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“A STUDY ON THE COUNTRY “CANADA””
FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE OF THE DEGREE OF MBA
Submitted to: Mr. Jai Kishan Chandel
Submitted By: Deepika Manchanda Roll No. 14 5th semester Regn. No. 08-UD-1118
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES K.U.K
I,Deepika Manchanda hereby declare that this summer training report on “CANADA” has been submitted by me in the partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (5YR. INTEGRATED COURSE) from K.U.K. This is original work presented by me. The data and facts provide in the report are authentic to the best of my knowledge.
A formal statement of acknowledgement will hardly meet the ends of the justice in the matter of expression of my deeply felt sincere and allegiant gratitude to all those who encouraged me and helped me during my study. Words are inadequate to express my feelings and heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Jai Kishan Chandel for his valuable guidance. No words are enough to express my heartiest gratitude to my father Sh. Harish Manchanda, mother Smt. Asha and other family members whose blessings are inspiration in the foundation of my work Lastly, I would like to thank everyone who has directly or indirectly helped me complete my project & apologize for any names omitted. Deepika Manchanda
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Socio-Cultural Environment Political-Legal Environment Economic Environment Foreign Trade a) With India b) With rest of the world c) Canada Trade statistics 6. Summary & Learnings 7. Sources & References
Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world. The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. A federation consisting of ten provinces and three territories, Canada is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophone, OAS, APEC, and UN.
Name of Canada
The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, Kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona. Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but also the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada. From the early 17th century onwards, that part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes were known as Canada. The area was later split into two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. They were re-unified as the Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and Dominion (a term from Psalm 72:8) was conferred as the country's title. Combined, the term Dominion of Canada was in common usage until the 1950s. As Canada asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982.
• Aboriginal peoples
Archaeological and Indigenous genetic studies support a human presence in the northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the earliest archaeological sites of human (Paleo-Indians) habitation in Canada. Among the First Nations peoples, there are eight unique stories of creation and their adaptations. These are the earth diver, world parent, emergence, conflict, robbery, rebirth of corpse, two creators and their contests, and the brother myth. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal civilizations included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and have been discovered through archaeological investigations. The aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million in the late 15th century, with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health. Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), combined with other effects of European contact, resulted in a forty to eighty percent aboriginal population decrease post-contact. Aboriginal peoples in Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. The Métis a culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and Inuit married European settlers. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during the early periods.
• European colonization
picture: Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in 1759; the battle was part of the Seven Years' War. Europeans first arrived when Norse sailors (often referred to as Vikings) settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000; after the failure of that colony, there was no known further attempt at Canadian exploration until 1497, when Italian seafarer Giovanni Cabot (John Cabot) explored Canada's Atlantic coast for England. Subsequently, between 1498 and 1521, various Portuguese mariners reconnoitered eastern Canada and established fishing posts in the region. In 1534 Jacques Cartier explored Canada for France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. Among
French colonists of New France, Canadians extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade. The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and established the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War. The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. To avert conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies and helped to fuel the American Revolution. The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. Around 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later the province of Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected Legislative Assembly.
In picture: Robert Harris's Fathers of Confederation, an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences Canada (Upper and Lower) was the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the British Empire. Following the war, large-scale immigration to Canada from Britain and Ireland began in 1815. From 1825 to 1846, 626,628 European immigrants landed at Canadian ports. Between one-quarter and onethird of all Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891 died of infectious diseases. The timber industry surpassed the fur trade in economic importance in the early 19th century. The desire for responsible government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture. The Act of Union 1840 merged The Canadas into a united Province of Canada. Responsible government
was established for all British North American provinces by 1849. The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada launched a series of exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region.
• Confederation and expansion
An animated map, exhibiting the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation Following several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act, 1867 officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation, creating "one Dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867, with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western
Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined the Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively. To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.
Early 20th century
Canadian soldiers at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917 Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I. Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the
Canadian Corps. The Corps played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major battles of the war. Out of approximately 625,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 173,000 were wounded. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain and, in 1931, the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence. The Great Depression brought economic hardship all over Canada. In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan enacted many measures of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) into the 1940s and 1950s. Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. Canadian troops played important roles in the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid in France, the Allied invasion of Italy, the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada provided asylum and protection for the monarchy of the Netherlands while that country was occupied, and is credited by the country for leadership and major contribution to its liberation from Nazi Germany. The Canadian economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest armed forces in the world and the second-wealthiest economy.
• Modern times
At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives for his signature the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada, March 31, 1949 The Dominion of Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador), at the time equivalent in status to Canada and Australia as a Dominion, joined Canada in 1949. Canada's growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, and official multiculturalism in 1971. There was also the founding of socially democratic programmes, such as universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though
provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 partition of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government. At the same time, Quebec was undergoing profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution, giving birth to a nationalist movement in the province and the more radical Front de liberation du Québec (FLQ), whose actions ignited the October Crisis in 1970. A decade later, an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association was held in 1980, after which attempts at constitutional amendment failed in 1990. A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation. In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka Crisis in 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups. Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force, and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the late 1990s. It sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to send forces to Iraq when the US invaded in 2003.
Due to its colonial past, Canadian culture has historically been heavily influenced by British and French cultures and traditions. In more modern times, Canadian culture is now greatly influenced by American culture, due to the proximity and the migration of people, ideas, and capital. Amidst this, Canadian culture has developed unique characteristics. In many respects, a more robust and distinct Canadian culture has developed in recent years, partially because of the civic nationalism that pervaded Canada in the years prior to and following the Canadian Centennial in 1967, and also due to a focus by the federal government on programs to support culture and the arts. There were and are many distinct First Nations across Canada, each with its own culture, language and history. Their culture was transmitted largely through oral means and stories were passed down through the elders to the younger generations. Various tribes created unique styles of artifacts such as woven baskets, painted pictures, and carved sculptures of animals. Much of this artistic legacy remains celebrated in Canada to this day. The emblem of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is the inukshuk, a stack of rocks in human form that is a part of Inuit culture. From as early the 1500s, European explorers, traders, and fishermen from England, Ireland and France helped form the basis of Canadian culture. During their colonization of Canada, settlers created folklore about the land around them. The tales of Paul Bunyan are a product of French-Canadian folklore and the style of jigs from Newfoundland found their origins in Ireland.
Canada and the United Kingdom share a common history and continue to work together through many organizations such as the Commonwealth, G-8, and NATO. The two countries share the same head of state, and have among the oldest parliamentary democracies in the world. They still share many of the same customs, values, and traditions, which have been reinforced by working side by side in two world wars and over half a century of expanding peace and prosperity. The United Kingdom is Canada’s third largest trading partner and is the second largest source of tourists visiting Canada. The Canadian and U.S. governments share a variety of close working partnerships in trade, economic, legal, security, and military matters. These are occasionally strained by domestic politics; for instance, the ongoing softwood lumber dispute and the war in Iraq. This has led to successive drives by Canadian leaders to diversify trade with other countries; examples include Diefenbaker's efforts to increase trade with the U.K., Trudeau's efforts with Europe, and current efforts with China and India. As well, the decision to switch to the metric system in 1970 (though, like the U.K., both the metric and Imperial systems are in common usage) has similar roots. As Canada and the U.S. grew closer after World War 2 (the U.S. became Canada's largest trading partner in the late-1940s), many Canadians started to develop complex feelings and concerns regarding what makes Canada "distinct" within North America. The large American cultural presence in Canada has prompted some fears of a "cultural takeover" that have led to the establishment of laws and institutions to protect Canadian culture, including the CBC, the National Film Board of Canada, and the CRTC.
Many American movies, authors, TV shows, and musicians are equally popular in Canada (and vice versa), many have been successful worldwide. Most cultural products of these types are now increasingly marketed toward a unified "North American" market, and not specifically a Canadian or American one. Though debatable, Canada has increasingly distinguished itself politically in recent years by being more fiscally conservative on issues such as balanced budgets, tax cuts, and reductions in government, while also being more socially liberal: the Canadian government currently supports universal health care, same-sex marriage, and decriminalization of marijuana. All of these issues are of varying contention amongst Canadians. Making the matter more complex, is the existence of a red Tory tradition in the country, which marries conservative ideals to some left-wing (in the conventional Western European sense) economic and social policies. Many Canadian citizens see Canadian culture as based on the policy of multiculturalism, while others see it as based on a predominantly British and French core, with American and new immigrant influences and modifications. The majority of Canadians, as well as citizens of other English speaking countries, (see Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States) have individualism ranked highest. Success is measure by personal achievement. Canadians tend to be self-confident and open to discussions on general topics; however, they hold their personal privacy off limits to all but the closest friends. It should be noted there is tension between the French province of Quebec and other Canadian provinces. Citizens of Quebec tend to be more private and reserved. Ethnocentrism is high throughout Canada, but particularly in Quebec. Canada has Individualism (IDV) as the highest ranking (80) Hofstede Dimension, and is indicative of a society with a more individualistic attitude and relatively
loose bonds with others. The populace is more self-reliant and looks out for themselves and their close family members. Privacy is considered the cultural norm and attempts at personal ingratiating may meet with rebuff. The majority of Canadians, as well as citizens of other English speaking countries, (see United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States) have Individualism as their highest ranking Dimension. Among high IDV countries, success is measured by personal achievement. Canadians tend to be self-confident and open to discussions on general topics; however, they hold their personal privacy off limits to all but the closest friends . Canadian's lowest ranking Dimension is Long Term Orientation at 23, compared to the average of 45 among the 23 countries surveyed for which scores have been calculated. This low LTO ranking is indicative of societies' belief in meeting its obligations and tends to reflect an appreciation for cultural traditions. Canada's Power Distance (PDI) is relatively low, with an index of 39, compared to a world average of 55. This is indicative of a greater equality between societal levels, including government, organizations, and even within families. This orientation reinforces a cooperative interaction across power levels and creates a more stable cultural environment. It should be noted there is tension between the French province of Quebec and other Canadian provinces. Citizens of Quebec tend to be more private and reserved. Ethnocentrism is high throughout Canada, but particularly in Quebec. This may be in part due to the difference in religious background of the French population, predominately Catholic, and the English population, predominantly Christian. The predominant religions in Canada are Catholic 42% and Christian 40%, but the
population is somewhat segregated, with a high percentage of French Catholic's in Quebec. Note that the predominant religion in France is Catholic (83%) and in the United Kingdom is Christian (70%).
• Plan for a very cold climate, especially during their winter. • Men should wear a dark conservative business suit with tie, especially in cities. Build a wardrobe based on classic lines (selecting suits with a traditional lapel width, and ties staying within a traditional width range). Conservative colors of navy and gray, and shirts in white and light blue. • Women should wear a conservative business suit or dress, especially in cities. Select your clothing with classic lines and colors in mind. Navy, gray, ivory, and white are the basics to work with. The major cities can be very sophisticated. • New or trendy clothing is a poor choice. Older, classic clothing that is clean and neat is more valued. Choosing quality, natural fibers for your wardrobe will give you this look. Quality leather shoes are important to completing this look. • Rural areas are less formal, but stay conservative in your wardrobe. Even with cold winter weather you may find yourself in a skirt or dress. Add a good quality long coat with minimal and classic detail to your wardrobe. In addition to navy and gray, a classic camel coat, or a lined Burberry may be a good addition. This will work for a sophisticated city meeting, or a more
casual rural meeting. • Casual attire is appropriate when you are not working. The weather and activity will dictate what you will be wearing. Build a casual wardrobe using the classic colors (camel is additional color for casual). You will look professional, even though relaxed. • The "V for Victory" sign is an insult if your palm is facing yourself. If you must use this sign, face your palm outward.
• Be punctual for meetings and appointments, as promptness is valued. In French areas, time is more relaxed. However, you will be expected to arrive at the appointed time, even if the French attending the meeting don't. • Always maintain a reserved demeanor, and follow good rules of etiquette. Traditions and gracious manners are part of the culture, even in more rural areas. If you travel to different cities or areas, pay attention to local customs. By being observant, you will respect the pace and nuances of each area. • Do not eat while walking in public. Plan your time so you can stop in a café or restaurant to enjoy your snack. • Gifts are not routinely given. If you do give a gift when you arrive or when you are leaving, make it a modest one. A lavish gift, though accepted, would be frowned upon.
Gifts are given to celebrate finalizing a negotiation, a contract, or a project. Gifts for the office, a nice bottle of wine or liquor would be appropriate.
• Taking a business associate to a nice meal or an evening sporting event, play, or symphony is always a nice gesture. • Invitations to private homes are rare. Occasionally, in the western provinces, you may be invited to someone's home. If you are invited, you may take candy, flowers, or liquor to the host or hostess. • Wait for your host to start a business conversation during or following a meal. Traditionally, business is not discussed during dinner; however, this is slowly changing. • Personal space and body movement or gestures differ between the English and the French provinces and cities. In English areas, body movement is minimal, there is rarely touching other than handshakes, and personal space how close someone stands - is about two feet. In French areas, people stand closer together, people will frequently touch, and gestures are more expressive.
Use a firm handshake with good eye contact when meeting and leaving. Both French sweeping arm gestures, restrain yourself when meeting and talking with Canadians - other than with French Canadians.
• French Canadians stand closer and are more demonstrative when talking. • For French Canadians, print all material in French and English. • Don't be boastful, and don't overstate your product or service's capabilities. You could implicate your company in a legal situation.
If you are from the U. S., don't say, "we Americans", inferring you are including your Canadian hosts or guests in your reference. Canada is a distinct country with its own wonderful history and culture.
• Men will wait for a woman to extend her hand for a handshake. • French Canadians will shake hands more frequently, even with a subsequent encounter the same day. Others may just nod or smile at a subsequent encounter on the same day. • Use a person's title if he or she has one. Otherwise, use Mr., Mrs., Miss and the surname.
English is spoken in most of Canada. French is spoken in Quebec, and some area of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
Be open and friendly in your conversation. If you are naturally reserved in your behavior, you will appear confident and credible. If your natural tendency is large.
• Political-Legal Environment
Parliament Hill in Canada's capital, Ottawa Canada has strong democratic traditions upheld through a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches and its authority stemming from the Canadian populace. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada (presently Michaëlle Jean), carries out most of the royal duties in Canada. The direct participation of the royal and vice royal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (presently Stephen Harper), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person
who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons and the prime minister chooses the Cabinet. The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of crown corporations and government agencies. The leader of the party with the secondmost seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Michael Ignatieff) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.
The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament Hill Each Member of Parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple majority in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, on the advice of the prime minister, within four years of the
previous election, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75. Four parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2008 elections: the Conservative Party of Canada (governing party), the Liberal Party of Canada (the Official Opposition), the New Democratic Party (NDP), and the Bloc Québécois. The list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial. Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons. Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces and with some structural differences.
Canada's Department of Justice
The people of the Department of Justice (DOJ) work to ensure that Canadians enjoy a justice system that is fair, accessible and efficient. They are responsible for helping the federal government to develop policy and to make and reform laws as needed. At the same time, the DOJ serves Canadians by acting as the Government's law firm. The DOJ responsibilities reflect the double role of the Minister of Justice, who is also the Attorney General of Canada: while the Minister is concerned with questions of policy and their relation to the justice system, the Attorney General is the chief law officer of the Crown. The Mission of the Department of Justice is to: • support the Minister of Justice in working to ensure that Canada is a just and
law-abiding society with an accessible, efficient and fair system of justice; • provide high-quality legal services and counsel to the government and to client departments and agencies; and
Promote respect for rights and freedoms, the law and the Constitution.
The DOJ works with other federal departments to enact legislation for electronic commerce and the protection of intellectual property and the privacy of its citizens in both the public and private sectors. The Canadian Laws can be viewed at the DOJ website and the status of legislation introduced in the House of Commons or the Senate can be viewed at Canada's Parliament website. The Department of Justice has been a key partner with other federal departments in supporting Canada's economic agenda, particularly in an increasingly global and digitally-driven economy. Electronic commerce, broadly defined to include any transaction where the underlying means of facilitating that transaction is electronic, is also used to deliver government services. Through the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act ( Bill C-6) along with the Government of Canada Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) initiative, the Department is working to establish a legal framework that will give Canadians security and confidence to use the Internet as a place to communicate and to do business, and to facilitate electronic commerce nationally and internationally in a secure environment. More information about how the Government of Canada plans to become the most "connected" in the world by 2005 can be found at the Government On-line site. Federal departments and their counsel might find the compilation of references entitled Government On-Line - Checklist of Legal Issues useful. The Checklist will be updated from time to time to reflect lessons learned in the Government On-Line process. The Department is also playing a key role in the Uniform Law Conference of
Canada (ULCC) in drafting the Uniform Electronic Commerce Act (UECA). The UECA is similar to Part 2 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, in authorizing governments to use electronic technology to deliver services and communicate with citizens.
The Parliament has laws protecting the privacy of individuals and can be viewed in more detail at the Privacy Act P-21 website. The purpose of this Act is to extend the present laws of Canada that protect the privacy of individuals with respect to personal information about themselves held by a government institution and provide individuals with a right of access to that information. The Parliament has appointed The Privacy Commissioner of Canada, George Radwanski, as an Officer of Parliament who reports directly to the House of Commons and the Senate. The Commissioner is an advocate for the privacy rights of Canadians with the power to: investigate complaints and conduct audits under two federal laws; publish information about personal information-handling practices in the public and private sector; take matters to the Federal Court of Canada; conduct research into privacy issues; and promote awareness and understanding of privacy issues by the Canadian public. The Privacy Commissioner of Canada works independently of any other federal government agency and acts as the agent to monitor the federal government's use and disclosure of personal information.
Electronic Commerce and the Laws
Federal e-Commerce Legislation The Government of Canada passed its Personal Information Protection and
Electronic Documents Act, S.C. 2000 c.5. Part 2 of the Act deals with federal statutes and regulations, whereas Part 1 of the Uniform Electronic Commerce Act deals with provincial and territorial laws. The Uniform Electronic Commerce Act was adopted by the Uniform Law Conference of Canada on September 30, 1999, and recommended for implementation by governments in Canada.
Saskatchewan has passed its implementing legislation, The Electronic Documents and Information Act, S.S. c.E-7.22, (in force November 1, 2000) Manitoba has passed its implementing legislation, The Electronic Commerce and Information Act, C.C.S.M. c.E55, (Parts 1, 4, 5, 7 in force October 23, 2000) Ontario has passed its implementing legislation, The Electronic Commerce Act 2000, S.O. 2000 c.17, (in force October 16, 2000) Nova Scotia has passed its implementing legislation, The Electronic Commerce Act, S.N.S.2000 c.26, (in force December 1, 2000) Yukon passed its implementing legislation, The Electronic Commerce Act, S.Y. 2000, c.10. (Not yet available). British Columbia has introduced its implementing legislation, The Electronic Transactions Act, (Bill 13), (first reading April 5, 2001) Quebec has introduced Bill 161 to implement the United Nations Model Law on Electronic Commerce, entitled “An Act to establish a legal framework for information technology.
Federal The Uniform Electronic Evidence Act was adopted by the Uniform Law Conference of Canada in August 1998, and recommended for implementation by governments in Canada. The Uniform Act makes focused amendments to existing rules of evidence to facilitate the admissibility of electronic records in court proceedings. The Government of Canada implemented the UEEA by amending the Canada Evidence Act in Part 3 of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, S.C. 2000 c.5. Part 3 was brought into force on May 1, 2000. Provincial Ontario implemented the UEEA by amending its Evidence Act through the Red Tape Reduction Act, S.O. 1999 c.12 (Schedule B, section 7), which came into force on June 30, 2000. Yukon passed legislation to implement the UEEA. See S.Y. 2000, c-11 (not yet available). Saskatchewan introduced legislation to implement the UEEA. See Bill 43. Manitoba introduced legislation to implement the UEEA in June 2000. See Part 7 of Bill 31, entitled The Electronic Commerce and Information Act.
Intellectual Property Rights
The Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), a Special Operating Agency (SOA) associated with Industry Canada, is responsible for the administration and processing of the greater part of intellectual property in Canada. CIPO's mission is
to accelerate Canada's economic development by fostering the use of intellectual property systems and the exploitation of intellectual property information; encouraging invention, innovation and creativity in Canada; administering the intellectual property systems in Canada (patents, trade-marks, copyrights, industrial designs and integrated circuit topographies); promoting Canada’s international intellectual property interests. CIPO's areas of activity include:
Patents cover new inventions (process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter), or any new and useful improvement of an existing invention;
Trade-marks are words, symbols or designs (or a combination of these), used to distinguish the wares or services of one person or organization from those of others in the marketplace;
Copyrights provide protection for artistic, dramatic, musical or literary works (including computer programs), and three other subject-matter known as: performance, sound recording and communication signal;
Industrial designs are the visual features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament (or any combination of these features), applied to a finished article of manufacture; Integrated circuit topographies refer to the threedimensional configurations of electronic circuits embodied in integrated circuit products or layout designs.
Canada is dedicated to minimizing piracy rates in the country with actions from the federal government and private sector alliances. The Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft (CAAST) is an industry alliance of software publishers who share the common goal of reducing software theft through education, legislation, and legal enforcement.
CAAST has done extensive studies on piracy rates on a global and provincial level and has published statistics to aid in the understanding of the costs associated with software theft. Piracy is not only an issue for Canada, but it is a global concern. CAAST study revealed a study which is cause for concern for the entire world economy. The regions with the highest dollar losses in 2001 were Asia/Pacific, Western Europe and North American and the primary reason for this may be that these countries have the largest economies aligned with the largest PC and software markets. International Planning and Research (IPR) decided to take this study a step further and analyze the work already done on a country level and provide information on a provincial level. IPR found that piracy rates very within Canada where Quebec and Alberta had the lowest piracy rates and Prince Edward Island had the highest piracy rate . What may intrigue readers is the piracy rates are lower.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
The Government of Canada PKI provides departments an efficient, effective, common basis for the secure electronic delivery of federal services and programs. The ultimate goal of the government's PKI project is the establishment of a secure federal electronic service delivery system based largely on a centrally managed PKI cross-certified with other PKI's. The Canadian Government initiatives have been the causal factors resulting in drafting the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (Bill C-6). This Bill was introduced in the House of Commons in October of 1998 and serves as security protection when using the
internet. Various departments within the Canadian Government worked in collaboration with the Uniform Law Conference of Canada to produce the Uniform Electronic Commerce Act (UECA) which governs foreign government communications, more specifically federal PKI. Canada has an ambitious plan to make all federal programs and services available on-line by 2004. This pledge has made the Public Key Infrastructure Initiative an integral part of the policies going forward and have been aimed at the following objectives: • Developing federal PKI policies • Cross-certifying with other PKI regimes • Ensuring the sound management of the Government of Canada PKI • Supporting PKI management and governance committees • Promoting PKI implementation and interoperability • Developing PKI communications, awareness, and training initiatives
The practice of registering famous brand names as Internet domain names, e.g. harrods.com, ibm.firm or sears. Shop, in the hope of later selling them to the appropriate owner at a profit. This has currently been an issue for Canada because of the dot-ca registry. Dot-ca registration policies were adopted last year and the Treasury Board has recommended that the government agencies and departments purchase all related dot-ca names to avoid the cyber squatting issue. However, the only solution for Canada currently is to buy up domain names.
• Economic Environment
Canada extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the second largest country in size in the world and shares its border with the United States of America. Canada’s economy is a mixed economy and the country is one of the most important suppliers of agricultural products. The Canadian Prairies are one of the biggest contributors of wheat and other grains. Atlantic Canada has vast deposits of natural gas and oil as well. Canada is the biggest producer of zinc, uranium and is a big source of global gold, nickel, lead and aluminum. After witnessing solid economic growth between 1993 and 2007, Canada’s economy went into a severe recession in 2008. Consequently, the country recorded its first-ever fiscal deficit in 2009. Canada’s conservative lending practices have, however, enabled its banking segment to recover fast and emerge stronger from the global financial crisis.
Canada Economy: GDP
Although the services segment contributes nearly two thirds of Canada’s GDP, manufacturing, especially the automobile industry, also plays a significant role in the country’s economic growth. The country’s services segment includes retail, communication, real estate, financial services, health and education (both under the government’s purview), entertainment, technology and tourism. The proportion of Canada’s GDP devoted to agriculture has declined significantly,
but the nation still remains one of the biggest exporters of agricultural products, including wheat and grains, to the US, Europe and East Asia. Low labor costs, a publicly funded health care system and a highly educated population have attracted several American and Japanese automobile majors to set up their manufacturing plants in Central Canada.
Canada Economy: Resources
One of the wealthiest nations in the world, Canada’s considerable natural resources allow it to play a significant role in international trade. Canada’s economic profile is quite similar to that of the United States, as reflected in its market-oriented economic system. Canada’s natural resources are spread across its various regions. While the oil industry is important in Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northern Ontario houses a large number of mines of coal, copper, iron ore and gold.
Canada Economy: Trade
Canada’s biggest trading partner is the US. Here are some important trade related facts about Canada: • Nearly 80% of its exports are to the US • Over 65% of Canada’s imports are from the US • Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US • The national electricity grids of the two countries are linked to each other • The commodity sector is the largest trade component In addition, the US is the largest foreign investor in Canada, with investments primarily targeted at the latter’s mining, smelting, petroleum, chemical and
Canada Economy: Key Statistics
Here are some key statistics, according to the 2009 estimates • GDP (real growth rate): -2.4% • Unemployment rate: 8.5% • Consumer Price inflation : 0.2%
Canada is a member of the G20.
• Foreign Trade
Canada's exports are highly diversified; the principal export groups are industrial goods, forestry products, mineral resources (with crude petroleum and natural gas increasingly important), and agricultural commodities. Imports are heavily concentrated in the industrial sector, including machinery, transport equipment, basic manufactures, and consumer goods. Trade balances are almost invariably favorable.
In 1989, the United States and Canada signed a free trade agreement; and in 1994 the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Currently, trade between the United States and Canada is essentially unhindered. Trade in goods and services between the United States and Canada accounts for approximately US $1.4 billion each day, almost equal to daily US trade with the entire European Union. In fact, the US–Canada trade relationship is the largest such economic association in history. Canada exports about 40 times more to the United States than to any other country, and imports about 14 times as much from the United States as from anywhere else. Cars, trucks, and automobile parts, are the major exports of Canada (totaling 19.3%). Wood, paper, and paper products follow Canada's vehicle exports closely (totaling 14.6%). The top eight exports as of 2000 were as follows:
% OF COUNTRY TOTAL Passenger motor vehicles Gas, natural and manufactured Telecommunications equipment Crude petroleum 15.4 5.4 5.1 4.7
Motor vehicle parts and accessories 3.9 Paper and paperboard Wood and cork Non-ferrous metals 3.8 3.3 2.9
In 2000 Canada's imports were distributed among the following categories: Consumer goods 13.0% Food Fuels 4.6% 5.2%
Industrial supplies 21.8% Machinery Transportation Other 28.4% 24.9% 2.1%
Principal trading partners in 2000 (in millions of US dollars) were as follows: COUNTRY United States Japan United Kingdom EXPORTS IMPORTS BALANCE 241,591 6,063 3,855 154,499 11,176 8,748 8,570 5,233 3,474 8,142 n.a. 2,803 2,468 87,092 -5,113 -4,893 -5,191 -3,141 -1,971 -6,769 n.a. -1,526 -1,296
China (inc. Hong Kong) 3,379 Germany Korea Mexico Belgium France Italy 2,092 1,503 1,373 1,347 1,277 1,172
a)Foreign Relations with India:
India Canada trade relations have flourished in spite of the fact that Canada was one of the founder members of NATO while India was not. Both countries have shared a cordial and productive trading relationship right since the days of Indian independence.
After a decline in India Canada trading relations in the 1970s due to India's Peaceful Nuclear Explosion, trade between India and Canada picked up in the 1990s. In 1997, Canada started focusing on India in a big way, after the financial crisis in south east Asia. Canada then zeroed in on India intending to tap its huge trading potential. However, after India conducted nuclear tests in 1998, Canada once again went on an alert as far as its trading relations with India were concerned. But in 1999, after the Indian visit of the then Secretary of State for Asia Pacific, Raymond Chan, India Canada Trade Relations resumed once again economic alliances were agreed upon. Facts and figures According to trade analysts, Canada's share in Indian exports is a little more than 1% and its share in India's imports is even less than 1%. In 1992, Indian exports to Canada were worth C$ 280 million. That went up to C$ 1326 million in 2003. Canadian exports to India have increased slightly to around C$ 660 million in 2003 from around C$ 530 million in 1992. Bilateral trade between India and Canada was as high as C$2.45 billion in 2004. In 2003, India's total exports to Canada were pegged at around Rs. 3500 crore and imports from Canada were worth Rs. 3336 crore.
Traded items Some of the main items imported by Canada from India are: • Textiles • Carpets • Floor spreads • Readymade garments • Jewelry • Cotton yarn • Organic chemicals • Coffee • Spices • Iron and steel articles • Rice, cereals, processed foods • Marine products • Footwear
The main items exported by Canada to India are: • Peas • Copper • Minerals
• Industrial chemicals • Newsprint • Wood pulp • Asbestos • Iron scrap In India, Canada is represented by the Canadian High Commission in New Delhi. Canada also has consulates in Chandigarh, Chennai and Mumbai and trade offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Kolkata. India is represented in Canada by a High Commission in Ottawa, and by consulates in Toronto and Vancouver. Security Canada and India maintain a dialogue on regional security and global strategic issues of common interest through the annual Canada-India Strategic Dialogue and through regular meetings of the Canada-India Joint Working Group on CounterTerrorism, as well as annual Foreign Policy Consultations. Trade and Investment India is a vital trade partner for Canada. Canada’s commerce strategy for India involves the coordination of efforts by Canada's missions in India, federal government departments, provinces, and the private sector. This strategy has defined priority sectors to increase two-way trade, investment and technology partnerships. These priority sectors include: Agriculture and Agri-food, Education,
Energy and Renewable Energy, Information and Communications Technology, Life Sciences, and Transport Infrastructure. According to Statistics Canada, bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India in 2009 totalled approximately C$4.1 billion, a decrease of 10.3 percent from 2008, due in large part to the global economic crisis. However, the reduction in bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India was less significant than the decrease in Canada’s overall trade for 2009, which was 21.2 percent. Despite the lower numbers in 2009, bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India has increased by 70.0 percent since 2004. While Canadian merchandise exports to India totalled C$2.1 billion (an 11.3 percent decrease from 2008), imports from India reached C$2.0 billion (a 9.1 percent decrease from 2008), resulting in a C$141.8 million trade surplus for 2009 for Canada. This is the second year in a row that Canada has registered an annual trade surplus with India, which it had not previously done since 1992. Despite the recent decrease in bilateral trade, India ranked as Canada’s 10th destination for merchandise exports in 2009 (up from 13th in 2008) and as its 20th source of imports (up from 22nd in 2008). Top Canadian exports include vegetables (mostly peas and lentils), fertilizers, and machinery; top imports from India include organic chemicals, knit apparel, woven apparel and precious stones and metals (primarily diamonds). Canada - India Bilateral Trade 2005 – 2009 [Figures in billion Canadian Dollars] 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1.79 1.92 1.98 2.2 2.0
from India Canada’s India Total
1.09 1.68 2.87
1.79 2.42 2.14 4.14
3.59 3.77 4.62
[Source: Statistics Canada] Canada – India Bilateral Direct Investment In 2009, two-way direct investment between Canada and India increased to C$3.6 billion, despite a slight drop from the Canadian side due largely to the global economic recession. [Figures in million Canadian Dollars] 2005 2006 2007 319 677 506 171 490 211 888 Unavailable 506 2008 785 2,667 3,452 2009 601 2,972 3,573
Investment in India Indian Direct Investment in Canada Total [Source: Government of Canada] Science and Technology
Canada and India signed a Canada-India Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation in November 2005 to foster greater bilateral S&T collaboration in five priority areas. Under this Agreement and fostered by a Joint Committee on S&T which meets annually, the five priority sectors are: nanoscience and nanomedicine; information and communications technology; biotechnology, health research and medical devices; sustainable and alternative
energy and environmental technologies; and earth sciences and disaster management. From 2005 to 2010, joint funding from Canada and India for S&T collaboration will have totalled C$13.5 million. Environment and Energy The two countries have established the Canada-India Forum for Environmental Collaboration in order to work more closely together on key global environmental issues, including climate change. Canada and India also initiated a Canada India Energy Forum following the signing of the energy Memorandum of Understanding in November 2009. Immigration and Visas India is currently the second largest source country of immigrants to Canada, with a rapidly growing Indo-Canadian community estimated to be nearing one million. In 2009 alone, Canada issued Indian nationals 145,835 visas -- of those, 31,090 were Permanent Resident visas; 6,964 were Study Permits; 98,545 were Temporary Resident (visitor) visas; and 9,235 were Temporary Work Permits. Recently, fast-track processes have been instituted to expedite processing of visas for designated business travellers and students applying to designated publiclyfunded post-secondary colleges and universities in Canada. The Business Express program with 55 Indian partner companies is able to approve over 99% of applications, most within 2 working days. Partly as a result of the Student Partners program, the number of students who received student permits in 2009 increased by 100% at our offices in India, to 6,280. Stakeholder Involvement
In support of Canada’s growing engagement with India, the Government of Canada is committed to consulting regularly with all Canadian stakeholders: provinces and territories; municipalities; non-governmental organizations; the private sector; civil society and the Canadian public. To seek input from these various groups, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) regularly convenes a multi-sectoral group entitled "Focus India." These meetings help DFAIT to broaden considerations related to Canada’s policy and programming approach to Canada-India relations. Development Assistance After 55 years of bilateral programming in India totalling C$2.39 billion, Canada’s bilateral development assistance program came to an end in 2006 following a change in Indian government policy regarding aid. However, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) continues to provide assistance to India through partnerships between Indian and Canadian NGOs and multilateral programs. In 2009-2010, this assistance was worth approximately C$14 million. In addition, the Canadian High Commission in New Delhi manages the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives, to support local projects in India focusing on gender equality, human rights, and good governance. Cultural Relations India’s arts and cultural sector continues to grow in size, sophistication and diversity, and along with the common values and historical bonds shared between Canada and India, this is creating favourable conditions for innovative CanadaIndia collaborative endeavours in the cultural sphere - endeavours which involve
the kind of people-to-people exchanges that enrich and strengthen the CanadaIndia relationship. Canada’s own society is rich in its diversity, with Aboriginal, British, French traditions further enriched with the heritage of immigrants from every part of the world including the Indian sub-continent. Canadian artists and performers possess a range of talent that reflects this diversity and many of them help convey Canadian culture, values and traditions to audiences around the world.
b)With rest of the world:
Canada regards itself as a middle power -- it is rarely able to act unilaterally, but through coalitions and international organizations it affects the world. • Canada-United States Relations The bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of extreme importance to Canada. About 85% of Canadian trade is with the United States. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries famously share the "world's longest undefended border." Canada was a close ally of the United States in both World Wars, the Korean War and the Cold War. Canada was an original member of NATO and the two countries air defences are fused in NORAD. , • Multilateralism Just as important to the Canadian identity is Canada's strong support of multilateralism. Canada is one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under U.N. command around the world. The modern concept of
peacekeeping was invented by a Canadian external affairs minister whom later became Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Canada is also committed to disarmament and is especially noted for its leadership in the Ottawa Convention to ban land mines. Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War. It was also willing to participate with its NATO allies in the Kosovo Conflict. Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City. Canada also seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Canada also is an active participant in discussions stemming from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and has been an active member, hosting the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000. Other Bilateral relations Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom, with which it has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth. See also: Canada-United Kingdom relations Canada also has close, if sometimes turbulent, relations with France, partly for historical and linguistic reasons. See also: Canada-France relations. One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy is the relations between Canada and communist states. Canada estalished diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (October 13, 1970) long before the
Americans did (January 1, 1979). It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba, despite pressures from the United States. Canada was also quicker to act to combat South Africa's apartheid than was the U.S. Canada also supports a great deal of economic, political, judiciary, and governance reforms for many countries around the world. Many of the countries in the Caribbean Community turn to Canada as a valued partner and have mooted the idea of increasing relatons with Canada, even to the point of having a Free Trade Agreement and many other bilateral agendum between the region and Canada. Administration
The Lester B. Pearson Building home of Foreign Affairs Canada Canada's international relations are the responsibility of Foreign Affairs Canada (FAC), which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Pierre Pettigrew. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions.
Some of the provinces also participate in some foreign relations. Quebec and New Brunswick are both members of la Francophonie. Quebec, long ruled by separatist governments long has pursued its own foreign relations, especially with France. Alberta has recently announced that it will open an office in Washington D.C. to lobby the American government, mostly to reopen the borders to Canadian beef. Territorial Disputes Canada and the United States have negotiated the International Boundary over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in 1984 when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon but accepted a 1992 International Court of Arbitration ruling. Remaining disputes include managed maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island). Also, there is an uncontested dispute with Denmark over the sovereignty of Hans Island and surrounding waters in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland.
Canada foreign Trade Statistics:Trade with Canada : 2010 NOTE: All figures are in millions of U.S. dollars on a nominal basis, not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified.
Month January 2010 February 2010 March 2010 April 2010 May 2010 June 2010 TOTAL
Exports 17,198.0 18,535.0 22,148.0 20,926.0 21,386.0 22,199.2 122,392.2
Imports 21,084.5 21,316.1 24,323.3 23,657.7 23,644.1 24,782.9 138,808.6
Balance -3,886.5 -2,781.1 -2,175.3 -2,731.7 -2,258.1 -2,583.6 -16,416.4
'TOTAL' may not add due to rounding. Table reflects only those months for which there was trade.
Trade with Canada : 2001 NOTE: All figures are in millions of U.S. dollars on a nominal basis, not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified. Month Exports Imports Balance
January 2001 February 2001 March 2001 April 2001 May 2001 June 2001 July 2001 August 2001 September 2001 October 2001 November 2001 December 2001 TOTAL
13,666.6 13,356.8 15,523.7 14,403.2 15,107.8 15,050.6 11,700.2 13,764.2 12,423.0 13,894.7 13,214.0 11,319.3 163,424.1
20,441.9 18,263.4 19,975.8 18,732.9 19,602.9 18,914.8 15,792.5 18,001.0 16,698.1 17,542.4 17,170.2 15,132.0 216,267.9
-6,775.3 -4,906.6 -4,452.1 -4,329.7 -4,495.1 -3,864.2 -4,092.3 -4,236.8 -4,275.1 -3,647.7 -3,956.2 -3,812.7 -52,843.8
'TOTAL' may not add due to rounding. Table reflects only those months for which there was trade.
Trade with Canada : 1991
NOTE: All figures are in millions of U.S. dollars on a nominal basis, not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified. Month January 1991 February 1991 March 1991 April 1991 May 1991 June 1991 July 1991 August 1991 September 1991 October 1991 November 1991 December 1991 TOTAL Exports 6,800.8 6,422.5 7,008.1 7,587.1 7,662.1 7,422.9 6,420.5 6,794.2 7,318.9 8,231.0 7,402.7 6,079.0 85,149.8 Imports 7,220.2 6,868.2 7,523.0 7,844.5 8,055.9 7,854.6 6,906.3 7,426.0 7,702.5 8,636.3 7,943.5 7,082.9 91,063.9 Balance -419.4 -445.7 -514.9 -257.4 -393.8 -431.7 -485.8 -631.8 -383.6 -405.3 -540.8 -1,003.9 -5,914.1
'TOTAL' may not add due to rounding.
Table reflects only those months for which there was trade.
• Summary and Learnings:
Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean.
A federation consisting of ten provinces and three territories, Canada is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.
It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level.
It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophone, OAS, APEC, and UN.
The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, Kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
Due to its colonial past, Canadian culture has historically been heavily influenced by British and French cultures and traditions.
• In more modern times, Canadian culture is now greatly influenced by American culture, due to the proximity and the migration of people, ideas, and capital.
• Canada has Individualism (IDV) as the highest ranking (80) Hofstede Dimension, and is indicative of a society with a more individualistic attitude and relatively loose bonds with others. • Canada's Power Distance (PDI) is relatively low, with an index of 39, compared to a world average of 55.
The predominant religions in Canada are Catholic 42% and Christian 40%, but the population is somewhat segregated, with a high percentage of French Catholic's in Quebec.
Canada has strong democratic traditions upheld through a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches and its authority stemming from the Canadian populace.
The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom.
• Canada’s economy is a mixed economy and the country is one of the most important suppliers of agricultural products. The Canadian Prairies are one of the biggest contributors of wheat and other grains.
Atlantic Canada has vast deposits of natural gas and oil as well. Canada is the biggest producer of zinc, uranium and is a big source of global gold, nickel, lead and aluminum.
• Canada's exports are highly diversified; the principal export groups are industrial goods, forestry products, mineral resources (with crude
petroleum and natural gas increasingly important), and agricultural commodities.
Imports are heavily concentrated in the industrial sector, including machinery, transport equipment, basic manufactures, and consumer goods. Trade balances are almost invariably favorable.
India Canada trade relations have flourished in spite of the fact that Canada was one of the founder members of NATO while India was not. Both countries have shared a cordial and productive trading relationship right since the days of Indian independence. In India, Canada is represented by the Canadian High Commission in New Delhi.
• India is represented in Canada by a High Commission in Ottawa, and by consulates in Toronto and Vancouver.
The bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of extreme importance to Canada. About 85% of Canadian trade is with the United States. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries famously share the "world's longest undefended border."
Canada is one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under U.N. command around the world. The modern concept of peacekeeping was invented by a Canadian external affairs minister whom later became Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson.
According to the 2009 estimates • GDP (real growth rate): -2.4% • Unemployment rate: 8.5%
• Consumer Price inflation : 0.2% • Canada’s biggest trading partner is the US. Here are some important trade
related facts about Canada: • Nearly 80% of its exports are to the US • Over 65% of Canada’s imports are from the US • Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US • The national electricity grids of the two countries are linked to each other • The commodity sector is the largest trade component
Sources and References
www.wikipedia.org Government of Canada(official website)
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