WA Coastal & Marine

Scapa Flow Wreck Surveys
Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam Data and Desk-Based Assessment

Ref: 83680.04

June 2012

SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment

Prepared by: WA Coastal & Marine 7/9 North St. David Street Edinburgh EH2 1AW

For: Historic Scotland Longmore House Salisbury Place Edinburgh EH9 1SH

Ref. 83680.04 June 2012

Wessex Archaeology Limited 2012 © Crown Copyright, Historic Scotland Wessex Archaeology Ltd is a company limited by guarantee registered in England, company number 1712772 and VAT number 631943833. Registered office: Portway House, Old Sarum Park, Salisbury, Wilts SP4 6EB. It is also a Charity registered in England and Wales, number 287786; and in Scotland, Scottish Charity number SC042630.

Scapa Flow Wreck Surveys: Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment WA Ref: 83680.04

SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment Ref: 83680.04

Title:

Author(s): Managed by: Origination date: Date of last revision: Version: Status: WA QA: Summary of changes: Associated reports: Client Approval:

Scapa Flow Wreck Surveys: Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment Patrick Dresch, John McCarthy Dr. Paul Baggaley February 2012 18 June 2012 83680.04 Final Dr. Jonathan Benjamin Change of copyright statement Historic Scotland

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SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment WA Ref: 83680.04

Summary
WA Coastal & Marine was commissioned by Historic Scotland to provide highresolution multibeam bathymetry data targeted on a number of wreck sites in Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. The list of targets were provided by Historic Scotland, ordered by priority, based on the importance of the wreck and the lack of prior survey at each site. Scapa Flow is a large natural harbour in the southern part of the Orkney Islands in the North of Scotland, which served as Britain’s main naval base during WWI and WWII. Its waters hold Scotland’s highest concentrations of shipwrecks. Although some of the wrecks in Scapa Flow have previously been the subject of highresolution multibeam surveys there remain a number of important sites which had only previously been covered by low-resolution data acquisition or not covered at all. WA Coastal & Marine conducted an archaeological assessment of the multibeam data and a Desk-Based Assessment (DBA) of the wreck sites it covered in order to enhance the historic environment record with respect to these sites and to support Historic Scotland’s work on the Scottish Marine Protected Areas Project. Through a thorough review of published and online material relating to the wrecks thought to be in the vicinity of Scapa Flow it has been possible to produce a detailed discussion of these sites in almost every case and also to clarify a number of conflicting sources. This has enabled us to state with certainty the exact location of each targeted wreck from the multibeam survey, in some cases for the first time. In addition a thorough review of published material and diver accounts has enabled an informed analysis of features visible at each wreck site. The importance of these wreck sites can now be placed within their national and, in some cases, international contexts. A total of 18 wrecks were surveyed and assessed over the course this project. 16 of have been identified. The two remaining unidentified wrecks are both located in Burra Sound and are isolated pieces of wreck material, which may be associated with recorded losses in the area. The positions of all 16 identified wrecks have been improved, in some cases by over 100 metres. The survey has also greatly aided in understanding the relative positions of the wrecks to each other. The project has also highlighted discrepancies between some diver reports and observed details in the survey data, such as the structural details of some wrecks.

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SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment Ref: 83680.04

Acknowledgements
WA Coastal & Marine would like to thank George Geddes and Bob Mowat at the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, Philip Robertson at Historic Scotland, Netsurvey Ltd. and the Ministry of Defence. We would also like to thank Kevin Heath of SULA Divers, Steve Weinman of Diver Magazine, Max Ellis of www.junkyard.co.uk and Dr. James Delgado (of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, USA) for permission to reproduce images from their publications. In particular we would also like to thank the authors and divers Lawson Wood and Rod Macdonald for permission to reproduce their images and for the vast amount of information they have published on Scotland’s marine heritage resource. John McCarthy and Patrick Dresch compiled this report. Attendance during the multibeam bathymetry survey and data analysis was conducted by Patrick Dresch. Kitty Foster prepared the illustrations. The project was managed for WA Coastal & Marine by Dr. Paul Baggaley.

Data Usage and Copyright
Throughout the project various external datasets were accessed. Certain datasets accessed have associated copyright issues and the following applies.

For use of the UKHO admiralty charts the following notice applies: This product has been derived in part from material obtained from the UK Hydrographic Office with the permission of the UK Hydrographic Office and Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. ©Crown Copyright, 2012 (WA Coastal & Marine Ref: HA294/007/316-01). The following notice applies: NOT TO BE USED FOR NAVIGATION WARNING: The UK Hydrographic Office has not verified the information within this product and does not accept liability for the accuracy of reproduction or any modifications made thereafter.

NOT TO BE USED FOR NAVIGATION.

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SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment Ref: 83680.04 Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1

1.1. 1.2.
2.

Project Background ........................................................................... 1 Rationale ........................................................................................... 1
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ............................................................................... 4

2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4.
3.

Project Aim ........................................................................................ 4 Project Objectives .............................................................................. 5 Scapa Flow Overview ........................................................................ 6 Survey Areas ..................................................................................... 8
METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................ 9

3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6.
4.

Multibeam Bathymetry Survey ........................................................... 9 Data Sources ..................................................................................... 9 Technical Specifications .................................................................... 9 Multibeam Bathymetry Data-Processing.......................................... 10 Desk Based Assessment - Contextualising the Survey ................... 11 DBA Data Sources .......................................................................... 11
RESULTS...................................................................................................... 14

4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5.

Introduction...................................................................................... 14 Priority A: Burra Sound .................................................................... 15 Priority B: Hoxa Sound .................................................................... 32 Priority C: Gutter Sound................................................................... 41 Priority D: Rysa Little ....................................................................... 48

5. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 52 6. RECCOMENDATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FURTHER RESEARCH .............. 53 7. ARCHIVING .................................................................................................. 54 8. REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 55 Appendix 1 - Gazetteer of wrecks covered by the multibeam survey ................ 57 Appendix 2 - Diver videos of wrecks covered by the DBA ................................. 58

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Figures – all figures are at the end of the report Figure 1 Figure 2A Observed wreck locations. Macdonald’s map of the relative positions of the wrecks in Burra Sound. Figure 2B Wood’s map of the wrecks of Burra Sound demonstrating the apparent movement of some of the wrecks in recent years. Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8A Priority A, Burra Sound: Observed Wreck Locations. Wreck Sheet: 7000. Diver photos showing the Dyle as it is now. Wreck Sheet: 7001. Wreck Sheet: 7002. The Urmstone Grange in an 1899 engraving showing it in use as a troop transport during the Second Boer War. Figure 8B An undated image of the Urmstone Grange at some point before it sank entirely beneath the waves. Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11A Figure 11B Wreck Sheet: 7003. Wreck Sheet: 7004, 7007 and 7016. Photos of the Inverlane prior to its collapse. Lawson Wood’s photos of the submerged interior of the Inverlane prior to its collapse in 1996. Figure 11C Lawson Wood’s photos of the submerged interior of the Inverlane prior to its collapse in 1996. Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14A Wreck Sheet: 7005. Wreck Sheet: 7006. A detailed painting of the Gobernador Bories as it appeared in 2000, from the wreck tour series in Diver magazine. Figure 14B-D Lawson Wood’s photos of the submerged interior of the Gobernador Bories. Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Wreck Sheet: 7017. Priority B, Hoxa Sound: Observed Wreck Locations. Wreck Sheet: 7008. Wreck Sheet: 7009. Wreck Sheet: 7010. Diver photos of the S54. Priority C, Gutter Sound: Observed Wreck Locations.

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Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Tables Table 1

Wreck Sheet: 7011. Wreck Sheet: 7012. Anti-aircraft guns from the F2 lying in the hold of the YC21. Wreck Sheet: 7013. Wreck Sheet: 7014. Priority D, Rysa Little: Observed Wreck Locations. Wreck Sheet: 7015.

Historic Scotland’s priorities for working in partnership to implement new marine legislation.

Table 2 Table 3 Table 4

Legislation and guidance summary. Site priorities and wreck WA IDs. Criteria for assigning data quality rating.

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SCAPA FLOW WRECK SURVEYS Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment Ref: 83680.04

1
1.1. 1.1.1.

INTRODUCTION PROJECT BACKGROUND WA Coastal & Marine was commissioned by Historic Scotland (HS) to provide multibeam bathymetry data targeted on a number of wreck sites in Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands along with an archaeological assessment of the data and a Desk-Based Assessment (DBA) of the wreck sites it covered. The multibeam survey was to be carried out using a high-resolution multibeam system and be undertaken in tandem with a multibeam survey of the wreck of the HMS Royal Oak, which was commissioned by the Ministry of Defence. Scapa Flow is a large natural harbour in the southern part of the Orkney Islands in the north of Scotland, which served as Britain’s main naval base during WWI and WWII and its waters hold one of Scotland’s highest concentrations of shipwrecks. Although some of these wrecks have previously been the subject of high-resolution multibeam surveys there remain a number of important sites only covered by low-resolution data. In the light of legislative change covering marine heritage assets in Scotland a need to enhance the data for a small number of wreck sites was identified by HS. WA Coastal & Marine was provided with a list of targets by HS prior to engaging in the survey. These were ordered by priority, based on the importance of the wreck and the lack of prior survey at each site. RATIONALE The project supports HS’s draft marine strategy for the protection, management and promotion of marine heritage 2011-16.

1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.2. 1.2.1.

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Strategic Aims Helping to advance knowledge about marine heritage and make information widely available Improving stewardship of key marine heritage sites

Objectives Objective 1 – to collaborate with all relevant parties to pursue enhancement of the record of the marine historic environment and wide dissemination of this information to support marine planning.

Objective 2 – to work with stakeholders, making recommendations to Scottish Ministers on the selection, designation and management of Historic Marine Protected Areas (HMPAs) leading to the establishment of a well managed group of HMPAs in the territorial seas around Scotland by 2016. Objective 3 – to make effective use of mechanisms provided by marine planning and marine licensing systems to guide the sustainable development of offshore resources. Objective 4 – to improve understanding of the processes and operations that impact on marine heritage sites, determining which are likely to be the most significant, and to develop and implement effective mitigation for these where possible and desirable.

Developing wider understanding and enjoyment of marine heritage

Objective 5 – to increase sustainable access to HMPAs around our coasts and seas and promote information about them in order to encourage wider awareness and enjoyment of marine heritage.

Objective 6 – to develop awareness and capacity amongst professional organisations and amateur groups through targeted training and outreach. Table 1: HS’s priorities for working in partnership to implement new marine legislation.

1.2.2.

The ultimate aim of the study is to support the selection of Historic Marine Protected Areas which are currently being introduced under the Marine Act Scotland 2010. This project builds upon recommendations made in Towards a Strategy for Scotland's Marine Historic Environment (Historic Scotland and BEFS 2009) and the Scottish Marine Data Audit (Wessex Archaeology 2011). Specifically, this project builds on the recommendations to integrate heritage interests within marine mapping programmes and to undertake desk-based studies to enhance the coastal and marine heritage databases to facilitate management of the resource through improved planning. Legislation

1.2.3.

1.2.4.

In recent years there has been a great deal of change with regard to the legislation covering the protection and management of coastal and marine cultural heritage resources. These are reviewed in detail in the Scottish Marine Data Audit (Wessex Archaeology 2011:1). Existing legislation covering the protection of wreck sites within the UK is summarised in Table 2 below:

1.2.5.

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Legislation and Guidance

Protection of Wrecks Act (PWA) (1973): Section One

Summary Wrecks and wreckage of historical, archaeological or artistic importance can be protected by way of designation. It is an offence to carry out certain activities in a defined area surrounding a wreck that has been designated, unless a licence for those activities has been obtained. To be repealed and replaced by the Marine (Scotland) Act (2010) (see 1.2.6). This provides protection for wrecks that are designated as dangerous due to their contents and is administered by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency through the Receiver of Wreck. Under the Protection of Military Remains Act (1986), all aircraft that have crashed in military service are protected. The MoD also has powers to protect vessels that were in military service when lost. The MoD can designate ‘controlled sites’ around wrecks whose position is known and can designate named vessels as ‘protected places’ even if the position of the wreck is not known. This Act is primarily land based, but in recent years it has also been used to provide some level of protection for underwater sites. Scheduled Monuments and Areas of Archaeological Importance are afforded statutory protection by the Scottish Ministers, and consent is required for any major works. The law is administered by Historic Scotland. Marine Scheduled Monuments are likely to be redesignated as HMPAs under the Marine (Scotland) Act (2010) This Act sets out the procedures for determining the ownership of underwater finds that turn out to be ‘wreck’, defined as any flotsam, jetsam, derelict and lagan found in or on the shores of the sea or any tidal water. It includes ship, aircraft, hovercraft, parts of these, their cargo or equipment. If any such finds are brought ashore, the salvor is required to give notice to the Receiver of Wreck that he/she has found or taken possession of them and, as directed by the Receiver, either hold them pending the Receiver’s order or deliver them to the Receiver.

Protection of Wrecks Act (1973): Section Two

Protection of Military Remains Act (1986)

Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act (1979) (as amended)

Merchant Shipping Act (1995)

Table 2 Legislation and guidance summary.

1.2.6.

The Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 came into effect on the 10th March 2010 and simplifies offshore cultural heritage designations by providing for the

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establishment of Historic Marine Protected Areas (HMPAs) between the mean high-water mark and the 12 nautical mile limit. Section 1 of the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 will be repealed in Scotland and marine historic assets of national importance will instead be eligible for designation as HMPAs. HS is working with Marine Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee on the Scottish Marine Protected Areas Project to make recommendations to Scottish Ministers on the designation of Marine Protected Areas around Scotland. Consultation on a draft HS document on selection criteria and long term strategy for HMPAs has ended on the 27th of January and HS is currently considering the responses. 1.2.7. As part of Historic Scotland’s work on HMPAs, HS intends to focus one phase of work on Scapa Flow, involving a) transition of the existing underwater scheduled monuments to HMPA status and b) consideration of other sites within Scapa Flow which might merit inclusion within an HMPA. It is intended that this project will help to support the second aspect. Value of Resource 1.2.8. The wrecks in Scapa Flow represent some of the most famous wreck sites in the world and include a large number of wrecks of international significance. Further, the wrecks (as a destination) are one of Scotland’s major tourist attractions with a considerable associated economic value. For comparison, studies of Scottish dive sites in Berwickshire have shown that they attracted over 25,000 divers in 2007, contributing over 3.7 million to the local economy (Marine Scotland 2011, 154). State of existing knowledge on the shipwrecks in the survey areas 1.2.9. The wrecks included in this report were selected on the basis that there was a lack of detailed multibeam bathymetry survey and generally a lack of background data. In the majority of cases there was no previously existing multibeam bathymetry survey covering the sites. The UKHO database includes details of previous surveys covering some wrecks, particularly those in Burra Sound (see discussion of Legacy Survey Data below). Other work in the region is currently underway: HS has also separately commissioned Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology to undertake Project Adair, a desk-based assessment of many of these legacy marine data sets across Orkney and the Pentland Firth. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES PROJECT AIM The aim of this study is to provide HS with both high-resolution multibeam data and archaeological interpretations of numerous wreck sites within Scapa Flow. It is envisioned that this study will contribute towards HS’s selection of HMPA areas and it is also hoped that the results of both the multibeam survey and archaeological interpretation will enhance our understanding of the sites and preservation objectives. This report does not include an assessment of the cultural heritage significance of each wreck site. This will

2. 2.1. 2.1.1.

2.1.2.

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instead be undertaken by HS and will draw upon the results of the data presented in this report. 2.2. 2.2.1. PROJECT OBJECTIVES The objectives for the current project have been provided by HS and are as follows: a): to carry out all necessary liaison with Netsurvey Ltd.; b): provide a geophysicist to be on board the vessel for the duration of the survey in order to ensure suitable data coverage and quality for archaeological purposes; b): collating available multibeam survey information held by the UK Hydrographic Office for Scapa Flow, to act as contextual information relating to the surrounding seabed environment; 1 d): to carry out desk-based analysis of the sites recorded by Netsurvey Ltd., the extent of what is possible to be determined by the residue of the available budget; e): to produce georeferenced GIS images of the sites recorded to HS for use in ArcGIS and a succinct report of the work undertaken and interpretation of findings to HS; f): to ensure the marine data gathered is archived in accordance with MEDIN standards. In addition, copies of the site survey data are to be offered to the following local partners on Orkney in appropriate formats for the purposes specified only: x x ScapaMap (to contribute to the ongoing work of the ScapaMap project); Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology (to contribute to Project Adair, a project with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) and the local authority archaeology services to interrogate marine data to enhance national and regional records of the historic environment); The Scapa Flow Landscape Partnership (to contribute to an existing project to develop online interpretation about underwater heritage in Scapa Flow).

x

2.2.2.

The project deliverables defined by HS are: x x The current report, including three hard copies and one pdf; Multibeam data gathered during the survey (in CD format);

The UKHO was unable to provide this data in full within the project timetable. Historic Scotland confirmed that this data was being interrogated under a separate project. To avoid double handling of information, work on this objective was therefore diverted to focus on the other core objectives set out.

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x x 2.3. 2.3.1.

3 hard copies and 1 pdf digital copy of report submitted to HS; Georeferenced Tiff images for use within ArcGIS;

SCAPA FLOW OVERVIEW Scapa Flow is the name given to the body of water in the south of the Orkney archipelago which is surrounded by the islands of Hoy, Fara, Flotta, South Ronaldsay, Burray and the mainland. It is approximately 16km in diameter with a total area of approximately 120km2 and a depth of up to 60m, making it one of the largest natural harbours in Britain. From the Act of Union in 1707 until the later 19th century the Royal Navy had relatively little presence in Scotland in terms of bases and infrastructure. From 1860 the Home Fleet made an annual round trip of Britain, and this involved using anchorages in Scotland such as Invergordon, as well as Scapa Flow. The potential value of Scapa Flow for naval purposes had been noted much earlier, when Graeme Spence of the Admiralty surveyed it in 1812. His recommendations were not, however, followed (Lavery 2001:99101) The absence of bases in Scotland during this period in part reflects the strategic concerns of Britain over this period: the main military opponent and naval rival during this period was France, and as such the distribution of naval bases and anchorages continued to be orientated to the southern North Sea and in particular the English Channel. Over the later 19th century this orientation became obsolete. Rapprochement with France, culminating in the Entente Cordiale (1904) combined with the establishment of the German Empire (1871) and Germany’s construction of a substantial fleet of capital ships around the turn of the century led to a fundamental change in the Admiralty’s perception of the threats to Britain and her interests. The new bases to counter this threat needed to be on the east coast and within easy operational range of the German coast, particularly the main German bases at Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. They also needed access that was relatively easily controlled and a large enough area for gunnery practice. The main new base was to be at Rosyth on the Forth. However, First Sea Lord Admiral Fisher regarded this as too open and his opposition led to, delays in construction (Lavery 2001: 100). At the outbreak of World War I the base at Rosyth was unfinished. As a result, Scapa Flow was selected as the main operational base for the capital ships of the newly formed Grand Fleet, a process made easier by the development of the telegraph and radio communications enabled long distance communication and control of the fleet. There were no real facilities, and a submarine scare in 1914 led to the temporary abandonment of the anchorage until the access routes to the anchorage could be better protected and more facilities provided. The presence of the Home Fleet and the ability to control access to the anchorage was important in selecting Scapa Flow as the place where the German High Seas Fleet was interned at the end of World War I. The defences and shore facilities fell into some disrepair during the interwar period. Scapa Flow was selected as the base for the Home Fleet at the outbreak of World War II because of the continued need to control access to the North Atlantic but also on the basis that the anchorage was relatively far

2.3.2.

2.3.3.

2.3.4.

2.3.5.

2.3.6.

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from enemy airbases. The base was still subject to air attack and the antiaircraft defences were considerable strengthened, including the construction of fighter airfields in the area. 2.3.7. The location of Scapa Flow and the huge concentration of Royal Navy forces during both World Wars made it impractical for enemy naval forces to attack except by submarine. Extensive efforts were made by the British to prevent submarine access although these were not always effective, as in the case of the sinking of the HMS Royal Oak (cf. Weaver and Weaver 2008). In both wars this threat was countered by the sinking of block ships at strategic access points, which allowed the Royal Navy to concentrate its anti-submarine defences at fewer locations. The single most famous incident to occur at Scapa Flow, and the reason for many of its wrecks, was the scuttling of the German fleet on the 21st of June 1919 by its own commander (cf. Van Der Vat 2007). The fleet was comprised of 74 vessels, 52 of which were successfully sunk despite the best efforts of the British who could do little to prevent the scuttling. The majority of these have been removed but three battleships and four cruisers still remain to attract large numbers of divers. Two of the scuttled vessels (the destroyers S54 and V83) have fallen within the scope of this study. In the context of the fleet these were relatively minor vessels and were nearly identical in design. Many years later an echo of this great loss occurred when the German Geleiteboot (escort boat) F2, was handed over to the British as reparations at the end of the war and sank at its moorings, although this does not seem to have been a deliberate act. In WWII a series of concrete barriers, known at the Churchill barriers were built between most of the islands which define the eastern boundaries of Scapa Flow. These rendered some of the block ships redundant and they were moved to new locations.

2.3.8.

2.3.9.

2.3.10. During WWII blockships were purchased from breaker’s yards and were put in place by Metal Industries Ltd. This company was in civilian hands but had responsibility for all of the Admiralty salvage work (Hewison 1985, 275) and also undertook salvage of some of the same vessels after the war (Hewison 1985, 379-80). Of the vessels covered in the current study the Dyle, Rotherfield, Urmstone Grange, Ronda, Inverlane, Tabarka, Gobernador Bories and Budrie were all sunk as blockships. 2.3.11. Throughout both wars a vast number of wrecks ended up in Scapa Flow and major salvage activities were undertaken at the end of both wars. These were grand-scale operations and have been the subject of several books (cf. Bowman 1964, Booth 2005; Wood 2000). Most famous of all were the schemes undertaken by Ernest Cox, a scrap merchant from Wolverhampton whose successes included the salvage of the 28,000 ton Hindenburg, the largest ship ever salvaged at the time. 2.3.12. The wreck heritage of Scapa Flow includes numerous sites associated with the salvage industry. This includes many partially salvaged sites, wrecks which were refloated and then lost a second time, wrecks which were refloated for use as floats to support the salvage of larger vessels, and in some cases, the wrecks of the salvage boats themselves.

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2.3.13. The blockships have been subject to less salvage and of a total of 43 sunk, 32 remain in place (Ridley 1992, 157). Salvage operations were also undertaken after WWII and one of the ships in the study area, the YC21 was a salvage barge lost during the attempted salvage of the German WWII escort boat F2. 2.4. 2.4.1. SURVEY AREAS Six areas of interest were identified by HS for targeted survey. These were listed in descending order or priority and the survey attempted to cover as much of this list as possible in the time available. In the event it was only possible to cover the four highest priority areas, A-D, as some survey time was lost due to adverse weather conditions.

Site Priority

Targeted Wrecks Name
Rotherfield Urmstone Grange Ronda Inverlane Tabarka Gobernador Bories Budrie HMS Strathgary UB-116 SMS S54 KMS F2 YC21 SMS V83 Prudentia HMS Roedean (ex Roebuck) evidence for boom defence remains and blockships on Scapa Flow side of Churchill barriers (Kirk Sound, Skerry Sound, East Weddell Sound);

Additional Wrecks WA ID
7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7015

Name
Dyle Unknown Unknown

WA ID
7000 7016 7017

A: Burra Sound

B: Hoxa Sound C: Gutter Sound D: Rysa Little E: Flotta

MV Mara HMS Dewey Eve

7013 7014

Areas not surveyed

F

G

re-survey of existing seven high seas fleet wrecks; aircraft crash-sites (seeking possible positions through Orkney contacts)

H

Table 3: Site priorities and wreck WA IDs.

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3. 3.1. 3.1.1.

METHODOLOGY MULTIBEAM BATHYMETRY SURVEY WA Coastal & Marine was commissioned by HS to work with Netsurvey and conduct high-resolution multibeam surveys of high priority heritage sites within Scapa Flow, Orkney. The survey was carried out to IHO Special Order Standard focusing on as many wrecks as possible from a list of wrecks set out in order of prioritisation by HS (Table 2). The survey was originally scheduled to take place over two days, but due to equipment malfunction only slightly over a day was available. As a result only priority levels A to D were surveyed. It is noted that there are no recorded aircraft sites within Scapa Flow (Priority H). During the survey several additional wreck sites were located within the survey areas. These have been reported on below and include the Dyle in area A, and the MV Mara and HMS Dewey Eve in area C. DATA SOURCES The multibeam bathymetry data were assessed for quality and were rated as ‘Good’ using the following criteria (Table 3): Data Quality Description Data Quality
Good

3.1.2.

3.1.3.

3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2.

Description
Data which are clear and unaffected by weather conditions or sea state. The dataset is suitable for the interpretation of standing and partially buried metal wrecks and their character and associated debris field. These data also provide the highest chance of identifying wooden wrecks and debris. Data which are affected by weather conditions and sea state to a slight or moderate degree. The dataset is suitable for the identification and partial interpretation of standing and partially buried metal wrecks, and the larger elements of their debris fields. Wooden wrecks may be visible in the data, but their identification as such is likely to be difficult. This category contains datasets with the quality of individual lines ranging from good to average to below average. The dataset is suitable for the identification of standing and some partially buried metal wrecks. Detailed interpretation of the wrecks and debris field is likely to be problematic. Wooden wrecks are unlikely to be identified.

Average

Variable

Table 4: Criteria for assigning data quality rating. 3.2.3. The coverage over the sites is variable depending on depth but in all cases it was possible to identify the targeted wrecks and surrounding seabed features. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS The data assessed were obtained by Netsurvey between the 6th of December and 10th of December 2011 on the inshore survey vessel SV Xplorer based out of Stromness. The survey consisted of multibeam bathymetry data acquisition.

3.3. 3.3.1.

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3.3.2.

The data was collected using a RESON Seabat 7125 multibeam echo sounder operating at 400 kHz. The sensor was mounted on a pole on the port side of the SV Xplorer at a depth of 1.5m below the surface, and 0.3m below the hull. Prospection survey lines were conducted using the maximum swath angle of 140° degrees for the greatest area coverage of the seabed. Once the target wrecks were located the beam angle was narrowed to 45° for greater sounding density over the target. The tidally corrected data from the survey were provided to WA Coastal & Marine by Netsurvey Ltd. as .gsf files. This allowed a higher level of processing and interpretation to be achieved than would have been possible with gridded data. All coordinates supplied within the operations report are referenced to WGS84 UTM30 N. No geodetic transformation was applied to the incoming positional data. Depths are relative to Chart Datum (CD). MULTIBEAM BATHYMETRY DATA-PROCESSING The multibeam bathymetry data were analysed to identify any unusual seabed structures that could be shipwrecks or other anthropogenic debris. The data were gridded and analysed using Fledermaus software, which enables 3-D visualisation of the acquired data. Each site was processed to produce a Pure File Magic (PFM) file using Fledermaus DMagic. This allowed individual soundings to be selected and either rejected or processed as appropriate. Each wreck was individually processed with the soundings separated from those of the surrounding seabed, as was outlying debris. This allowed individual pointclouds to be produced which aided in the interpretation of the wreck features. Surface models of the wrecks and the surrounding seabed were also produced to help interpret their immediate environment. The surface models were gridded at a 0.25m cell size allowing for a detailed view of the seabed. A rugosity analysis was also conducted on the surface models using Fledermaus. This helped to identify detail in the wreck structure and outlying debris in the survey area. A total of 18 wreck sites were identified over the course of the survey (Appendix 1). This report covers all of the observed wrecks including all those specified by HS in priorities A to D. The wrecks have been grouped by site within this report for ease of presentation (Figure 1). Legacy Survey Data

3.3.3.

3.3.4.

3.4. 3.4.1.

3.4.2.

3.4.3.

3.4.4.

3.4.5.

Previous geophysical surveys of the targeted sites are limited. The data from these surveys has been archived with the UKHO. A request was placed with them in the course of the project, but the data could not be made available within the timeframe of the project. The most recent surveys for each wreck are listed in their UKHO database entries. The only significant recent multibeam survey in the area of relevance to the wrecks covered in this study seems to be the 2010 multibeam survey carried out in Scapa Flow by Fathoms Ltd for the European Marine Renewable Energy Test Centre. This survey covered

3.4.6.

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Burra Sound and was able to confirm or amend the locations of the Dyle, the Inverlane, the Gobernador Bories and the Budrie. Anomalies were noted at the recorded locations of the Tabarka but the surveyors were unsure if this was a natural feature or not. Fathoms Ltd. also confirmed the location of the UB-116 in Hoxa Sound. However the UKHO database records that the Fathoms survey failed to find any traces of the Rotherfield or the Urmstone Grange and an anomaly noted at the recorded location of the Ronda was suggested to be geological in origin. 3.4.7. No recent multibeam survey surveys are recorded in the UKHO database for the other wrecks covered by this project, however a further five wrecks are visible in the multibeam data gathered for the current project which have not been noted on any previous surveys. DESK BASED ASSESSMENT - CONTEXTUALISING THE SURVEY In order to better inform the analysis of the survey data a supporting DBA was carried out focusing on the wrecks identified during the course of the survey with the aim of placing them in their historical context and gathering design data which would help to identify them. This report initially relied on the RCAHMS National database (via Canmore) and UKHO records for baseline data before consulting other sources. Although the records in the RCAHMS national database are largely in agreement with other sources such as the UKHO database and dive guides about the number and general identity of wrecks in each area, the exact coordinates for each site vary a great deal. This can make correlation between recorded and surveyed wrecks problematic, especially in areas with numerous adjacent wrecks such as Burra Sound. In some cases there were wrecks visible on the multibeam survey which could not be correlated to nearby wrecks records from the RCAHMS national database, being either entirely absent from the database or recorded in a different location. Once the identity of these wrecks was confirmed through other sources such as the UKHO database, these wrecks were added to the list for baseline research. Three vessels were added in this way, the Dyle in Burra Sound and the MV Mara and HMS Dewey Eve in Gutter Sound. DBA DATA SOURCES The sources considered during the DBA were broad in scope but did not include primary sources except where this was easily accessible (e.g. available online). An outline of the major sources of data is given below. Published Sources 3.6.2. There is a significant body of published material concerning the wrecks off Orkney. The majority of published material relating to the wrecks in the current study can be placed into one of four categories: General Histories: x Brown, M. and Meehan, P. 1968, Scapa Flow (2002 edition), Pan Books, Chatham.

3.5. 3.5.1.

3.5.2.

3.5.3.

3.6. 3.6.1.

3.6.3.

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x x 3.6.4.

Hewison, W. S. 1985, This Great Harbour Scapa Flow, The Orkney Press, Stromness. Miller, J. 2001, Scapa: Britain’s Famous Wartime Naval Base (2nd ed.) Birlinn, Edinburgh.

Wreck /Dive guides: x x x x x x x x x British Sub-Aqua Club, 1987, BSAC wreck register East Coast: London to Berwick Upon Tweed, London. Ferguson, D. M., 1988, Shipwrecks of Orkney, Shetland and Pentland Firth, Redwood Burn, Newton Abbot. Ferguson, D. M., 1992, Shipwrecks of North East Scotland, 1444-1990, Mercat Press, Edinburgh. Macdonald, R., 2011, Dive Scapa Flow (4th ed.), Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh. Ridley, G., 1992, Dive Scotland: the Northern Isles and East Coast, Underwater World Publications, Middlesex. Ridley, G., 1998, Dive North-West Scotland, Underwater World Publications, Middlesex. Smith, P. L., 1989, The Naval Wrecks of Scapa Flow, Orkney Press, Kirkwall. Wood, L., 2000, The Bull and the Barriers: The Wrecks of Scapa Flow, Tempus, Stroud. Wood, L., 2008, Scapa Flow Dive Guide (2nd edition), AquaPress, Southend-On-Sea.

3.6.5.

General registers of ship losses: x Baird, B. and Ridley, G., 1993, Shipwrecks of the Forth: including wrecks from Berwick on Tweed to Stonehaven, Nekton Books, Glasgow. Baird, R. N., 2003, Shipwrecks of the North of Scotland, Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. Larn, R. and Larn, B., 1998, Shipwreck Index of the British Isles, Volume 4: Scotland, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, London. Whittaker, I. G., 1998, Off Scotland: A Comprehensive List of Maritime and Aviation Losses in Scottish Waters, C-ANNE Publishing, Edinburgh.

x x x 3.6.6.

General works on the scuttling of the High Seas Fleet and its subsequent salvage: x x x Booth, T., 2005, Cox’s Navy: Salvaging the German High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow 1924-31, Pen & Sword Maritime, Barnsley. Bowman, G., 1964, The Man Who Bought a Navy: The Story of the World's Greatest Salvage Achievement at Scapa Flow, Harrap, London George, S. C., 1999, Jutland to Junkyard: The Raising of the Scuttled High Seas Fleet from Scapa Flow - the Greatest Salvage Operation of All Time, Birlinn, Edinburgh.

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x x

London, C., 2002, Jutland 1916: Clash of the Dreadnoughts, Osprey, Oxford. Van Der Vat, D., 2007, The Grand Scuttle: The Sinking of the German Fleet at Scapa Flow in 1919 (2nd edition), Birlinn, Edinburgh.

Wreck Databases 3.6.7. There are a number of databases which contain data on wreck sites in this area. These include the RCAHMS national database, local Historic Environment Records (HER) and the database of wrecks and obstructions maintained by the UKHO. The Orkney HER was not consulted for the current study as information gathered for the Scottish Marine Historic Environment Data Audit (2011) had demonstrated that the database held few offshore records. The marine records in the RCAHMS national database have been generated through a combination of UKHO records and a search of published material collated by RCAHMS since 1995. The records for the wrecks covered by this project are primarily comprised of references to individual wrecks collated from published material with a relatively low number of references to primary sources and information from the public.

3.6.8.

3.6.9.

3.6.10. An updated database derived from the RCAHMS national database but filtered and enhanced to include only the known wreck sites has been generated by the Characterising Scotland's Marine Archaeological Resource project (WA Coastal & Marine 2012) and this was also used. This project sought to review all the marine sites listed as having known locations, to remove sites which lacked sufficiently detailed location data and in general to provide a clear picture of how many offshore cultural heritage sites can be accurately located in Scottish waters. This database (which included spatial attributes) was also used by HS to provide the locations for the targeted multibeam survey undertaken for the current project. 3.6.11. The current UKHO database was directly consulted. The UKHO records for the area covered by the multibeam survey contain less historical detail than the RCAHMS national database but entries tend to be more geographically accurate and contain more detail of the hydrographic surveys which have covered each wreck. Diving 3.6.12. Many of the most famous wrecks have been dived on a daily basis for many years. As a result the wrecks in Scapa Flow have been extensively explored and there is a wealth of information from divers available, principally through dive site books (see above) but also through a wide range of wreck descriptions in dive magazines, websites and reports from individual divers in the RCAHMS national database. The tourist body, Visit Orkney, has conducted market analysis which has indicated that divers accounted for 2% of the visitors to Orkney but represented 8% of the income generated through tourism in the first half of the previous decade (Calder et al. 2006, 74).

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Artefacts 3.6.13. Related to the information held by divers is the existence of portable material that has been removed from the wrecks, mainly by recreational divers. Given the frequency with which some of the wrecks within the study have been dived, it is likely that significant amounts of portable material have been removed. This is likely to include any brass, and particularly portholes. Much of this material is likely to remain in private collections or to have been sold on. An amnesty on material taken from wreck sites declared by the Receiver of Wreck in 2001 resulted in an extensive amount of material taken from Orkney wrecks being returned. The RoW database includes 1,128 objects from 141 sources for Orkney alone (HWTMA 2009, 22) and most of the wrecks in this study have some of this material associated with them. Web based resources 3.6.14. Numerous references to the wrecks were found through online searches. In particular the website www.wrecksite.eu, the world largest online wreck database, with records of nearly 100,000 wrecks 15,000 images, 694 maritime charts, and details of 15,000 ship owners and builders, proved useful. The website www.photoship.com contains several images of the vessels covered by the current study before their sinking although these could not be included in the current report due to matters of copyright. 3.6.15. As mentioned above the project Shipwreck Heritage of Shetland (Wessex Archaeology 2011) has found that web-based resources can be an important source of data. Dive videos posted to sites such as www.vimeo.com and www.youtube.com have been valuable sources of information for the current study. The advantage of many of these resources is that they draw on community knowledge. 3.6.16. The website http://www.orkneycommunities.co.uk/imagelibrary includes a number of images of the block ships including the Inverlane.

4. 4.1. 4.1.1.

RESULTS INTRODUCTION Prior to interpretation of the multibeam survey data a programme of baseline data gathering and analysis was undertaken. All readily available information relating to a group of wrecks in Scapa Flow was brought together. The aim of this was to confirm the identity of the wrecks and inform the analysis of features visible at each site. Where sufficient information is available, the entries below list the construction details for each vessel, followed by a service history, the events surrounding the vessel’s loss, any subsequent salvage attempts, the current condition of the vessel (if known) and details of any marine life noted by divers. All measurements below are metric and have been converted from imperial where necessary. The exception to this is in the case of armaments where

4.1.2.

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imperial measurements are universally given and have been retained for ease of reference. 4.2. 4.2.1. PRIORITY A: BURRA SOUND The entrance to Burra Sound has been described as “by far the most exciting of all the blockship areas” (Wood 2008, 140). It is therefore no surprise that this is one of the most dived areas of Scapa Flow. The blockships in this area vie with the German High Seas Fleet itself as an attraction to divers due to the clear waters and abundance of marine life. These conditions are a result of the very strong tidal currents in the sound but this also means that dives at many of the wrecks are only possible during slack tides and must be kept short. The strength of the tidal surge in Burra Sound is extremely strong and divers must time their dives very precisely at slack water or risk being swept away from the wrecks. The strong currents through Burra Sound have also affected the depositional environment around the wrecks. The seabed in this area is largely rocky, particularly on the sides as it shoals toward the shore. Towards the centre of the channel the seabed becomes sandy particularly at the southern end of Burra Sound. There are areas of scour and occasional sand banks associated with the current which may have been affected by the wrecks across the Sound. A total of 10 wrecks were observed during the survey of Burra Sound, 7000 to 7007, 7016 and 7017. These are mostly located near the centre of the channel, consistent with their use as blockships. Most of these date to the early years of WWI and attempts to protect the naval harbour. The exceptions are the Inverlane and the Tabarka, which date to WWII. Although blockships were removed from many areas during WWII after the construction of the Churchill barriers, no barriers were ever built at Burra Sound as it was felt to be too expensive to bridge the gap between Hestor on Graemsay and Burraquoy on Hoy. In 1962 the Royal Navy undertook a programme of wreck clearances using 500-pound mines and this has resulted in extensive damage to some of the wrecks (Macdonald 2011, 131). Maps of the Burra Sound wrecks have been created by Macdonald (Figure 2A) and Wood (2008, 140, 146, 151) and these do not correlate closely to the position of the wrecks as revealed on the multibeam survey. This may be due to the confusing proximity of the remains but Wood suggests that some of the ships have been shifted by the current and provides a map demonstrating the point (Figure 2B). However, although the tides are known to be very strong in this area it is difficult to imagine such large ships could have been moved to the extent suggested by Wood’s map. If this was the case then it is likely that the wrecks and associated material have become somewhat mixed and dispersed. Accurate diver surveys of the area are very difficult due to the changing currents and it is suggested that only further monitoring using multibeam survey could establish the extent of wreck movement with any certainty. The locations of the wrecks used in this report are derived from comparing recorded details to anomalies observed within the survey data (Figure 3).

4.2.2.

4.2.3.

4.2.4.

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7000: THE DYLE 4.2.5. 7000 is located near the centre of Burra Sound and thought to be the remains of the Dyle, recorded by the RCAHMS national database as laying 102m to the east (Figure 4). The wreck lies in 11.5m to 15m of water in and area of predominantly rocky seabed. There has been some confusion surrounding the details of this vessel. The name of the vessel has been reported most often as the Doyle (Whittaker 1989, 78; Wood 2008, 141) or the Moyle (e.g. Ferguson 1985, 36; Larn and Larn 1989 DH 00/00/1940; Ridley 1992, 158), both of which are incorrect. Recent research by Kevin Heath of SULA Divers has ascertained that the correct name of the ship is the Dyle2. A small number of references to the SS Dyle were uncovered during the current study including a mention of a minor accident involving the ship which took place in Rotterdam in 1913 (Rotterdamsch Niuewsblad, 8/7/1913, 10). A builder’s model of the ship, a photograph and painting of the ship are preserved in the Nationaal Scheepvaartmuseum in Antwerp.3 The multibeam survey shows that the wreck now appears to be broken up although much of the hull still survives and appears to be twisted. 7000 lies across the channel at an orientation of 278°, south of 7002, 7003, 7004, 7005, 7007 and 7016. The vessel appears to be laying predominantly on its port side with the starboard side of the hull at 24° to the horizontal. The observed dimensions of the wreck are 80.4m long, 15.7m across and it stands 8.9m proud of the seabed. The length is similar to the recorded value of 79.3m and the height close to the recorded beam value of 10m. Although the outline of the vessel is clearly visible much or all of the deck appears to have been destroyed. Most of the hull plating around the bow appears to be missing although the ribs are still present and evenly spaced at 0.5m intervals (Feature 1). There is a 6.2m section of the hull missing 12m aft of the bow and a misalignment of the remaining hull suggests that the bow may not be connected to the rest of the wreck.

4.2.6.

4.2.7.

4.2.8.

4.2.9.

4.2.10. Further aft there is a rectangular feature measuring 8.4m by 4.8m within the hold of the vessel (Feature 2). This may be part of the hull with the plating missing as there are several possible ribs at either end. The hull plating towards the keel is still in place on this section of the wreck although there are many visible holes and a large zigzag crack, going up 3.5m of the hull, which probably follows the edges of the hull plating (Feature 3). 4.2.11. Near the midships section of the wreck, level with a section of preserved hull plating, there is evidence of collapsed structure within the hold. This includes two circular objects measuring approximately 1.3m in diameter (Feature 4). It is unclear what these features are although they may be the remains of the base of a mast.

2 3

E-mail dated 12/3/2012 See also http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?60897 http://www.maritiemdigitaal.nl/index.cfm?event=search.getdetail&id=132002245 Accessed 22/3/2012, E-mail dated 2/4/2012. Given that the ship was built in the UK it is possible that the ship model is incorrectly ascribed, perhaps to another vessel of the same name.

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4.2.12. The remaining length of the wreck is largely broken up and there is no clear sign of engines or boiler within the hold. The hull plating around the stern is still largely intact and there may be evidence of the propeller and rudder although it is not very clear in the data (Feature 5). 4.2.13. There is very little debris surrounding 7000, with three pieces lying 3.5m to the north of the wreck. These range in size from 1.2m by 2.6m to 1.2m by 7.8m. There are also several pieces of debris between 7000 and 7006 which lies 234m to the south. The largest piece of debris is 7.5m long, but considering the currents through Burra sound the debris could be associated with any of the wrecks in the area. 4.2.14. The Dyle (ex-Widdrington) was a steamer of 954 tons unballasted, built in 1879 in North Shields by A. Leslie and Co. for William Johnson4. In 1886 it was sold to Turner, Brightman & Co., of North Shields. In 1902 it was sold to the Soc. Anon. Belge de Nav. à Vapeur Schaldis (Van Hemelryck & Geurts) based in Antwerp and renamed the SS Dyle. In June of 1914 it was sold to British shipbreakers, who resold it later in the same year to the Admiralty. It was sunk on the 7th October 1914 as a blockship. 4.2.15. A report dating from 1926 states that a dangerous wreck was reported at 58 55 33N, 003 18 41W and this apparently relates to the Dyle. It was stated to be 260 feet long (79m), and is lying on an approximate orientation of 090/270. The stern was reported to stand five metres high and same height underwater. The same approximate location was given for an ‘unknown wreck’ by Ridley (1992, 113: 2007). 4.2.16. Details from a record held in the Public Record Office at Kew are quoted in the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck. This PRO record consists of a panoramic drawing and description made shortly after the sinking of the blockships in Burra Sound. Regarding the Dyle the description is said to state that the wreck is “unballasted. Completely submerged. Three fathoms over her at L.W. Davits visible.” The RCAHMS national database entry goes on to state: “The accompanying map depicts the vessel in outline as lying to the S of the main group, slightly to the W of the centre of the sound, and with bows towards the E. The accompanying panoramic sketch (dated 8 December 1915) omits this ship”. 4.2.17. The UKHO entry records that the ship records that it was dispersed by explosives in 1962 but divers report that the ship remains in relatively good condition. The UKHO database records that the ship was last surveyed in 2010 by Fathoms Ltd. using multibeam. The RCAHMS national database entry for the site states that the ship is regularly visited by sport divers. Wood (2000, 118) states that it is “fairly intact; the ships sits upright with a steep list to port, her huge rudder and propeller are still intact” (Figure 5). Larn and Larn (1989 DH 00/00/1940) also record that the stern section is intact with two masts having fallen to starboard. Macdonald (2011, 138) adds that there are two or three open levels for divers to explore and that the steam-driven anchor capstan can be seen amongst some wreckage near the port side of the stern.

4

Pers comm. Kevin Heath E-mail dated 24/4/2012

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4.2.18. Wood (2008, 141) gives a detailed description of the wreck: The Doyle (sic) is the smallest of the three accessible blockships and is instantly recognisable by her intact curved bows and stern. Lying on her port side, the more exposed starboard hull is covered in dwarf plumose anemones (Metridium senile) seaweeds and sponges. Her wooden decking has all rotted away, but virtually all of her ribs, posts and lower sections of masts are still in place allowing divers many safe access points into the interior of the ship at various levels. The ship is still robust enough to allow for full safe and easy access and the interior allows you to extend your dive into the time when the current starts to run once more. Hull plates have come away over the years the light now streams in through a huge number of square holes making for a rather superb cathedral-like quality. 4.2.19. Dive book authors have noted that the wreck is covered in kelp, with lots of ballan wrasse, cuckoo wrasse, conger eels; juvenile saithe and pollack, anemones as well as pincushion sea urchins and sea slugs (Wood 2000, 118; Wood 2008; 141; Macdonald 2011, 139). 7001: THE ROTHERFIELD 4.2.20. 7001 is located on the eastern side of Burra sound, and is the east most wreck surveyed in the area (Figure 6). This is thought to be the remains of the Rotherfield, recorded by the RCAHMS national database at 197m east of the observed position. 4.2.21. The seabed surrounding the wreck is predominantly rock and ranges in depth from 7m to 8.5m below CD. The wreck lies along the edge of Burra Sound at an orientation of 293° and appears to be resting on its keel. The wreck is largely dispersed but the outline of the vessel can still be identified among the rocks. The observed dimensions of the wreck are 79.6m long, 14m wide and 5.5m high. These values vary somewhat from the recorded values of 98m long and 12m wide but this may be due to its dispersed state. 4.2.22. Very little structural detail can be identified although the wreck appears to be better preserved at its stern to the south. Although the stern is largely covered in debris there is a visible rectangular feature with two smaller rectangular objects within it (Feature 1). The larger feature measures 5.3m across and 7m long whilst the two smaller objects measure 4m by 2.4m and 4m by 3.7m. Forward of this there is a linear feature 12.7m long which extends north from the main wreck (Feature 2). 4.2.23. There is an area of smooth plating just aft of midships which may be a preserved part of the deck or a collapsed section of hull (Feature 3). This covers 10m along the length of the wreck and 9m across it. There are parallel features visible along the edge of the plating which are either ribs or deck support and are evenly spaced at approximately 0.5m intervals. 4.2.24. The remaining length of the wreck is largely dispersed and very little structural detail can be identified. There is a large amount of debris to the south and west of the wreck including a possible mast measuring 24m long. It is unclear, however, how much of the debris is directly associated with 7000 since 7004, 7007 and 7016 are also in the immediate area.

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4.2.25. The Rotherfield was a 2,831 grt steel-hulled steamer built in West Hartlepool and registered in London in 1889. It has recorded dimensions of 98m long by 12m wide, with a single screw, three cylinder triple expansion engine capable of 240 horse power and two boilers (Larn and Larn 1998, DD 00/00/1914; Whittaker 1998, 78). 4.2.26. Little is known about the working life of the Rotherfield but it appears to have been owned by the Admiralty between its construction and 1904 when it was sold to the Tower Steamship Company/Woodfield Steamship Company of London5. 4.2.27. The vessel was sunk as a blockship with a cargo of ballast on the 23rd September 1914 (Macdonald 2011, 139). In 1915 a report by the HMS Franklin and recorded in the UKHO entry for the site observed that “the bow is sunk leaving the propeller exposed. It is lying almost parallel with shore with the wreckage drying at low water to expose 2.4 metres”. Details from a record held in the Public Record Office at Kew and made shortly after the sinking of the vessel are quoted in the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck. The document states that the wreck was “unballasted. Has moved slightly. In good condition. Forecastle nearly submerged. Will last a long time”. The database entry goes on to state: “The accompanying panoramic drawing (of Burra Sound, looking S towards Hoy from the Graemsay shore) depicts what appears to be a flushed-decked cargo ship with a central superstructure: Neither poop nor fo'c'sle are apparent. The vessel is depicted from fine on the starboard quarter and as settling towards the bow, with the forecastle still clear of the water. The masts and funnel remain erect; the rudder is apparently still in place. The accompanying map depicts the vessel as lying with bows towards the SSW and almost parallel to the shore, very close to Graemsay. It is thus the easternmost in the group”. 4.2.28. An image from around this time has been published by Lawson Wood (Figure 6) which also shows the Budrie. The wreck was dispersed with explosives in 1962 (Ferguson 1985, 36). Wood’s map of the wreck sites shows that it is still the easternmost of the blockships in Burra Sound (Wood 2008, 140). The wreck is in shallow water and is not dived (Wood 2008, 113). 7002: THE URMSTONE GRANGE 4.2.29. 7002 is located on the west side of Burra Sound and is the western most of the wrecks surveyed in this area (Figure 7). This wreck is thought to be the remains of the Urmstone Grange and is located 176m south-west of the position recorded by the RCAHMS national database. 4.2.30. The wreck appears to be lying on its keel in approximately 4.6m to 9.5m of water in an area of rocky seabed. The orientation of the wreck is 214°, roughly parallel to the side of the channel. Although the wreck is largely dispersed its outline can still be made out, as well as several structural features. The wreck measures 94.4m long, 24.9m wide and 6.8m high. Considering the state of the wreck, these values are similar to the recorded dimensions of 103.6m long and 14m wide.
5

www.wrecksite.eu Accessed 08/03/2012

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4.2.31. Although most of the wreck is covered in a mass of debris there are still several structural features discernible. Near the midships section of the wreck there is a rectangular feature measuring 1m by 1.9m across although it is unclear what this might be (Feature 1). Just forward of this, three boilers can be easily seen forming a triangular pattern with two aft and one forward (Feature 2). All three boilers are of a similar size, measuring about 3m by 3.5m. These are a particularly interesting feature as they help identify this as the wreck of the Urmstone Grange, which is the only vessel in this area recorded as having three boilers. 4.2.32. Approximately 6.5m forward of the boilers there are two circular objects, both with diameters of 2m (Feature 3). It is unclear what these are but they may be mast footings. Further forward the vessel has largely broken up although there is some suggestion of preserved hull plating with ribs spaced at 0.5m intervals visible underneath (Feature 4). Although the wreck itself is largely dispersed there is no obvious debris field surrounding it. This may be because smaller pieces of debris have been moved by the currents or there may be debris present but hidden among the surrounding rocks. 4.2.33. The Urmstone Grange was a steel steamer built in 1894 in Belfast and registered in London which was sunk as a blockship in Burra Sound in 1914 (Macdonald 2011, 139). Wood (2008, 115) states that it was 103.6m long. Whittaker (1998, 78) states that it was 14m wide with a gross tonnage of 3,423. It had a three cylinder triple expansion engine of unrecorded size and three boilers driving a single screw engine (Larn and Larne 1998, DD 00/00/1914). 4.2.34. It served for many years as a passenger vessel on the Houlder Line, owned by the holding company Houlder Bros. All of their ships incorporated the word ‘grange’ in their names. There are several references to the ship being used as a troop transport by the British during the Boer War (London Times, 2nd Nov 1899) as well as an engraving showing the ship being loaded prior to departure for South Africa in 1899 (Figure 8A). The ship saw extensive service in South America but was eventually stranded in Patagonia and condemned before being returned to Britain (Ferguson 1988, 71). After the scuttling of the Urmstone Grange in 1914, another ship was given the same name. 4.2.35. The Urmstone Grange was the first of the blockships to be placed in Burra Sound and was sunk on the 22nd of September 1914. Details from a record held in the Public Record Office at Kew from 1915 are quoted in the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck. The description states that the ship is “Unballasted. Has not moved. In very good condition. Forecastle nearly submerged. Will last a long time” (Figure 8B). The entry goes on to state: “The drawing (of Burra Sound, looking S towards Hoy from the Graemsay shore) depicts a three-island general cargo ship of form typical of the period, settling towards the port bow, with the forecastle still awash and still complete. The masts and funnel remain erect; the boats (on the poop) and rudder remain in place. The accompanying map depicts this blockship as lying with bows towards the ESE and the stern very close to Hoy Skerries. It is thus the westernmost in the group”.

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4.2.36. The UKHO records a request made in 1956 to salvage the propeller from the ship but it is unclear if this was ever granted. The wreck was dispersed by explosives in 1962 (UKHO; Ferguson 1985, 36; Wood 2000, 117). The report of the Bomb and Mine Disposal Officer stated that the wreck “was completely scattered and spread over the seabed” and that there was now a minimum depth of 2.7m over the highest point of wreckage. Wood (2008, 145) states that large parts of the vessel are now mixed in with the Budrie and found nearby on the shallow Hoy Skerries. The ship has not been noted on hydrographic surveys since and no sign of it was noted on the Fathoms Ltd. survey of Scapa Flow in 2010 resulting in the UKHO entry being amended to ‘Dead’ in November 2010. 7003: THE RONDA 4.2.37. 7003 is located near the centre of Burra Sound 142m north of 7005. This is thought to be the wreck of the Ronda (Figure 9), 111m south-west of its recorded RCAHMS national database position. The wreck appears to have broken up into three separate sections, with the largest most cohesive section to the north. 4.2.38. The site lies in 7.5m to 11m of water in an area of rocky seabed. The wreck appears to be generally lying on its keel and orientated to 309°. The most cohesive part of 7003 measures 77.7m long, 16.5m wide and 5.39m high. This compares to the recorded dimensions of 83.51m long and 11.12m wide for the Ronda. 4.2.39. The wreck is largely broken up with very few identifiable structural details. Most of the wreck is visible as exposed ribs spaced evenly at 0.5m intervals, however adjacent sections often lie at different orientations making it difficult to identify particular parts of the vessel (Feature 1). 4.2.40. The most easily identified objects are the two boilers, consistent with the records of the Ronda, lying within the main body of the wreck (Feature 2). These are both the same size, measuring approximately 3.5m by 4m. Immediately to east of these there is an upstanding object with a cylindrical object extending east along the length of the vessel (Feature 3). The main body of the object is angular and of indeterminate shape, measuring 3.4m by 4m across. The cylindrical object is attached to the centre of the base of the main body and is 6.4m long. It is difficult to say with any certainty what this feature is but considering its proximity to the boilers this may be part of the engine. 4.2.41. Southwest of the main wreck structure there is a large amount of debris and structure covering an area of 26.7m by 61m. This debris lies between 7002 and 7003 but has a more similar orientation to 7003. This appears to be mostly composed of sections of parallel ribs without any hull plating. There is a third section of wreck laying 9.2m to the west of this which appears to be a sheared of end of a vessel, although it is unclear if it is the stern or bow (Feature 4). This section of wreck is 7.2m long by 7.7m from keel to deck. There appears to be some deck plating still in place but the hull plating is missing leaving the ribs exposed. 4.2.42. The Ronda was a 1,941 grt steel single-screw steamer (Whittaker 1998: 78). It was built in 1889 by at West Hartlepool (or Sunderland according to Macdonald) and registered at Hull. The original name of the vessel was the

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Rydal Holme, but it has also been spelled Rydal Home or Rydal Holm (Wood 2008: 145). The ship was 83.51m long and 11.12m wide with a draught of 5.79m. It was single-decked with a poop and quarterdeck of lengths 8.8m and 22.6m respectively. A three cylinder triple-expansion engine of 196hp and two boilers drove a single screw. The machinery was made by Amos & Smith of Hull (Larn and Larne 1998, DD 00/00/1915). The original owners were the Rydal Steamship Company. A detailed account of the vessel’s launching is preserved in the Marine Engineer and Naval Architect of September 1st 1899: “On August 13th Messrs. John Blumer & Co. launched from their yard the handsmone steel screw steamer Rydal Holme, built to the orders of Messrs Hine Brothers, Maryport. The principal dimensions of the vessel are:- Length between perpendiculars, 270 ft.; beam, 36 ft. 6 in.; depth, moulded, 20 ft. 2 ½ in. The vessel is built on the web-frame system, with ordinary double bottom in fore and aft holds. The deck erections consist of short poop aft for the captain and officers, long raised quarter-deck, bridge extending to fore-castle, to class as part awning deck, with accommodation for engineers and seaman under. The vessel, when completed, is to take the highest class at Lloyd’s. The deck machinery includes four powerful winches, worked from large donkey boiler. The winches are by Messrs. Clarke, Chapman & Co. Greenock. The vessel has all the latest improvements. Her engines are of the triple-expansion type, and built by Messrs. Amos & Smith, Hull, with two steel boilers tested to a pressure of 320 lbs. per square inch. The naming of the vessel was performed by Mrs. Bailey, the wife of the Rev. H. C. Bailey. The vessel, during construction, has been under the superintendence of Captain Brown, Maryport”. 4.2.43. In 1902 the ship was purchased by Bailey & Leetham, the owners of Hull’s second largest fleet and operated cargo and passenger services. In 1903 they were bought out by the Wilson Line6. It is likely that the name of the vessel was changed to the Ronda around this time. Up to 1914 the ship was captained by one A. Harrison (Larn and Larne 1998, DD 00/00/1915). A photograph of unknown date showing the ship while at sea is held in Hull Museums Collections (KINCM:1991.107.89) and the accompanying description states that the ship has two masts with flags flying from the aftermast and the stern. 4.2.44. This ship was sunk in Burra Sound on the 20th August 1915 and is the most northerly of the group of seven blockships. The ship was sunk shortly after the Gobernador Bories which had drifted into a deeper area while sinking and had thus rendered itself useless as a blockship. To avoid the same problem the Ronda was first ballasted with concrete and dropped directly to the seabed, ending up pointed in a south-easterly direction (Wood 2008: 145). Details from a record held in the Public Record Office at Kew from 1915 are quoted in the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck. The wreck is described as “concrete ballasted. In good condition and likely to last”. The entry goes on to state: “The drawing (of Burra Sound, looking S towards Hoy from the Graemsay shore) depicts only the masts and funnel as remaining above
6

http://www.wrecksite.eu Accessed 08/03/2012

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water; the vessel is apparently nearly erect. The accompanying map depicts the vessel as lying with bows towards the SSE, to the W of the centre of the channel (towards the Hoy shore) and to the E of the Urmstone Grange”. 4.2.45. A report by the HMS Scott in 1939 lodged with the UKHO described the vessel as lying with its keel on an orientation of 120/300 degrees and with its bow to the SE. The funnel and both masts were visible above the waterline. The wreck was dispersed in 1962 (Ferguson 1985: 36) and is no longer dived (Wood 2008: 113). According to Wood (2008: 145) much of the ship washed out to sea after it was blown up but some larger parts remain on the Hoy Skerries with their upper surfaces covered in kelp. The UKHO entry for the ship records it as ‘Live’ but the most recent hydrographic survey of the site (Fathoms Ltd. 2010) suggests that the anomaly noted at the coordinates in the database may be geological in origin. 7004: THE INVERLANE, 7007: THE BUDRIE AND 7016 4.2.46. 7004, 7007 and 7016 are all located near the centre of the Burra Sound channel (Figure 10). 7004 and 7007 are overlapping sites thought to be the remains of the Inverlane and Budrie. Records show that the Inverlane was sunk directly on top of the Budrie (Wood 2008: 140, 147) in May 1944 and that some of the Inverlane’s hull plates still cover parts of it. 4.2.47. 7016 is a section of wreck 25m south of the main wreck site which could be associated with either vessel. 7004 is 109m south-west of the RCAHMS national database position for the Inverlane whilst 7007 is 146m south-west of the recorded position for the Budrie. Both wreck sites are dispersed and cannot be separated in the data with certainty. All three wreck sites lie at depths ranging from 6.7m to 11.3m below CD.

4.2.48. 7004 lies across Burra Sound at an orientation of 41°. The dimensions of the most intact piece of the wreck are 59.8m long, 19.8m wide and 6.9m high. This is considerably shorter than the recorded length of 145m for the Inverlane, however the recorded width of 19m is more similar. This discrepancy may be due to the broken up state of the wreck. 4.2.49. There are no clearly identifiable features on 7004. The site appears to be composed of smooth plating evenly divided into approximately 10.5m sections. The plating is missing from the east end of the site, exposing parallel beams running the length of the vessel and spaced at 2.2m intervals (Feature 1). This may be the top deck of the vessel. 4.2.50. The Inverlane was an 8,900 ton tanker built in 1938 in Vegesack in West Germany (Larn and Larn 1998, DD 00/00/1944; Macdonald 2011: 134) and registered in Dublin, one of seven owned by the Inver Tanker Company (Wood 2008: 147). Whittaker (1989: 78) gives slightly different information stating that it was built in 1937 and was 9,141 tons. Whittaker (1989: 78) gives the dimensions of the vessel as 145m long by 19m wide. The vessel had an oil engine and a single screw and its normal cargo was vegetable oil and wine (Larn and Larn 1998: DD 00/00/1944). 4.2.51. The Inverlane had a short but eventful career. It appears to have been mined twice, the first time while in the North Sea, when the stern was removed and attached to another ship which was under construction at the

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time. It appears that the Inverlane was repaired somehow and put back into service (Wood 2008: 147). It lost its stern again when hit by a second mine in 1939 off South Shields (Ferguson 1985: 36). Immediately prior to the second incident the ship was recorded as part of convoy HG9 travelling from Gibraltar to the UK which sailed on 30 November and arrived on the 6th December 1939 (National Archives ADM 199/2184/52). Minutes of a meeting of the War Cabinet for December 15th 1939 include a note that the oil tanker Inverlane had been hit by a mine and was reportedly still on fire (National Archives CAB 65/2/50). Details of the incident have appeared on number of military history websites but without reference to a source. The websites state that the Inverlane was on a voyage from Abadan to Invergordon, when the mine was struck. Four of the crew were killed and many more injured, the ship was abandoned and left to sink, but she drifted through stormy seas for 36 hours to eventually appear on the shore at Seaburn. The ship burned for five days and German bombers were able to use it as a marker to the entrance to the Tyne. Eventually a salvage team boarded the ship and found that the stern had settled on a sandy bottom. They decided that the fore section which was over 300ft long could be refloated the ship was taken to South Shields and then on to Blyth to be converted into a blockship before being towed to Orkney.7 4.2.52. The mine strike appears to have placed the ship out of commission not long after the attack on the HMS Royal Oak, when it was clear that more blockships were urgently required to defend Scapa Flow (Ferguson 1988: 102). The vessel, now only bow and midships, was made watertight enough so that it could be towed to Scapa Flow. According to the RCAHMS national database entry the stern portion of the wreck still lies in English waters (NMR NZ46SW 14). Ridley (1992: 113) states that after arriving in Scapa Flow the Inverlane’s bow was used for fire fighting practice for four years before its eventual sinking. This ties in with the date of sinking of 30/5/1944 given in Whittaker (1989: 78) although given the circumstances and the urgent need for blockships this seems like a strange decision. The Inverlane was the largest of the blockships sunk in Scapa during WWII and was also one of the last (Hewison 1985: 275). 4.2.53. Wood (2008: 140) states that the Inverlane sank directly over the Budrie and that some of the Inverlane’s hull plates cover the lower vessel. Much of the bow of the vessel remained visible above the waterline and it formed a wellknown local landmark (Figure 11A). As with the Gobernador Bories which lies approximately 275m from it, this was for a long time one of Britain’s most well known and popular dive sites due to the shallow depth and good visibility, but it collapsed in 1996 and is no longer the attraction that it was. Prior to the collapse visitors to the site would begin their dives by kitting up on the 100 foot dry section and then dive the submerged part, which was about 75 feet long. A detailed description of the shipwreck prior to its collapse, when it was still only partially submerged is given by Macdonald (2011: 134-5). He noted many features of the boat which were visible prior to the collapse, including the forecastle with its two large empty oil tanks, entered by ladders and the pump room in front of the bridge. He also recorded some coiled towing ropes at the aft end of the wreck just at the point where the mine had sheared the vessel in two just aft of the bridge. Photos of some of the submerged parts of the ship have been published by
7

http://www.bpears.org.uk/NE-Diary/Inc/ISeq_02.html Accessed 9/03/2012

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Wood (Figures 11B and 11C). Despite the attractiveness of the site to divers some minor salvage was noted to be underway in 1986 (British SubAqua Club 1987: 18). 4.2.54. Prior to the 1996 collapse the fore part of the ship had been visible above the water line even at high water, including the forecastle and the foremast. Eventually the currents were too strong for the wreck and after heeling over to starboard and pausing for several months the wreck partially collapsed in the winter of 1996. After the collapse the fo’c’sle remained visible above the waterline for a short time but eventually succumbed and the remains of the wreck now lie approximately 11m below the water (Macdonald 2011: 134). A report from 2004 recorded in the RCAHMS national database states that “on 29 January 2000, she sank finally below the surface in a storm. The remains of this wreck are now completely below the surface, and are understood to be buoyed”. Divers now record that only the foremost and aft most parts survive in a recognisable form with all of the centre part having collapsed into wreckage. Wood (2008: 147) notes that the site is still diveable but that “the hull is now flattened and is spread over a wide area, covered in kelp, it is easy to miss and only rarely visited. The bows are still relatively intact and still quite clean of encrusting marine life, but even this is nearing collapse and it will probably go quite quickly”. The UKHO database records the wreck as ‘Live’ and notes that the 2010 Fathoms Ltd. survey of the site recorded the Inverlane at a least depth of 0.94m with a length of 99m, a width of 30m and a height of 10m. 4.2.55. 7007 is underneath 7004 and lies at an orientation of 66°. 7007 is even more dispersed than 7004 and covers an area measuring 51m by 16.1m with a maximum height above the seabed of 1.9m. Due to the dispersed nature of the site these measurements are not comparable to the recorded dimensions of the Budrie which was 86.86m long and 10.99m wide. 4.2.56. The largest part of 7007 is partially overlain by a curved section of wreck which may be part of the hull of a vessel. The underlying part of 7007 is flat and may be part of the deck. There are several features on this part of 7007 which may be the remains of superstructure, particularly a rectangular feature measuring 2.8m by 5.9m at the southern end of the structure which may be the remains of a deck house (Feature 2). There is also a circular feature 2.2m west of this with a diameter of 0.7m. To the north of the rectangular feature there is an oval feature with exposed beams on either side of it. The oval is 2.1m long and 1.4m across. The rest of 7007 appears to be either deck or hull with the plating removed and the ribs exposed. 4.2.57. 7016 is the bow or stern of one of the vessels and measures 25.6m long and 17.1m wide. Although most of the deck and hull plating are missing the shape of the structure is still discernable from the ribs and this section appears to be lying on its keel. A bulkhead can be seen across the southwest end of this section of wreck with a square feature running up it and measuring 1.3m by1.5m across (Feature 3). There is also a boiler resting against the north side of 7016 which is 4.3m across and 3.7m long. 4.2.58. The Budrie was a 2,252 ton single-screw steel built steamer built in Glasgow by A. and J. Inglish in 1882. It was 86.86m long with a beam of 10.99m and a draught of 7.18m. It had a two-cylinder compound engine of 200hp and its two boilers probably drove a single screw. The ship was three-decked, the

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poop, boatdeck and forecastle measuring 12.5m, 14.6m and 9.1m in length respectively. 4.2.59. The vessel was registered in Bombay and went through several name changes, and up to at least 1914 its captain was D. Evans (Whitaker 1998: 78; Larn and Larne 1998: DD 00/00/1915; Ferguson 1985, 36). Its original name was the Golconda (there appear to have been three ships of the same name, all of which served in India). This ship was sold to the Indian Government around a year after being built and renamed the Royal Indian Marine Ship (RIMS) Canning and served as a troop transport and general cargo vessel in the British colonies8. An incident dating to this period is preserved in Gosset (1911: 120-1): “In December 1900 the headquarters and wing of the 2nd battalion Durham Light Infantry were changing stations from Mandalay Burma to Wellington, Madras. They were at sea on the R.I.M.S. Canning, and Christmas day was spent on board. A day or two previously sports had been held, when the officers of the ship gave a sheep as special prize for the tug-of-war. The poor fellow was destined for the Christmas dinner of the E company who won the event. They, however decided to make a pet of him and kept him as such to accompany them to Wellington, Calicut, where he remained two years, and went to England with the battalion”. 4.2.60. In 1907 the vessel was sold for commercial use to Goolamally Jeewanjee & Co. and renamed the Budrie and in 1909 was sold again to Arab Steamers Ltd. before being requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1915. On the 3rd of October 1915 it was filled with concrete and sunk as a blockship in Burra Sound, ending up pointed in a westerly direction (Macdonald 2011: 139). Details from a record held in the Public Record Office at Kew from 1915 are quoted in the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck. The description is said to state that the wreck is “Concrete Ballasted. In good condition and likely to last”. The entry goes on to state: “The accompanying panoramic drawing (of Burra Sound, looking S towards Hoy from the Graemsay shore) depicts a flushed-decked cargo ship with a central superstructure: The masts and funnel remain erect, and the vessel is lying level, with waterline at about its normal level on the ship's side. The accompanying map depicts the vessel as lying with bows towards the WNW, to the E of the centre of the channel (towards the Graemsay shore) and to the W of the Rotherfield”. 4.2.61. An image of the wreck from around this time has been published by Lawson Wood (Figure 7) which also shows the Ronda. In 1940 it was described by the HMS Scott as having a stern 3m above the waterline, with a mainmast standing about 28m high. It was either dispersed by explosives in 1962 (Wood 2008: 112) or collapsed and by 1975 aerial photos show no trace of the wreck. The Budrie was noted on the 2010 Fathoms Ltd. multibeam survey as having a length of 12m, a width of 10m and a height of 3.5m.
The website photoship.com carries an image of a ship named Canning which corresponds to the design of the Budrie. The source of the image was not given and it has not been possible to verify the image. http://www.photoship.co.uk/jalbum%20ships/Old%20Ships%20C/slides/Canning-02.html Accessed 9/3/2012
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These dimensions are considerably smaller than the observed dimensions stated earlier. This may be due to higher resolution in this survey but it should also be noted that this is a diffuse wreck lying underneath 7004. These factors make defining its limits problematic. 7005: THE TABARKA 4.2.62. 7005 is located on the west side of Burra Sound and is orientated across the channel at 79° (Figure 12). This is thought to be the wreck of the Tabarka, recorded by the RCAHMS national database as laying 137m to the northeast. The water depth over the site ranges from 10.5m to 12.7m below CD as the depth increases from the side of the channel to its centre. The site lies on the edge of an area of rocky seabed, with sand predominantly on its south side. There is evidence of scour around the wreck and a 2m high sandbank has developed immediately south of the wreck. 4.2.63. The wreck is resting upside down with its keel towards the surface. The vessel has also broken into two halves, both maintaining a similar orientation although the west part of the wreck is listing to the north. The west section of the wreck angles up at 54° from the horizontal on its south side compared to 81° for the east section of the wreck. The total observed length of the wreck is 101.9m, with the west section measuring 50.3m and the east section measuring 44.5m with a space between the two halves. The beam of the vessel is approximately 14.2m and it is 10.9m high. This is similar to the recorded dimensions for the Tabarka of a 100m length and 13m beam. 4.2.64. Although the general condition of the wreck appears to be good, with much of the surface appearing to be relatively intact, the hull is clearly damaged. This is most easily observed in the form of the large break separating the two halves of the wreck which appears to go through the entire wreck down to the seabed (Feature 1). This exposes the inner part of the vessel and measures 12.9m across at its widest point.

4.2.65. In addition to the crack there are large sections of the wreck missing hull plating on both parts of the vessel, possibly due to scuttling. On the west part this is generally concentrated around the keel, and even the ribs seem to be damaged beneath (Feature 2). The hull damage on this part of the vessel is generally concentrated around the stern and covers an area measuring 10.3m along the length of the vessel and 2.6m across it. On the east end of the wreck the hull damage appears to be more extensive (Feature 3). In addition to a large area of the hull missing plating and ribs around the keel much of the hull plating on the north side of the wreck near the bow is also missing. On the keel the damaged area measures 7m along the length of the vessel and 6.7m across it. On the north side of the hull the plating appears to be missing from 13.5m along the length of the vessel from the bow and up the entire height of the side from the seabed. 4.2.66. Since the vessel is lying upside down there are very few structural features to identify apart from the hull. At the stern of the vessel, to the west, the mountings for the rudder still appear to be in place, although the rudder itself and the propeller appear to be missing (Feature 4). There is some debris on the south side of the wreck, particularly two elongated objects which appear to be partially buried in the sandbank. The largest of these is 11.9m long and the other is 4.7m long.

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4.2.67. The Tabarka was a 2,624 ton steamer built in Rotterdam in 1909, and originally named the Pollux. It was a steel-built single screw steamer, 100m long and 13m wide and was registered in Rouen (Whittaker 1998: 78). 4.2.68. The ship is mentioned numerous times in the shipping lists and the accidental death by poisoning of the ship’s fireman by its chief steward is also reported in the Scotsman of Dec 12, 1928. It seems to have seen some use as a passenger ship between the Netherlands and the USA.9 4.2.69. Larn and Larn (1998: DD 00/00/1941) and Ferguson (1985: 33) record that it was seized as a prize at Falmouth in July 1940 by the Royal Navy. However the National Archives holds a record (MT 59/503) of French consent to use the ship as a blockship. It was sailed to Scapa Flow under its own steam and was first sunk in 1941 in Kirk Sound. After the completion of the first Churchill barrier it was no longer needed here and was subsequently refloated and was placed in Burra Sound on the 27th of July 1944 (Macdonald 2011: 139). The resinking did not go well and the vessel turned over, its ballast shifted and it drifted into the sound before sinking near the aft section of the Inverlane (Wood 2008: 149). 4.2.70. The Tabarka was never dispersed with explosives and is now one of the most dived wrecks in Scapa Flow. According to the RCAHMS national database entry for the site, the inverted hull has been damaged by blast holes during sinking; three boilers and a triple-expansion engine (the latter inverted and in situ) are preserved within the interior amidships. Photos of the interior in Macdonald (2011: 96) show that the three massive boilers have fallen from their mounts. Macdonald (2011: 138) gives a detailed description of the wreck: “She lies in 12 metres of water upside down, about 200 metres to the north-west of the Inverlane. There are only one or two entrances into the inverted hull, through blast holes from her sinking and at the stern by going under it and up through the rotted deck between steel girders. Once inside you are completely enclosed with no easy escape route to the surface… Divers enter through large blast holes in the bottom and east most side of the hull and reach the first of several easily accessible large spaces. In the first cavernous space there is a mass of boulders (loaded into her before her scuttling to help her sink quickly in the correct position). Passing on through a rotted bulkhead you move into the huge boiler room. Here three huge boilers have fallen to the bottom from their mounts above. Moving over them you arrive at the engine room where a complete inverted triple-expansion engine covers the floor above your head. Despite the two sinkings in the war, here and there of the floor (formerly the ceiling) intact light bulbs can be seen still in place. At the very stern itself is a large open space with the prop shaft tunnel running along the roof. Beneath you the deck has rotted away and you can see through the ribs of the deck to the seabed below”. 4.2.71. Although the most recent edition of Dive Scapa Flow was in 2011 the text for the Tabarka does not mention serious recent deterioration which is noted on the website of the author in a post dating to late 2010:

Some images of the ship under the name SS Pollux appear at the http://www.maritiemdigitaal.nl/ website

9

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The upside down blockship Tabarka in Burra Sound seems to have deteriorated significantly - even since last year. The bottom of the hull (now above) is collapsing down above the boilers and the fairly large swim through between boiler tops and keel has been reduced to a few feet. The engine and gauge panel (cover photo on Dive Scapa Flow) are now at an angle and getting hard to make out. She is not the gem of Scapa Flow that she used to be and the rate of collapse seems to be accelerating.10 4.2.72. The UKHO database includes a reference to the hull of the ship being lifted in 1972 by group called ‘Undermarine Operations’. No further detail is given and if this was an attempt at salvage it seems to have been unsuccessful. The most recent survey of the wreck by Fathoms Ltd. in 2001 recorded an obstruction at this location but was unable to confirm whether or not it was a natural feature. 4.2.73. During the amnesty declared by the Receiver of Wreck in 2001 a porthole deadeye (12", weight 9kg) and brass valve were handed in (RCAHMS national database entry). 4.2.74. All of the interior metal parts of the Tabarka are covered in anemones, sea squirts and dead men’s fingers (Wood 2008: 149). 7006: THE GOBERNADOR BORIES 4.2.75. 7006 is the furthest south among the wrecks surveyed in Burra Sound and is thought to be the remains of the Gobernador Bories, 93m west of its recorded RCAHMS national database position (Figure 13). The wreck lies across Burra Sound at an orientation of 260° in an area of predominantly sandy seabed with some rocky outcropping with depth ranging from 12.9m to 14.5m below CD. 4.2.76. The wreck is broken up but still fairly cohesive. It appears to be lying mostly on its keel but is twisted along its length with the bow listing to port and the stern listing to starboard. The observed dimensions of the wreck are 93.6m long, 19.6m wide and 8.1m high. This compares to the recorded dimensions of the Gobernador Bories of a length of 87.04m and beam of 10.97m, with discrepancy probably due to the state of the wreck. 4.2.77. The deck and much of the hull appear to be missing, with some hull plating still visible at either end. The ribs of the vessel are exposed in several places and are evenly spaced at about 0.5m intervals. The vessel’s two boilers can be identified amidships, each measuring approximately 3m long and 3.5m across with protuberances on top of them (Feature 1). The possible remains of the engine sit immediately aft of these and measures 5m long and 2.6m across. 4.2.78. Further forward there are two rectangular features measuring 2m by 0.7m within the remains of the hold (Feature 2). It is unclear from the data what these were although they appear to be in situ and part of the internal structure.

10

http://www.rod-macdonald.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=96:bigchanges-in-ss-tabarka&catid=2:latest-news&Itemid=6 Accessed 09/03/2012

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4.2.79.

The stern of the vessel is still largely upstanding despite missing its deck and some hull plating. It appears as if the rudder and propeller are still in place although it is difficult to discern detail in the data (Feature 3). There is very little in the way of visible debris around the wreck apart from an elongated object located 16.7m to the north. The object measures 5.3m long and 0.7m wide and may be part of a mast.

4.2.80. This is a well known, frequently dived wreck in Burra Sound. The Gobernador Bories was a 2, 332 ton iron built steamer which was built in 1882 in West Hartlepool (Ferguson 1985, 36). It was built by W. Gray and Co. and had a two-cylinder compound engine of 224hp and two boilers powered a single screw. The machinery was made by T. Richardson and Sons, West Hartlepool. The vessel’s construction included two decks and was divided by five bulkheads. The poop, boat deck and forecastle measured 7.9m, 17.1m and 9.1m in length respectively. The overall length was 87.04m with a beam of 10.97m and a draught of 7.36m. At the time of sinking the vessel was registered in Punta Arenas in Chile. The UKHO records for the site show that it was formerly known as the Wordsworth (Larn and Larn 1998, DD00/00/1915). As the Wordsworth, it served as a cargo steamer for many years before being refitted as a whaling ship (possibly as a factory vessel) around the Falkland Islands for many years (Wood 2008, 143). 4.2.81. The Gobernador Bories had largely fallen out of use by 1914 and was acquired by the Royal Navy and towed to Burra Sound to be sunk as a blockship on the 12th of October 1914. However the ship was unballasted and while sinking it drifted into deeper waters, rendering it ineffective as a blockship (Wood 2008, 143-4). 4.2.82. The site was recorded as a dangerous wreck in 1926 at a least depth of 5.4m. The remains of the wreck are described in some detail in the various dive books covering Scapa Flow. It remains in good condition and was never dispersed by explosives. The wreck is described as lying at a depth of 16m (MLW) and about 275m to the south-east of the Inverlane. The wreck lies on its keel with a slight list to starboard. Although much of the vessel’s decking has collapsed, the bow, the starboard side and the stern remain largely intact. Wood (2008: 143) states that the hull has twisted so that the stern angles to starboard. The hull remains accessible and is used as shelter from the strong currents by many of the divers that visit the wreck and gain access through a collapsed section of starboard hull. In the middle of the ship two large boilers lie exposed amongst areas of open decking and the vessel’s struts. Behind the boilers lies the massive steam engine with its huge pistons, crankshafts and rods still visible. Further back towards the stern in a large open hold there is a body of wreckage including a large winch lying on its back. The stern is described by divers as being largely intact and accessible from the inside. Wood (2008: 143) notes that the decks and portholes in this area are gone but that the strengthening ribs and pillars are still strong and that the rudder and propeller remain in place. The wreck is in an area of strong current so that the silt found elsewhere in Scapa has been carried away and it sits in an area of clean white sand and rocks (Macdonald 2011: 137).

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4.2.83. A very detailed account of the wreck was published in 2000 in Diver magazine and this included a detailed annotated painting of the wreck site (Figure 14A). The article notes a variety of identifiable features including: “In front of the boilers is a small donkey boiler. On the starboard side of the wreck, collapsed deck plates rest across the starboard boiler to make a tunnel inside the starboard side of the hull. Various pieces of pipework and valves project into the tunnel from the end of the donkey boiler and plenty of light enters the tunnel through breaks in the plates and triangular ends forward and aft… Turning aft along the side of the boiler, the tunnel breaks into the open among the exposed remains of the engine room. The huge block of the steam engine dominates the scene. The crankshaft and connecting rods are visible through the sides of the engine block. From the rear of the engine, the partially buried arch of the propshaft tunnel projects from the square housing of the thrust bear and marks the way to the stern. Largely intact, it is obscured in places by fallen sections of deck plate and hull. A few metres back, the remains of the engine-room bulkhead is still upright, with some large sections of pipe attached to the inside of it. The starboard side of the hull is generally higher than the port side, with ribs projecting above the line of the hull plates. Sticking up into a strong current, such ribs are a perfect home for soft corals and anemones. From the top, streamers of kelp waft in the current. With typically good visibility you will be able to see the shadow of the largely intact stern from about halfway along the hold. The floor of the hold is a tangle of debris from the deck and sides. Among the debris here you will find the solid remains of the surround for one of the hold hatches and a little further back, a large winch. The stern itself lists heavily to starboard and is surprisingly intact compared to the rest of the ship, demonstrating graphically how the ends of a ship are built to withstand much higher stresses than those parts in-between. With decks gone the inside of the stern is a grid of ribs and pillars, with shafts of sunlight streaming in from above. Right at the top, the steering mechanism is still attached to the rudder shaft… the propeller and rudder [are] both still intact and in place. Two blades of the propeller are buried in the shingle seabed, with the hub just clear… Crossing the wreck to the port side another swimthrough takes you right up to the inside of the bows. Like the stern, the bows are intact, but this time twisted to port. There are no chains or anchors. Such useful fittings would have been cleared out before the ship was scuttled, having said that, on the seabed to the port side of the bows lies a large iron pendant, perhaps the remains of an anchor with broken flukes” (Diver, 2000, December issue). 4.2.84. Wood (2000: 118) also confirms that the propeller is still visible and published three dive photos (Figures 14B-D). The UKHO records this as a ‘Live’ wreck and the most recent hydrographic survey of the site, by Fathoms Ltd. in 2010 noted that the wreck had a length of 96m, a width of 20m and a height of 6m at its centre, with a least depth of 8m. 4.2.85. During the amnesty declared by the Receiver of Wreck in 2001 a 20x10cm oil box lid was handed in. While this may not seem significant in its own right it demonstrates the legacy of removal of portable material from the Scapa Flow wrecks (RCAHMS national database entry).

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4.2.86. The strength of the current around the wreck means that there is both an abundance of life wreck, more so than on almost any wreck at Scapa Flow and good visibility up to 30m making this one of the most popular dives in Scapa Flow, so much so that the fish inhabiting the wreck have come to expect that divers will feed them! (Macdonald 2011: 136-7). Macdonald describes kelp, soft corals and fish such as rock wrasse and conger eels inhabiting the wreck. Wood (2000: 118) also mentions the presence of ballan wrasse inside the wreck and pincushion starfish, hydroids, small seasquirts and red and brown algae on the spars of the ship as well as plumose anemones (Metridium senile) on the underside of the bow. 7017 4.2.87. 7017 is the furthest north among the wrecks surveyed in Burra Sound and there does not appear to be a known wreck site corresponding to its location (Figure 15). This is an isolated piece of wreck, probably the bow or stern, with no additional material visible around it. 4.2.88. 7017 lies in an area of rocky seabed near the northern entrance of Burra Sound and is orientated at 27°. The observed dimensions of the wreck are 14.2m long, 5.6m wide and 4.2m high. Much of the hull plating is missing and the remains are generally poorly preserved. There are no additional structural features identifiable within the wreck. 4.3. 4.3.1. PRIORITY B: HOXA SOUND Wrecks 7008 to 7010 are located in Hoxa Sound at the south-east entrance to Scapa Flow (Figure 16), used as the main entry point for shipping in WWI and WWII. The narrowness of the Sound means that it is prone to strong tidal flows similar to Burra Sound and this creates excellent visibility for divers during slack water. Two of the wrecks here relate to the presence of WWI boom defences, the trawler Strathgarry having been used to operate a boom across the entrance until sinking in a collision in 1915 and the German submarine the UB-116 having fallen victim to remote mines in the same area a few years later near the end of WWI. The seabed in this area is generally sandy with no obvious sign of sand ripples. These areas of seabed are mostly flat, with limited slope around the wrecks and no obvious shelving. The exception to this is 7009 which is in much shallower water than the other wrecks in this area. This wreck lies on the interface between the rocky shore and sandy seabed, with small sand ripples visible to the south-east. 7008: HMS STRATHGARRY 4.3.3. 7008 coincides with the recorded position of the wreck of the HMS Strathgarry (Figure 17). The wreck is located in Hoxa sound between Flotta and about 1km from South Ronaldsy. The position of the wreck identified in the multibeam data is approximately 50m west of the RCAHMS national database record. The wreck lies within a scour pit in an area of otherwise relatively flat sandy seabed with an average depth of 54.5m. There is a wide scour pit extending 56m to the north-west of the wreck with a corresponding bank to the south.

4.3.2.

4.3.4.

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The maximum depth of the scour pit is 55.9m and the top of the bank is at a depth of 54.4m. 4.3.5. Due to the depth of the wreck it is hard to discern much structural detail from the multibeam data. The form of the wreck can be clearly seen though, lying on its port side with an orientation of 252°. The observed length of 7008 is 38.6m, and measures 9.3m across with a maximum height of 4.7m above the seabed. The beam of the vessel measured from the top edge of the hull to opposite side at the bottom of the scour is approximately 7m. These measurements are similar to records of the HMS Strathgarry which state it was 34m long with a beam of 7m. The vessel appears to be twisted towards the bow as the slope of the hull reduces from 73° to 46° from horizontal. It is unclear however if this is due to twisting of the keel or the hull plating collapsing inward. Very little additional structural detail can be discerned from the data. There does seem to be some structure amidships which may be the wheel house with a deck house to the rear, but it cannot be seen in enough detail to assess its condition. Although the hull appears to be fairly intact, the bow seems to be hollow. This might suggest that reports of the deck rotting away are accurate. There is not enough detail in the data to identify any damage that may have been caused by the collision that led to the sinking of the HMS Strathgarry. The seabed surrounding 7008 is mostly empty with the exception of three rounded objects to the south of the wreck. The largest of these lies 92m to the south and measures 4m by 3.5m across. The smallest is located 80m to the south-west and measures 1.8m by 1.4m across, this object also appears to have associated scour extending approximately 60m to the south-west. The HMS Strathgarry was a steel-built single-deck steam trawler of 202 tons gross. It had a single boiler and a three-cylinder triple expansion engine of 67 horsepower powering a single screw and a top speed of 11 knots. The vessel and its engine were both built in Aberdeen by Hall, Russell and Co. under the works number 123363 in 1906. It is recorded as being 34m long, 7m wide and had a draught of 3.6m. It was constructed with a single deck and three bulkheads. Records show that the vessel was also registered in Aberdeen and was owned by the Aberdeen Steam Trawling and Fishing Company Ltd, under the management of a Mr. J. Brown and skippered by Captain I. McFarlane (Larn and Larn 1998: DD 06/07/1915). Although it was involved in boom defences in WWI, the HMS Strathgarry was not a deliberately placed blockship. It was requisitioned by the Navy in the early stages of the war and was put to use as a support vessel for the maintenance of boom defences in Hoxa Sound (Whittaker 1998: 83) Larne (1998: DD 06/07/1915) describes it as an armed patrol trawler. HMS Stragarry’s role was to open and close part of the anti-submarine booms or nets which blocked off Hoxa Sound in order to allow access to friendly vessels. On the 6th of July 1915, HMS Strathgarry collided with the HMS Herald in Hoxa Sound and sank. Wood (2008: 81) states that this caused controversy as some lives were lost on the HMS Strathgarry. At the time of sinking it had a cargo of ballast (Larn and Larn 1998: DD06/07/1915).

4.3.6.

4.3.7.

4.3.8.

4.3.9.

4.3.10. The UKHO records the wreck at a least depth of 52m in a general depth of 58m, this varies from the observed depth and may be due to depositional changes in the seabed (the variations in depth may also be due to errors in

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the tidal corrections of earlier datasets). The depth of the wreck reduces its accessibility and it was not rediscovered until the early 1990s when it was spotted by sports divers (Mcdonald 2011, 128-9). As it is deeper than 50m the wreck is slightly too deep for recreational diving using air alone, and is therefore visited only by ‘technical’ divers. Wood (2008, 81) notes that it is often used as a training dive for trimix divers. The Orkney Dive Boat Operators Association Code of Practice states that the OIC Harbours Operations Room at Scapa must be notified in advance of any dives at the site. The wreck is generally intact and lies upright on the seabed with a slight list to port. The hull is complete and the wheelhouse is intact as is the steering helm although much of the wooden decking has fallen in (Wood 2008, 81). The vessel lies in the middle of Hoxa Sound in an area of strong tidal currents on a bed characterised by clean white sand and shale. Macdonald includes a detailed description of the remains as seen by divers: “Practically all her wooden deck planking has now rotted away leaving only small pieces visible above the lattice work of her structure. The foredeck has collapsed down and prominently shelves off to port. Perhaps this is evidence of where the impact was in the collision that sank her. Four large cable winches used for operations with the antisubmarine boom lie strewn about here with cables still neatly coiled around them. Just aft of this stands the open skeletal framework of the wheelhouse with –remarkably- the hub of the helm with its spokes radiating out still standing in place. Just behind that, atop a pedestal, is the brass rudder direction indicator with its embossed lettering and pointer still in place. Aft of the wheelhouse is a large black hole where the funnel formerly stood. Aft of that and the skeleton of a wide deckhouse can be explored with its two entrance doors facing astern, the door of one still fully opened back against the bulkhead. The afterdeck planking has, again, completely rotted away, exposing the girders of her structure. Remnants of the wooden deck planks are still evident up and down the structural girders where metallic salts have leached out into the surrounding wood forcing the ship worms and other borers consuming the decking to stop at the contaminated wood. If there is one thing that leaves a horrid taste in a wood borer’s mouth it is anything metallic. The stub of a mast stands just aft of this deckhouse and aft of that a spare anchor some 2-3 metres long lies athwartships, still neatly stowed in place with its stock folded away alongside it and lashed down in shipshape fashion. Abruptly the blunt stern appears with the remnants of the auxiliary steering still discernible. Peering over the bulwark rail the rudder and prop can be easily made out in the good visibility” (Macdonald 2011: 129-30). 4.3.11. A report on the site as it appeared in 2005 from the South Queensferry SubAqua Club was lodged with the RCAHMS national database. The description of the site is broadly in agreement with that given by Macdonald: “This vessel is lying with a list to port in general depths of 58m, with 59m in the scour pit at the prop and 52-54m on the deck. The hull is in excellent condition and still intact; there is much rope on wreck, and the winch drums are still visible. On the port side 3m back from the bow there appears to be a plate missing (measuring about 2 foot by 2 foot): this would be below the waterline, and was possibly the collision damage that caused her sinking. The wheelhouse is still intact with what

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remains of the binnacle and wheel still in situ. The deck structure aft is now only one sided; the rear part with the 2 doors is still standing. Off the wreck on both sides, there are lengths of wire hawser with what looks like winches or blocks of some kind”. 4.3.12. A rudder plate from seabed and a pipe and sight glass assembly thought to be from this wreck were handed in under the Receiver of Wreck amnesty declared in 2001 (RCAHMS national database entry). 4.3.13. Wood (2008, 81) notes that there are hydroids, dead men’s fingers, plumose anemones, brittle starfish and lots of small fish around the wreck. 7009: THE UB-116 4.3.14. 7009 is thought to be the remains of the German submarine UB-116 (Figure 18). The wreck is located at the mouth of a bay on the eastern side of Flotta, approximately 950m from the shore in Hoxa Sound. This is about 84m west of the recorded RCAHMS national database location. The wreck lies at a depth of 27m in an area of sandy seabed and oriented to about 160°. A linear trough can be seen in the bathymetry data 220m north-east of the wreck. The ends of this feature were not covered by the survey but it measures at least 153m long, with a maximum width of 16m and an average depth of 1m. It is unclear whether this is scour caused by a feature outside of the survey area or another seabed feature. 4.3.15. Due to the depth of the wreck it is hard to discern much structural detail from the multibeam data. It is, however, possible to see that although broken up the wreck material is concentrated in a single area. The observed wreck structure measures 42.6m long, 10.3m wide and reaches a height of 3m above the seabed. These values are broadly similar when compared to the recorded dimensions of the active UB-116 of 54.47m long, 5.79m wide and draught of 3.78m. Variation is expected due to the broken up nature of the wreck and the possible burial under the surrounding sand. 4.3.16. 7009 appears to be resting on its keel, although there is little evidence of external hull plating. The general form of the wreck is easily identifiable in the data, although the outline of the wreck now forms a slight crescent shape. 7009 reaches its greatest height above the seabed towards its centre, with wreck material concentrated around a large circular feature approximately 4.3m in diameter. This may be the remains of the base of the conning tower after the superstructure was salvaged. There is also a subcircular feature, with one side missing, to the north-east of this. This feature measures approximately 3.7m across and may have been distorted in the wrecking process. 4.3.17. The wreck seems to be more cohesive at its north-west end where the outline of the hull is visible. There are four rounded anomalies located within the wreck, two at the northern end and two at the southern end. These are of similar sizes and measure from 1.2m to 1.6m across. There are also two larger rounded anomalies at the southern end of the wreck which both measure approximately 3.5m long by 1.5m wide. 4.3.18. 7009 is located within a wider debris field extending approximately 197m north by south and 46.5m east by west. The debris identified around the wreck ranges in size from 0.6m by 0.6m to 5.7m by 3.3m. Although some of

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the debris is quite large it is difficult to discern enough detail identify what individual elements may be. 4.3.19. The UB-116 has the dubious distinction of being the last naval vessel sunk in Scapa Flow in WWI. An early German submarine built in WWI by Blohm and Woss in Hamburg, it was a steel UB-III class submarine of which around 85 were built (Jane 1990: 126). The yard was keen to demonstrate its competence in the construction of U-boats and built the UB-116 and the U-115 at its own expense (Williamson 2002: 15). It was 516 tons (641 submerged) and 181 feet (54.47m) long, with a beam of 5.79m and a draught of 3.78m. It was powered by two AEG six-cylinder diesel/electric motors of 1,100 bhp plus two further electric motors of 788 bhp and had twin propellers, giving her a maximum surface speed of 13.6 knots. It was armed with five 19.7 inch torpedo tubes, one at the stern and four at the bow along with a single 4.1-inch gun on the deck (Larn and Larn 1998: DD29/10/1918; Whitaker 1998, 82). It had a maximum operating depth of 50m and a range of 7,000 miles at 6 knots on the surface or 55 miles at 4 knots submerged (Smith 1989: 115-16). 4.3.20. UB-116 was completed in 1917 and entered service in 1918. It completed only four patrols and was part of the Flandern I Flotilla (15 Aug 1918 - 4 Oct 1918) under Captain Erich Stephan and later part of the III Flotilla (4 Oct 1918 - 28 Oct 1918) under Captain Hans Joachim Emsmann. Emsmann was the son of an Admiral and an experienced U-boat commander; he had previously captained the UB-5, the UB-10 and the UB-40 and over the course of ten patrols had sunk 26 ships, totalling 11,624 tons. In WWII the 5th U-Boat flotilla was named Flotilla Emsmann in his honour.11 4.3.21. By October 1918 it was clear that Germany was going to lose the war and there was widespread insubordination in the German fleet. It appears that UB116 was making a last ditch attack, possibly more to restore the honour of the German fleet than for strategic purposes. The submarine left its base at Heliogland and attempted to penetrate Hoxa Sound to attack ships in Scapa Flow. In a 1948 article in the Scotsman (Oct 12, 1948, p. 4) this was described as a ‘death or glory’ bid to attack the fleet flagship the HMS Queen Elizabeth before the expected capitulation of Germany. The Queen Elizabeth was in the Forth at the time but Emsmann and his crew were unaware of this and believed it was in Scapa. The Germans had observed ships passing through Hoxa Sound and believed that there were no boom nets or minefields. 4.3.22. In reality there was a wide range of defensive systems in place at Hoxa Sound, including underwater hydrophones, detector loops (a wire which detected the shift in magnetic fields caused by the presence of a submarine), remotely controlled mines, searchlights and a boom net (Smith 1989: 78). The boats the Germans had seen passing through were only able to pass through the boom net by means of a gate system operated by drifters. 4.3.23. The attempt was made on 28th October 1918 under the command of Lt. J. J. Emsmann. Baird (2003: 282) records that before leaving for this mission Emsmann told a friend he would not be returning and events were to prove him right. As the submarine attempted to enter the Sound at 20.21, the
11

www.uboat.net Accessed 09/03/2012

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presence of an unscheduled vessel was heard immediately by the hydrophones and a full alert was issued. At 22.30 a periscope was spotted and just before midnight the submarine was again detected, this time via a detector loop. A mine or string of mines lying beside the detector loop was detonated remotely from a hut on the shore. 4.3.24. As day broke, oil and bubbles were spotted at the point where the submarine sank and two trawlers located the wreck using the new ASDIC system and further depth charges were dropped by a destroyer. Baird (2003: 283) and Wood (2008: 82) both note a macabre but unconfirmed local tale that tapping was heard coming from the submarine prior to the dropping of the depth charges but was ignored. 4.3.25. Royal Navy salvage divers, known as ‘tin openers’ were used to recover naval intelligence documents from submarines during WWI. A team led by Warrant Shipwright E. C. ‘Dusty’ Miller, was sent to inspect the wreck. They blasted open the conning tower hatch and entered the submarine but found only drowned men wearing officer’s uniforms and suitcases filled with personal items and smart civilian clothes. Wood (2008: 82) suggested that the submarine had come to surrender rather than attack. He also notes that the initial approach by Emmsman was made on the surface “as if he wanted to be seen”. Baird (2003, 282) suggests that it is unlikely that a surrender would have been attempted in Britain and that they might have been intending to carry out the attack and then make their way to Spain. 4.3.26. The subsequent history of the wreck is perhaps more complex than the story of its original loss. After the end of the war in 1919 the submarine was blocking shipping lanes and was brought to the surface for salvage but was lost at another location in Pan Hope, east of Quoyness, approximately 26m deep, similar to the observed depth of 27m. The wreck was located in 1940 by the HMS Challenger and sold to Metal Recoveries (Newhaven) Ltd on the 4th March 1968 but no further disturbance was attempted until 1975. In 1974 a survey showed that the submarine stood 5.4m high in a general depth of 85m to 91m. In the following year navy divers visiting the wreck discovered that a live torpedo remained in one of the submarines tubes. The navy removed the bodies of the German sailors and carried out a small controlled explosion that resulted in unexpected detonation of the warhead and major damage to the wreck (as well as some superficial damage to the Royal Navy vessel and the windows of nearby homes). Part of the motive for removing the submarine may have been the need to clear the area prior to the construction of an oil pipeline to the new oil terminal at Flotta (Smith 1989: 78; Wood 2008: 82). 4.3.27. In 1982 a report by one B. Winfield was lodged with the UKHO and stated that the conning tower could be seen and that the wreck had a maximum height of about three metres and this apparently remains the case and the wreck is recorded in the database as ‘Live’. Wood (2008: 82) describes it as the only recognisable feature still visible even though it is partially hidden However a number of sources claim that the conning tower was removed from the submarine and put on display at St. Margaret’s Hope in South Ronaldsay shortly after the original sinking (Ferguson 1988: 78; Macdonald 2011: 120; Larn and Larn 1998: DD28/10/1918). It may be that only a small part of the conning tower or perhaps only the hatch was recovered as what appears to be a conning tower lying some distance from the main wreckage

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is clearly apparent in dive videos of the site which have been posted on the internet12. 4.3.28. Ferguson (1985: 52) and Ridley (1992: 142) state that most of the dispersed remains have sunk into soft sand. Macdonald (2011: 121) describes the wreck as well broken up and “not really recognisable as a U-boat”. Apart from the conning tower (presumably only part of which remains given that it was supposed to have been removed soon after the sinking) other debris still discernable at the site includes torn plates and live shells. The wreck lies in a well contained area on a soft sandy bottom and is at time partially covered by drifting sand and also has a number of fishing nets snagged on it. Wood (2008: 82) notes the presence of fine marine growth at the site, including brittle starfish, sea urchins and a lot of small fish. 4.3.29. An intercom handset, a sealing ring and a fuel cap were handed in under the Receiver of Wreck amnesty of 2001 and are suspected to be associated with this wreck (RCAHMS national database entry). A number of items from the wreck can also be traced. These include a chronometer recovered by divers and acquired by the Imperial War Museum (Catalogue number 15063), a bronze air valve indicator ring apparently in private hands13 and a sighting compass, also in a private collection14. 7010: THE SMS S54 4.3.30. This wreck was not initially observed while conducting the survey as it is broken up and not initially distinguishable from the surrounding rocks. Although identified as the data was processed it was only covered by a single survey line, thus limiting the density of soundings. 4.3.31. 7010 is thought to be the wreck of the SMS S54, a German torpedo boat wrecked following a salvage attempt (Figure 19). The observed location of the wreck is approximately 102m north-west of the RCAHMS national database location recorded for the S54. 7010 lies in approximately 10.5m to 13.7m of water on the eastern side of Flotta where the rocky shore meets the sandy seabed. The site is on a relatively level plateau just before the seabed shelves off to deeper water, with the wreck orientated to 220° roughly parallel to the shore. There are small sand ripples parallel to the shore spaced approximately 1m apart with amplitudes of 3cm to 6cm. There is minimal scouring around the wreck but this is probably because of the rocky seabed around it. 4.3.32. The observed dimensions of the wreck are 47.3m long with a beam of 8m. This length is considerably shorter than the 83.05m recorded for the S54 at the time of its construction, but this is probably a result of the wrecking process and later salvage attempts. The sides of the hull appear to be better preserved and the observed width is much closer to the recorded beam of 8.33m. 4.3.33. The wreck is largely broken up and it is difficult to determine which end is which from the data. There are parts of the hull which appear to have collapsed over the wreck, but it cannot be said with any certainty if the
12 13

For example see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLLio3-YRVI Accessed 6/03/2012 http://www.coussell.net/page11.html Accessed 01/03/2012 14 http://www.submerged.co.uk/ub116.php Accessed 01/03/2012

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vessel is laying on its keel or on its side. There are features at the northeast end of the wreck that may be the remains of the turbine and propeller shaft, suggesting this could be the stern. The possible turbine is a cylindrical feature with a protrusion at its southern end and measures 6.9m long by 2.6m wide (Feature 1). The possible propeller shaft extends away from this to the north, measuring 9.9m long and 0.6m across. 4.3.34. There are a large number of elongated objects around the possible turbine. These do not seem to form an ordered pattern and are probably the remains of collapsed structure. Moving along the wreck to the south-west there is a large rectangular feature measuring 5m by 6.8m and orientated across the wreck (Feature 2). This may be the remains of a deck structure or partition of the hold. This feature appears to be partially covered by debris, which angles up on the northern side towards the surface at an angle of about 30°. Along the north-west side of the rectangular feature there appears to be a narrow cylindrical object measuring 4.7m long and 0.5m across. It is unclear if this is a damaged part of the hull or some other feature such as a torpedo tube. 4.3.35. There is a second rectangular feature approximately 8.9m to the south-west of this (Feature 3). The second feature measures 5m long and 2.9m across. This feature appears to have cylindrical objects running along its length on either side, both of which a approximately 1m across 4.3.36. At the south-west end of the wreck there is a large upstanding, curved object with a possible cable attached to its northern side (Feature 4). This object is approximately 5.5m long, 0.5m thick and 3.7m high. It is not clear what this object is, although it may be part of the hull. Approximately 9m beyond the end of the wreck there is a large piece of debris measuring 5.6m long by 3.9m wide. It is unclear if this is a single object or several together. 4.3.37. Most of the debris is immediately around the wreck forming a field extending 16m to the north-east and 14.6m to the south-east. The debris ranges in size from 0.7m by 1.2m to 6m by 7.2m. These objects are angular but nothing is clearly identifiable. 4.3.38. Approximately 145m down slope of the wreck to the south-east there is a second debris field. This is formed of five rounded objects covering an area of 16m by 89m. The four objects around the edge of the field a smaller than the central object, ranging in size from 1.2m by 1.6m to 2.3m by 3.5m. The largest object at the centre of the debris field measures 2.8m by 3.8m and could possibly be the remains of a boiler. Further investigation is required to determine if this debris field is associated with wreck 7010. 4.3.39. The torpedo boat destroyer S54 was built by Schichau at Elbing and launched on 11 October 1915 and completed in 1916 as the second unit of the fourteen-strong S53 class. The torpedo boat destroyer was a precursor to the modern destroyer, and a type that the German navy invested relatively heavily. S54 was steel built with a displacement of 902 tons, was 83.05m long with a beam of 8.33m and a draught of 3.86m. It had steam turbines of 24,000 hp (25,900 trial) and two propellers with a top speed of 35/36 knots. Its complement was 85/100. Its armament consisted of three 86mm (3.4in) guns, six 60cm (19.7in) torpedo tubes and 24 mines. It had a complement of 87 officers and men and was part of the No. 3 flotilla

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(Ferguson 1985: 50-52; Larn and Larn 1998: DD 21/06/1919; Whittaker 1998: 83). 4.3.40. The S54 participated in the Battle of Jutland which took place on the 31st May 1916 and was the only full scale engagement between the British and German navies during WWI. It was under the command of Kapitän-Leutnant Karlowa, 6th Half Flotilla, and was responsible for the sinking of the British destroyer Shark after hitting it on the aft tunnel. The wreck of the Shark is now a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. At the end of the battle during a series of isolated skirmishes after nightfall the S54 was involved in the removal of crew from the heavily damaged Rostock when it came under the scrutiny of the British cruiser Dublin. The British night signal had been observed by the German fleet and S54 was able to give part of it and then move away, which enticed the Dublin to follow it and thereby draw attention away from the Rostock (London 2002: 87). 4.3.41. The S54 was scuttled at Scapa Flow along with the rest of the German High Seas Fleet in 1919 but was salvaged by the Royal Navy and beached close to the island of Fara. An attempt to tow the vessel to a salvage yard ended in failure when the ship sank. The ship foundered in poor weather, its tow ropes broke and it drifted ashore south of Lee Craig where it sustained major damage against the boulders. The UKHO database records that an attempt was made to locate the wreck in 1926 but was foiled due to bad weather but was successful in 1927, the same year that it was sold to Cox and Danks. A salvage report is recorded from 1928 and suggests that the vessel had not been touched yet. Cox and Danks appear to have made an abortive attempt to raise it again in 1931 (UKHO; Ferguson 1985: 40, 52; Larn and Larn 1998: DD 21/06/1919) but in the end decided to use explosives on the vessel and salvage it in situ (Larn and Larn 1998: DD 21/06/1919). This appears to have been carried out very effectively so that little now remains (Wood 2008: 66). 4.3.42. There appears to be some confusion among some authors about the dates of the two salvage attempts. A variety of other dates are quoted for salvage attempts in various sources including 1921 (Le Fleming 1970: 196), 1924 (Smith 1989: 98) and 1925 (George 1999: 144).15 Since the location of the vessel doesn’t seem to have been known with any accuracy between 1920 and 1931 these dates seem to be in error. 4.3.43. Macdonald (2011: 117) and Ridley (1992: 144) record that the wreck now lies in 16m of water and has been well smashed up by the salvager’s blasting and storms. Wood (2008: 66) states that the site is generally sheltered with no current. He also notes that all the remains of the wreck lie on a clean sandy bottom adjacent to a boulder slope and that the identifiable wreckage includes turbines and heat exchanges with part of the deck house off to the north, adjacent to the shore (Figure 20). 4.3.44. “Nuts and bolts”, a valve and a gauge were handed in under the 2001 Receiver of Wreck amnesty and are suspected to be associated with this wreck (RCAHMS national database entry).

15

Cox and Danks undertook the salvage of the High Seas Fleet between 1924 and 1931.

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4.3.45. Wood (2008: 66) describes an abundance of life on the boulder slope adjacent to the wreck, including squat lobsters, blennies and gobies as well as an abundance of seals. 4.3.46. There are only remains of three of the torpedo boat destroyers left in Scapa Flow, all in fairly poor condition. The others are the S36 of which only the bow remains and the V83 (see below) which has been heavily damaged by storms and salvagers (Macdonald 2011: 117).

4.4. 4.4.1.

PRIORITY C: GUTTER SOUND There are four wrecks located in Gutter Sound, sites 7010 to 7014 (Figure 21). These vessels were not part of a single fleet and are temporally unrelated. Their service lives and loss are, however, connected. 7012 is thought to have sunk while attempting to salvage 7011 and 7013 is thought to have been a dive boat and may have visited the site many times during its working life. Gutter Sound is a narrow sheltered passage between the islands of Hoy, Fara and Rysa Little, to the west of the broad expanse of Scapa Flow. It has a level seabed of 13m to 16m depth and is covered by a mixture of gravel, shingle and sand. 7011: THE KMS F2

4.4.2.

7011 is located 300m east of the coast of Hoy (Figure 22). This is one of four wrecks observed in this survey area, between 7012 and 7013 to the west and east. This is probably the wreck of the German vessel KMS F2 although it is located 119m west of the recorded RCAHMS national database position. The F2 lies in approximately 14.3m of water in an area of sandy seabed 30m east of 7012. 7011 appears to be largely broken up towards the stern but largely intact towards the bow. The vessel appears to be laying on its port side, with the side of the hull at a 30° angle to the horizontal at the bow. The observed length of the wreck is 80.95m, 14.6m across and 7.9m high. This is fairly consistent with the recorded measurements of the F2 of 75.89m long and a beam of 8.83m, where the height of the wreck corresponds to the beam of the vessel. The discrepancy between values can be accounted for due to the dispersed nature of the aft section of the vessel. The forward 30m of the vessel appear to be well preserved, with very little visible damage to the outer hull. There are two possible circular dents near the bow of the vessel (Features 1 & 2) which would have been above the waterline. The first of these is nearest the bow and measures about 1.1m across; this appears to correspond to the location of the anchor in the photograph of the vessel. The second depression is 10m aft and measures 1.3m across. There is a slight ridge visible slightly further down the hull which runs along the length of the vessel at the base of the forecastle (Feature 3) and is approximately 0.4m thick. There are no obvious signs of the top deck pealing away from the hull and much of the deck structure towards the bow is clearly visible. The two anchor cables are easily identified running aft from the bow over 12m where each meets a cable holder or capstan spaced approximately 1m apart. The

4.4.3.

4.4.4.

4.4.5.

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cable holders are circular features standing 0.5m proud of the deck and about 1m in diameter. Immediately aft of these there is a rectangular hole in the deck measuring 0.9m by 1.5m across and may be missing deck plate or the remains of a hatch. There is a similar feature above this on the starboard side of the deck where it meets the hull which measures 1m by 1.5m across. 4.4.6. Aft of the hatches there is a ‘V’ shaped flange spanning the deck and pointing towards the bow. Each arm of the ‘V’ measures approximately 5.5m long and runs from the hull to the centre of the deck, and is slightly angled so that the top points towards the bow. This feature was probably intended as a breakwater to protect the deck in rough seas. This feature highlights the discrepancy between the actual wreck structure and the recollection of divers. On the painting of the F2 this feature is located aft of the gun rather than forward of it (Figure 22). A gun turret is located approximately 4m aft of the apex of the ‘V’, with the barrel of the gun pointing forward. The turret housing the gun stands 2.1m proud of the deck and measures about 2.8m across. The barrel of the gun is 2.7m long. There is a slightly raised circular feature on the deck forward of the gun measuring 0.7m across which may be the remains of a hatch. The forecastle ends just aft of the gun turret and although the hull remains in good condition for a further 12.8m the superstructure has collapsed. The deck structure aft of the gun, including the bridge, appears to have slipped down the deck and is now debris lying on the seabed. Very little structural detail can be made out among the debris although there is a linear feature extending 7.9m away from the wreck which may be the remains of a mast (Feature 4). The remaining 46.3m of the wreck have collapsed and the remains are somewhat dispersed. Within the debris there is a rectangular feature measuring 3m by 3.5m across (Feature 5). The outer edges of this feature appear to be curved and it is unclear whether this is a single structure or several objects filling a larger space.

4.4.7.

4.4.8.

4.4.9.

4.4.10. There is a large, wedge shaped structural feature at the northern limit of the wreck measuring 4.5m by 6.2m across. The feature appears to have smooth surfaces on four sides and may be part of the deck structure or possibly the hull. There is a rectangular opening on the upper surface of the structure which is 1.3m by 1.4m across and may be a hatchway (Feature 6). 4.4.11. The debris field around 7011 extends 12.9m to the south, 21.5m to the north, 22.2m to the east and 7m to the west. Most of the debris is located on the east side of the wreck, probably the remains of the collapsing super structure and inner workings of the vessel spreading out of the hold. Most of the debris is angular although there are some larger, rounded elements which may be the remains of wracking systems for gun mounts. One of these objects lies 13m east of the wreck and measures 3.5m long by 2.4m wide. There is also a rounded object lying between 7011 and 7012 which measures 3.5m across and may have been moved during the failed salvage attempt on the F2. 4.4.12. The F2 was an experimental German WWII escort vessel, similar to a destroyer. It was steel-built and was 75.89m long with a beam of 8.83m and a draught of 3.35m. It was oil-fired with two sets of geared Brown-Boveri

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steam turbines of 14,000 shp, two shafts and two propellers with a top speed of 28 knots. It was built in Kiel at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel in 1936 and was originally equipped with four 37mm anti-aircraft guns and four 20mm anti-aircraft guns as well as two 4.1 inch guns in single openbacked turrets on the forecastle deck and the superstructure deck aft. It had a complement of 121 officers and men (Ferguson 1985: 54; Larn and Larn 1998: DD 30/12/1946; Whittaker 1998: 82). The ship was a Geleiteboot, which translates roughly to 'escort boat'. These were fast anti-submarine vessels and the F2 was the second unit built of a class of ten. Of the others in the same class F4 also went to Britain at the end of the war, F1, F8 and F10 were taken by the USA and F7 went to Russia and these were mostly broken up within a few years of the end of the war (with the possible exception of the F7). F3, F5, F6 and F9 were all lost sunk in action during the war and presumably remain on the seabed, with the exception of F3 which was raised and salvaged shortly after the war (Taylor 1966: 68-70). 4.4.13. The F series was experimental and the original design proved to have too much equipment, problematic high-pressure boilers and poor performance at sea (Smith 1989: 79). As a result of these problems the vessel was adapted for use as a torpedo recovery vessel in 1938/9. This increased the overall length to 80m and reduced the top speed to 26 knots. At the same time the 37mm anti-aircraft guns were removed. This appears to have caused some confusion about the tonnage of the vessel. The original 790 tons cited (Larne and Larne 1998: DD 30/12/1946; Macdonald 2011: 123-4) reduced to 756 tons in 1938/9 by the redesign (Ferguson 1985: 54; Wood 2008: 85-6; Whitaker 1998: 82) is also cited as 712 tons, with an increase to 740 tons in 1938/9 (RCAHMS national database entry). The entry also states that the figure of 790 reduced to 756 is improbable, presumably due to the overall gain in gross tonnage. 4.4.14. Most sources (Ferguson 1988: 106; Smith 1989: 79; the RCAHMS national database) state that the F2 (Figure 25) was handed over to the allies at the end of the war as part of Germany’s reparations, although Wood (2000: 78 and 2008: 85-6) states that the ship was captured early on during the war and brought to Scapa Flow to allow the Navy to examine its experimental design. In any case, following several months of inactivity after the end of the war, the ship sank at its mooring at Lyness during a storm on December 30th 1946 having apparently sprung a major leak. The cause is described as a mystery by Larn and Larn (1998: DD30/12/1946) who state that there were no German sailors on board at the time. Ferguson (1988: 107) also states that there was no coverage of this event in the local press or even in the Admiralty files in Kew. However Wood (2008: 85) recounts a local tale that suggests the sinking was caused by sailors stealing brass from the engine room although it is not clear how this would have caused the ship to sink. No attempts were made to salvage the vessel until 1967/68 when it was sold for scrap to Metrec Engineering. A failed attempt was made to salvage the vessel which resulted in the sinking of the salvage vessel itself (see YC21 below) and no salvage operations have been attempted since. 4.4.15. The wreck is currently a popular dive site with a least depth of approximately eight metres. The foremost part of the vessel, from the bow to aft of the bridge is reportedly in good condition but the remainder of the ship is reduced to debris by blasting. Smith (1989: 79) describes the fore part of the wreck as lying on its port side with the stern standing unsupported on its

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propeller shaft bearing brackets. Macdonald’s account of the wreck is the most detailed published description: “Finning from the very bow towards the stern, mooring bollards are dotted around the edge of the deck. The winch on her forward deck still holds a reel of steel cable and both anchor sheets are clearly visible. Her anchor chains are run out from her anchor chain locker to two capstans and from there hang down to the seabed. Further back and the barrel of her bow 4.1 inch gun looms into view, still pointing defiantly out over the bow after all these years. The turret has an open back, and the breech and inner workings of the gun can be examined. Just behind the 4.1-inch gun turret there is an open deck hatch, with its access ladder still in place, leading into the depths of the bow. Behind the gun turret sits the bridge. The mainmast, which originally ran out from the top of the bridge, has fallen onto the seabed still intact and has a searchlight platform still in place on it but now half buried in the silty bottom. Amidships there is nothing really recognisable but on the seabed to starboard, about six metres east of the main wreckage, lies what looks like the cogged wracking system for one of her anti-aircraft guns. At her stern the prop shaft and bearings can still be seen but the propeller itself has been salvaged” (Macdonald 2011: 123-4). 4.4.16. Wood (2008: 86) gives a similar description and also mentions that the stern post is intact. The wreck lies approximately 50m from the salvage barge the YC21 and the wrecks have been linked by a rope to guide divers between them. The space between the wrecks is reportedly strewn with bottles and crockery although it is not clear which wreck these originate from (Macdonald 2011: 125). Ridley (1992: 142) gives only a brief description of the location of the wreck. The UKHO records the wreck as ‘Live’ but does not include details of coverage by any recent multibeam survey survey and is largely based on diver reports. 4.4.17. Three bronze taps and a bunker cover reportedly found on the seabed were handed in under the 2001 Receiver of Wreck amnesty and are suspected to be associated with this wreck (RCAHMS national database entry). 4.4.18. Wood (2008: 86) notes the presence of extensive marine life including numerous cuckoo wrasse. 7012: THE YC21 4.4.19. 7012 is a largely intact wreck located 335m east of Hoy and 35m west of 7011 and is thought to be the wreck of the YC21, recorded by the RCAHMS national database 149m to the west (Figure 23). The wreck lies on its keel at an orientation of 247° in approximately 14.3m of water. The seabed surrounding the wreck is sandy with no obvious scour around it. The vessel is 30m long with a beam of 9.22m and a height of 4.28m. The observed length of the wreck is the same as the recorded length of the YC21. 4.4.20. The vessel’s structure remains relatively intact with much of the deck and lifting gear still visible. The exception to this is the north-east end of the wreck where a 7.5m section of the hull missing. A section of the deck appears to have collapsed around this section of missing hull exposing the hold within (Feature 1). This damage may be a result of the wrecking process exacerbated by decaying timbers. There is also some debris on the

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deck at this end of the wreck although it is unclear if this is salvaged material or salvage gear. 4.4.21. Around the edge of the hull evenly spaced upstanding features can be identified. There are nine of these on the south side and seven on the north side. These features are all of a similar size and measure approximately 1.5m by 0.5m across. 4.4.22. Part of the lifting gear appears to still be mounted on the south-west end of the wreck. This is the base of a lifting arm measuring 4m long and 0.9m across. There are two additional linear features lying across the deck of the vessel which may also be associated with the lifting apparatus. These are centrally located on the wreck with the shorter feature measuring 7.2m long and the other measuring 9.8m long. 4.4.23. There is ramp leading from the lifting arm at the end of the wreck to a large rectangular opening in the deck of the vessel. The ramp is 3.3m wide, 4.7m long and angled at 10° to horizontal whilst the opening measures 1.9m across and 8.9m. There are several objects visible through the opening within the hold. Unfortunately these objects are not exposed enough to enable positive identification. 4.4.24. There are several holes in the deck, ranging in size from 0.3m to 0.7m across, probably resulting from decomposing timbers. There is some general debris on the deck but no obvious debris field from wreck 7012 itself, only the possible salvage debris noted with 7011. 4.4.25. The YC21 was a wooden lifting barge owned by the Metrec Engineering Company. Whittaker (1998: 82) gives a tonnage of 550 and an overall length of 30m. Larn and Larn (1998: DD 00/11/1968) describe it as a dumb barge, i.e. without its own propulsion system. Divers describe its planks as held in place by copper spikes with identification markings on them. 4.4.26. It was lost in 1968 during a failed attempt to salvage the nearby F2. The barge had successfully recovered the twin 20mm anti-aircraft guns but foundered when the tide rose and the weather worsened. It has settled on the seabed approximately 30m away from the F2. It now sits upright on the seabed and is relatively intact. 4.4.27. Divers report that it is under attack from ship worm and that some of the planks have come away revealing the inner parts of the vessel. Its hold still contains one of the twin 20mm anti-aircraft guns which had been salvaged from the F2 as well as a single barrelled gun lying underneath it and beside them the barge’s own electric generator and workshops (Figure 24). At the rear of the hold a row of lockers and a workbench have also been noted by divers and a passageway leads from the hold into a room in the stern (Macdonald 2011: 124-5; Wood 2008: 86). The UKHO database includes details from an informant dated to 2000, stating that the YC21 has acetylene cylinders on board which should be considered to be hazardous and that a large concrete block lies nine metres away from the bows of the barge. 4.4.28. According to the RCAHMS national database entry for the wreck the location assigned to this record remains unverified as of May 2011.

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4.4.29. Wood (2008: 86) notes that the YC21 is covered in marine life but does not specify any particular species. 7013: THE MV MARA 4.4.30. 7013 is the wreck of a modern vessel thought to be the MV Mara, located 415m east of Hoy and 116m east of 7011 (Figure 25). The wreck measures 22.8m long, 6.3m long and 6.1m high, agreeing with the 22m recorded length of the MV Mara. The vessel is orientated to 174°and lists slightly to its starboard side, with its port side hull at an angle of 80.5°. The surrounding seabed lies at about 14.3m below CD and appears to be sandy with no obvious scouring around the wreck. 4.4.31. The wreck appears to be in good condition with its hull and deck house both intact. There may be some damage to the deck railing, although this is may be an artefact in the data. There are three rectangular openings visible on the port side of the deck house which are probably hatchways. These are all of a similar size, measuring about 1.2m high by 0.5m across. 4.4.32. There is a piece of elongated debris approximately 32m east of the wreck, measuring about 3.5m long and 0.7m wide. There is also a second elongated object laying 5.5m off the bow of the wreck which may be partially buried. This object measures 4.9m long by 0.5m wide. Apart from these two objects there is no obvious debris field around the wreck. 4.4.33. This appears to be the same location recorded in the UKHO database as the MV Mara. The MV Mara does not appear in the RCAHMS national database at any location, probably because the ship was sunk here in 1995, the same year that the UKHO data was integrated into the database and there has not been another update since that time. 4.4.34. The MV Mara is a recent wreck and does not appear in most of the sources covering the other vessels in this area. However Wood (2008: 79) discusses it in some detail. It was approximately 22m long and was a fishery research vessel which operated on the west coast of Scotland. It was later purchased by a local man, George Litts, for use as a live-aboard dive boat some time in the 1980s. The vessel appears in several advertisements in the magazine Diver, dating from this period. The boat is described as having 16 bunks in four cabins, central heating, two showers and toilets, a fully fitted galley and a heated changing room. The dive operator was named Mara Diving Charters after the boat but appears to have been somewhat unsuccessful and the vessel sat abandoned in Stromness Harbour for a number of years until eventually it was towed to a mooring at Lyness. The UKHO database records that the vessel sank at the southern end of Golden Wharf, Lyness in 1995 after bad weather and that it had been “previously ordered to move by local authorities from Stromness after being arrested”. Wood (2008: 79) records that eventually the decision was taken to sink it in the centre of Gutter Sound, presumably as a diver attraction. It is currently largely intact and lists approximately 30 degrees to starboard. The softer deck railing boards have rotted away but the wheelhouse and engine intake pipes are intact. The port holes have all been removed prior to sinking. Wood also notes that the wreck is “absolutely surrounded by thousands of schooling juvenile fish as well as the usual wrasse species”. A note in the UKHO database from a diver dated to 2000 records that rubber tyres used as fenders still hang from the starboard rail and that the propeller and rudder

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are in place. It also notes that the anchor chain runs out forward from the bows and that assorted wreckage lies along the starboard side of the vessel. 4.4.35. The MV Mara lies close to a site recorded as Unknown in Whittaker (1998: 82) and the RCAHMS national database. According to the entry in the RCAHMS national database, the Harbour Master of Scapa Flow reported a wreck at 56 51 00N, 003 12 00W, or bearing 112 degrees, 481m from Rysa Lodge on the 16th July 1940. The least depth over the wreck was recorded as 5.4m. The UKHO records that the position was later given as 58 50 47N, 003 11 42W (see also Ridley 1992: 164, entry 2262). The RCAHMS national database entry for the Unknown wreck, although it lies close to the HMS Dewey Eve, the YC21, the F2 and the MV Mara which appear in the multibeam survey, appears to be unrelated to them. This is because the Harbour Master appears to have made his report on the 16th of July 1940 and all of the other wrecks occurred after this date. The HMS Dewey Eve sank in December of 1940, the F2 sank in 1946, the YC21 sank in 1968 and the MV Mara sank in 1995. This does seem to suggest the possibility of another wreck in the area, either in a very degraded condition or outside the limits of the multibeam survey. 7014: THE HMS DEWEY EVE 4.4.36. 7014 is a largely dispersed wreck 127m east of Hoy and 144m west of 7012 (Figure 26). This wreck was only seen in a single survey line which happened to pass over the site at the end of the survey. As a result, the data coverage over this wreck is more limited than for the other three in this survey area. 4.4.37. The wreck lies in an area of sandy seabed which slopes down from 10.18m to 12.5m below CD. The wreck may be partially buried and there is some scour visible around the nearby debris. Very little of the structure of 7014 is left making it difficult to identify the wreck. There is an RCAHMS national database record for an unknown vessel 96m to the east and local divers suggest this may be the remains of the HMS Dewey Eve. 4.4.38. 7014 measures 29.11m long, 6.79m wide and stands 4.46m proud of the seabed. This compares to a recorded length of 28.39m and width of 5.86m for the HMS Dewey Eve. Discrepancy between the observed and recorded dimensions may be due to the dispersed nature of the wreck, although its identity as the HMS Dewey Eve cannot be confirmed. 4.4.39. The only clearly identifiable feature on the wreck is a possible boiler. This measures 3.3m by 3.4m across. There is also a debris field extending 18m down the slope to the east of the wreck. None of the debris can be clearly identified and there may be more of it buried in the surrounding sand. 4.4.40. This site corresponds to the coordinates given by the RCAHMS national database for the YC21. Since the YC21 is clearly identifiable approximately 120m to the east, this appears to be a case of mistaken identity. A note in Wood (2008: 74) mentions that the HMS Dewey Eve has recently been located close to the F2 and YC21. Although the HMS Dewey Eve has an entry in the RCAHMS national database, it is recorded as unlocated. However the UKHO database is more up-to-date and records this as a ‘Live’ wreck and comparison of the coordinates for the anomaly confirms that this anomaly is considered by the UKHO to be the HMS Dewey Eve. Their

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database does not contain any detail on how the identity of the wreck was ascribed. 4.4.41. The HMS Dewey Eve was a single-decked 109 ton steel steam drifter built by Herd and Mackenzie in Findochty in 1916 and registered in Fraserburgh, owned by a Mrs. C. Ritchie and others. Its dimensions are recorded as 28.39m long, 5.86m wide and with a draught of 2.89m. It was propelled by a single screw three cylinder triple expansion engine with a single boiler and its machinery was built by the Rose Street Foundry and Engineering Company, of Inverness. Its registration number was FR 269. It was originally named the Mary Swanston. Numerous catch notices appear in the Scotsman for the vessel under this name between 1916 and 1940. In January 1940 it which was hired by the Royal Navy and converted to a mine sweeper and was probably renamed at the same time. It was lost after a collision with a ‘puffer’ ship on the 4th of December 1940 in Scapa Flow. At the time of loss its cargo was recorded as ballast (UKHO; Larn and Larn 1998: DD 16/12/1940; Whittaker 1998: 80). A note in the UKHO entry for the site records that salvage divers removed the gear and mast in 1940. There is no record of any further survey or salvage at the site after this date. 4.5. 4.5.1. PRIORITY D: RYSA LITTLE 7015 was the only wreck surveyed in this survey area. This area is located to the immediate north-east of Rysa Little, a small uninhabited island in the western part of Scapa Flow (Figure 27). The wreck site lies across the interface between the rocky shore and the sandy seabed. There is evidence of small sand ripples, however these are isolated as the seabed shelves off to deeper water. 7015: THE SMS V83 4.5.2. 7015 is probably the remains of the German destroyer SMS V83 of the scuttled German High Seas Fleet (Figure 28). The wreck is located on the eastern side of Rysa Little, about 504m south-west of the recorded RCAHMS national database location. 7015 lies in a predominantly sandy area with the bow on the rocky area near the shore of the island and the stern in deeper water, with depths ranging from 2.34m to 12.52m. The wreck is orientated to 264° with the western end against the shore of Rysa little. The survey was limited by the risk of running aground at the shoalest end of the wreck, however most of the site was covered. The observed length of the 7015 is 76.5m with a greatest width of 19.9m and beam of 9.7m. This compares to records stating the V83 measured 81m long and 9m beam. This discrepancy is probably due to the full length of the vessel not being surveyed and the collapsed nature of the wreck. Although much of the vessel has collapsed the general outline of the hull is still visible as are a number of structural features. 7015 appears to list slightly to port, with the hull resting at an angle of between 75° and 80° to the horizontal. The wreck appears to be best preserved at its stern, where the water is deepest. There is an angular structure on the stern of the vessel with an attached tubular object heading to wards the bow (Feature 1). The angular structure measures approximately 2.8m long by 1.4m wide, with the tubular object

4.5.3.

4.5.4.

4.5.5.

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measuring 4.9m long by 0.5m wide. It is unclear what this assemblage is, although it may be associated with mine laying. 4.5.6. Further forward an upstanding 4.1in deck gun can clearly be seen 2m to the west of the tubular object. The deck gun is mounted on a raised circular platform measuring approximately 2.3m diameter, and the length of the gun and barrel is about 4.6m. There appears to be a linear anomaly on the deck near the gun orientated at 247° and measuring approximately 4.7m long, possibly a section of collapsed mast. Approximately 7m west of the deck gun there is a circular feature with a diameter of about 1.9m. Although this is of a similar size to the deck gun platform it may be too close to be the amidships gun of the V83, and could instead be the base of a funnel or similar deck structure. Immediately to west of this there is a large, arm like structure resting on its side (Feature2). This may be the remains of the amidships gun and its mounting system. The gun barrel measures 4.5m long, similar to the stern gun. The cylindrical mount is 6.1m long from the base to the top of the crane and approximately 1.1m across at its widest point. There are two slight flanges on the outside of the cylinder. The first is just below the gun chassis and the second is 1.5m further down the cylinder. There is an oval shaped opening 1.5m along the cylinder from the second flange. This measures 0.8m long and may be the remains of an access hatch. Much of the amidships section of the wreck appears to be largely broken up and dispersed making in difficult to identify individual features. This is further illustrated by the location of the boiler, 7.5m south of the hull vessel. This is a large cylindrical object measuring approximately 2.7m long by 2.7m across with a height of 1.8m. There is a large linear object lying between the boiler and the central part of the vessel. This object measures 7.25m long by 0.4m wide and may be the remains of a mast. The base of this object rests among three roughly circular features (Feature 3). Two of these are open on one side and both measure approximately 3.5m across. These may be the remains of the observation platform on top of the wheel house. The third forms a complete circle and measures about 1.8m across. These may be associated with deck structures such as funnels and a possible gun turret.

4.5.7.

4.5.8.

4.5.9.

4.5.10. The hull of the vessel appears to have collapsed outwards on this section of the wreck, exposing the ribs within. These are evenly spaced at 0.5m intervals. Much of the deck and superstructure appear to have collapsed in this section of the wreck and towards the bow. This may include a possible funnel laying at 45° across the wreck and measuring 5.1m long by 1.9m across. 4.5.11. Further towards the bow, approximately 6m west of the funnel, there are two rows of three cylindrical objects aligned across the wreck (Feature 4). The cylinders forming the eastern row appear to be slightly larger than those in the west. In the eastern row the cylinders are all of a similar size. The central object measures about 4.9m long by 1.7m wide and has a visible hole on its upper surface which appears to be damage rather than design. In the western row the central object is larger than those either side, measuring about 3.7m long by 1.4m wide. This compares to 2.8m long by 0.8m wide for the cylinder at the northern end of the row. It is difficult to tell what these

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objects are, but they appear to have extruding features at their ends and could be the remains of the vessel’s turbine engines. 4.5.12. The 7015 wreck site appears to be discrete with a limited spread of debris. Although the wreck itself is broken up the debris associated with it has mostly remained close to the core structure. There are several large pieces of debris which appear to have rolled down the slope as it shelves off to the east. These include three rounded objects approximately 23m south-east of the wreck ranging in size from 0.7m by 0.7m to 2.2m by 2.3m. Further down the slope there is another rounded object approximately 49m east of the stern of the wreck. This object measures 1.4m by 2m across but unfortunately there is not enough detail in the data to identify this object or the other three. 4.5.13. There is also some debris spread on either side of the wreck. As mentioned above the wreck has collapsed on its port side with much of its structure, including the boiler, spread immediately to the south of the wreck. On the northern side of the site the spread of debris is much more dispersed. This includes many partially buried angular objects immediately around the wreck and two elongated objects further north. The smaller of the two is also the furthest away, approximately 35m north of the stern. This object measures 5m long by 1.2m wide and appears to be partially buried in the sand. The second object is located about 10m north of the midships part of the wreck and measures 6.2m long by 1.2m wide. The remaining observed debris on the northern side of the wreck range in size from 0.5m by 0.5m to 2.1m by 2m. 4.5.14. This is one of a small number of wrecks of the scuttled German High Seas fleet still left in Scapa Flow from an original total of 74. The V83 was a 909 ton torpedo boat/destroyer, 81m long with a beam of 9m and a draught of 4m (Ferguson 1985: 40; Whittaker 1998: 81). It was a destroyer of the S53 class, similar to S54 (see above) and is generally typical of its type although there were some minor variations. It was built at the A. G. Vulcan yard in Hamburg (hence the ‘V’ prefix) and was launched on the 5th July 1916, just after the Battle of Jutland. It was powered by two oil-fired turbines and two propellers capable of 23, 5000 shp (25, 900 trial). It had a top speed of 36.5 knots and a range of 1,810 miles at 20 knots. It was armed with three 3.4 inch guns (Smith 1989: 75, Ven Der Vat 2007: 224 give this as three 4.1 inch guns in single unprotected mountings – they also describes the ship as being of the V67 class rather than S53 which may account for the discrepancy) and six 19.7 inch deck-mounted torpedo tubes. Two of these were forward of the bridge, singly mounted behind the forecastle, another pair were in a twin mounting behind the aft most funnel and the last pair were in a twin mounting forward of the mainmast (Smith 1989: 75). It was crewed by 87 officers and men. The V83 was part of the Seventh Torpedoboat flotilla and was one of its fastest boats. Because of this speed the ship was often used as a mine layer and carried approximately 24 mines on the deck (Smith 1989: 115). The RCAHMS national database entry for the vessel states that it participated in night channel attacks from Zeebrugge. 4.5.15. The V83 was scuttled, along with the rest of the German High Seas fleet on the 21st of June 1919 by order of Vice-Admiral Ludwig Von Reuter. Prior to this the fleet had been interned in Scapa Flow with maintenance crews only. The 50 German torpedo boats were moored in a flotilla and were grouped

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together in twos and threes, with only one boat crewed in order to save on fuel. Once it became apparent to the British forces that the fleet was being scuttled, troops were able to board some of the ships and run them aground. Several sources (George 1999: 145; Larn and Larn 1989; Smith 1989) state that the V83 was boarded and successfully beached by British forces at Rysa Little (Figure 33). However, Macdonald (2011: 116) states this is not the original location of the wreck and that the V83 was salvaged in the 1920s and even used in several attempts to salvage the Hindenburg, the largest vessel of the fleet and Le Fleming (1961: 198) does state the V83 was raised in 1928 but gives no further details. Wood (2008: 65) states that it was the S36 that was actually used to raise the Hindenburg and not the V83 as previously thought. 4.5.16. There are only remains of three of the torpedo boats left in Scapa Flow, all in fairly poor condition. The others are the S36 of which only the bow remains and the S54 (see above) which has been heavily damaged by storms and salvagers (Macdonald 2011: 117). 4.5.17. However the vessel came to be in its present position, the V83 now lies in two separate parts on a shelving bottom in shallow water immediately east of Rysa Little. Its bow is between 5m and 8m depth and the stern between 11m and 14m and with the midships well broken up. Approximately 30m of the stern section remains intact (Macdonald 2011: 116-7). The wreck is covered in kelp, but some features can still be identified including 4.1in guns forward and aft, tubular steel propeller-guards, the intact rudder and kedge anchor. Ferguson (1985: 50) and Ridley (1992: 144) note a gun lying on the port side. The UKHO records the wreck as ‘Live’ and notes that the wreck was covered by the 2010 Fathoms Ltd. survey where it was noted that the wreck was in a least depth of 2.38m orientated 85/265 degrees. 4.5.18. Macdonald again provides a detailed description of the remains: “She sits on a shelving bottom so that her bows are in five to eight metres of water and her stern is in about 20 metres. She is broken in half amidships with her stern in reasonable condition. The bow points towards the shore and rests on its port side. Being so shallow, the bow is well covered with kelp but in amongst the kelp the rakish lines of the bow can be made out along with hatches and companionways. The midships section is well broken up and is hardly recognisable as a result of extensive salvaging over the years. It is a jumble of twisted plates and wreckage. In the midst of this wreckage, one of her 3.4-inch guns and its cogged wracking system lies with the barrel pointing upwards at an angle of about 45°. To her port side in this area lies one of her boilers. Along almost the entire port side on top of much of the wreckage lies the main flanged prop shaft. In this area from the bow to midships the remnants of the torpedo tubes can be picked out amidst the debris. About 30 metres of the stern section remains intact. The hull is open in many places here with only the ribs of the vessel in place. The stern section sits on an even keel and at its very extremity rests on its rudder with the prop shafts for each of its twin screws visible at either side of it” (Macdonald 2011: 117). 4.5.19. Another detailed description is given by Smith:

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“The forward two thirds of the hull are broken up and lie on a rock shelf covered with a thick growth of kelp. All manner of wreckage is beneath the kelp, from portholes to copper aerial rigging screws, flat plates, chains, hawsers and pipes. On the afterdeck is a 4.1 inch gun almost hidden beneath kelp and sponges with another lying on the rock further forward off the port side of the wreck. The tubular steel propeller guards protrude from the hull side aft, and the rudder stands intact beneath the stern overhang. The propeller shaft sternmost bearings are on the sandy seabed further forward. A hole above the starboard propeller guard affords access to the stern section which has no fittings and only a few deck support columns… Finning aft around the stern, the kedge anchor is still in place, and then forward along the port side to the rock shelf, the diver can root amongst the thick laminaria stalks for whatever might be found amongst the tangled wreckage” (Smith 1989, 76). 4.5.20. One screw, a fuse box and an electrical socket were handed in under the 2001 Receiver of Wreck amnesty and are thought to be associated with this wreck (RCAHMS national database entry). 4.5.21. In addition to the kelp and laminaria growing around the wreck mentioned by Smith, Wood (2008: 68) notes plumose anemones, edible crabs, octopus and various wrasse at the wreck. Smith (1989: 99) describes an abundance of Mycale rotalis growing on the wreck. 4.5.22. Local divers report that some of the wreckage around the V83 may relate to another much smaller wreck, the Energy. Like the YC21 this seems to have been a salvage vessel. No entry for the site is recorded in the NMR or UKHO databases but it is believed to have been wooden-built and to have sunk on 17th October 1925. Its remains include engine, boiler and concrete ballast lying on the port side of the V83.16 5. 5.1.1. CONCLUSIONS The Desk Based Assessment has included a thorough review of published and online material relating to the wrecks in the vicinity of the multibeam survey areas. This review has identified new sources of information and has identified where conflicts exist between various sources in each case. In some cases it has even been possible to clarify the identity of previously unknown or misidentified wrecks. We can now state with certainty the exact location of each targeted wreck from the multibeam survey, in some cases for the first time. In addition a thorough review of published material and diver accounts has enabled an informed analysis of features visible at each wreck site. The importance of these wreck sites can now be placed within their proper context on both a national and an international scale in some cases. A total of 18 wrecks were surveyed and assessed over the course this project. Of these 16 have been identified, although further diver investigation would be required to confirm the identities of several vessels particularly the HMS Dewey Eve (7014). The two remaining unidentified wrecks 7016 and 7017 are both located in Burra Sound and are isolated pieces of wreck material. These sites may be associated with recorded losses in the area,

5.1.2.

16

Pers comm. Kevin Heath E-mail dated 24/4/2012

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however the large amount wreck material and debris in the area means that diver investigation would be required. This is also the case for separating sites 7004 and 7007 which lie on top of each other. 5.1.3. The positions of all 16 identified wrecks have been improved, in some cases by over 100m. The survey has also greatly aided in understanding the relative positions of the wrecks to each other. This is particularly evident in Area A, Burra Sound, and Area C, Gutter Sound. The project has also highlighted discrepancies between some diver reports and observed details in the survey data, such as structural details of 7008. Although sport diver accounts have been useful in supplementing the survey they should not be relied upon as a primary data source. The current study does not include an assessment of the cultural heritage significance of each wreck site. This will instead be undertaken by HS and will draw upon the results of the data presented in this report. However, each of these wrecks have an intrinsic historical significance due to what they can tell us about our past. As the multibeam survey has demonstrated, we have a great deal more to learn about these wrecks and are still developing techniques for investigating these sites. The wrecks hold an additional significance derived from their role as historic attractions, providing a way for the national and international diving community to travel to Scotland and experience at first hand a moment frozen in time. RECCOMENDATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FURTHER RESEARCH Primary sources were largely considered to be outside the scope of the current review of baseline data. In particular it was not possible to source detailed diagrams of ships within this study. If such material does exist it may be held within the UK National Archives (Public Record Office at Kew) and it is doubtless that records will exist in Germany that relate to the German vessels. A more extensive programme of research may be of value in the identification of features at the wreck sites. Scapa Flow is one of the UK’s major centres for dive tourism and there is likely to be a huge body of data on this resource available in the private collections of divers, both in Orkney and across the UK. Scotland’s Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan (Marine Scotland 2011) states that around 3,000 divers visit the scheduled wrecks of Scapa Flow each year and 1626 visitor licences have been granted to dive upon the eight wrecks currently designated since 1994 (Historic Scotland 2010: 10). This figure does not include the total number of dives or the number of divers visiting unscheduled sites, nor does it consider dives that are not registered with a proper license. Although much of the information used in the project came from divers, almost all of this was through dive guides and magazines rather than through direct contact with divers. It is likely that a programme of direct contact with local divers could recover useful further information and possibly also artefacts removed from the wrecks. The Scottish Marine Historic Environment Data Audit (2011) discusses the issue of dive communities as a data source in greater detail. Further details on many of the wrecks are available in shipping reports in various newspapers. In some cases it would be possible to trace the movements and cargo of some of the ships over time.

5.1.4.

6. 6.1.1.

6.1.2.

6.1.3.

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6.1.4.

A document held in the National Archives under the accession number ADM116/2073A and dated 17 December 1919 is mentioned numerous times in the RCAHMS national database entries for the Burra Sound wrecks. This appears to consist of a panoramic drawing or drawings made of the blockships shortly after their placement, when parts of them were still visible above the waterline. Enquiries to the National Archive were unable to obtain a copy of the document within the timeframe of the current project and RCAHMS was also unable to determine whether it held a copy. Examination of this document might prove to contain further information of relevance. ARCHIVING The raw data were acquired in accordance with UKHO standards and will be submitted to the UKHO in its roll as a Marine Environment Data Information Network (MEDIN) Data Archive Centre (DAC). The data submission comprises a series of .gsf files and a short technical report detailing acquisition parameters. The raw data and associated products RCAHMS. The data includes acquired raw files, shapefiles, geotiffs and final report. prepared in accordance with RCAHMS metadata is MEDIN compliant. will also be archived with the data, processed Fledermaus SD Data and metadata has been guidelines and specifically the

7. 7.1.1.

7.1.2.

7.1.3.

This report will also be submitted to the Online AccesS to the Index of archaeological investigations (OASIS).

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8.

REFERENCES

Baird, B. and Ridley, G., 1993, Shipwrecks of the Forth: including wrecks from Berwick on Tweed to Stonehaven, Nekton Books, Glasgow. Baird, R. N., 2003, Shipwrecks of the North of Scotland, Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. Booth, T., 2005, Cox’s Navy: Salvaging the German High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow 1924-31, Pen & Sword Maritime, Barnsley. Bowman, G., 1964, The Man Who Bought a Navy: The Story of the World's Greatest Salvage Achievement at Scapa Flow, Harrap, London. British Sub-Aqua Club, 1987, BSAC wreck register East Coast: London to Berwick Upon Tweed, London. Brown, M. and Meehan, P., 1968, Scapa Flow (2002 edition), Pan Books, Chatham. Calder, B. R., Forbes, B. and Mallace, D., 2006, ScapaMAP 2: Marine Heritage Monitoring with High-Resolution Survey Tools: Scapa Flow 2001-2006 Final Report http://www.scapamap.org/docs/ScapaMAP2006.pdf Ferguson, D. M., 1985, The Wrecks of Scapa Flow, The Orkney Press, Stromness. Ferguson, D. M., 1988, Shipwrecks of Orkney, Shetland and Pentland Firth, Redwood Burn, Newton Abbot. Ferguson, D. M., 1992, Shipwrecks of North East Scotland, 1444-1990, Mercat Press, Edinburgh. George, S. C., 1999, Jutland to Junkyard: The Raising of the Scuttled High Seas Fleet from Scapa Flow - the Greatest Salvage Operation of All Time, Birlinn, Edinburgh. Gosset, A. L. J., 1911, Shepherds of Britain, Scenes from Shepherd Life Past and Present, Constable, London. Hewison, W. S., 1985, This Great Harbour Scapa Flow, The Orkney Press, Stromness. HWTMA, 2009, Securing a Future for Maritime Archaeological Archives - Element Two: Review of Maritime Archaeological Archives and Access, Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology http://www.britarch.ac.uk/archives/Maritime%20Archives%20Element%20Two%20Re port_FINAL_Sept_09.pdf Jane, F., 1990, Jane's fighting ships of World War I, Studio Editions, London Larn, R. and Larn, B., 1998, Shipwreck Index of the British Isles, Volume 4: Scotland, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, London.

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Le Fleming, H. M., 1970, ABC warships of World War I, (2nd edition) Shepperton Allan, London. London, C., 2002, Jutland 1916: Clash of the Dreadnoughts, Osprey, Oxford Marine Scotland, 2011, Scotland’s Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan, Marine Scotland http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/03/09150354/0) Macdonald, R., 2011, Dive Scapa Flow (4th ed.), Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh. Miller, J., 2001, Scapa: Britain’s Famous Wartime Naval Base (2nd ed.) Birlinn, Edinburgh. Ridley, G., 1992, Dive Scotland: the Northern Isles and East Coast, Underwater World Publications, Middlesex. Ridley, G., 1998, Dive North-West Scotland, Underwater World Publications, Middlesex. ScapaMAP 2000-2002 Report Compiled for Historic Scotland on the Mapping and Management of the Submerged Archaeological Resources in Scapa Flow, Orkney http://www.scapamap.org/docs/ScapaMAP2002.pdf Smith, P. L., 1989, The Naval Wrecks of Scapa Flow, Orkney Press, Kirkwall. Taylor, J. C., 1966, German warships of World War II, London. Van Der Vat, D., 2007, The Grand Scuttle: The Sinking of the German Fleet at Scapa Flow in 1919 (2nd edition), Birlinn, Edinburgh. Weaver, H. G. and Weaver, H. J., 2008, Nightmare at Scapa Flow: The Truth about the Sinking of HMS Royal Oak, Peppard Common, Cressrelles. Wessex Archaeology 2011, Scottish Marine Historic Environment Data Audit (WA ref 76930.04) http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/reports/76680/scottish-marine-historicenvironment-data-audit Wessex Archaeology 2012, Characterising Scotland's Marine Archaeological Resource (WA ref 76930.04). Wessex Archaeology, 2011, Shipwreck Heritage of Shetland (WA ref 53111.02q-7). Whittaker, I. G., 1998, Off Scotland: a comprehensive record of maritime and aviation losses in Scottish waters, C-ANNE, Edinburgh. Williamson, G., 2002, U-Boats of the Kaiser’s Navy, Osprey, Oxford. Wood, L., 2000, The Bull and the Barriers: The Wrecks of Scapa Flow, Tempus, Stroud. Wood, L., 2008, Scapa Flow Dive Guide (2nd edition), AquaPress, Southend-On-Sea. Whittaker, I. G., 1998, Off Scotland: A Comprehensive List of Maritime and Aviation Losses in Scottish Waters, C-ANNE Publishing, Edinburgh.

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Appendix 1 - Gazetteer of wrecks covered by the multibeam survey
Northing (m) 6531776 6531960 6531895 6531998 6531938 6531856 6531559 6531931 6520933 6521651 6520767 6522899 6522923 6522865 6522934 6525105 6531911 6532217 72.5 24.34 14.2 15 14.78 5.57 8 9.81 4.23 29.11 6.79 4.46 328 264 48 27 50.98 38.6 42.6 48.15 80.95 30 22.76 16.11 9.3 10.3 8.58 14.6 9.22 6.32 1.92 4.7 3 3.13 7.9 4.28 6.09 66 252 160 220 208 247 174 1915 1915 1918 1919 1946 1968 1995 Unknown Unknown Unknown 93.59 19.6 8.06 260 1915 77.67 59.77 101.9 16.53 19.84 14.15 5.39 6.92 10.87 309 41 79 1915 1944 1941 94.42 24.85 6.84 214 1914 HY20NW 8004 HY20NW 8001 HY20NW 8003 HY20NW 8006 HY20SW 8002 HY20NW 8005 ND39SE 8001 ND39SE 8004 ND39SE 8003 ND39NW 8042 ND39NW 8043 ND39NW 8090 ND39NW 8038 80.39 79.56 15.7 13.95 8.9 5.45 278 293 1914 1914 Length (m) Width (m) Height (m) Orientation (Degrees) Date Sunk

WA ID

Name

Easting

7000 7001

481988.5 482056.2

RCAHMS national database No. HY20SW 8001 HY20NW 8002

7002

481881.6

7003 7004 7005

481936.1 482009.1 481933.5

7006

482074.5

7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7013

482034.8 497150 495977.6 495440.1 488824.4 488798.5 488935.3

7014

488655.4

7015 7016 7017

Dyle Rotherfield Urmstone Grange Ronda Inverlane Tabarka Gobernador Bories Budrie Strathgarry UB-116 SMS S54 KMS F2 YC21 MV Mara HMS Dewey Eve SMS V83 Unknown Unknown

488595.7 482067.1 481899.1

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Scapa Flow Wreck Surveys: Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment WA Ref: 83680.04

Appendix 2 - Diver videos posted online of wrecks covered by the DBA

Although there are a large number of videos available online of the wrecks covered by the study the following list includes only those that show clear views of the wrecks. All videos were accessed on 9/3/2012.

Gobernador Bories http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xWI1NL1npgo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMRkrdtcoXI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGwSzrkQrEk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPjyvBBug8k http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izMBYf3tJgs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTDnb9RzjsI

Tabarka http://vimeo.com/16818443

Strathgarrry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPiTlVXsjXk

UB116 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYjxctMWY2g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLLio3-YRVI

F2 and YC21 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPZO81hWdVU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1oD5Sk919o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJudDNEF36I

The Dyle

58

Scapa Flow Wreck Surveys: Archaeological Interpretation of Multibeam data and Desk-Based Assessment WA Ref: 83680.04

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZpms6d9EUA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5ngfSaBb_Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_G6bRpUjiF4

59

Wessex Archaeology
Mainland

7017

7003
Mainland

7002

7004

7001 7007 7016

Priority A Burra Sound Kirkwall
Stromness

7005 7000
Hoy

Kirkwall

Orkney Islands

7006

0

500 m

7015

This product has been derived in part from material obtained from the UK Hydrographic Office with the permission of the UK Hydrographic Office and Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ©Crown Copyright, 2012. (Wessex Archaeology Ref: HA294/007/316-01). The following notice applies: NOT TO BE USED FOR NAVIGATION WARNING: The UK Hydrographic Office has not verified the information within this product and does not accept liability for the accuracy of reproduction or any modifications made thereafter. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Priority D Rysa Little

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF Date: Scale: Path: 16/03/12 1:200,000 (inset 1:20,000) @A3 W:\Projects\83680V\Drawing Office\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Hoy

7009

Priority B Hoxa Sound
7008 7010

Priority C Gutter Sound

7014 7012

7013

7011 0 500 m

0

500 m

Wreck location Survey extents

0

10 km

Site location plan

Figure 1

A. Mcdonald's map of the relative positions of the wrecks in Burra Sound © Rod Macdonald and reproduced from DIve Scapa Flow by kind permission

B. Wood's map of the wrecks of Burra Sound demonstrating the apparent movement of some of the wrecks in recent years. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission.
This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 2

Graemsay

481800

481900

482000

Mainland Priority A
Burra Sound

7017

Hoy Sound

6532200

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara Sound of Hoxa

0
6532100

5 km

Flotta

482100

482200

482300

7003
6532000

7001

7004

7002
6531900

7016 7007 7005

6531800

7000

6531700

Unidentified debris

6531600

7006

Metres CD 0.64

6531500

-19.84

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

0

1 km

Date: Scale: Path:

20/03/12 Multibeam 1:2500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology
Priority A Burra Sound: Observed wreck locations

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 3

WA 7000: The Dyle

Mainland

7000

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7000: Point cloud (looking south-east) 7000: Point cloud (looking west-north-west)

7000 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking south)

7000: Multibeam bathymetry

Feature 2 Feature 3 7000 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking north) 7000 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south-south-west)

Feature 4

Metres CD

0.64

-19.84

7000 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking north-east)

7000 Feature 5: Point cloud (looking south-south-west)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1250, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Revision Number: Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 4

This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Images of the Dyle as it is now. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission

Figure 5

WA 7001: The Rotherfield

Mainland

7001

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7001: Point cloud (looking south-east)

7001: Point cloud (looking north-west)

Feature 1

7001: Multibeam bathymetry Feature 2

7001

7001 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking north-north-east)

7001 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking east)

7004

Metres CD

7016

0.64

7007 Feature 3 7001 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south-south-west) The Rotherfield and Budrie lying partially exposed in Burra Sound shortly after their sinking. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission.
Date: 16/03/12 Scale:
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

-19.84

Revision Number: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Path: Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 6

WA 7002: The Urmstone Grange

Mainland

7002

Graemsay

Burra Sound

7005

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

7002

7002

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

7005

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7002: Point cloud (looking east-north-east)

7002: Point cloud (looking west)

7002: Multibeam bathymetry Feature 1

Feature 2

7002 7002 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking west) 7002 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking south-west)

Feature 4 7005 Feature 3

Metres CD

0.64

-19.84

7001 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking east-north-east)

7002 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Revision Number: Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 7

A. An engraving in The Graphic of November 11 1899 showing the Urmstone Grange in use as a transport, taking troops to South Africa shortly after the outbreak of the Second Boer War which had begun in the previous month.

B. An undated image of the Urmstone Grange at some point before it sank entirely beneath the waves. © Lawson Wood/Andy Cuthbertson and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission.
This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 8

WA 7003: The Ronda

Mainland

7003

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7003: Point cloud (looking south-south-west)

7003: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

Feature 2

7003: Multibeam bathymetry Feature 1

7003 7003 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking north-north-west) 7003 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking south-east)

Metres CD

0.64

Feature 3

7004 7003 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south) 7003 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking south-west)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale:
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

-19.84

Revision Number: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Path: Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 9

WA 7004, 7007 and 7016: The Inverlane, The Budrie and an unknown wreck

Graemsay

Mainland

7004, 7007, 7016

Burra Sound

7016 7001 7005 7007 7007

7004 7001

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

7004 7016

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7004, 7007 and 7016: Point cloud (looking south-east) Feature 1

7004, 7007 and 7016: Point cloud (looking west-north-west)

70014, 7007 and 7016: Multibeam bathymetry

7001 Feature 2

7004

7004 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking south-east)

7007 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking north-east)

Feature 3 7016

7007

Metres CD

0.64

-19.84

7016 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south-south-east)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale:
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Revision Number: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Path: Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 10

A. Photos of the Inverlane prior to its collapse © Rod Macdonald and reproduced from DIve Scapa Flow by kind permission

B. Diver photos of the interior of the Inverlane. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission

This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 11

WA 7005: The Tabarka

Mainland

7005 Graemsay

7004 7005 7000 7002 7005

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

7002

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7005: Point cloud (looking east-north-east)

7005: Point cloud (looking south-west)

7005: Multibeam bathymetry

Feature 2

7004

7002 Feature 1 7005 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking south) 7005 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

7005

Feature 3

Feature 4

Metres CD

0.64

-19.84

7005 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south)

7005 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking north)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Revision Number: Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 12

WA 7006: The Gobernador Bories

Mainland

7006 Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7006: Point cloud (looking south-east)

7006: Point cloud (looking west-north-west)

7006: Multibeam bathymetry Feature 1

Feature 2

7006 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking north-east)

7006 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking north)

Feature 3

Metres CD

0.64

-19.84

7006 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking north-north-east)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale:
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Revision Number: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Path: Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 13

A. A detailed painting of the Gobernador Bories as it appeared in 2000, from the wreck tour series in Diver magazine. In the original publication this image includes detailed annotation. © Diver magazine/Max Ellis and reproduced by kind permission

B-D. Diver photos of the stern of the Gobernador Bories © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission
Date: Scale:
This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

20/03/12 NTS Path:

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 14

WA 7017: Unknown

7017

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7017: Multibeam bathymetry 7017: Point cloud (looking south-south-east)

Metres CD

0.64

7017: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

-19.84

Date:

16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:800, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 15

495900

496000

497000

495400

495500

495600

6522000

Mainland
Graemsay Burra Sound Hoy Sound

6520900

SCAPA FLOW

6521900

Hoy

Gutter Sound

6520800

Fara

7009

Priority B
7008

0

5 km

Flotta

7010

Sound of Hoxa

7010
497000

497100

497200

6521800 6521100

6520700

6521700 6521000

7009

6520600

7008

6521600 6520900

6520500

Metres CD -22.45

Metres CD -2.72

Metres CD -48.13

6521500 6520800

6520400 -31.78 -33.82 -56.44

Date:

16/03/12
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Revision Number: Scale: Path: Multibeam 1:2500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology
1 km

0

Priority B Hoxa Sound: Observed Wreck Locations

Figure 16

WA 7008: HMS Strathgarry

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

7008

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

A painting of HMS Strathgarry by Rod Mcdonald from Dive Scapa Flow. © Rod Macdonald and reproduced from DIve Scapa Flow by kind permission.

7008: Point cloud (looking north-east)

Metres CD -48.13

0

10

20 m
-56.44

7008: Multibeam bathymetry

7008: Point cloud (looking west)

Date:
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

16/03/12 Scale: Path: Multibeam 1:500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Figure 17

WA 7009: UB116

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Feature 1

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

7009

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7009: Multibeam bathymetry

Metres CD

-22.45

7009 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking east-north-east)

-31.78

7009: Point cloud (looking south-east)

7009: Point cloud (looking north-west)

Date:

16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 18

WA 7010: The S54

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Fara

A diagram of the S53 class © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission.

7010

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7010: Point cloud (looking north-north-east)

7010: Point cloud (looking west)

Feature 1

Feature 2

7010: Multibeam bathymetry

Metres CD

-2.72

-33.82

7010 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking north-north-east)

7010 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking west)

Feature 3

Feature 4

7010 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking west)

7010 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking north-east)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Revision Number: Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

10

20 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

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Figure 19

Heat exchanger

Engine parts

Engine parts

This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Diver photos of the S54 © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission

Figure 20

WESSEX ARCHAEOLOGY LIMITED. Registered Head Office : Portway House, Old Sarum Park, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 6EB. Tel: 01722 326867 Fax: 01722 337562 info@wessexarch.co.uk Regional offices in Edinburgh , Rochester and Sheffield For more information visit www.wessexarch.co.uk
Wessex Archaeology Ltd is a company with limited liability registered in England, No. 1712772 and VAT No. 631943833. It is also a Registered Charity in England and Wales, No. 287786; and in Scotland, Scottish Charity No. SC042630.

488600

488700

488800

488900

489000

6523000

7011 7012

7014

6522900

7013

Mainland

Graemsay

6522800

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW
Metres CD -3.77

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Priority C

Fara

0
-15.55

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

Date:

16/03/12
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Revision Number: Scale: Path: Multibeam 1:1250, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Illustrator: W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology
50 m

0

Priority C Gutter Sound: Obseved wreck locations

Figure 21

WA 7011: The F2

Mainland

Graemsay

7012 7012 7011

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

7011

Hoy

Gutter Sound

7011

7011 and 7012: Point cloud (looking west-south-west)

7011 and 7012: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

7011: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

Feature 1

Feature 2

7011: Multibeam bathymetry

Metres CD

-3.77

7011 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking south-east) Feature 3

7011 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking south-east)

-15.55

The F2 at sea. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission. Feature 4

7012 7011 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking south-south-west) 7011 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking north)

7011 Feature 5

Feature 6 A painting of the F2 and the YC21 by Rod Mcdonald from Dive Scapa Flow. © Rod Macdonald and reproduced from DIve Scapa Flow by kind permission.

7011 Feature 5: Point cloud (looking north-north-east)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale:

7011 Feature 6: Point cloud (looking south-west)
Revision Number: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 22

WA 7012: YC21

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

7012

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

A painting of the F2 and the YC21 by Rod Mcdonald from Dive Scapa Flow. © Rod Macdonald and reproduced from DIve Scapa Flow by kind permission. Feature 1

7012: Multibeam bathymetry 7012 Feature 1: Point cloud (looking south-south-west)

Metres CD

-3.77

-15.55

7012

7011

7012: Point cloud (looking north-east)

7012: Point cloud (looking south-south-west)

Date:

16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 23

This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

20/03/12 NTS

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Anti-aircraft guns from the F2 lying in the hold of the Yc21. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission

Figure 24

WA 7013: MV Mara

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

7013

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7013: Multibeam bathymetry 7013: Point cloud (looking north-west)

Metres CD

-3.77

-15.55

7013: Point cloud (looking north-west)

Date:

16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

0

10

20 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 25

WA 7014: HMS Dewey Eve

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Hoy

Gutter Sound

7014

Fara

0

5 km

Flotta

Sound of Hoxa

7014: Multibeam bathymetry 7014: Point cloud (looking east)

Metres CD

-3.77

-15.55

7014: Point cloud (looking north-north-west)

Date:

16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:500, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

0

10

20 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 26

488600

Mainland
Graemsay Burra Sound Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

Priority D Hoy
Rysa Little

Gutter Sound

Fara Sound of Hoxa

6525200

0

5 km

Flotta

488700

7015

6525100

Metres CD -1.10

-22.67

0

50 m

6525000
Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

16/03/12 Multibeam 1:1250, Inset 1:200,000 @A3

Revision Number: Illustrator:

0 KJF

Wessex Archaeology

Scale: Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Priority D Rysa Little: Observed wreck locations

Figure 27

WA 7015: The V83

Mainland

Graemsay

Burra Sound

Hoy Sound

SCAPA FLOW

7015

Hoy

Gutter Sound

Rysa Little

Fara

A photograph though to be of the V83 and the G92 beached off Rysa Little. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission. A diagram of the V67-84 series. © Lawson Wood and reproduced from Scapa Flow Dive Guide by kind permission.

0

5 km

Flotta

7015 bow: Point cloud (looking east)

Feature 2

7015: Multibeam bathymetry

Metres CD

-1.10

-22.67

Feature 1 7015 Feature 1: Point cloud 7015 Feature 2: Point cloud (looking south)

Feature 3

7015 Feature 3: Point cloud (looking north)

7015 Feature 4: Point cloud (looking south-west)
Date: 16/03/12 Scale: Multibeam 1:1000, Inset 1:200,000 @A3 Revision Number: Illustrator: 0 KJF

0

50 m

Wessex Archaeology

Drawing projection: UTM WGS 84 z30N. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright and database right 2012. This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Path:

W:\Projects\83680V\DrawingOffice\Report figs\Geophys\12_03_16

Figure 28

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