perhaps
paradoxically, the solution singularities can be a source of problem simplification, in
that the idealized or asymptotic behavior in the
neighborhood of the singularity may
full solution.
possess a simpler structure or higher symmetry than does the
the singularity
Thus
may be an
opportunity for theoretical progress; there
may
also be a
is
considerable body of knowledge concerning the singularities.
this
Our proposal
to use
body of knowledge within the numerical algorithm
knowledge.
itself,
and where necessary
is
to create the required
An
instance of this circle of ideas
the vortex
method, which uses vortices
to represent idealized fluid
elements in (for example)
shear layers and turbulent flow fields [14, 15, 32, 34, 50, 61, 62]. Related ideas arc
the interface
methods based on boundary
integral
methods
[3, 58],
and conformal
mapping
[43].
The Grand Unified Scheme
is
a version of the general principles discussed
above, suitable for compressible reactive fluid flow.
of
These ideas are an outgrowth
work
carried out over several years with
many
colleagues, and
were presented
in
preliminary form in [29].
The scheme could
is
also be called the Kitchen
Smk Scheme
(KSS) because the main idea
to this
to
use everything. There are four main components
briefly in this section.
scheme and we discuss each
The four components
arc:
interior schemes, front tracking, automatic
totic reactive
mesh refinement and automatic asympselection).
built
chemistry (or automatic
mode
High
quality interior
schemes have been
around two ideas: flux limitcrs
to
control overshoots and numerical oscillations and approximate
Riemann
solvers to
achieve upwind differencing
[9, 16,
36, 57].
The main idea of
tional
front tracking
is
to introduce, as
an independent computa
degree of freedom, the surfaces of jump discontinuity which
may
occur within
a solution. This method will be explained in
more
detail in the following section.
Automatic mesh refinement
solution
is
is
the idea of using fine grids in regions
where the where
singular or rapidly varying, coupled with course grids in regions
the solution has a regular behavior.
enterprise,
This method has given rise to a large ongoing
from which we
cite representative
works
[1, 2, 8, 56J.
Automated asymptotics or automated mode
selection for reactive chemistry
is
the proposal to determine the ambient conditions
from the neighbors of a given
mesh block and on
the basis of these conditions to determine rate limiting reactions
and simplified chemistry, so that the rapid reactions are replaced by frozen or
quasisteady state conditions.
this
A
hierarchy of time scales would be identified, and in
hierarchy, the rapid times are treated as quasisteady state, the intermediate
times would be treated implicitly, while the slowest times would be treated explicitly
and the transients for these time scales would be
fully
and accurately resolved.
this unified
There have been several attempts
In [12] the
to date to
implement
proposal.
modem
interior
schemes were successfully combined with a limited ver
sion of front tracking.
the above.
In [6], automatic
efforts to
mesh refinement was
successfully
added
to
However,
combine mesh refinement with modern
interior
schemes
at the
in the
absence of tracking led to spurious waves generated by strong shocks
boundaries of the fine meshes. For a problem which does not contain strong
shocks, the successful combination of
mesh refinement with a high
analysis of critical
quality interior
scheme has been obtained
tion asymptotics as
[7].
The automated
is
modes and
solu
proposed above
an ambitious undertaking and has not been
attempted to date.
Hybrid schemes have obvious software complexity problems which
mentioned below. More serious arc the
to stress the
scientific difficiilties.
will
be
like
Here we would
problems of a fundamental mathematical nature.
Riemann problems
define the scale invariant large time solution asymptotics to leading order and pose a
cumber of problems both
dimensions [28, 30].
for their behavior in the large and their behavior in higher
Such considerations have inspired a study of Ricmann prob
lems
in a variety of physical contexts
and have led
to the discovery of
new and
strik
ing mathematical
phenomena
[19, 51, 52, 53, 54], including
shocks which violate
is
most proposed physical admissibility conditions.
bolic
A
related problem
the hyper
problem with an embedded
elliptic
region, a notoriously difficult problem
which
arises in a variety of contexts including transonic flow, elasticity, oil reser
voirs, multiphase flow
[4, 5,
and the
relativistic
hydrodynamics of a quarkgluon plasma
38, 55, 59, 60].
4,
Front Tracking
Front tracking can be most adequately described by a picture. In Figure 4.1
wc
show
the grids used for a front tracking solution.
Note
that there
is
a regular two
dimensional grid covering a channel, including the wedge, which
the channel.
is
an obstacle in
The front includes a shock wave
incident
on
the
wedge, the channel
represented by a
walls and the wedge, as well as the inlet and outlet surfaces.
It is
lower dimensional (one dimensional) grid, which moves
derived from the jump conditions (the
in time, using velocities
Paemann problem)
of gas dynamics.
The plan
to
use front tracking was initiated by O. McBryan and one of the
authors seven yc2us ago; a clear and early statement of the method and the scientific
program
scries of
is
contained
in [22].
This program was developed and implemented in a
the authors, Oliver
more than 40 papers by
McBryan and other coworkers,
see for example [10, 11, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. In these papers, proof of principle
and
scientific validation has
been established. Validation has been accomplished by
laboratory experiments, elementary one dimen
comparison
to analytic solutions,
sional calculations, and previously validated
computer codes,
as well as
convergence
under mesh refinement. These
tests
have been conducted
in the context of a variety
of different applications. In Figure 4.2
we show convergence under mesh
to a simpler
refinement
and comparison of a two dimensional computation
(radially
one dimensional
in
symmetric) computation for a cylindricaUy symmetrical detonation front,
10
work by
At
B. Bukict [10]. the outset the concept of front tracking
to initiate this
was considered
to
be hopelessly
wrong, and the plan
controversy.
tifically, it
approach
in a serious
way prompted considerable
scien
The concerns were of three
to
types: This
it
method might not work
might never be able
to
was too complicated
implement, and
handle
problems of even moderate engineering complexity. Actually there was a record of
previous attempts with this method, which provided encouragement that the method
was fundamentally sound
above.
[40,
45, 48].
The
scientific validation
was discussed
Various numerical issues such as the coupling scheme between the interior
in the
and the front have been examined but deserve further study. Local behavior
neighborhood of codimension two intersection points of tracked discontinuities also
needs further study.
The software complexity
ferent
issues
were handled through a strategy which
in
is dif
from
that normally
employed
computational fluid dynamics, and which
will
might be worthy of consideration by others. These issues have been [27] and
discussed elsewhere.
be
On
the basis of this success with scientific validation and control of software
it
complexity,
can be stated that a proof of scientific principle for front tracking has
been achieved.
Next we discuss the
transition of the front tracking
method from
benchmark validation
studies to problems of
moderate engineering complexity.
is
A
central research issue involved in this transition
the ability to allow bifurcations or
changes
in front
is
topology due to the interaction or crossing of tracked waves. This
program
partially
complete and
we
report on progress achieved by coworkers.
In Figure 4.3
we show
a computation of a line drive well configuration taken
from an
oil
reservoir study in which the jet pinch off instability leads to successive
front bifurcation [26].
In Figure 4.4
hits a
we show
successive stages in the front topology as a shock
finally a
wave
ramp, forms a regular reflection and
Mach stem
[11].

11
In Figure 4.5 vvc
ics,
show KclvinHelmholtz
slip line exiting
roll
up for compressible gas dynam
with the tracked
and reappearing through periodic boundaries
[11].
In Figure 4.6
we show
successive stages in front topology as a shock
instability,
wave
hits
J.
a contact in initiation of
Meshkov
taken from unpublished
in
this
work of
Grove
change
[35].
There arc two remarkable points
computation.
One
ij
the
in front
topology which ccurs within the computation, a transition which
has always been regarded as a significant obstacle to the use of this method.
The
other concerns contiguous waves, as discussed in the next paragraph.
There have been several definitive achievements of the front tracking
First
effort.
wc mention
(y
a calculation of
1.1) SF(,
Grove
[35] in
hit
which a contact separates highly
compressible
=
from
air.
When
from a shock on the
air side, the
transmitted shock in the
SF(,
and the contact
itself lie
almost on top of each other,
making
this
problem
virtually impossible to
compute correctly by standard methods.
Grove's solution, calculated easily on a 20x20 grid shows the efficacy of front tracking.
J.
Jones [39] determined the leading order endothcrmic effect of radial cooling
in
on reactive chemistry
curved detonation fronts. This piece of asymptotic analysis
it
solved a major open problem in reactive hydrodynamics;
was prompted by
the
requirement of front tracking for analytic knowledge of solution behavior.
King, Lindquist and Reyna [41] solved a 20 year old problem posed by Ratchford
[47],
a
leading
petroleum engineer.
They showed
that
finite
difference
methods can duplicate the phenomena of viscous fingering with immiscible displace
ment and
capillary
diffusion,
as
is
observed in laboratory experiments.
This
to
achievement resulted from the need for a benchmark calculation for comparison
front tracking studies [24].
.
12
.
5.
Conclaslons.
Science requires computational methods with enhanced capabilities which go
beyond currently available techniques.
needs
is
A
promising strategy for meeting these
to
to use
methods which are adapted
known
solution behavior.
An
outline
for pursuing this strategy in the context of compressible reactive flow has
been
presented.
Work
directed at implementing this strategy has been discussed with an
emphasis on the front tracking program.
6.
References.
1.
I.
Babushka and
Mechanics.
W.
In:
Rheinboldt. Adaptive Finite Element Processes in StrucElliptic
tural
Problem Solvers n. Eds: G. Birkoff and A.
Schoenstadt, 345379. Academic Press,
2.
I.
New York
(1984).
Finite
Babushka and W. Rheinboldt. Analysis of Optimal
of
Element Meshes
in
RK Math,
3.
Comp. 33 435463
I.
(1979).
G.R. Baker, D.
Mciron and S.A. Orszag. Vortex Simulations of the
RayleighTaylor InstabiUty. Phys. Fluids 23 2864 (1980).
4.
G. Baym. The Hadronixation Transition
J. B. Bell, J.
in the
Early Universe. Preprint.
5.
A. Trangcnstcin and G. R. Shubin. Conservation Laws of Mixed
in
Type Describing ThreePhase Flow
6.
Porous Media. To appear.
M. Berger and
P. Colclla. Local adaptive
mesh refinement
for shock hydro
dynamics. In preparation.
7.
M. Berger and A. Jameson. Automatic
equations.
adaptive grid refinement for Euler
.
AIAA
J.
Journal 23, 561568 (1985)
Oliger.
J.
8.
M. Berger and
Adaptive mesh refinement for hyperbolic partial
53, 484512 (1984).
I. J.
dif
ferential equations.
9.
Comp. Phys.
J.
Boris and D. Book, Flux corrected transport,
Comp. Phys.
11,
3869
(1973).
1310.
B. Bukict. Application of Front Tracking to
tion Fronts.
Two
Dimensional Curved Detona
NYU preprint.
Glimm,
J.
11.
B. Bukiet, C. L. Gardner, J.
Grove,
J.
Jones, O. McBryan, R.
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Figure Captions.
Figure 4.1. The grids used by front tracking for a shock on ramp problem.
lar
A
regu
two dimensional grid
is
superimposed on a one dimensional front (grid). The
latter consists
of the incident and reflected shock, the
ramp boundary and
the boun
dary of the computational rectangle.
Figure 4,2. a. Comparison of one and two dimensional computations for a cylindrically
symmetrical detonation front computation,
A
plot of pressure vs. radius
is
shown. The solid curve shows the
choice computation.
results obtained
by the onedimensional random
range of pressure values in the
The
vertical lines represent the
twodimensional front tracking solution at a fixed radius as the angle varies. Thus
the vertical lines
show
the range of angular dependence
on the
solution.
The
grid
is
40 by 40.
Figure 4.2.b Convergence under mesh refinement in the two dimensional computation.
Figure 4.3. Automated bifurcation of tracked fronts illustrated in a
tability in
jet
pinchoff ins
an
oil
reservoir study.
Here water has been
produced
injected in five wells located
at the
bottom of the figure, and
oil is
at five wells located at the top of the
figure.
The
reservoir parameters represent stable (.^placement, and so the wateroil
interface does not finger.
However
for these
same parameters,
the oil
is
more
18mobile, and consequently forms a
jet
between the injection wells.
Figure 4.4. Bifurcations of front topology in a shock on ramp problem.
An
incident
shock
hits
a ramp, and undergoes bifurcation to a regular reflection.
When
Mach
the regu
lar reflection
node reaches the top of the ramp, a bifurcation
to a
type node
occurs. This
Mach
triple point is
degenerate in that the reflected wave has zero
is
strength at the triple point.
The
grid here
30 by 30.
roll
Figure 4.5. Compressible KelvinHelmholtz
up, including passage of the front
through a periodic boundary.
Figure 4.6. Initiation of
Mcshkov
instability,
taken from unpublished
work of
J.
Grove. In these four frames, a shock wave
hits
a sinusoidal contact discontinuity
separating two gases of different density (air and SF^).
The
first
frame shows the
wave
fronts just before initial contact, the second after the shock
wave has
hit the
contact, giving rise to transmitted
and reflected shocks
in the
two gases. The
third
and fourth figures show only the main waves, consisting of the contact and reflected and transmitted shocks, after these waves have separated from one another. Contin
ued
to later time, this
nm
will
show an
interface instability
known
as the
Meshkov
instability.
Figure 4.7. The shock contact interaction, with highly compressible fluid below the
contact, taken
from unpublished work of
J.
Grove.
19
•^
'
bo unci dry
S^ctJti\i Shcck
}
Boui^dar
/?e
iU c t cji
Sli o c /f
Figure 4.1
a
20
2LX
RADIUS
Figure
4. 2.
»%
21
20%
g
10%
/
0%
'il
I
# «
I
interior error
1
« *
froot error
•
averaie front enor
~*®*
N80N40 N20
Fig 4.2,b.
N»10
N«5
^ « 2Ax  2A>
Converge under mesh refinement in the two dimensional computation. Convergence of the front and interior schemes. The pressure errors in the interior and at the front are shown for NzN grids at the time indicated by Fig.^% 2b The # signs represent the interior error, where
Interior Error
= 100% x
lflf\P2.^Jdxdy '0 •'0
,5.5 Jo Jo Pimc.I<Uu'^>
The
front error (error bars) gives the range of the errors at the front, defined as
Front Error
= 100% x
[P]
where [P] is the pressure jump at the front in the onedimensional computation at the same time. The asterisks represent the error of the average pressure behind the front, lamely
P
Front Error(average pressure)
= 100% x
'^'^ —P.~
22
Figure 4.3
23
time
>
time

0.081
time

0.15
time

22
Figure 4.4
24
time
time

0.93
time
2.3
time
»
2.9
Figure 4.5
25
•H
26
time
time
" 0.029
time

0.037
time

0.059
Fipure 4.7
FOURTEEN DAYS
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fine will
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