Yawm E Aashura

What is Aashura?
My beloved Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam’s beloved devotees. The root word for Aashura is Ashr meaning ten. There are a few reasons why this day is called Aashura. 1. This is the tenth day of Muharram thus called Aashura. 2. Ten days are given superiority and this is the tenth day. 3. On this day, Allah Ta’ala blessed ten Prophets with His chosen bounties.

Significant Incidents of the Day of Aashura
My beloved Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam’s beloved devotees. There are several prominent incidents which took place on the day of Aashura which have made their place in the glorious history. Here we list a few: 1. On this day Allah Ta’ala, according to the meaning most suited to Him, descended on the Arsh. 2. It rained for the first time. 3. Mercy was revealed for first time. 4. Adam Alaihis Salaam’s repentance was accepted. 5. Allah Ta’ala elevated Idris Alaihis Salaam towards the heavens. 6. Hazrat Nooh Alaihis Salaam’s ark rested at the mountain of Joodi. 7. Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis Salaam was born. 8. Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis Salaam was made His ‘Khaleel’ by Allah. 9. Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis Salaam was released safe from the fire of Namrood. 10. Hazrat Daud Alaihis Salaam’s repentance was accepted. 11. Hazrat Sulaiman Alaihis Salaam recovered his kingdom. 12. Hazrat Ayub Alaihis Salaam was relieved of his illness. 13. Hazrat Musa Alaihis Salaam was born. 14. Hazrat Musa Alaihis Salaam was victorious over the magicians. 15. Hazrat Musa Alaihis Salaam successfully crossed the river and Firaun was drowned. 16. Hazrat Yunus Alaihis Salaam was born. 17. Hazrat Yunus Alaihis Salaam was freed from the belly of the giant fish. 18. Hazrat Yaqub Alaihis Salaam regained his eyesight. 19. Hazrat Yusuf Alaihis Salaam was freed from the well and also from confinement.

20. Hazrat Isa Alaihis Salaam was born. 21. Hazrat Isa Alaihis Salaam was raised to the skies. 22. RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam was married to Ummul Mu’mineen Hazrat Khadijatul Kubra RadiyAllahu Anha. 23. Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu attained martyrdom. 24. The Day of Judgement will take place.

Aashura During the Days of Ignorance
My beloved Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam’s beloved devotees. When RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam saw the Jews fasting on the day of Aashura, he enquired as to the reason for it and they replied that this was the day when as Musa Alaihis Salaam was victorious over Firaun, who drowned along with his followers. So out of respect and as mark of celebration, we fast on this day.

Worship on the Night Before Aashura
Hazrat Ali RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates that RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam said, ‘Whosoever revives the night before Aashura with his worship, Allah will make him live as long as He wishes.’

Bathing on Aashura
RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam said, ‘Whoever takes a bath (performs Ghusl) on the day of Aashura will be saved from all illnesses except death.’

Good Deeds on Aashura
RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam says, ‘Whosoever applies surma made of stones on the day of Aashura, will have his eyes protected. Whosoever visits sick on this day will get reward of visiting all the sick of the world. And whosoever gives a drink to a needy person will get the reward of doing all the good deeds in the world.’

Compassion Towards an Orphan
Allah’s beloved Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam has said, ‘Whosoever strokes the head of an orphan with his hands (loves him and attends to his needs) on the day of Aashura, then for every hair, Allah will raise the status of that person in Jannah. [Ghunyatut Taalibeen]

Voluntary Prayers of Aashura
RadiyAllahu Anhu Abu Hurairah reports that one should pray four rak’ats on the day of Aashura, in each rak’at after Surah Fatiha pray Surah Zilzal, Surah Kaafiroon and Surah Ikhlaas once and after Salaam, pray Durood Sharif 70 times. In another narration it is stated whoever prays four rak’ats on the day of Aashura in a manner that after each rak’at pray Surah Ikhlas fifty times after Surah Fatiha then his sins of the previous fifty years as well as the fifty future years will be forgiven. [Ghunyatut Taalibeen]

Dua e Aashura
The following dua is to be prayed on the day of Aashura.

Then pray seven times,

The Fasts of Aashura
My beloved Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam’s beloved devotees. There are various ways to worship Allah and each one brings us closer to the Mercy of Allah Ta’ala and becomes a means of our sins being forgiven. Fasting on the day of Aashura is also one such kind of worship.

The Sunnat of the Prophets
To fast on the day of Aashura is not only the Sunnat of our beloved Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, but also of the previous Prophets. It is reported in a narration that RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam said:

‘Fast on the day of Aashura as this is the day when previous Prophets also fasted.’ [Jame Sageer]

Sins Forgiven
RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam has said:

‘Fast on the day of Aashura as I am certain that Allah forgives the sins of the previous year.’ [Mishkat] Hazrat Abu Qatadah RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates:

RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam was asked about the fast of Aashura, he replied that this is compensation for the sins of the previous year.’ [Muslim Sharif]

The Best….
Hazrat Abu Hurairah RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates that RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam has said:

‘The best fasts after the Fasts of Ramadhan are the fasts of Aashura and the best Salaah after the Fardh Salaah is that of Tahajjud.’ [Muslim Sharif]

Four Qualities
Hazrat Hafsa RadiyAllahu Anha narrates:

RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam never missed four acts; the fast of Aashura, the fasts of the first nine days of ZilHajj, fasts on the 13th, 14th and 15th of each Islamic month and the two rak’ats before Fajr.’ [Mishkat Sharif]

Fasts of the 9th of Muharram
Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas RadiyAllahu Anhuma narrates:

‘When RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam himself fasted on the day of Aashura and also instructed his Companions to do the same, the companions enquired, ‘Ya RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, this is the day when the Jews and Christian fast.’ RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam replied, ‘If I am alive next year then I will surely fast on the 9th of Muharram as well. (To distinguish between us and the non believers) Hazrat Abu Hurairah RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates that RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam has said:

‘The fast of 10th Muharram was made obligatory on the Bani Israel, so you too fast on this day, and if you generously spend on your family on this day then Allah will be generous to you all year. Whoever Fasts on this day, it will compensate for the sins of forty years, and whoever engages in worship on the night of Aashura and Fasts during the day will not face torment at the time of death. [Ghunyatut Taalibeen]

The Gatherings of Muharram
To organise gatherings in Muharram especially on the occasion of Aashura to remember Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu and his sacrifice is recommended and rewarding as long as the narrations mentioned are authentic. Aa’la Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan RadiyAllahu states, ‘When the remembrance of Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu is kept free of unauthentic and fabricated narrations, it is indeed rewarding as is mentioned in a narration:

’Mercy descends when the pious are remembered.’

Hazrat Allama Amjad Ali Aazmi Rehmatullah Alaih states, ‘to hold gatherings to remember Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu in Muharram is permissible as long as the traditions and stories mentioned are correct. These kind of stories teaches us patience and to submit ourselves to the Will of Allah. It also inspires us to be steadfast on the principles of Islam under all circumstances. We should also remember the companions of RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam and their glorious history in order to distinguish our gatherings from that of the Shias.’

The Niyaz (Offerings) of Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu
Hazrat Sa’ad bin Obadah RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates that he came to RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam and enquired, ‘Ya RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, my mother has passed away. Which charity is best for her?’ RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam replied, ‘Water.’’ Thus Hazrat Sa’ad RadiyAllahu Anhu dug a well for the people and announced that this well is for my mother. (The reward of this goes to my mother.) [Ashatul Lam’aat] It is clear from the above narration that the well was for the mother of Sa’ad. This means the reward of the good deed goes to the mother of Sa’ad and the well is attributed to her. Thus it is clear that any good deed presented to the deceased can be attributed to him. So when we say that this ‘niyaz’ is for Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu or this food is for Imam Hussain means that the reward goes to Imam Hussain. This kind of food does not become unlawful in any way as is a misconception with some minorities as we see that the water from the well for Hazrat Sa’ad’s mother was drank by the people of Madinah. Some people also question the general custom of Muslims to make ‘Khichda’ on this day. It is reported the arc of Nooh Alaihis Salaam rested at the Mount of Joody after the mighty flood on the day of Aashura. Hazrat Nooh Alaihis Salaam mixed all the seven type of grains and cereals in a large pot and cooked it, this dish was later called Khichda. Thus it is reported that to make Khichda on this day is a sunnah of Nuh Alaihis Salaam. Moreover Hazrat Khwaja Nizamuddin Awliya RadiyAllahu Anhu narrates that whosoever mixes seven types of grain on this day will get a reward for each grain and will have a sin forgiven. [Tafseer e Roohul Bayan]

Acts to be Avoided in Muharram
Where there are many desirable practices in the masses regarding Muharram and Aashura, there are some acts which are disliked and have no basis in Islam. It is a duty of every Muslim to know these acts and stay away from them. ‘Taziyadari’ is one such practice which was widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent which had evolved from the Shias. In this a replica of the mausoleum of Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu is erected and people surround it as a mark of respect and pray. All sorts of offerings are made at the site, like flowers, money, food, etc.

Another such ritual initiated by the Shias is the extensive mourning, which is prohibited in Islam in the first place. Men, women and children gather to mourn the deaths of Imam Hussain RadiyAllahu Anhu and the Ahle Bait. They hit their chests, pull their hairs and cry collectively. Some even go to the extent of hitting themselves with chains and swords which often results in injuries and bleeding. Islam strictly prohibits all these acts. If mourning was allowed then the death of RasoolAllah Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam would be more worthy of it. Aa’la Hazrat states, ’Taziya is prohibited; it has no root in Islam. And whatever happens around it is also unlawful. The food presented there, though it does not become Haram, eating it would support the custom and hence should be avoided. Music and dance is Haram.’ [Fatawa Razvia]

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