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# College of Engineering EE Department

HARMONICS IN POWER Distribution Networks

- Problem & Solutions -

**Class Notes ELEC 423 Electric Power Distribution Spring 2012
**

by

**Dr. Khaled Ellithy
**

Course Instructor

CONTENTS

Introduction Non-linear loads Harmonics Effects Harmonics Representation & Harmonics indices International standards Harmonics resonance problem Solutions to harmonics problem Harmonics analysis using EDSA software

2

1

INTRODUCTION

3

INTRODUCTION

What is Power Quality Problem?

Power quality problem is defined as any problem manifested in current, voltage or frequency, which causes end-use equipment failure or malfunction

2

**Power Quality Includes
**

Voltage and current unbalance

Voltage sag and swell Voltage fluctuation and flicker Voltage Transients Grounding Harmonics

5

**Typical 50Hz Current Waveform
**

(Pure 50Hz Sinewave)

Pure Sine waveform

Pure 50Hz Sine waveform

No Harmonics

6

3

**Typical Distorted Current Waveforms
**

EDSA Harmonic Analysis

318.9 212.6 106.3

Non Sinusoidal waveform

Amps

0.0 -106.3 -212.6 -318.9 0 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720

Angle in Degrees

Non Sinusoidal waveform (Distorted waveform)

Harmonics exist

7

**Harmonics In Power Distribution Networks
**

In recent years, harmonics have become a serious

problem in many industrial and commercial power distribution networks power networks are increasing due to the growth of the use electronic devices such as UPSs and VFDs

The harmonic distortion of voltage/current in the International standards such as IEEE and IEC

standards were adopted to provide guidelines for controlling voltage and current harmonic distortions

8

4

**Harmonics In Power Distribution Networks
**

Harmonics generate by industrial and commercial

loads must be reduced to satisfy the international standards and to prevent the power network and equipments from damage

** Solving harmonics problems requires
**

- Harmonics measurement - Harmonics analysis - Good understanding of harmonics sources

** Harmonics problem can be solved by using passive
**

or active harmonic filters

9

Harmonics Sources

What are the major sources of harmonics?

The major sources of harmonics are the non linear loads or devices that draw highly non sinusoidal (distorted) currents

Utility

Transformer

Distorted Currents

Shunt Capacitor

Motor Distorted current waveform Non linear Loads Distorted current waveform

10

5

Non Linear Loads

11

**Non Linear Loads
**

The major sources of harmonics are the non linear loads that draw highly non sinusoidal (distorted) currents

150 100 50

0

-50

**Distorted current waveform
**

50 100 150 200 250 300 350

-100

-150 0

20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0

Distorted Current

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

pure sine wave

Non-linear load

12

6

**Non-Linear Loads
**

Types of Non-Linear Loads

Ferromagnetic F errom a gn etic D evice s Devices Magnetic Circuits its M ag n etic C ircu T ra n sfo rm e Transformers rs M ag . B a lla sts Magnetic Ballast e tc... etc… Arc Furnaces s A rc Fu rn ace Fluorescent lights F luo . L ig hts e tc... etc… Rectifiers R ectifiers VFD’s B a lla sts E le c. SMPS S SMP Electronic Ballast A S D 's e tc... etc..

NonLLinear ine ar Load s L oad

N on

A rcin g Devices Arcing D evices

E Electronic le ctro n ic CConverters on verte rs

13

Linear Loads

Linear Load applies to devices that display constant steady-state impedance during the cycle of the applied sinusoidal voltage waveform. Linear loads occur when the impedance is constant; then the current is proportional to the voltage - a straightline graph Examples of Linear Loads are: Heaters Incandescent Lighting

14

7

**Non-Linear Loads
**

Non-Linear loads are devices that do not exhibit constant impedance during the entire cycle of applied sinusoidal voltage waveform. This causes the current waveform to be distorted with respect to a sine wave Examples of Linear Loads are: - Switched mode power supply - Variable frequency drive - Electric Arc Furnace

15

**Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
**

What is a variable frequency drive?

A variable frequency drive is a solid state device that convert ac voltage supply to variable voltage and frequency to control 3-phase induction motors. By controlling motor speed, energy saving can be achieved

**6-Pulse VFD 12-Pulse VFD
**

16

8

**Variable Frequency Drives
**

Harmonics Spectrum of 6-Pulse VFD

Harmonics Spectrum of 6-Pulse VFD

Theritical

120 100 Harmonic Current (%) 80 60 40 20 0 1 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th Order of Harmonic Component

Typical

Theoretical

Theoretical, the harmonic components are

%I h

Ii x100 h

17

**6-Pulse VSD Input Current
**

6-Pulse

18

9

**Uninterruptible Power Supply
**

The purpose of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is

to isolate the load from any interruption in the line including under voltage and blackout by supplying continuous ac voltage. In case of blackout, the battery will feed the output for a time dependent on the battery size from few minutes to hours.

By Pass Switch Power Source AC/DC Converter DC/AC Converter Load Battery

19

Output

**Harmonics Generated by UPS
**

UPS’s produce harmonic currents on upstream power network due to rectifier-charger. The 5th harmonics is the dominant harmonic order. The current total harmonics (%I-THD) is approximately 30%.

Harmonics Upstream of UPS

120 Relative Amplitude 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 5th 7th 11th 13th 17Th Harmonics Order

20

10

**Non-Linear Loads
**

3th Harmonic Generating Loads

Computer equipment, fluorescent lighting, switch mode power supplies, single-phase UPS and so on. These loads generate third harmonics, which tend to collect in the neutral conductor of the LV network

Harmonic Spectrum of a typical PC

21

Florescent Lamps

3th Harmonic Generating Loads

%I-THD =18.5%

**Fluorescent lamp current (with magnetic ballast)
**

%I-THD =11.6%

Fluorescent lamp current (with electronic ballast) 22

11

**Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF's)
**

In modern steel industry, EAF's are widely used for scrap melting and iron. The operation of EAF cause many power quality problem such as voltage flicker and harmonics.

Position drive & control

Electrode

Vessel Melt

The electricity needed for EAF process is enough to power a town with large population 23

**Mitigation of EAF Voltage Fluctuation & Flicker
**

Power System Supply

FACTS

Flexible AC Transmission System

Arc Furnace

24

12

**Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
**

Static Var Compensator (SVC) Thyristor Switch Capacitor (TSC) Static Compensator (STATCOM)

C

L SVC

Typical SVC

25

Effects of Harmonics

Motor overheating

Allowing the motor to reach and operate at a temperature of about 10oC above its max temperature rating will reduce the motor expected life time by 50%

Transformer overheating Cable overheating and insulation degradation Malfunction of relays Frequent tripping of circuit breakers Neutral conductor overloading Resonance & capacitor failure Errors in metering equipments Decrease power factor

26

13

**Results of Harmonics Effect
**

Waste energy Increase electrical costs Cause loss of productivity Increased maintenance expense Deterioration of cable insulation Increased voltage drops Destroy equipment Cause fires

27

Harmonics Representation and Harmonics Indices

28

14

**Harmonics Representation and Harmonics Indices
**

150

**distorted current waveform fundamental component
**

100

**3rd component 5th component 7th component
**

9th component

50

11th component

Current (A)

0

-50

-100

-150 0 0.01 Time (s) 0.02

Fundamental Definitions

Harmonics: are sinusoidal currents and voltages having integer multiples of the system's fundamental frequency (50Hz). For example, the 5th harmonic frequency is 150Hz (3x50Hz)

100

50Hz Fundamental

0 -100 50

150Hz 3th

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

250Hz

150Hz (5th order)

0

350Hz

7th

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

-50 20

350Hz (7th order)

0

-20

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Note: When the frequencies of currents and voltages are not an integer of the fundamental they are termed interharmonics 30

15

Fundamental Definitions

Harmonic Order: is a number indicating the harmonic frequency. For example, the third harmonic (3rd) is the harmonic component with 3 times the fundamental frequency Distorted Waveform: is composed of sinusoidal waves of different frequencies

150 100 current A 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0 0.005 0.01 Time s 0.015 0.02

Distorted waveform

31

Fundamental Definitions

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): is the amount of harmonics in a distorted wave as a percentage of the fundamental. It is a measures of the degree to which a waveform deviates from a purely sinusoidal Point of Common Coupling (PCC): is the point where an individually utility shares a connection with customers. Usually at the main transformer or at the revenue meter

32

16

Fundamental Definitions

Frequency Scan (Impedance Scan): is a plot of the magnitude of driving point impedance at the bus of interest versus harmonic order or harmonic frequency. It is useful in identifying resonance conditions. A sharp rise occurring in the impedance value implies parallel resonance. Series resonance, on other hand, is identified by A dip in the impedance value implies

33

**Representation of Harmonics Current Distortion
**

A distorted periodic symmetrical current waveforms current i(t) can be expanded into in a Fourier Series as follows

where n = 1,2,3, … is harmonic order ω0 = Fundamental frequency in rad/sec (ω= 2лf0, f0 = 50Hz)

**The Root Mean Square Value (RMS) value of i(t)
**

OR I RMS

h 1

I h2

34

17

**Representation of Voltage Harmonic Distortion
**

A distorted periodic symmetrical voltage waveforms current v(t) can be expanded into in a Fourier Series as follows

where n = 1,2,3, … is harmonic order ω0 = Fundamental frequency in rad/sec (ω= 2лf0, f0 = 50Hz)

**The RMS value of v(t)
**

OR V RMS

V

h 1

2 h

35

**Representation of Harmonic Distortion
**

I 0 Hz 0 Hz t

Distorted Distorted Current Current Waveform Waveform (Periodic) (Periodic Waveform)

I

60Hz 50 Hz t Fundamental Fundamental

I

120Hz 100 Hz t 2ndHarmonic 2nd Harmonic

=

Δ

I

DC Component DC Component

150 Hz 180Hz

I t

200 Hz 240Hz

I t

250 300Hz Hz

t

5 Harmonic 5th Harmonic

th

-.....

3 Harmonic 3ndHarmonic

rd

**4 Harmonic 4th Harmonic
**

th

36

18

**Representation of Harmonic Distortion Waveform
**

100 Fundamental 50Hz

150 distorted current waveform fundamental component 3rd component 5th component 7th component 9th component 11th component

50 150Hz 3th 0 -50 20 0 -20 1 0 -1

3rd

0 -100 50

50Hz

100

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02 5th 350Hz 7th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

150Hz

7th

50 Current (A)

Δ

150Hz 5th 250Hz

0 -50 5

0

-50

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02 9th 550Hz 11th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

350Hz

-100

11th

-150

0

0.01 Time (s)

0.02

450Hz 9th 450Hz

0 -5

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

550Hz

37

**Representation of Harmonic Distortion Waveform
**

Harmonic Spectrum

100% Amplitude of the harmonic components 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Harmonic order

100 Fundamental 0 50Hz -100 50 0 250Hz -50 5 0 450Hz -5

50 0 -50 20 0 -20 1 0 -1

3rd

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02 5th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

150Hz

7th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02 9th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

350Hz

11th

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

550Hz

38

19

**Current and Voltage Harmonics Distortion
**

The current harmonic distortion IH-RMS value of the i(t)

OR

I H RMS

I

h2

2 h

The voltage harmonic distortion VH-RMS value of the v(t)

OR

V H RMS

V

h2

2 h

39

**Harmonics Phase Sequence
**

Harmonic Order Positive (+) Sequence h = 3n -2 Negative (-) Sequence h = 3n -1 Zero (0) Sequence h = 3n

1 (Fundamental) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10,11,12,…

Sequence

+ 0 + 0 + 0 +,-,0,…

The negative sequence (5th,11th, etc) harmonics are particular concern to industry today. When distorted voltage containing the negative sequence harmonics applied to a 3-phase motor, it will attempt to drive the motor in reverse, creating a negative torque. In order to compensate for this negative torque, the motor must draw additional fundamental current.

40

20

**Total Harmonic Distortion of Voltage
**

Voltage total harmonic distortion (V-THD) is used to define the effect of harmonics on power system voltage. It is expressed as a percent of the fundamental and is define as:

%V THD

Where

VH RMS x100 V1 RMS

VH RMS V22 V32 .... Vh2

V

h2

2 h

is the voltage harmonic distortion

V1-RMS

= Fundamental Voltage, RMS

41

**Total Harmonic Distortion of Current
**

Current total harmonic distortion (I-THD) is used to define the effect of harmonics on power system current. It is expressed as a percent of the fundamental and is define as:

% I THD

where

2 2 I H RMS I 2 I 32 .... I h

**I H RMS x100 I1 RMS
**

2 h

I

h2

is the current harmonic distortion

I1-RMS = fundamental Voltage, RMS

42

21

**Total Demand Distortion
**

Total Demand distortion (TDD) is defined by IEEE 519-1992 as proportion of harmonic current RMS contribution with respect to 15-30 minutes maximum demand load current of a system

%TDD

Where

2 2 I H RMS I 2 I 32 .... I h

I H RMS I L , Max RMS

x100

I

h2

2 h

is the current harmonic distortion

IL max -RMS = Maximum fundamental Load current, RMS

43

K-Factor

K-Factor is a value used to determine how much harmonic current a transformer can handle without exceeding its maximum temperature rise level. Kfactor values range from 1 to 50

I xh K Factor I

h 1 2 h 2 h 1 2 h

**where h = harmonic order Ih = harmonic current
**

44

22

K-Rated Transformers

K-Rated transformers are used to deal with harmonic generating loads. They do not mitigate harmonic currents or voltages. K-rated transformers are sized appropriately to handle this additional heat due to harmonics

K-rated transformers are tested in according to IEEE C57.110-1986 by the manufacturer, and then assigned a "k" rating. Typical ratings are k-4, k-9, k-13, k-15, k-20, k-40 etc.

**How Much K-Rated Transformer I need?
**

The selection of K-rated transformer is based on the calculated value of K-factor. Typically a K-13 rated transformer is sufficient for most applications. Loads approaching 75-100% non-linear such as VFD should incorporate a K-20 rated transformer

45

International Standards

46

23

International Standards

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards were adopted to provide guidelines for controlling voltage and current harmonic distortions levels

International Standards

- IEEE 519 - IEC 61000-2&3 series of standards Other National Standards - Australia - Japan - Canada

**IEEE 519 Standards
**

Harmonics Voltage Distortion Limits in % of V1

Bus Voltage at PCC Individual Harmonic Total Voltage Order Harmonics Distorsion (%) (%)

V≤ 69 kV 69 kV <V≤ 161 kV V>161 kV

3.0 1.5 1.0

5.0 2.5 1.5

NOTE: High voltage systems can have up to 2.0% THD where the cause is an HVDC terminal that will attenuate by the time it is tapped for a user.

48

24

**IEEE 519 Standards
**

Harmonics Current Distortion Limits in % of IL

Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems

120V < V ≤ 69kV

Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonic)

ISC/IL <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000

<11

11<h<17

17<h<23

23<h<35

35<h

%TDD

4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0

2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.0

1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0

0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4

5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above Where ISC = Maximum short circuit current at PCC IL = Maximum demand load current at PCC

49

Harmonics Resonance Problem

50

25

**Harmonics Resonance Problem
**

The application of shunt capacitor banks for power factor improvement can lead to harmonic resonance condition that could cause capacitor failures, fuse nuisance operation and equipment damage

Frequency Scans

Frequency Scans (Harmonic Impedance Scans): Frequency scabs are used to determine where resonant conditions exist. They are basically an impedance verses frequency plot of the selected bus in the network

EDSA Harmonic Analysis

52.41 Impedance Response (Ohms ) 43.68 34.94 26.21 17.47 8.74 0.00 0.0 2.2 4.4 6.7 8.9 11.1 Frequency (pu) 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.0

52

26

**Capacitor Banks and Resonance Problems
**

At a given harmonic frequency in any power distribution network where a shunt capacitor exists, there will be a parallel resonance. Parallel resonance causes problems only if a source of harmonics exists at harmonic resonance. Near resonance can also be very damaging as well

200.2

Impedance Response (Ohms)

166.9 133.5 100.1 66.7 33.4 0.0 0.0 2.2 4.4

The parallel resonant point is at the 5.3 ED SA H armonic Analysis harmonic and a source of 5th harmonic current exists on the network, problems are likely to occur

6.7

8.9

11.1

13.3

15.6

17.8

20.0

Frequency (pu)

53

**Frequency of Harmonic Resonance
**

The Harmonics resonant frequency can be computed from a variety of different formulae depending on what data are available. The resonant harmonic (hr) can determined by the following formula

where hr = resonant harmonic, Xc = capacitor reactance XSC = system short-circuit reactance Mvarcap= Mvar rating of capacitor bank = Qcap, MVASC = MVA short-circuit = Ssc kVAtx = KVA rating of step-down transformer %Ztx = % step-down transformer impedance

54

27

**Avoiding Harmonics Resonance Frequency
**

There are a number of ways to avoid harmonic resonance when installing shunt capacitors bank

Re-locate the proposed shunt capacitor installation onto another part of the system Varying the kvar rating of the shunt capacitor bank will alter the resonant frequency A reactor can be connected in series with capacitor to form tuned LC filter.

55

**Design of LC Tuned Filter To Avoid Harmonic Resonance
**

The single tuned filters are the most used filters. The filter can create system resonance, therefore during designing filter must avoid this condition. Determine the capacitance reactance

where Qc is capacitor size

XL

Determine the reactor reactance

XC

**where hr is the ith harmonic to be trapped
**

56

28

**Design of LC Tuned Filter To Avoid Harmonic Resonance
**

The reactor resistance

where qquality is the filter’s quality factor, 30<Q<100

The Kvar size of the filter Size is given by

ANSI standards regarding capacitor nameplate rating: rms voltage less than 110%; peak voltage less than 120%; rms current less than 180%; and reactive power output limited to 135%

57

Solutions To Harmonics Problem

58

29

**Solutions To Harmonics Problem
**

Main cause of harmonics are all variable frequency drives (VFDs), uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), switch mode power supplies (SMPSs) and solid state devices causes harmonics because of the nature of 6-pulse rectifier design

59

**Solutions To Harmonics Problem
**

Common methods used today for controlling the harmonics of distribution networks

Line Reactor

Multi-Pulse Converter Design

- 12-pulse converter or higher pulse order

Harmonics Filter

- Passive Harmonic Filter - Active Harmonic Filter

30

**Harmonics Reduction Using Line Reactor For 6-Pulse VFD
**

Source

6-Pulse VFD

Line Reactor

Current Total Harmonics Distortion vs Input Reactor

160 140 120 %I-THD 100 80 60 40 20 0 No Reactor ( 25% Source impedanc) 3% Reactor 5% Reactor 8% Reactor

Line Reactor

Input Reactor

Line reactors (also referred to as inductors) are available in standard impedance range from 1.5%, 3%, 5% and 7% of load impedance

61

**Harmonics Reduction Using 12-Pulse
**

Harmonics Orders of 6-Pulse and 12-Pulse VFDs

80 70 %Harmonic Distortion 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th Harmonics orders 6-Pulse VFD 12-Pulse VFD

Typically, the 11th , 13th and the 23rd and 25th are the present harmonics components. Mainly reduces 5th and 7th harmonics.

6-pulse VFD with no added line reactor: %I-THD = 90% 12-pulse VFD with no added line reactor %I-THD = 24%

62

31

**Harmonics Reduction Using Harmonics Filter
**

Harmonic currents can be prevented from flowing in power distribution networks by using Harmonic filters Passive and active harmonic filters are the most common filters used for harmonics reduction Before a harmonic filter can be designed, a harmonics analysis must be conducted to determine the frequency of harmonics currents to be filtered Harmonics measurements using power quality analyzer must also be carried out

63

**Harmonics Reduction Using
**

Active Harmonic Filters

They are designed using power electronics components and this type is complicated and much more expensive The basic idea of active filter is to generate a harmonic current waveform that is opposite in phase to the distorted harmonic it measures. Therefore harmonics are cancelled and the result is a sinusoidal current They have advantages that don’t resonate with the system and they can also cut more than one harmonic

64

32

**Harmonics Reduction Using Active Harmonic Filters
**

I IL

6-Pulse VFD

Active Filter

Control

**Typical harmonic current components with 6-pulse VFD without line reactor
**

Fundamental 100% 5th 63% 7th 54% 11th 10% 13th 6,1% 17th 6,7% 19th 4,8%

**Typical harmonic current components with Active IGBT rectifier
**

Fundamental 100% 5th 2,6% 7th 3,4% 11th 3,0% 13th 0,1% 17th 2,1% 19th 2,2%

65

Harmonic Reduction Using Passive Harmonic Filter

Passive filters are used to provide a low impedance path for harmonic currents so that they flow in the filter and not the supply

66

33

**Harmonic Reduction Using Passive Harmonic Filter
**

Single tuned harmonic filter is a tuned capacitor bank, i.e. a capacitor bank with a suitable reactor in series. The tuning frequency is matched to the dominant Harmonic, normally 5th and 7th The benefits of passive harmonic filters are

Provide low impedance path for harmonics, thereby reducing the harmonic distortion in the the network Improvement the power factor

Passive harmonics filter is ideal for power distribution networks that have a high percentage of 6-pulse drives and linear loads

67

**Single Tuned Passive Harmonics Filters
**

A single tuned filter is the most common type of passive filter. It consists of a series combination of a capacitor and a reactor. It can be tuned to 5th, 7th and 11th harmonics. At the tuned harmonic, the capacitor and reactor have equal reactance and the lowest impedance

XL

XC

68

34

**Calculation of Passive Harmonics Filter parameters
**

Example It is desired to convert an existing 600-Kvar shunt capacitor bank bus to 5th harmonic filter. The capacitor is connected at 11kV bus

Utility

Passive Harmonic Filter Remaining Distribution Network Passive Harmonic Filter

Non-Linear Loads

69

Calculation of Passive Harmonics Filter parameters

Placing a 8.0667Ω reactor in series with the existing 600 Kvar shunt capacitor creates an acceptable 5th harmonic filter

X L = 8.0667Ω

Qcap= 600 Kvar

70

35

Harmonics Analysis Using EDSA Software

Application To Typical Power Distribution Network

Harmonics Analysis

Typical Power Distribution Network

GRID

Z%: 8.71 10000 kVA

Bus 4

**Z%: 5.74 2000 kVA
**

I I

Shunt Capacitor

780 kVar

M2

3000 HP

M1

1500 HP

Bus1 3

I

M3

500 HP

VSD1

300KVA

VSD2

300KVA

72

36

Harmonics Analysis

Harmonics Sources (6-Pulse VSD Loads)

Current

%THD=76.8%

73

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Frequency Scan at Bus 4

74

37

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Voltage Total Harmonics Distortion at Network Buss

Bus THD ======= Sys Volt V(1) V(rms) V(peak) THD -------- -------- -------- -------- ------11000 11000 11001 15462 1.41% 11000 11000 11001 15462 1.41% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6452 6458 9348 4.19% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 6600 6449 6455 9343 4.18% 6600 6452 6457 9347 4.18% 415 397 400 625 11.13% 415 396 399 627 11.55% 415 396 399 626 11.52% 415 395 397 623 11.37% 415 396 399 627 11.60% 415 396 399 627 11.60% 415 395 398 630 12.57% 415 395 398 630 12.57%

# ---1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Bus Name -------0001 0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 0007 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015 0016 0017 0018 0019

75

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Distorted Waveform at 415V bus

%THD=11.55%

76

38

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Distorted Waveform at 6.6kV bus

%THD = 4.18%

77

Harmonics Analysis

Harmonics Filter Design

11th Harmonic Filter VFD1 VFD2 5th & 7th Harmonic Filters 78

39

**Passive Harmonic Filter
**

Design

11th harmonic filter Located at 6.6 kV bus using the capacitor of power factor improvement

XC XL

R

**QC = 780 kvar, XC = 55.84 XL = 0.462 , R = 0.051
**

79

**Passive Harmonic Filter Design
**

Parameters harmonics filters located at 415V bus 5th harmonic filter: QC = 13.8kvar XC = 12.5

XL = 0.5 R = 0.01 XC = 24.5 R = 0.01

7th harmonic filter

**7th harmonic filter: QC = 7kvar,
**

XL = 0.5

5th harmonic filter

80

40

**V-THD After Installing the 5th 7th and 11th Filters
**

# ---1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Bus Name -------0001 0002 0003 0004 0006 0007 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015 0016 0017 0018 0019 Bus THD ======= SysVolt V(1) V(rms) V(peak) THD -------- -------- -------- -------- ------11000 11000 11000 15509 0.40% 11000 11000 11000 15509 0.40% 6600 6454 6454 9256 1.09% 6600 6454 6454 9256 1.09% 6600 6454 6454 9256 1.09% 6600 6453 6454 9256 1.09% 6600 6453 6454 9255 1.09% 6600 6451 6452 9252 1.09% 6600 6454 6454 9256 1.09% 415 397 398 557 4.90% 415 397 397 556 5.13% 415 397 397 556 5.12% 415 395 396 554 5.05% 415 397 397 557 5.16% 415 397 397 557 5.16% 415 395 396 562 5.84% 415 395 396 562 5.84%

81

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Distorted Waveform at 415V bus

%THD=5.13%

After Harmonic Filters

%THD=11.55%

Before Harmonic Filters

82

41

Harmonics Analysis

Computer Simulation Results

Distorted Waveform at 6.6kV bus

%THD=1.09%

After Harmonic Filters

%THD=4.18%

Before Harmonic Filters

83

42